Medicinal & Aromatic Plants Abstracts
Vol. 29, No. 3, June 2007

Pharmacology & Toxicology

2007-03-0983 Abid, M.; Hrishikeshavan, H.J.; Asad, M. ( Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, #5, Sarjapur Road, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034, India) Pharmacological evaluation of Pachyrrhizus erosus (L) seeds for central nervous system depressant activity. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology v. 50(2): p. 143-151, 2006 (Eng; 19 ref).

The [Pachyrrhizus erosus] (Leguminasae) seed is known to contain rotinoids, flavonoids and phenylfuranocoumarin derivatives as chemical components and is reported to have antifungal, antisecretory, insecticides, antibacterial and spasmolytic activity. Seeds are used as folk medicine in treatment of insomnia. The different activities studied were potentiation of pentobarbitone-induced sleep, test for locomotor activity, effect on muscle co-ordination, antiaggressive and antianxiety activities. The result reflected that ethanol extract of the seeds (150 mg/kg, p.o) decreased locomotor activity, produced muscle relaxation and showed antianxiety and antiaggressive activity.

2007-03-0984 Adebiyi, R.A.; Elsa, A.T.; Agaie, B.M.; Etuk, E.U. (Department of Pharmacology, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, c/o P.O. Box 3542, Sokoto, Nigeria) Antinociceptive and antidepressant like effects of Securidaca longepedunculata root extract in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(2): p. 234-239, 2006 (Eng ; 27 ref).

The aqueous root extract of [Securidaca longepedunculata] (Polygalaceae) was investigated for possible antinociceptive and central nervous system (CNS) effects in mice. Three nociceptive models; acetic acid, formalin and tail-flick tests were used to study the antinociceptive activity. Rectal temperature test was employed as an adjunct to the nociceptive models. The extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly and dose dependently reduced the nociception induced by the acetic acid and in the early phase of formalin test (p less than 0.05). The extract exerted significant (p less than 0.05) hypothermia effect in the 15 and 30 min of the rectal temperature test. The antinociceptive and hypothermic effects were partially reversed by naloxone {1 mg/kg). The tail-flick test produced an insignificant increase in tail-flick latency at 400 mg/kg after 60 min of the test, but significantly (p less than 0.05) increase tail-flick latency in the 400 mg/kg group of animals pre-treated with naloxone ( 1 mg/kg) after 120min of the test. The extract also produced a significant (p more than 0.05) naloxone reversible antidepressant like effect in the forced swimming test (an animal model of depression.

2007-03-0985 Adeneye, A.A.; Amole, O.O.; Adeneye, A.K. ( Department of Pharmacology, Lagos State University College of Medicine, P.M.B, 21266, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria) Hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic activities of the aqueous leaf and seed extract of Phyllanthus amarus in mice. Fitoterapia v. 77(7-8): p. 511-514, 2006 (Eng; 6 ref).

The effect of the aqueous leaf and seed extracts of [Phyllanthus amarus] (Euphorbiaceae) oral dose of 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg was investigated for their antidiabetic and anti-lipidemic potentials. The extract produced a dose-dependent decrease in the fasting plasma glucose and cholesterol, and reduction in weights in treated mice. The results suggest that the extract could be enhancing peripheral utilization of glucose but the mechanisms on how this works remain unclear.

2007-03-0986 Agrawal, S.S. (Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Govt. of N.C.T. of Delhi, Pushp Vihar (M.B.Road), New Delhi-110017, India) Anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity of Zuroor-e-gaozaban. A polyherbal Unani formulation. Hamdard Medicus v. 49(2): p. 8-12, 2006 (Eng; 12 ref).

Zuroor-e-gaozaban, Unani formulation, traditionally used as a local application for treating oral white stomatitis/white thrush and traditionally known to be having antiseptic action was screened. Aqueous suspension of the formulation was screened [in vivo] at dose levels of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg, using the carrageenan induced rat paw oedema test. The formulation showed a very mild antiinflammatory activity. The results were compared with standard antiinflammatory drug, indomethacin 20 mg/kg orally. The extracts and suspensions prepared from the formulation were screened [in vitro] for antimicrobial activity using agar well diffusion method, against standard strains of two bacteria, [Staphylococcus aureus] and [E. coli] and a strain of fungus [Candida albicans]. The extracts and suspensions were not found effective against all the test organism. The results were compared with the results obtained using standard antibiotics, vancomycin, and amikacin discs.

2007-03-0987 Ahn, E.M.; Bang, M.H.; Song, M.C.; Park, M.H.; Kim, H.Y.; Kwon, B.M.; Baek, N.I. (Graduate School of Biotechnology & Plant Metabolism Research Center, Kyung Hee University, Suwon 449-701, Korea) Cytotoxic and ACAT-inhibitory sesquiterpene lactones form the root of Ixeris dentata forma albiflora. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(11): p. 937-941, 2006 ( Eng; 17 ref).

[Ixeris dentata] from [albiflora] (Asteraceae) was extracted with 80 percent aqueous MeOH, and the concentrated extract was partitioned with EtOAc, n-BuOH and H2O. Eight sesquiterpenes were isolated througgh repeated silica gel and octadecyl silica gel (C18, ODS) column chromatoraphy of the EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions. Physicochemical analysis using NMR, MS and IR revealed the chemical structures of the sesquiterpenes. Of the isolated compounds zaluzanin and crepiside showed the cytotoxicity on human colon carcinoma cell and lung adenocarcinoma cell, while compounds ixerin and crepiside showed acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitory activity.

2007-03-0988 Al-Yahya, A.A.; Al-Majed, A.A.; Al-Bekairi, A.M.; Al-Shabanah, O.A.; Qureshi, S. (Department of Pharmacology College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh-11451, Saudi Arabia) Studies on the reproductive, cytological and biochemical toxicity of Ginkgo Biloba in Swiss albino mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(2): p. 222-228, 2006 (Eng ; 59 ref).

[Ginkgo biloba] (Ginkgoaceae), used as a folkloric medicine in the treatment of dementia, was evaluated for its effects on reproductive, cytological and biochemical toxicity in male Swiss albino mice. The mice were treated with different doses (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day) of the aqueous suspension of [Ginkgo biloba] for 90 days by oral gavage. The treatment caused significant changes in the weight of caudae epididymis, prostate, chromosomal aberrations, rate of pregnancy and pre-implantation loss. However, the percent motility, sperm count and morphology of spermatozoa were not affected. The study on biochemical parameters showed depletion of nucleic acids, NP-SH and increase of MDA, which elucidated the role of free radical species in the induced changes in testis chromosomes and the reproductive function. The exact mechanism is not known, however, the activation of GABA, glycine and glutamate under the influence of [Ginkgo biloba] and its constituents might have generated free radicals and depleted cellular glutathione by calcium influx and membrane depolarization. The observed toxicity is attributed to the toxic constituents (ginkgolic acids, biflavones, cardanols, cardols, bilobalides and quercetin) of [Ginkgo biloba]. The result warrant careful use of [Ginkgo biloba] as a remedy for importence and/or erectile dysfunction.

2007-03-0989 Andreo, M.A.; Ballesteros, K.V.R.; hIRUMA Lima, C.A.; da Rocha, L.R.M.; Brito, A.R.M.S.; Vilegas, W.* (Instituto de Quimica CP 355, CEP 14801-970, UNESP-Sao Paulo State University, Araraquara, SP, Brasil) Effect of Mouriri pusa extracts on experimentally induced gastric lesions in rodents: Role of endogenous sulfhydryls compounds and nitric oxide in gastroprotection. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(3): p. 431-441, 2006 (Eng ; 77 ref).

[Mouriri pusa] (Melastomataceae) is a medicinal plant commonly used in the central region of Brazil against gastric ulcer. Two organic extracts methanolic (MeOH} and dichloromethane (DCM) obtained by sequential extraction from the leaves of [Mouriri pusa] were evaluated for their ability to protect the gastric mucosa against injuries caused by necrotizing agents (0.3 M HCl/60 percent- EtOH, absolute ethanol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, stress and pylorus ligature) in mice and rats. The best results were obtained after pretreatment with MeOH extract whereas the DCM extract did not show the same significant antiulcerogenic activity. No acute toxicity was observed in animals treated with 5 g/kg, p.o. of MeOH extract. The mechanism involving the antiulcerogenic action of MeOH extract seemed to be related to NO generation and also suggested the effective participation of endogenous sulfhydryl group in the gastroprotective action. Phytochemical investigation of the MeOH extract of [Mouriri pusa] yielded tannins, flavonoids and (-}-epicatechin.

2007-03-0990 Anroop, B.; Bhatnagar, S.P.; Ghosh, B.; Parcha, V. (Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, S. Bhagwan Singh Post Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences and Research, Balawala, Dehradun 248 161, India) Studies on Ocimum gratissimum seed mucilage: Evaluation of suspending properties. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences v. 67(2): p. 206-209, 2005 (Eng; 19 ref).

Mucilage extracted from [Ocimum gratissimum] (Labiatae) seeds were subjected to toxicity studies for its safety and preformulation studies for its suitability as a suspending agent. Zinc oxide suspensions were prepared and compared with different concentrations of [O. gratissimum] mucilage, tragacanth and sodium CMC. The mucilage extracted is devoid of toxicity. The mucilage was found to be a superior suspending agent than tragacanth and is comparable to sodium CMC. Studies indicate that the extracted mucilage may be a good source as a pharmaceutical adjuvant specifically as a suspending agent.

2007-03-0991 Araujo, C.E.P; Bela, R.T.; Bueno, L.J.F.; Rodrigues, R.F.O.; Shimizu, M.T. (Pharmaceutical Sciences Post Graduate Program, Sao Francisco University of Braganca Paulista, Sao Paula, Brazil) Anti-ulcerogenic activity of the aerial parts of Lithraea molleoides. Fitoterapia v. 77(5): p. 406-407, 2006 (Eng; 10 ref).

The hydro-alcoholic extract of the aerial parts of [Lithraea molleoides] given orally at a dose of 1000 mg/kg, showed significant antiulcerogenic activity on ulcer induced by indomethacin and absolute alcohol in rats.

2007-03-0992 Ashok, P.; Prasanna, G.S.; Rajendran, R.; Desai, B.G. (K.L.E. Society's College of Pharmacy, Bangalore, Karnataka, India) Effect of aqueous alcoholic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Ocimum sanctum L. on plasma triglycerides in wistar rats. Journal of Natural Remedies v. 7(1): p. 155-159, 2007 (Eng; 21 ref).

Aqueous alcoholic extracts of fresh leaves and flowers of [Hibiscus sabdariffa] (Malvaceae), fresh leaves of [Ocimum sanctum] (Labiatae) were assessed for hypolipidaemic activity by estimating plasma cholesterol and plasma triglyceride levels in Triton induced hypercholesterolaemic rats. Significant reduction (P less than 0.01) in plasma triglyceride was observed in aqueous alcoholic extract of [Hibiscus sabdariffa] treated animals at 6 h and 24 h in aqueous alcoholic extract of [Ocimum sanctum] treated animals.

2007-03-0993 Atta, A.H.*; Mohamed, N.H.; Nasr, S.M.; Mouneir, S.M. (Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza 12211, Egypt) Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on Convolvulus fatmensis Ktze. Journal of Natural Remedies v. 7(1): p. 109-119, 2007 (Eng; 45 ref).

Two known aglycones flavonoid compounds, two phenolic acids and four new coumarin compounds were isolated from [Convolvulus fatmensis] (Convolvulaceae). The methanol extract was evaluated for its potential antiulcerogenic, diuretic and hepatoprotective effects as well as for its acute toxicity. The antiulcerogenic effect was evaluated against acute (ethanol model) and prolonged (aspirin model)-gastric ulceration. The results revealed that, oral administration of the methanol extract (400 mg/kg bw) significantly reduced the alcohol-induced gastric ulcers (curative ratio; 32.6 percent). It also produced high curative ratio (75 percent), decreased the number of gastric ulcers, total acidity and total protein in aspirin-induced gastric ulcer (P less than 0.05). Oral administration of 500 mg/kg bw methanol extracts did not affect the urine output, or sodium excretion while potassium and chloride excretion were significantly increased. The higher dose (1000 mg/kg bw) significantly increased the sodium, potassium and chloride excretion but did not affect urine volume.

2007-03-0994 Avci, G.; Kupeli, E.; Eryavuz, A.; Yesilada, E.; Kucukkurt, I. (Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyon, Turkey) Antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activity assessment of some plants used as remedy in Turkish folk medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(3): p. 418-423, 2006 (Eng ; 25 ref).

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts from five plant species used in Turkish traditional medicine were evaluated for [in vivo] hypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities [Agrostemma githago, Potentilla reptans, Thymbra spicata] var. [spicata], [Urtica dioica] and [Viscum album] var. [album]. All the aqueous plant extracts did not affect the serum cholesterol concentration. However, the ethanolic extracts of [Agrostemma githago. Thymbra spicata] and [Viscum album] decreased the serum cholesterol concentration in the mice fed with high-cholesterol diet without inducing any gastric damage. The ethanolic extracts of [Thymbra spicata, Viscum album, Potentilla reptans] and [Urtica dioica] and the aqueous extract of [Agrostemma githago] increased the serum HDL concentration, whereas the ethanolic extracts of [Agrostemma githago, Thymbra spicata, Viscum album] and [Urtica dioica] decreased the serum LDL-C concentration [Thymbra spicata] and [Viscum album] were observed to decrease the serum triglyceride concentration. Among the plant extracts studied, the ethanolic extracts of [Thymbra spicata] significantly decreased the MDA level in mice. The ethanolic extract of [Potentilla reptans] increased in NOx. None of these plants showed statistically prominent activity on plasma TAA.

2007-03-0995 Badole, S.; Patel, N.; Bodhankar, S.; Jain, B.; Bhardwaj, S. (Department of Pharmacology, Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Erandwane, Pune 411 038, India) Antihyperglycemic activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Cocculus hirsutus (L.) diels in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Indian Journal of Pharmacology v. 38(1): p. 49-53, 2006 (Eng; 27 ref).

Alloxan-induced (70 mg/kg, i.v.) diabetic mice were given aqueous leaf extract (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, p.o., n=6) of [Cocculus hirsutus] (Menispremaceae) or vehicle (distilled water, 10 ml/kg, p.o.) or standard drug glyburide (10 mg/kg, p.o.) for 28 days. Blood samples were withdrawn by retro-orbital puncture and were analyzed for serum glucose on 0th, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days by glucose oxidase/peroxidase method. In oral glucose tolerance test, glucose (2.5 g/kg, p.o.) was administered to nondiabetic control, glyburide (10 mg/kg, p.o.), and aqueous extract of [C. hirsutus] (1000 mg/kg, p.o.) treated mice. The serum glucose level was analyzed at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min after drug administration. The aqueous leaf extract (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant (P<0.01) reduction of serum glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic mice at 28th day. In oral glucose tolerance test, aqueous extract increased the glucose tolerance.

2007-03-0996 Balogun, E.A.; Adebayo, J.O. (Department of Physiology and Biochemistry University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria) Effect of ethanolic extract of Daniella oliveri leaves on some cardiovascular indices in rats . Pharmacognosy Magazine v. 3(9): p. 16-20, 2007 (Eng; 34 ref).

Effects of ethanolic extract Of [Daniella oliveri] (Caesalpiniaceae) leaves (50, 100 and 200mg/Kg body weight) on the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in rat heart were investigated after fourteen days of oral administration. Effects of the extract on total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in the serum with the atherogenic index (total cholesterol concentration/HDL-cholesterol concentration ratio) were also evaluated. The extract had no significant effect (P greater than 0.05) on serum HDL- cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations when compared with controls. However, the extract significantly increased (P less than 0.05) serum total cholesterol concentration at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight while it only significantly increased (P less than 0.05) the atherogenic index at the dose of 200mg/kg body weight when compared with controls. The extract had no significant effect (P less than 0.05) on heart AST activity while it significantly increased (P less than 0.05) heart ALT activity at all doses administered when compared with controls. ALP activity was significantly reduced (P less than 0.05) in the heart at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract when compared with controls. Moreover heart HCP activity was significantly reduced (P less than 0.05) at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg body weight of the extract whereas 50mg/kg body weight of the extract significantly increased (P less than 0.05) it when compared with controls.

2007-03-0997 Banerjee, A.; Shrivastava, N.; Kothari, A.; Padh, H.; Nivsarkar, M. (Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, B.V. Patel PERD Centre, Gandhinagar Highway, Thaltej, Ahmedabad 382 054, India) Antiulcer activity of methanol extract of Eclipta alba. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences v. 67(2): p. 165-168, 2005 (Eng; 15 ref).

Ulcers were induced in thirty six hours fasted Sprague Dawley rats by aspirin or ethanol or pylorus ligation plus aspirin treatment. In each induction procedure there were three groups namely, normal control, positive control and test. In all the three separate experiments the group receiving oral administration of [Eclipta alba] (Compositae) prior to ulcer induction showed highly significant reduction in the occurrence of gastric ulcers as well as gastric inflammation (after 4 h of treatment) as compared to the control groups. Moreover, the potency of [E. alba] as an antiulcer agent was comparable to the activity of the proton pump inhibiting drug rabeprazole (positive control).

2007-03-0998 Banno, N.; Akihisa, T.; Yasukawa, K.; Tokuda, H.; Tabata, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Nishimura, R.; Kimura, Y.; Suzuki, T. ( Ichimaru Pharcos Company Ltd., 318-1 Asagi Motosu, Gifu 501-0475, Japan) Anti-inflammatory activity of triterpene acids form the resin of Boswellia carteri. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(2): p. 249-253, 2006 (Eng ; 27 ref).

Boswellic acids are the main well-known active components of the resin of [Boswellia carteri] (Burseraceae) and are use for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. Although several studies have already been reported on the pharmacological properties, especially on the antiinflammatory activity of [Boswellia carteri] resin and boswellic acids, the ethnomedicinal importance of [Boswellia carteri] and its components, boswellic acids, prompted to undertake detailed investigation on the constituents of the resin and their anti-inflammatory activity. Fifteen triterpene acids, viz., seven of the beta-boswellic acids (ursane-type) (1-7), two of the alpha-boswellic acids (oleanane-type) (8, 9), two of the lupeolic acids (lupane-type) (10, 11), and four of the tirucallane-type (12-14, 16), along with two cembrane-type diterpenes (17, 18). were isolated and identified from the methanol extract of the resin of [Boswellia carteri]. Upon evaluation of 17 compounds. 1-14 and 16-18, and compound 15, semi-synthesized from 14 by acetylation, for their inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate {TPA}-induced inflammation {1 microg/ear) in mice, all of the compounds, except for 18. exhibited marked anti-inflammatory activity with a 50percent inhibitory dose (ID50) of 0.05-0.49 mg/ear.

2007-03-0999 Basu, S.K.; Arivukkarasu, R. (Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032, WB, India) Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory and gastric motility of Balanites roxburghii Planch., fruit extract. Hamdard Medicus v. 49(2): p. 29-33, 2006 (Eng; 18 ref).

The effects of aqueous extract of [Bolanites roxburghii] (Balanitaceae) were evaluated in mice. The antiinflammatory activity of the extract against carrageenan (acute model) and turpentine oil-induced (sub-acute model) granuloma pouch in rats and formalin induced (chronic model) rat paw-oedema were studied using diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg), as standard. The aqueous extract at 300 and 600 mg/kg exhibited significant analgesic activity in Swiss albino mice, both at centraily and peripherally, using morphine and paracetamol as standards. Gastric motolity was assessed by charcoal meal test using neostigmine 50 mg/kg as standard.

2007-03-1000 Bigoniya, P.; Rana, A.C. (Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dr. H.S. Gour University, Sagar 470 003, India) Wound healing activity of Euphorbia neriifolia leaf ethanolic extract in rats. Journal of Natural Remedies v. 7(1): p. 94-101, 2007 (Eng; 39 ref).

Wound healing activity of [Euphorbia neriifolia] (Euphorbiaceae) was evaluated on excision wound and dead space wound model along with determination of hydroxyproline, protein, catalase and superoxide dismutase in wound granulation tissue. [E. neriifolia] leaf extract in 200 & 400 mg/kg doses showed significantly (p less than 0.05) enhanced epithelization. [E. neriifolia] at 200 and 400 mg/kg dose significantly (p less than 0.001) increases hydroxyproline content, protein content, catalase activity and decreases superoxide dismutase activity in granulation tissue. The positive control groups were treated with vitamin C (250 mg/kg, i.p).

2007-03-1001 Blazovics, A.; Feher, E.; Kocsis, I.; Rapavi, E.; Szekely, E.; Vali, L.; Szentmihalyi, K. (2nd Department of Medicine, Semmelweis University, H-1444 Budapest, P.O. Box 277, Hungary) How can Beiqishen tea consumption influence redox homeostasis in experimental hyperlipidemy. Acta Alimentaria v. 35(1): p. 41-52, 2006 (Eng; 26 ref).

The effect of Beiqishen tea were studied on altered lipid metabolisms redox parameters and on liver metal contents. Although it was expected, there was not any liver protecting activity of the Beiqishen tea extract in the hyperlipidemic rat model. Although, the detoxifying activity of tea polyphenols could be observed in hyperlipidemy at the same time toxic metal element content (As. Mo. Ni. Pb and Cr) of the tea infusion accumulated in the liver in both normo- and hyperlipidemic rats.

2007-03-1002 Calvo, M.I. (Farmacia Tecnologia Farmaceutica (Facultad de Farmacia), University of Navarra C/Irularrea s/n, 3100S, Pamplona Spain) Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the topical preparation of Verbena officinalis L.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(3): p. 380-382, 2006 (Eng ; 12 ref).

Due to the antiinflammatory activity of [Verbena officinalis] (Verbenaceae} 50 percent methanolic extract in i.p. and topical administration, the effects of several formulations were prepared and studied using carrageenan-induced edema and formalin testing. Piroxicam gel and methyl salicylate ointment were studied as positive control for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity, respectively. The edema inhibition of the preparations containing extract at the doses of l-39percent w/w were significantly different from the control group. The m effect of VO-3percent was similar to the effect of piroxicum gel 3 h after carrageenan injection. The analgesic activity of topical preparation with more than 2.5percent w/w was observed in the early phase. This activity was observed in concentrations of more than 2percent w/w in the late phase. The topical analgesic activity of the extract was less than the analgesic activity of methyl salicylate ointment.

2007-03-1003 Cavalcanti, A.M.; Baggio, C.H.; Freitas, C.S.; Rieck, L; de Sousa, R.S.; da Silva-Santos, J.E.; Mesia-Vela, S.; Marques, M.C.A. (Department of Pharmacology, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19031, Curntiba PR81531-990, Brazil) Safety and antiulcer efficacy studies of Achillea millefolium L. after chronic treatment in wistar rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(2): p. 277-284, 2006 (Eng ; 35 ref).

[Achillea milleflium] (Asteraceae), popularly known as yarrow, has been used in folk medicine to treat complaints such as inflammation, pain, wounds, hemorrhages and gastrointestinal disturbances. Indeed, the AE was effective in protecting the gastric mucosa against acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol and indomethacin and in healing chronic gastric lesions induced by acetic acid with (ED50 = 32 mg/kg, p.o.). Safety studies were performed in female and male Wistar rats treated daily with AE (0.3-1.2 g/kg, p.o./day) or vehicle (water, 10 ml/kg/day) for 28 or 90 consecutive days. Slight changes in liver weight, cholesterol. HDL cholesterol and glucose were, observed in male and female animals. These changes were not correlated with dose or time of exposure of the animals to the AE. Overall, the results show the antiulcer potential of the aerial parts of the Achillea millefolium which is accompanied by no signs of relevant toxicity even at very long chronic exposure.

2007-03-1004 Chaudhary, R.; Gupta, R.S.; Kachhaw, J.B.S.; Singh, D.; Verma, S.K. (Reproductive Physiology Section, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004, India) Inhibition of spermatogenesis by triterpenes of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth pods in male albino rats. Journal of Natural Remedies v. 7(1): p. 86-93, 2007 (Eng; 31 ref).

Oral administration of triterpenes isolated from [Albizia lebbeck] (Mimosoideae) pods at the dose level of 50 mg/rat/day for 60 days. Testicular sperm count, epididymal sperm count and motility were assessed. Oral administration of triterpenes did not cause any significant change in the body weights but a significant reduction in the weight of reproductive organs i.e. testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were observed. Testicular sperm count, epididymal sperm count and motility were significantly reduced (p less than 0.001), when compared to controls. Arrest of spermatogenesis was noted as various stages of spermatogenesis showed depression. Production of primary spermatocytes (preleptotene and pachytene), secondary spermatocytes and step- 19 spermatids declined by 57.80 percent, 57.46 percent, 58.14 percent and 55.89 percent, respectively. The size of seminiferous tubules reduced by 20.09 percent. Cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cell as well as its counts were found to be reduced significantly (p less than 0.001). Leydig cell nuclear area and number of mature Leydig cells decreased by 51.66 percent and 52.48 percent respectively. Serum testosterone level showed significant reduction after triterpenes feeding (p less than 0.001). Biochemical parameters of tissues i.e. protein, sialic acid, glycogen, cholesterol content of testis and seminal vesicular fructose showed significant reduction (p less than 0.001).

2007-03-1005 Chen, X.M.; Zhu, J.B.*; Sun, W.D.; Zhang, L.J. ( Pharmaceutical Research Institute, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China) Effect of absorption enhancers on nasal ginsenoside Rg1 delivery and its nasal ciliotoxicity . Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica v. 41(2): p. 149-155, 2006 (Chi; Eng; 18 ref).

Nasal circulatory perfusion test [in vivo] was employed to investigate the effect of absorption enhancers for nasal mucosa absorption of ginsenoside Rg1 in rats. The safety of the absorption enhancers were evaluated by testing cilia movement of the [in situ] toad palate model, the hemolysis of erythrocyte membrane of the rabbit, leaching of protein and LDH from the mice nasal mucosa and the effect on cilia structural and specific cellular changes of nasal mucosa. Absorption enhancers were necessary to facilitate ginsenoside Rg1 absorption by nasal mucosa. Among the absorption enhancers 0.5 percent borneol and 0.5 percent chitosan were the promising candidates having a good balance between absorption enhancing activity and safety for nasal ginsensode Rg1 delivery.

2007-03-1006 Chung, S.W.; Lee, S.A.; Park, J.S.; Ryu, K.W.; Jang, M.J.; Park, S.S.; Lee, C.B.; Kim, J.G.; Jeon, Y.M.; Lee, J.C. ( Laboratory of Cell Biology in Department of Orthodontics and Institute of Oral Bioscience, Chonbuk National University, Chonju 561-756, Korea) Involvement of p53-mediated mitochondrial stress in the apoptosis induced by flavonoids purified from Rhus verniciflua Stokes in human osteosarcoma cells. Natural Product Sciences v. 13(1): p. 1-5, 2007 (Eng; 22 ref).

Dietary flavonoids have antioxidant and antitumor promoting effects. [Rhus verniciflua] Stokes (RVS) is a flavonoid-rich herbal medicine and has long been used as a food additive and an antitumor agent in Korea. Study demonstrated that a purified flavonoid fraction prepared from RVS, herein named RCMF (the RVS chloroforn-methanol fraction), exhibited growth inhibition and induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells. RCMF was shown to be capable of inducing apoptosis of the cells, as expected, and transparently increased p53 expression in the cells. However the RCMF-induced cytotoxicity was suppressed by transfecting the cells with antisense p53 oligonucleotide, which also inhibited the decrease of Bcl-2 and the increase of Bax in mitochondria, and the release of cytochrome c into cytosol. This finding suggests that p53-mediated mitochondrial stress is required for RCMF-induced apoptosis in HOS cells.

2007-03-1007 Conforti, F.; Marrelli, M.; Statti, G.; Menichini, F. (Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Calabria, I-87036 Rende (CS), Italy) Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of methanolic extract and fractions from Senecio gibbosus subsp. gibbosus (GUSS) DC. Natural Product Research v. 20(9): p. 805-812, 2006 (Eng; 26 ref).

The aim of this study was to evaluate the [in vitro] antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the methanolic extract and fractions of [Senecio gibbosus] subsp [gibbosus] parts. The antioxidant activity was assessed by means of two different tests: (1) bleaching of the stable 3,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical: and (2) lipid pcroxidation of liposomes which were prepared from bovine brain extract. In both tests used methanolic extract and AcOEl fraction showed a significant antioxidant effect. The cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extract and fractions was carried out using the SRB assay. The methanolic extract demonstrated a good cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and human prostate cancer cell line (L.NCaP). Dichloromethane and AcOEt fractions showed the greatest cytotoxic activity, parliculary on LNCaP cell line.

2007-03-1008 Dai, S.J.; Tao, J.Y.; Liu, K.; Jiang, Y.T.; Shen, L. (School of Pharmaceutical Science, Yantai University, Yantai-264005, China) neo-Clerodane diterpenoids from Scutellaria barbata with cytotoxic activities. Phytochemistry v. 67(13): p. 1326-1330, 2006 (Eng; 11 ref).

Three neo-clerodane diterpenoids, named barbatins A-C (1-3), and the neo-clerodane diterpenoid nicotinyl ester, named scutebarbatine B (4), were isolated from the whole plant of [Scutellaria barbata] (Labiatae). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, HRFAB-MS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR). In vitro, compounds 1-4 showed significant cytotoxic activities against three human cancer lines, namely. HONE-1 nasopharyngeal, KB oral epidermoid carcinoma, and HT29 colorectal carcinoma cells, with IC50 values in the range 3.5-8.1 microM.

2007-03-1009 Dash, S.; Nath, L.K.; Bhise, S.; Kar, P.; Bhattacharya, S. (Himalayan Pharmacy Institute, Majhitar, Rangpo, East Sikkim 737132, India) Stimulation of immune function activity by the alcoholic root extract of Heracleum nepalense D. Don. Indian Journal of Pharmacology v. 38(5): p. 336-340, 2006 ( Eng; 21 ref).

The immunostimulatory potential of [Heracleum nepalense] (Apiaceae) was investigated by [in vitro], phagocytic index and lymphocyte viability tests, using interferon alpha-2b, a known immunostimulant drug, as the standard. Other tests such as carbon clearance, antibody titer and delayed type hypersensitivity were studied in mice, using levimasole as the standard. The dried root extract (1000 microg/ml) and isolated quercetin glycoside (50 microg/ml) significantly increased the [in vitro] phagocytic index and lymphocyte viability in all assays. They also showed a significant increase in antibody titer, carbon clearance and delayed type hypersensitivity in mice.

2007-03-1010 Dash, D.K.; Nayak, S.S.; Samanta, S.; Ghosh, T.; Jha, T.; Maiti, B.C.; Maity, T.K. (College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda, Berhampur, Orissa, India) Antitumor activity and antioxidant role of Ichnocarpus frutescens against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in swiss albino mice. Natural Product Sciences v. 13(1): p. 54-60, 2007 (Eng; 37 ref).

The plant [Ichnocarpus frutescens] (Family-Apocynaceae) has been indicated for the treatment of various diseases, one amongst it is cancer. The choloroform and methanol extract of whole plant of Ichnocarpus frutescens (CFIF and MEIF) were administered intraperitoneally at the dose of 150 mg kg and 300 mg/kg. body weight per day for seven days after 24h of tumor inoculation in mice. Treatment with CEIF at the dose of 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg remarkably decreased the tumor volume, packed cell volume, viable cell count and increased the nonviable cell count of FAC tumor bearing mice when compared to the effect of MFIF at 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg. Further the FAC mice treated with C FIF and MEIF showed significant decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation and significant increase in the level of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), however the decreasing and increasing capacity of CFIF was less in both doses as compared to MEIF.

2007-03-1011 Di, B.; Feng, N.; Liu, W. (Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, PR China) Pharmacokinetic comparisons of Shuang-Huang-Lian with the different combinations of its constitutional herbs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(3): p. 401-405, 2006 (Eng ; 10 ref).

Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL) is a traditional Chinese formula containing Lonicerae japonicae flos (LJF} [Lonicera japonica], Scutellariae radix (SR} [Scutellaria baicalensis] and Forsythiae fructus (FF}, [Forsythia suspensa] and is commonly used to treat acute upper respiratory tract infection, acute bronchitis and light pneumonia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups and orally administered with SHL, SR, SR + FF and SR + LJF, respectively. At different time points (0, 0.167, 0.333, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 3, 5, 8, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 72 h) after administration, the concentrations of baicalein in rat serum were determined by using HPLC. and main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. It was found that there were significant differences (p more than 0.05) in the parameters. t/2 (beta) and Cmax among different combinations of herbs. The results indicate that SHL has delayed the elimination and reduced the bioavailability of baicalein in rat serum.

2007-03-1012 Dimo, T.; Fotio, A.L.; Nguelefack, T.B.; Asongalem, E.A.; Kamtchouing, P. (Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde 1, B.P. 812 Yaounde, Cameroon) Antiinflammatory activity of leaf extracts of Kalanchoe crenata Andr.. Indian Journal of Pharmacology v. 38(2): p. 115-119, 2006 ( Eng; 12 ref).

The methylene chloride/methanol extract of [Kalanchoe crenata] (Crassulaceae) was extracted by using hexane, methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. The antiinflammatory profile of these extracts was investigated on the basis of paw edema induced by carrageenan. The oral administration of n-butanol fraction (600 mg/kg) caused a maximum inhibition of about 45 percent in paw edema induced by carrageenan. The n-butanol fraction also exhibited acute antiinflammatory activity on paw edema induced by histamine (47.51 percent), serotonin (54.71 percent), and formalin-(40.00 percent). In the chronic inflammation model, this extract showed maximum inhibition of 61.26 percent on the ninth day of treatment. The ulcerogenic assessment showed that ulcer indices after oral treatment with n-butanol fraction were zero and 0.4 plus minus 0.2, for the 300 and 600 mg/kg doses, respectively.

2007-03-1013 Dorababu, M.; Joshi, M.C.; Bhawani, G.; Mohan Kumar, M.; Chaturvedi, A.; Goel, R.K. (Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India) Effect of aqueous extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves on offensive and diffensive gastric mucosal factors in rats. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology v. 50(2): p. 241-249, 2006 (Eng; 32 ref).

Ulcer protective/healing actions of [Azadirachta indica] (Malvaceae) leaves (AIE) (500 mg/kg) was studied on various parameters of offensive acid-pepsin secreation in 4 hr pylorus ligation, pentagastrin (PENTA, 5 microg/kg/hr)- stimulated acid secration and gastric mucosal proton pump activity and defensive mucin secretion including life span of gastric mucosal cells in rats. AIE was found to inhibit acid-pepsin secretion in 4 hr pylorus ligated rats. Continuous infusion of PENTA significantly increased the acid secretion after 30 to 180 min or in the total 3 hr acid secretion in rat stomach perfusate while, AIE pretreatment significantly decreased them. AIE inhibited the rat gastric mucosal proton pump activity and the effect was comparable with that of omepazole (OMZ). Further, AIE did not show any effect on mucin secretion though it enhanced life span of mucosal cells as evidenced by a decrease in cell shedding in the gastric juice. Thus, results suggest that the ulcer protective activity of AIE may be due to its anti-secretary and proton pump inhibitory activity rather than on defensive mucin secretion. Further, acute as well as sub acute toxicity studies have idicicated no mortality with 2.5 g/kg dose of AIE in mice and no significant alterations in body or tissues weight, food and water intake, haematological profile and various liver and kidney function tests in rats when treated for 28 days with 1 g/kg dose of AIE.

2007-03-1014 Duan, W.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, L.* (Jiangsu Center for Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University, Shennong Road, Nanjing 210038, P.R. China) Antiatherogenic effects of Phyllanthus emblica associated with corilagin and its analogue. Yakugaku Zasshi v. 125(7): p. 587-591, 2005 (Jap; Eng; 18 ref ).

Study was conducted to clarify wether the mechnasim of the antiatherogenic effects of the herb [Phyllanthus emblica] (Euphorbiaceae) is associated with ox-LDL [via] its compounds of solouble tannin, corilagin and its analogue Dgg16. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells EECV-304 were incubated with ox-LDL (50 mg/l) treated with corilagin or Dgg 16 at different dosases(0.0001 - 0.1 mmol/1), and then incubated with monocytes adhering to ECV-304 cells was counted with cytometry. In another experiment, the rat vascular smooth muscular cells (VSMC) were incubated in media with or without ox-LDL (50 mg/l) and with corilagin or Dgg 16 also at different doses (0.0001-0.1 mol/l), prolefaratiojn of which was assayed with MTT. The result showed that both corilagin and Dgg 16 were able to decrease MDA, prevented ECV-304 cells from being adhering to monocytes, and inhibited VSMC proliferation activated by ox-LDL .The Result suggest that the two compounds are effective in inhibiting the progress of atherosclerosis by allevating oxidation injury or inhibiting ox - LDL- induced VSMC proliferation.

2007-03-1015 ElHabazi, K.; Aboufatima, R.; Benharref, A.; Zyad, A.; Chait, A.; Dalal, A. (Department de Biologie, Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, BP 2390, Universite Cadi Ayyad, 400000 Marrakech, Morocco) Study on the antinociceptive effects of Thymus broussonetii Boiss extracts in mice and rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(3): p. 406-411, 2006 (Eng ; 27 ref).

In Morocco [Thymus broussonetii] {Labiatae} is widely used in folk medicine tor the treatment of a variety of diseases including gastroenteric and bronchopulmonary disorders and to relieve dolorous process. The results obtained showed that aqueous and butanolic extracts excited an antinociceptive activity in the two phases of formalin (50-300 mg/kg). tail immersion and writhing tests. Whereas, the ethyl acetate extract reduced the nociceptive response only in the second phase of formalin (l00-300 mg/kg) and writhing tests. The aqueous extract, which is the most effective, contains active analgesic principles acting both centrally and peripherally. Furthermore, this antinociceptive effect has been avoided by naloxone at a dose of 1 mg/kg in the first phase of formalin and hot plate tests indicating that this extract acts partly through an opioid-mediated mechanism.

2007-03-1016 Emmanuel, S.; Ignacimuthu, S.; Perumalsamy, R.; Amalraj, T. (Department of Botany, Andhra Loyola College, Vijayawada, 520 034, Andhra Pradesh, India) Antiinflammatory activity of Solanum trilobatum. Fitoterapia v. 77(7-8): p. 611-612, 2006 (Eng; 8 ref).

The antiinflammatory effect of solasodine (50 mg/kg p.o.), of a purified component named sobatum (50 mg/kg p.o.) and of methanol extract of [Solanum trilobatum) (Solanaceae) (100 mg/kg p.o.) was evaluated. All the tested articles showed significant antiinflammatory activity.

2007-03-1017 Etuk, E.U.; Agaie, B.M.; Onyeyili, P.A.; Ottah, C.U. (Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria) Toxicological studies of aqueous stem bark extract of Boswellia dalzielii in albino rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology v. 38(5): p. 359-360, 2006 ( Eng; 5 ref).

Twenty-four rats were randomly selected and divided into four groups of six rats each. The animals in group 1 (control) received 2 ml of normal saline daily, while those in groups II, III and IV received 900, 1800 and 2700 mg/kg of the extract of [Boswellia dalzielii] (Burseraceae) respectively, through the oral route for 28 days. The oral administration of 3000 mg/kg-1 of the extract did not produce any sign of acute toxicity or instant death in any of the, five rats tested during the observation period. In the subchronic toxicity studies, the extract did not produce any lethality among the tested animals when varying doses. The rats treated with the highest close of the extract (2700 mg/kg-1), however, recorded significant (P greater than 0.05) reductions in the percentage weight gain as compared with those in the control group. In addition, the organs weight (kidney, liver, heart and lungs) of the animals treated with 2700 mg/kg-1 of the extract showed significant decease when compared with that of the control and the other treatment groups. The extract treatment did not change the values of serum electrotypes (sodium and potassium) in the treated animals when compared with the control group. There was a significant increase (P less than 0.01) in the serum area level of the rats treated with 2700 mg/kg-1 of the extract when compared with the control and the other treated groups.

2007-03-1018 Eun, J.S.; Bae, K.H.; Yun, Y.P.; Hong, J.T.; Kwon, H.N.; Oh, K.W.* (Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, Korea) Inhibitory effects of paeonol on morphine-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference in mice. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(10): p. 904-910, 2006 ( Eng; 39 ref).

Effects of paeonol, a major compound of [Paeoniae radix] (root of [Paeonia] spp, Paeoniaceae) on the development of locomotor sensitization; conditioned place preference (CPP) and dopamine receptor supersensitivity induced by the repeated administration of morphine were investigated through behavioral experiments. A single administration of morphine produces hyperlocomotion. Repeated administration of morphine develops sensitization (reverse tolerance), a progressive enhancement of locomotion. In addition, paeonol inhibited the development of postsynaptic dopamine receptors supersensitivity, which may be an underlying common mechanism that mediates the morphine-induced dopaminergic behaviors such as sensitization and CPP. Apomorphine (a dopamine agonist)-induced climbing behaviors also were inhibited by a single direct administration of paeonol. These results provide evidence that paeonol exerts antidopaminergic activity, so it may be useful for the prevention and therapy of the adverse actions of morphine.

2007-03-1019 Ezumi, M.F.W.; Amrah, S.S.; Suhaimi, A.W.M.; Mohsin, S.S.J. (Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia Health Campus, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia) Evaluation of the female reproductive toxicity of the aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology v. 38(5): p. 355-356, 2006 ( Eng; 4 ref).

Forty eight female Spragne Dawley rats were used in the study. Rats with a regular estrous cycle (4-6 days) were given vehicle (distilled water) as control or [Labisia pumila] var, alata (LPA) at 2, 20, 200, 400 or 800 mg/kg daily, by gavage, 10 days prior to mating, during mating, throughout gestation and lactation periods of 7 days. Results indicated that the LPA extracts did not alter the general health or estrous cycle of rats. All studied animals proceeded towards successful mating and pregnancies. The mean duration of pregnancy was shortened to 21 days in animals which received the herbal extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day and above. All pregnant rats delivered normally with no evidence of prematurity or abortion. None of the rats exhibited a significant amount of foetal resorption. No significant difference in pup sex ratio, live birth index, pup viability index and percentage of post-implantation death, was noted.

2007-03-1020 Fattepur, S.R.; Gawade, S.P. (Dept of Pharmacology, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Hosur Road, Bangalore, Karnataka, India) Preliminary screening of herbal plant extracts for anti-venom activity against common sea snake (Enhydrina schistosa) poisoning. Pharmacognosy Magazine v. 3(9): p. 56-60, 2007 (Eng; 22 ref).

Various Indian herbal plants were screened for antivenin activity against common sea snake venom [Enhydrina schistosa]. As the venom of [Enhydrina schistosa] is the most toxic among the common sea snakes, an attempt was made to screen 12 plants from different families for antivenin potential. Alcoholic extracts of authenticated plant materials were examined for their venom neutralization ability using in-vitro and in-vivo methods. The alleviation in the mean survival time of experimentally protected laboratory animals were used to infer the antivenom property of the drug, after challenging with median lethal venom dose. Mean survival time study indicated appreciable protective action of three herbal extracts namely [Mucuna pruriens] [Mimosa pudica] and [Andrographis paniculata] among the 12 screened plants. Mean survival time was higher in in-vitro experiments as compared to the in-vivo experiments.

2007-03-1021 Fujioka, T.; Yoshida, K.; Shibao, H.; Nagao, T.; Yoshida, M.; Matsunaga, K.; Takata, J.; Karube, Y.; Iwase, Y.; Okabe, H. (Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University; 8-19-1 Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan) Antiproliferative constituent from Umbelliferae plant. IX.1) New triterpenoid glycosides form the fruits of Bupleurum rotundifolium. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin v. 54(12): p. 1694-1704, 2006 (Eng; 8 ref).

The MeOH extract of the fruits of [Bupleurum rotundifolium] (Apiaceae) showed inhibitory activity against human gastric adenocarcinoma (MK-1) cell growth. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract led to the isolation of four new triglycosides of 13beta,28-epoxy oleanane-type triterpenes, named rotundiosides O, Q, S and T: 42 new glycosides of oleanane-type triterpenes, named rotundiosides J-N, P, R, U-Y, and others; echinocystic acid 3-O-sulfate; and three known oleanane-type triterpene glycosides, rotundiosides A, F and G. The structures of the new isolates were determined based on chemical and spectroscopic evidence. Rotundifoliosides H-J showed 50 percent growth inhibition against MK-1, HeLa and B16F10 cell cancer lines.

2007-03-1022 Fyhrquist, P.; Mwasumbi, L.; Vuorela, P.; Vuorela, H.; Hiltunen, R.; Murphy, C.; Adlercreutz, H. (Division of Clinical Chemistry and Folkhalsan Research Center, Institute for Preventive Nutrition Medicine and Cancer, Biomedicum P.O Box 63, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland) Preliminary antiproliferative effects of some species of Terminalia Combretum and Pteleopsis collected in Tanzania on some human cancer cell lines. Fitoterapia v. 77(5): p. 358-366, 2006 (Eng; 52 ref).

Methanolic extracts (25 microg/ml) of species belonging to the genera of [Combretum, Terminalia ] and [Pteleoposis] collected during a field expedition in Tanzania in 1999, were screened for their antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects against three human cancer cell lines (HeLa, cervical carcinoma; T 24, bladder carcinoma; and MCF 7, breast carcinoma). A leaf extract of [Combretum fragrans] and a fruit extract of [C. zeyheri] gave the strongest antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of all the twenty-four extracts screened in this investigation. In contrast to the highly powerful leaf extract of [C. fragrans] root extract of this species gave no cytotoxic effects against the investigated cancer cell lines at a concentration of 25 microg/ml. The other investigated species of [Combretum] and [Terminalia] differed greatly in their cytotoxic potential. Root extracts of [Terminalia sambesiaca] and [T. sericea] gave the strongest cytotoxic effects of the five species of [Terminalia] used in this study. Eight of the twenty-four investigated plant extracts showed pronounced cytotoxic effects (less than 30percent proliferation compared to the control) against the T 24 bladder cancer cells, seven against the HeLa cells and four against the MCF 7 cells.

2007-03-1023 Galvez, J.; Gracioso, J.D.S.; Camuesco, D.; Galvez, J.; Vilegas, W.; Brito, A.R.M.S.; Zarzuelo, A. (Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Granada, Spain) Intestinal antiinflammatory activity of a lyophilized infusion of Turnera ulmifolia in TNBS rat colitis. Fitoterapia v. 77(7-8): p. 515-520, 2006 (Eng; 30 ref).

[Turnera ulmifolia] (Turneraceae) is a plant popularly known in Brazil and South America as chanana. Some species of [Turnera] are widely used in folk medicine lor different types of inflammatory diseases. In this study, the preventive intestinal antiinflammatory activity of a lyophilized infusion obtained from the aerial parts of [T. ulmifolia] was tested in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. The results obtained revealed that pretreatment to colilic rats with the extract, at 250 and 500 mg/kg, significantly attenuated the colonic damage induced by TNBS. This beneficial effect was associated with an improvement in the colonic oxidative status, since the infusion prevented the glutathione depletion that occurred as a consequence of the colonic inflammation. On the other hand, this antioxidant activity was confirmed in in vitro studies. In conclusion, the preventive effect exerted by the lyophilized infusion of T. ulmifolia in the TNBS model of rat colitis is probably related to its antioxidant properties, due to its flavonoids content.

2007-03-1024 Ganachari, M.S.; Shiv Kumar; Alagawadi, K.R. ( Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, K.L.E.S's College of Pharmacy, JNMC Campus, Belgaum, Karnataka 590 010, India) Anti-obese activity of Ziziphus jujuba Lam leaves extract in dietary obese rats. Journal of Natural Remedies v. 7(1): p. 102-108, 2007 (Eng; 16 ref).

Obesity was induced in albino rats by feeding cafeteria diet/atherogenic diet daily for 40 days in addition to normal diet ad libitum. Body weight was measured on day 1 and then on alternate days for 40 days. Daily food intake for group of 6 rats was assessed. Serum glucose and lipid levels and internal organs and fat pad weight analysis was carried out on day 41. The [Ziziphus jujuba] (Rhamnaceae) leaves extract treatment caused significant reduction in body weight, daily food intake, serum glucose and lipid levels, internal organs and fat pad weights in cafeteria and atherogenic diet fed rats when compared with control group of rats. The effect produced was comparable with that produced by standard anti-obese drug, Sibutramine.

2007-03-1025 Ghayur, M.N.; Gilani, A.H. (Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, The Aga Khan University Medical College, Karachi-74800, Pakistan) Studies on cardio-suppressant, vasodilator and tracheal relaxant effects of Sarcococca saligna. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(11): p. 990-997, 2006 ( Eng; 28 ref).

The aqueous-methanolic extract of [Sarcococca saligna] (Buxaceae) (SS), tested positive for the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, and alkaloids was found to exhibit a dose-dependent (0.3-5 mg/mL) negative inotropic and chronotropic effect on the isolated guinea-pig artrium. In rabbit thoracic aorta, SS dose-dependently (0.1-3 mg/mL) relaxed the high K+ (80 mM) and phenylephrine (PE, 1 microM)-induced contractions, indicating a possible Ca++ channel blocking effect. SS exhibited dose-dependent (0.1-3 mg/mL) inhibition, being more potent in relaxing the PE responses in Ca++ free Kreb's solution, thus indicating specific blockade of Ca++ release from the intracellular stores. SS also relaxed the agonist-induced contractions in rat aorta irrespective of the presence of endothelium or nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME and rabbit and guinea-pig tracheal strips. The data showed that SS exhibits cardio suppressant, vasodilator and tracheal relxant activities mediated through blockade of calcium channels.

2007-03-1026 Ghosh, T.; Maity, T.K.; Dash, G.K.; Bose, A.; Nayak, S.S.; Dash, D.K. (Institute of Pharmacy and Technology, Salipur, Cuttack district, Orissa-754 202, India) Hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri Linn. aerial parts against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Natural Product Sciences v. 13(1): p. 61-67, 2007 (Eng; 34 ref).

The ethanolic extract of [Bacopa monnieri] (Scrophulariaceae) aerial parts was found to decrease significantly CCl4-induced elevation of SGOT, SGPT, ALP, bilirubin and total cholesterol. But, it increased HDL-cholesterol level and liver weight with respect to CCl4 toxic rats. The extract was also found to decrease significantly the CCl4-induced elevation of lipid peroxidation and increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) and GSH level in the liver of extract treated rats when compared with CC14 induced rats. Histopathological profiles showed that the extract had significant protective effect against CCl4-induced liver injury, which corroborates the above findings.

2007-03-1027 Giancarlo, S.; Rosa, L.M.; Nadjafi, F.; Francesco, M. (Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Calabria, I-87036 Rende (CS), Italy) Hypoglycaemic activity of two spices extracts: Rhus coriaria L. and Bunium persicum Boiss. Natural Product Research v. 20(9): p. 882-886, 2006 (Eng; 22 ref).

The hypoglycaemic efficacy of sumac [Rhus coriaria] and black cumin [Bunium persicum] extracts were investigated through inhibition of a glycoside hydrolase: alpha-amylase. On the basis of result ethyl acetate extract of sumac may have interest in the treatment and prevention of hyperglycaemia, diabetes and obesity, with an IC50 value of 28.7 micro gmL-1.

2007-03-1028 Gopala Krishna, H.N.; Sangha, R.B.; Mishra, N.; Pai, M.R.S.M. (Department of Pharmacology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore 575 001, Karnataka, India) Antiaxiety activity of NR-ANX-C, a polyherbal preparation in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology v. 38(5): p. 330-335, 2006 ( Eng; 23 ref).

Inbred male Wistar albino rats weighing between 150 and 180 g were used. The standard anxiolytic, diazepam (0.5 and 1 mg/kg), and the test drug, NR-ANX-C, polyherbal powder containing aqueous extract of [Withania somnifera] (Solanaceae), shilajit and alcoholic extracts of [Camellia sinensis] (Theaceae) and [Ocimum sanctum] (Labiate) (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), were dissolved/suspended in 1 percent gum acacia solution and administered orally. Acute as well as chronic administration of NR-ANX-C increased the number of entries, the time spent, and the rears in open arms of elevated plus maze model. Similarly, in light/dark box paradigm, at higher doses the test drug increased the time spent (10 and 20 mg/kg) and the number of rears (20 mg/kg) and decreased the duration of immobility (20 mg/kg). On the other hand, chronic administration of all the doses (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), of the test compound increased the time spent and the number of rears in bright chamber and decreased the duration of immobility. At lower doses (5 and 10 mg/kg), the test compound increased the number of entries into bright chamber. Locomotor activity in the open field test was not affected at all by the doses tested in acute study.

2007-03-1029 Haeri, S.; Minaie, B.; Amin, G.; Nikfar, S.; Khorasani, R.; Esmaily, H.; Salehnia, A.; Abdollahi, M. (Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Centre, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran) Effect of Satureja khuzestanica essential oil on male rat fertility. Fitoterapia v. 77(7-8): p. 495-499, 2006 (Eng; 30 ref).

This study was undertaken to study the effect of [Satureja khuzestanica] (Lamiaceae) essential oil (SKEO) in male rat fertility. SKEO was administered orally at doses of 75, 150, and 225 mg/kg/day for 45 days through drinking water. Treated and control rats were mated with female on day 45 of treatment. SKEO significantly improved all the parameters evaluated such as potency, fecundity, fertility index, and litter size. Moreover, concentrations of FSH and testosterone were significantly increased in SKEO-treated groups. Also the weights of testes, seminal vesicles, and ventral prostate weights were increased by SKEO (225 mg/kg). Histopathological analysis showed that in male rats treated with SKEO (150, 225 mg/kg), the number of spermatogonium, spermatid cords, Leydig cells, and spematozoids was increased. Also in these groups, the Sertoli cells were hypetrophic.

2007-03-1030 Han, L.K.; Gong, X.J.; Kawano, S.; Saito, M.; Kimura, Y.; Okuda, H. (Department of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, 3-1-100 Tsukide, Kumamoto City 862-8502, Japan) Antiobesity actions of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Yakugaku Zasshi v. 125(2): p. 213-217, 2005 (Jap; Eng; 8 ref).

The antiobesity effects of the aqueous extract of [Zingiber officinale] (Zingiberaceae) were examined by feeding a high-fat diet to mice for 8 weeks. Body weights at 2-8 weeks and final parametrial adipose tissue weights were significantly lower in mice fed the high-fat diet containing 3percent aqueous extract of [Z. officinale] than in the controls fed the high-fat diet. Feeding a high-fat diet containing 1percent aqueous extract also significantly reduced final parametrial adipose tissue weights that were elevated in mice fed the high-fat diet alone. Data suggest that the antiobesity effect of aqueous extract in mice fed a high-fat diet may be due inpart to the inhibition of intestinal absorption of dietary fat by the active compounds of [Z. officinale].

2007-03-1031 Han, L.K.; Morimoto, C.; Yu, R.H.; Okuda, H. ( Department of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, 3-1-100, Tsukide, Kumamoto 862-8502, Japan) Effects of Coleus forskohlii on fat storage in ovariectomized rats. Yakugaku Zasshi v. 125(5): p. 449-453, 2005 (Jap; Eng; 9 ref).

To study antiobesity activity eight-week-old female Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: a sham-operated group fed the control diet (MF, sham-m): an ovariectomized ovx-m group fed the control diet; a sham-operated group fed the control diet containing 50 g/kg of [Coleus forskohlii] (Lamiaceae) extract (CF) [sham-c); and an ovx-c group fed the control diet containing 50 g/kg of extract. The body weight, adipose tissues, and cell diameter were investigated in ovx rats after extract treatment. Administration of CF extracts reduced body weight, food intake, and fat accumulation in ovx rats. Results suggest that CF may be useful in the treatment of obesity.

2007-03-1032 Han, F.M.; Zhu, M.M.; Chen, H.X.; Chen,Y.* (Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Bio-Technology for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, China) Liquid chromatography-tandem electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometric assay for the metabolites of jatrorrhizine in rat urine. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica v. 41(9): p. 846-851, 2006 (Chi; Eng; 12 ref).

The rat urine samples were collected 0-72 h after ig 12 mg/kg jatrorrhizine, purified through C18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. The purified samples were analyzed by combining liquid chromatography and tandem electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI/ITMS). Identification and structural elucidation of the metabolites were performed by comparing the changes in molecular masses, retention-times and full scan MS" spectra with those of the parent drug. In phase I seven metabolites (such as de-methyl, de-hydrogen and hydroxyl metabolites) and eleven in phase II metabolites (such as glucuronide conjugates and methyl-conjugates) were identified in rat urine. Jatrorrhizine is an alkaloed in the rhizomes of [Mahonia baelei] (Berberidaceae) and [Coptis crhinensis] (Ranunculaceae).

2007-03-1033 Han, M.; Han, L.M.; Wang, Q.S.; Bai, Z.H.; Fang, X.L.* (School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China) Mechanism of oral absorption of Panax notoginseng saponins. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica v. 41(6): p. 498-505, 2006 (Chi; Eng; 18 ref).

Caco-2 cells and rat models were used to evaluate the degradation [Panax notoginseng] (Araliaceae) of both ginsenoside, Rb1 and Rg1 in gastrointestinal lumen, and their transport mechanism across the intestinal mucosa, and the barrier function of stomach, intestine and liver involved in absorption process. Rb1 and Rg1 proved to be readily eliminated in stomach, hut stable in relatively neutral circumstance. Both Rb1 and Rg1 especially Rb1, degraded significantly in the contents of large intestine. However, both of them kept mainly intact in the contents of small intestine. Uptake of both Rb1 and Rg1 by Caco-2 cell monolayer was inhibited at low temperature, but not by cyclosporine A, and the change in the apical pH showed no pronounced effect. Uptake and transient were non-saturable and increased linearly with increasing of concentrations of Rb1 and Rg1 over the range of concentration tested, which indicated a passive transport. There was no significant difference of absorption characteristic between monomer (Rb1 and Rg1) and mixture.

2007-03-1034 Hansawasdi, C.; Kawabata, J. (Faculty of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand) Alpha-Glucosidase inhibitory effect of mulberry (Morus alba) leaves on Caco-2. Fitoterapia v. 77(7-8): p. 568-573, 2006 (Eng; 15 ref).

The effects of brewing time on dry weight content and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory active component released from mulberry (Morus alba) tea were studied. Different tea products showed significant differences in inhibitory activity against both sucrase and maltase. The most effective enzyme inhibition was observed when 3 to 5 min brewing time was applied in tea preparation. In a Caco-2 cell culture experiment the tea reduced the liberated glucose contents in both apical and basal sides of the cell monolayers. It can be concluded that hot water extract of mulberry leaves does have inhibitory effect against alpha-glucosidases, sucrase and maltase enzymes, and has a potential to be consumed as antidiabetic herb tea.

2007-03-1035 Hemalatha, S.; Ayyappan, T.; Shanmugam, S.; Nagavalli, D.; Shrivijaya Kirubha, T. (Department of Pharmacognosy, Adhiparasaskthi College of Pharmacy, Melmaruvathur 603 319, Tamil Nadu, India) Evaluation of antidiabetic and diuretic activity of polyherbal formulation. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge v. 5(4): p. 468-470, 2006 (Eng; 9 ref).

Aqueous extract of the formulation, prepared from powder of plants [Toddalia asiatica] (Rutaceae), [Terminalia chebula] (Combretaceae); CB Clarke in part, [Terminalia bellirica] (Combretaceae), [Eclipta alba] (Compositae), [Enicostemma littorale] (Gentianaceae) named as Pan-five powder was subjected to phytochemical test and pharmacological screening for antidiabetic and diuretic activities. At different dose level of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg weight, the formulation showed significant activity when compared to respective standard.

2007-03-1036 Huang, Z.B.; Wu, Z.; Chen, F.K.*; Zou, L.B. ( School of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China) The protective effects of phenolic constituents form Gastrodia elata on the cytotoxicity induced by KCl and glutamate. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(11): p. 963-968, 2006 ( Eng; 21 ref).

Seven phenolic compounds were isolated from the tubers of [Gastrodia elata] (Rutaceae). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS and NMR spectral data, p-Ethoxymethyl phenyl-O-beta-D-glucoside was proved to be a new compound, with N-(p-hydroxybenzyl)-adenosine isolated from this plant for the first time. The neuroprotective effects of the six constituents on PC12 cells against the cytotoxicity induced by KCl and glutamate were investigated. The viability of the PC12 cells was significantly enhanced by pretreatment with the six phenolic constituents.

2007-03-1037 Human, H.; Nicolson, S.W. (Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Lynnwood Road, Pretoria 0002, South Africa) Nutritional content of fresh, bee-collected and stored pollen of Aloe greatheadii var. davyana (Asphodelaceae). Phytochemistry v. 67(14): p. 1486-1492, 2006 (Eng; 47 ref).

[Aloe greatheadii var. davyana] is the most important indigenous South African bee plant. Fresh, bee-collected and stored pollen of this aloe was collected and analysed for its nutritional content, including amino acid and fatty acid composition. Highly significant differences were found between the three type of pollen. Collection and storage by bees resulted in increased water (13-21 percent wet weight) and carbohydrate content (35-61percent dry weight), with a resultant decrease in crude protein (51-28 percent dry weight) and lipid content (10-8percent dry weight). Essential amino acids were present in equal or higher amounts than the required minimum levels for honeybee development with the exception of tryptophan. Fatty acids comprised a higher proportion of total lipid in fresh pollen than in bee-collected and stored pollen. This study is the first to compare the changes that occur in pollen of a single species after collection by honeybees.

2007-03-1038 Iizuka, T.; Nagai, M. (The Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8501, Japan) Vasorelaxant effect of forsythiaside form the fruits of Forsythia suspensa. Yakugaku Zasshi v. 125(2): p. 219-224, 2005 (Jap; Eng; 16 ref ).

Forsythiaside from the fruits of [Forsythia suspensa] (Oleaceae) on isolated rat aortic showed a slow relaxation activity against norepinephrine (NE)-induced contractions of rat aorta with/without endothelium. This compound did not affect contractions induced by a high concentration of potassium (K-ions 60 mM), while it inhibited NE-induced vasocontraction in the presence of nicardipine. These results showed that the inhibition of NE-induced vasocontraction is due to a decrease in calcium influx from the extracellular space caused by NE.

2007-03-1039 Jain, S.K.; Chitme, H.R.; Chandra, R. (Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi 284 128, India) Antimalarial activity of a new herbal formulation. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences v. 67(1): p. 101-103, 2005 (Eng; 14 ref).

The herbal formulation prepared is an amalgam of natural plant ingredients, comprising [Tinospora cordifolia] (Menispermaceae), [Caesalpinia crista] (Leguminosae) seed powder, [Enicostemma littorale] (Gentianaceae) leaves extract, Godanti bhasma and purified alum, which are in traditional use for several diseases and disorders. The screening was done by Peter's 4 day test by means of parasite counts. Each male mouse received an intraperitoneal inoculum of 1 x 10 7 parasitized red blood cells on day of infection (D+O) and was treated once daily from day D+O to D+3 (for 4 day). A suspension of the test material prepared in distilled water and 1 percent tween 80 and administered orally after 4 h of injection. There was no parasitaemia from 15th day post infection in both drug treated animals. All animals were found infection free and healthy.

2007-03-1040 Jeong, S.H.; Han, X.H.; Hong, S.S.; Hwang, J.S.; Hwang, J.H.; Lee, D.; Lee, M.K.; Rao, J.S.; Hwang, B.Y. (College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, Korea) Monoamine oxidase inhibitory coumarins form the aerial parts of Dictamnus albus. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(12): p. 1119-1124, 2006 ( Eng; 32 ref).

Activity-guided fractionation of methanol extract from the aerial parts of [Dictamnus albus] (Rutaceae) led to the isolation of four known coumarins, 7-(6'R-hydroxy-3' 7'-dimethyl-2'E, 7'-octadienyloxy) coumarin (1), auraptene (2), umbelliferone (3), and xanthotoxin (4), as active compounds along with an inactive alkaloid, skimmianine (5). Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited MAO inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner with-lC50 values of 0.7 and 1.7 microM, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 showed a slight and potently selective inhibitory effect against MAO-B (IC50 0.5 and 0.6 microM, respectively) compared to MAO-A (IC50 1.3 and 34.6 microM, respectively). According to kinetic analyses derived by Lineweaver-Burk reciprocal plots, compounds 1 and 2 exhibited a competitive inhibition to MAO-B from the mouse brain.

2007-03-1041 Jeyaprakash, K.; Chinnaswamy, P. (Department of Biochemistry, Dr. N.G.P. Arts & Science College, Coimbatore 641 035, Tamil Nadu, India) Antioxidant property of Spirulina and Liv-52 against lead induced toxicity in albino rats. Journal of Natural Remedies v. 7(1): p. 80-85, 2007 (Eng; 29 ref).

The extent of lipid peroxidaiton in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive susbstances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and reduced glutathine (GSH) were assayed in the liver and kidney homogenate. Oral administration of lead (10 mg/kg body weight/day) as lead acetate for 30 days resulted in a significant increase (P less than 0.01) in the level of TBARS and a decrease in the level of GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx when compared to normal control. Administration of both [Spirulina] and Liv-52 produced a pronounced protective effect (P less than 0.01) in respect to these parameters when compared to their individual administration in lead intoxicated rats.

2007-03-1042 Joshi, M.C.; Mohan Kumar, M.; Prabha, T.; Dorababu, M.; Goel, R.K.* (Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India) Status of mucosal offensive and defensive factors in pylorus ligated-induced gastric ulceration of NIDDM rats vis-a-vis plantain banana. Journal of Natural Remedies v. 7(1): p. 125-131, 2007 (Eng; 22 ref).

Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) was induced in 5 days old rat pups by administering 70 mg/kg of streptozotocin intraperitoneally and blood glucose estimation was done after 12 weeks (blood glucose level greater than 140 mg/dL and stable). Gastric ulcers were induced both in normal (NR) and NIDDM rats by 4 h pylorus-ligated (PL). [Musa sapientum] var. [paradisiaca], MSE (Musaceae) was used in a dose of 100 mg/kg, orally (po), once daily (od) for 6 days. Standard ulcer protective drug sucralfate (SFT) and standard oral hypoglycemic agent glibenclamide (GLC) were used in a dose of 500 mg/kg and 0.6 mg/kg, respectively, po, od for 6 days. MSE but not SFT tended to decrease blood glucose level at the ulcer protective dose used, while GLC significantly reduced it both in normal as well as in NIDDM rats. There was an increased propensity to gastric ulceration in NIDDM-PL rats compared to the normal PL rats. NIDDM rats showed a tendency to increase in acid-pepsin secretion and decrease in mucin secretion and life span of mucosal cells. Both SFT and MSE showed significant antiulcer activity against PL-GU in NR and NIDDM rats, where as GLC showed a significant effect only against PL-GU in NIDDM rats.

2007-03-1043 Ju-Ichi, M. (School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa, Women's University, 9-11-68, Koshien, Nishinomiya 663-8179, Japan) Chemical study of Citrus plants in the search for cancer chemopreventive agents. Yakugaku Zasshi v. 125(2): p. 231-254, 2005 (Jap; Eng; 62 ref ).

The roots and bark of the roots of various [Citrus] species (Rutaceae) were examined and several new compounds were isolated. The structures of the new constituents, dimeric coumarins, dimeric acridone alkaloids and acridone-coumarin dimers were determined using spectroscopic methods, especially 2D-NMR spectra. Auraptene and nobiletin are known as useful constituents of the peel of [citurs] plants for cancer chemoprevention. However, 3,5,6,7,8,3,3, 4-heptamethoxyflavone (HPT) has both antitumour promoting and initiation activities and is more effective than auraptene and nobiletin. Pentaallyl quercetin (QPA), a useful antitumour compound that has the additional effects of a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibiton was synthesized. The inhibitory effects of QPA on P-gp were more effective than those of the typical P-gp inhibitors cyclosporin A and verapamil. Both HPT and QPA have antitumour promotion activity and are potential candidates for effective multidrug resistance agents in cancer chemotherapy.

2007-03-1044 Jung, H.J.; Nam, J.H.; Lee, K.T.; Lee, Y.S.; Choi, J.; Kim, W.B.; Chung, W.Y.; Park, K.K.; Park, H.J. (Department of Botanical Resources, Sangji University, Woosan-Dong, Wonju 220-702, Korea) Structure-activity relationships of polyhydroxyursane-type triterpenoids on the cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Natural Product Sciences v. 13(1): p. 33-39, 2007 (Eng; 17 ref).

The bioactivities of polyhydroxyursane-type triterpenoids (PHUTS) and crude drugs ([Rubi Fructus and Rosa rugosae Radix]) were compared with PHUTs possessing no 19a-hydroxyl of [Centella asiatica]), (Umbelliferae), and 23-hydroxyursolic acid from (Cussonia bancoensis]. Cytoprotective effects were assessed by measuring cell viabilities against cisplatin-induced cytotoxocity in LLC-PK1 cells (proximal tubule, pig kidney) to determine whether these agents have protective effects against nephrotoxicity caused by cisplatin. Six PHUTs exhibited higher cell viabilities during cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity testing even at a concentration of 200 micro g/ml than cisplatin only-treated group, suggesting that these compounds have the potent cytoprotective effects. Compounds isolated from [C. asiatica] exhibited no inhibitory effect on NO and or PGE2 production whereas PHUTs produced mild to significant NO and or PGE2 production. These results suggest that many PHUTs are potent chemopreventives. Their structure-activity relationship was discussed in each assay.

2007-03-1045 Kadnur, S.V.; Goyal, R.K. (Department of Pharmacology, L.M. College of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad 380 009, India) Comparative antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract and ethyl acetate extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences v. 67(4): p. 453-457, 2005 (Eng; 19 ref).

Streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats showed a significant increase in fasting glucose levels that was associated with increase in insulin levels. Treatment with methanolic and ethyl acetate extract of [Zingiber officinale] (Zingiberaceae) produced a significant decrease in fasting glucose and insulin levels in type 2 diabetic rats. In oral glucose tolerance test, treatment with methanolic and ethyl acetate extract was found to significantly decrease AUC glucose and AUCinsulin values in type 2 diabetic rats. Treatment with methanolic extract produced greater reduction in elevated levels of glucose and AUCglucose as compared to ethyl acetate extract. Treatment with methanolic and ethyl acetate extract also produced decrease in serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetc rats. The concentration of 6-gingerol was found to be greater in methaolic extract (3.08 percent) and lower in ethyl acetate extract (1.64 percent).

2007-03-1046 Kang, C.S.; Tae, J.; Ham, S.H.; Kim, D.K.; Lee, Y.M.; Lee, K.S.; Yun, Y.G. (Department of Prescription, Wonkwang University School of Oriental Medicine, Iskan, Jeonbuk 570-749, Korea) Administration of aqueous extract of Schizandra chinensis fruit inhibits the experimental colitis in mice. Natural Product Sciences v. 13(1): p. 78-84, 2007 (Eng; 39 ref).

[Schizandra chinensis] fruits (SC) (Magnoliaceae) have been used as a traditional Oriental medicine tor treatments of many stress-induced diseases. An Experimental colitis was induced by daily treatment with 5 percent dextran sulfate sodium (DSS).Aqueous extract of SC was orally administered from day 2 of DSS treatment in a dose- dependent manner.Administration of SC-EX reduced significantly clinic signs of DSS-induced colitis, including body weight loss, shorten colon length, increased disease activity index, and histological colon injury. Moreover. SC-Ex suppressed significantly not only the activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and chymase, but also the expressions of TNF'-a and COX-2 in DSS-treated colon tissues. Inhibitory effect of SC-Ex was effective at a dose over 20 mg/kg.

2007-03-1047 Kannur, D.M.; Hukkeri, V.I.; Akki, K.S. ( Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, MAEER's Maharashtra Institute of Pharmacy, Kothrud, Pune 411030, India) Antidiabetic activity of Caesalpinia bonducella seed extracts in rats. Fitoterapia v. 77(7-8): p. 546-549, 2006 (Eng; 12 ref).

The seed extracts of [Caesalpinia bonducella] (Fabaceae) were subjected to screening of antidiabetic activity in alloxan induced hyperglydemia. The oral administration of the extracts (300 mg/kg) produced significant antihyperglycemic action as well as it lowered the BUN levels significantly. In the same study the action of the extracts on diabetes induced hyperlipidemia was analyzed where the extracts significantly lowered the elevated cholesterol as well as LDL level. The antihyperglycemic action of the extracts may be due to the blocking of glucose absorption. The drug has the potential to act as antidiabetic as well as antihyperlipidemic.

2007-03-1048 Kasture, S.B.; Kasture, V.S.; Jashua, A.J.; Damodaran, A.; Amit, A.* (MGV's Pharmacy College, Panchavati, Nashik 422 003, India) Nootropic activity of BacoMind TM, and enriched phytochemical composition form Bacopa monnieri. Journal of Natural Remedies v. 7(1): p. 166-173, 2007 (Eng; 36 ref).

BacoMind TM an enriched phytochemical composition from [Bacopa monnieri] (Scrophulariaceae) was administered for 7 days at the dose of 40, 60 and 80 mg/kg to mice in elevated plus maze and passive shock avoidance test and 27, 40 and 54 mg/kg to rats in object recognition test. Scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg) was used to induce amnesia and piracetam (100 mg/kg) served as reference standard. In elevated plus maze test, BacoMind TM significantly (p less than 0.01) increased the inflexion ratio in scopolamine treated mice. In passive shock avoidance test, it significantly (p less than 0.001) reduced the latency to reach the shock free zone and number of mistakes in 15 min in both normal as well as scopolamine treated mice. In object recognition test, it significantly (p less than 0.001) increased the discrimination index in both normal as well as scopolamine treated rats.

2007-03-1049 Kesari, A.N.; Gupta, R.K.; Singh, S.K.; Diwakar, S.; Watal, G. (Department of Chemistry, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002, India) Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Aegle marmelos seed extract in normal and diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(3): p. 374-379, 2006 (Eng ; 28 ref).

[Aegle marmelos] Corr. (Rutaceae) is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aqueous extract of [Aegle marmelos] seeds was administered orally at different doses (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg) to normal as well as sub {fasting blood glucose{FBG} normal; glucose tolerance abnormal) and mild (FBG 120-250 mg/dl) diabetic rats. The dose of 250 mg/kg was found to be most effective dose an it decreases blood glucose level (BGL} by 35.1 percent in normal healthy rats after 6 h of administration. The same dose also showed a marked reduction in BGL of 41.2percent in sub and 33.2 percent in mild diabetic rats in glucose tolerance test (GTT) after 2 h. Treatment of severely {FBG gretaer than 250 mg/dl} diabetic rats for 14 days with a dose of 250 mg/kg reduces the fasting blood glucose by 60.84percent and urine sugar by 75percent than their pretreatment levels, It brought about fall in level of total cholesterol (TC) by 25.49 percent with increase of 33.43percent in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and decrease of 53.97 and 45.77 percent in low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG), respectively.

2007-03-1050 Kim, J.M.; Lee, Y.M.; Lee, G.Y.; Jang, D.S.; Bae, K.H.; Kim, J.S.* (Department of Herbal Pharmaceutical Development, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 305-811, Korea) Constituents of the roots of Pueraria lobata inhibit formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(10): p. 821-825, 2006 ( Eng; 20 ref).

Two isoflavone C-glucosides, puerarin and PG-3 a but-2-enolide, (plus minus)-puerol B, two isoflavone O-glucosides, daidzin and genistin and three pterocarpans, (-)-medicarpin (-)-glycinol and (-)-tuberosin, were isolated from a MeOH extract of the roots of [Pueraria lobata] (Leguminosae) using an [in vitro] bioassay based on the inhibition of the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) to monitor chromatographic fractionation. The structures of isolates were determined by spectroscopic data interpretation, particularly by 1D- and 2D-NMR studies, and by comparison of these data with values in the literature. All of the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory activity on AGEs formation [in vitro]. Of these, puerarin PG-3 and (plus minus)-puerol B exhibited more potent AGEs inhibitory activity than the positive control aminoguanidine.

2007-03-1051 Koneri, R.; Balaraman, R.; Saraswati, C.D. ( Visveswarapura Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vokkaligara Sangha Campus, K R Road, Bangalore 560004, India) Antiovulatory and abortifacient potential of the ethanolic extract of roots of Momordica cymbalaria Fenzl in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology v. 38(2): p. 111-114, 2006 ( Eng; 14 ref).

Female Wistar albino rats (150 to 200 g) were administered ethanolic extracts of roots of [Momordica cymbalaria] (Cucurbitaceae) at two doses 250 and 500 mg/kg orally for 15 days. Control group received vehicle (tween 80, 1 percent, p.o. daily). Abortifacient study was done in another set of three groups of animals. The extracts at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg were administered orally through gastric gavage from the day 6 to day 15 of pregnancy. Highly significant (P less than 0.001) decrease in the duration of estrous cycle and metaestrous phase and increase in proestrous phase was seen, but diestrous phase was unchanged in both 250 and 500 mg treated group when compared to untreated group. Significant decrease in the ovarian weight and a highly significant increase in serum cholesterol with 250 mg/kg dose were seen. Histology of ovary showed an increase in preovulatory and atretic follicles. At 250 mg/kg ethanolic extract did not show any abortifacient activity but reduced the number of viable foetus and resorptions with no change in the foetal weight when compared with control group. At 500 mg/kg ethanolic extract showed highly significant (P less than 0.001) abortifacient activity.

2007-03-1052 Kottai Muthu, A.; Sethupathy, S.; Manavalan, R.; Karar, P.K. (Department of Pharmacy, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, TN, India) Antioxidant potential of methanolic extract of Dolichos biflorus Linn in high fat diet fed rabbits. Indian Journal of Pharmacology v. 38(2): p. 131-132, 2006 ( Eng; 7 ref).

New Zealand white rabbits, weighing 900-1050 g were divied in to five groups, with six rabbits in each group. Rabbits in group III and IV were orally fed the methanolic extracts of [Dolichos biflorus] (Fabaceae) dose I and II, respectively, and rabbits in group V were fed standard drug atorvastatin. After administration of two doses of extract it was found to have decreased in average body weight (group II) thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) had significantly increased and glutathione (GSH) had significantly decreased in liver, heart and arota of rabbits fed with high fat diet (HFD) (Group II) compared with those in control group I. Administration of extract significantly lowered the level of TBARS and enhanced the level of GSH. Supplementation of extract with HFD significantly improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalse (CAT) in the above tissues of rabbits in groups III and IV as compared with group II.

2007-03-1053 Koul, A.; Binepal, G.; Gangar, S.C. (Department of Biophysics, Basic Medical Sciences Block, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India) Impediment of diethylnitrosamine induced hepatotoxicity in male Balb/c mice by pretreatment with aqueous Azadirachta indica leaf extract. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology v. 45(4): p. 359-366, 2007 (Eng; 56 ref).

Aqueous [Azadirachta indica] (Meliaceae) leaf extract (AAILE) pretreatment showed protective effects against diethylnitrosamine (NDEA) induced toxicity by decreasing the frequency of micronucleated cell, lipid peroxidation levels (LPO) and activity of locatate dehydrogenase (LDH). Also a decreased activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), cytochrome P450 and an increased activity of cytochrome b5, glutathione (GSH) contents was observed when AAILE pretreated mice were injected with NDEA. Only AAILE treatment caused a noticeable decrease in the frequency of micronuclei, activity of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5, but a significant increase in the activity of GST and GSH contents, whereas, non significant alterations were observed in the activity of LDH and levels of LPO. Significance of these observations with respect to hepatoprotective efficacy of [A. indica] has been discussed.

2007-03-1054 Kovacevic, N.; Colic, M.; Backovic, A.; Doslov-Kokorus, Z. (Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Vajvode Stepe 450, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro) Immunomodulatory effects of the methanolic extract of Epimedium alpinum in vitro. Fitoterapia v. 77(7-8): p. 561-567, 2006 (Eng; 23 ref).

The effect of the methanolic extract of root and rhizome of [Epimedium alpinum] (Berberidaceae) (MEEA) on phenotype and functions of rat lymphocytes [in vitro] was studied. It has been found that MEEA at lower concentrations (0.1 microg/ml and 1 microg/ml) significantly enhanced proliferation of splenocytes and thymocytes triggered by concanavalin A (Con A), whereas higher concentrations of the extract (50 microg/ml-500 microg/ml) were inhibitory. The stimulatory effect of MEEA on Con A-induced proliferation of splenocytes correlated with the up-regulatton of interleukin-2 receptor alpha (IL-2Ralpha) expression. In addition, increased production of IL-2 was observed when a blocking IL-2Ralpha monoclonal antibody (mAb) was added to cell cultures. MEEA-suppresscd proliferation of splenocytes was due to the inhibition of IL-2 production, the down-regulation of IL-2Ralpha expression and the induction of apoptosis. Cellular proliferation in the presence of inhibitory concentrations of MEEA higher than 50 microg/ml could not be restored by the addition of exogenous IL-2.

2007-03-1055 Krishna, V.; Mankani, K.L.; Shanthamma, C. ( Department of Biotechnology, Kuvempu University, Shankaraghata 577 451, India) Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of the stem bark of Diospyros cordifolia Roxb.. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences v. 67(1): p. 106-108, 2005 (Eng; 18 ref).

Male Wistar rats (150-200 g) were divided into four groups of six rats each. The animals of group I served as control. The animals of the groups II, III and IV received 0.1 ml/kg/day dose of carbon tetrachloride for 14 d intraperitoneally. In addition, the animals of the groups III and IV received orally 25-mg/kg/day dose of each petroleum ether and auqeous extracts, respectively for 14 d. Significant hepatoprotective activity of stem bark of [Diospyros cordifolia] (Ebenaceae) was observed in the petroleum ether extract-treated animals. Biochemical tests representative of liver function indicated hepatoprotective activity of the stem bark extracts. Histopathological studies revealed that hepatic lesions occurred in the carbon tetrachloride-treated group, which were reduced significantly by the stem bark extract treatment.

2007-03-1056 Kumarnsit, E.; Keawpradub, N.; Nuankaew, W. ( Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University (PSU), Hat-Yai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand) Acute and long-term effects of alkaloid extract of Mitragyna speciosa on food and water intake and body weight in rats. Fitoterapia v. 77(5): p. 339-345, 2006 (Eng; 24 ref).

Acute administration of [Mitragyna speciosa] (Rubiaceae) (MS) extract (45 and 50 mg/kg) significantly resulted in dose-dependent decreases in food and water intakes (p less than 0.05) in rats. Prolonged suppressing effects were observed following administration of the MS extract (40 mg/kg) for 60 consecutive days. Moreover, the long-term administration also significantly suppressed weight gaining. The anorectic activity is caused by MS main alkaloid mitragynine.

2007-03-1057 Kumar, G.; Banu, G.S.; Murugesan, A.G.; Pandian, M.R. (Manonmanian Sundaranar University, Sri Paramakalyani Centre for Environmental Sciences, Alwarkurichi, Tamil Nadu 627412, India) Hypoglycaemic effect of Helicteres isora bark extract in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(2): p. 304-307, 2006 (Eng ; 27 ref).

The hypoglycaemic effect of the aqueous extract of the bark of [Helicteres isora] L. (Sterculiaceae) was investigated in normal, glucose load conditions and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In normal rats, the aqueous extract of the bark of [Helicteres isora] (100 and 200 mg/kg/p.o.) significantly (p less than 0.001) reduced the blood glucose levels from 64.5-48.5 and 67-47 mg percent 2h after oral administration of bark extract and also significantly lowered the blood glucose in STZ diabetic rats from 68-105 and 66-85.5 mg percent 21 days after daily oral administration of the extract {P less than 0.001}.

2007-03-1058 Kumar, G.; Sharmila Banu, G.; Maheswaran, R.; Rema, S.; Rajasekara Pandian M.; Murugesan, A.G. (Department of Biochemistry, Selvamm Arts & Science College, Namakkal, Tamilnadu 637003, India) Effect of Plumbago zeylanica L. on blood glucose and plasma antioxidant status in STZ diabetic rats. Journal of Natural Remedies v. 7(1): p. 66-71, 2007 (Eng; 31 ref).

The ethanolic extract of root of [Plumbago zeylanica] (Plumbaginaceae) at doses of 100 mg, 200 mg/kg p.o. for 21 days resulted in significant reduction in plasma TBARS and a significant elevation in plasma reduced glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid. It is concluded that these results suggest that the ethanolic extract of root of [P. zeylanica] possess a strong antioxidant effect in diabetes induced rats.

2007-03-1059 Kupeli, E.; Orhan, I.; Toker, G.; Yesilada, E. ( Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gazi University, Etiler 6330, Ankara, Turkey) Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive potential of Maclura pomifera (Rafin.) Schneider fruit extracts and its major isoflavonoids, scandenone and auriculasin. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(2): p. 169-174, 2006 (Eng ; 37 ref).

The aqueous, ethanolic and chloroform extracts and two prenylated isoflavones: scandenone (I) and auriculasin (II), isolated from the fruits of [Maclura pomifera] {Moraceae}, were investigated for their in vivo antiinflammatory and antinociceptive activity. For the anti-inflammatory activity, both carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema models and for the antinociceptive activity, p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal constriction test were used. Scandenone. the chloroform and the ethanolic extracts were shown to possess antinociceptive activity and antiinflarnmatory activity on carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model at 100 mg/kg dose. The same compound and the extract were also found to be highly active in (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema model whereas auriculasin and the H2O extract showed to be inactive in all of the assays.

2007-03-1060 Kurata, R.; Adachi, M.; Yamakawa, O.; Yoshimoto, M. (Department of Upland Farming Research, National Agricultural Research Center for Kyushu Okinawa Region, Yokoichi 6651-2, Miyakonojo, Miyazaki 885-0091, Japan) Growth suppression of human cancer cells by polyphenolics from sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry v. 55(1): p. 185-190, 2007 (Eng; 28 ref).

Investigated the suppression of the proliferation of selected human cancer cells by phenolic compounds isolated from sweetpotato ([Ipomoea botatas], Convolvulaceae) leaf. The human cancer cells used in this research included a stomach cancer (Kato III), a colon cancer (DLD-1), and a promyelocytic leukemia cell (HL-60). Caffeic acid and di- and tricaffeoylquinic acids dose-dependently depressed cancer cell proliferation, and the difference in sensitivity between caffeoylquinic acid derivatives and each kind of cancer cell was observed. Specifically, 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid effectively depressed the growth of three kinds of cancer cells, and caffeic acid had an exceptionally higher effect against HL-60 cells than other di- and tricaffeoylquinic acids. In attempting to clarify the mechanism of growth suppression with the addition of the apoptotic inhibitor N-ethylmaleimide, it has been observed that the nuclear granulation in 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid-treated HL-60 cells suggested apoptosis induction. This effect was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, an increase of caspase-3 activity, and expression of c-Jun. Growth suppression of HL-60 cells by 3,4,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid was determined to be the result of apoptotic death of the cells.

2007-03-1061 Kwak, Y.G.; Kim, D.K.; Ma, T.Z.; Park, S.A.; Park, H.; Jung, Y.H.; Yoo, D.J.; Eun, J.S.* (College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University, Samrye 565-701, Korea) Torilin from Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC. Blocks hKv1.5 channel current. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(10): p. 834-839, 2006 ( Eng; 31 ref).

Torlin was purified from [Torilis japonica] (Apiaceae), and its effects on a rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium ions channel (hKv1.5), cloned from human heart and stably expressed in Ltk cells, as well as the corresponding potassium ion current were assessed in human atrial myocytes. using the whole cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique, torilin was found to inhibit the hKv1.5 current in time and voltage-dependent manners, with an IC50 value of 2.51 plus minus 0.34 microM at +60 mV. Torilin accelerated the inactivation kinetics of the hKv1.5 channel, and slowed the deactivation kinetics of the hKv1.5 current, resulting in a tail crossover phenomenon. Additionally, torilin inhibited the hKv1.5 current in a use-dependent manner. These results strongly suggest that torilin is a type of potassium channel blocker.

2007-03-1062 Lakshman, K.; Jayaprakash, B.; Joshi, H. ( Department of Pharmacognosy, PES College of Pharmacy, 50 Feet Road, Hanumanthanagar, Bangalore 580 050, India) Comparative antiinflammatory activity studies of four species of Sariva. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences v. 67(4): p. 481-482, 2005 (Eng; 5 ref).

The roots of Sariva [Decalepis hamiltonii] (Asclepiadaceae), [Cryptolepis buchananii] (Asclepiadaceae), [Ichnocarpus frutescens] (Apocynaceae) and [Hemidesmus indicus] (Asclepiadaceae) were investigated for antiinflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema. The ethanol extracts of roots of various species of Sariva exhibited significant antiinflammatory activity at a dose of 350 mg/kg (p.o.) when compared to control group. The activity is compared with standard phenylbutazone. [Cryptolepis buchananii] was found to exhibit significantly more antiinflammatory activity when compared to the other three.

2007-03-1063 Lakshmi, B.; Ajith, T.A.; Jose, N.; Janardhanan, K.K.* (Department of Microbiology, Amalla Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar, Thrissur 680555, Kerala, India) Antimutagenic activity of methanolic extract of Ganoderma lucidum and its effect on hepatic damage caused by benzo[a]pyrene. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(2): p. 297-303, 2006 (Eng ; 35 ref).

The antimutagenic activity of the methanolic extract of the fruiting bodies of [Ganoderma lucidum] {Fr.) P. Krast. occurring in South India was investigated. The activity was assayed by Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test using histidine mutants of Salmonella typhimurium tester strains, TA98, TA 100 and TA 102. The methanolic extract of the mushroom significantly inhibited (p less than 0.001) the [in vitro] sodium azide (NaN3}, N'-methyl-N'-nitro-N'-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPD), and benzo[a]pyrene ('B[a]P) induced his+ revertants in a dose dependent manner. [In vivo] antimutagenic activity of extract was also assayed by determining the mutagenicity of the urine of rats administrated with B[a]P as a mutagen. The prior administration of extract markedly inhibited mutagenicity induced by B[a]P. The results indicated that the methanolic extract of [Ganoderma lucidum] occurring in South India possessed significant antimutagenic activity. The extract prevented the increase of SGOT, SGPT, and ALP activities consequent to B[a]P challenge, and enhanced the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). The extract also profoundly inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by B[a]P. The results revealed that [Ganoderma lucidum] extract restored antioxidant defense and prevented hepatic damage consequent to the challenge by B[a] P.

2007-03-1064 Lee, S.O.; Choi, S.Z.; Choi, S.U.; Kim, G.H.; Kim, Y.C.; Lee, K.R.* (Natural Products Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Korea) Cytotoxic terpene hydroperoxides form the aerial parts of Aster spathulifolius. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(10): p. 845-848, 2006 ( Eng; 14 ref).

Three new sesquiterpene hydroperoxides, 1-[3-(2-hydroperoxy-3-methylbut-3-en)-4-hydrox-yphenyl] ethanone (2), 7beta-hydroperoxy-eudesma-11-en-4-ol (3), and 7alpha-hydroperoxymanool (4), together with three known compounds, germacrone (1), ent-germacra-4(15),5,10(14)-trien-1alpha-ol (5) and teucdiol A (6) were isolated from the aerial parts of [Aster spathulifolius] (Asteraceae). Their structures were characterized using chemical and spectroscopic methods. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against five human tumour cell lines [in vitro] using a SRB method. The two new compounds, 3 and 4. showed moderate cytotoxicity against human cancer cells with ED50 values ranging from 0.24 to 13.27 microg/mL.

2007-03-1065 Lee, J.Y.; Jang, Y.W.; Kang, H.S.; Moon, H.; Sim, S.S.; Kim, C.J. (Division of Pathophysiology and Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756, Korea) Anti-inflammatory action of phenolic compounds from Gastrodia eleta root. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(10): p. 849-858, 2006 ( Eng; 30 ref).

MeOH extracts of [Gastrodia elata] (GE) root (Orchidaceae) were fractionated with organic solvents for the separation of 8 phenolic compounds from the ether (EtOEt) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fractions by column chromatography. Their effects on carrageenan-induced paw edema, arachidonic acid (AA)-induced ear edema and analgesic activity in acetic acid (HAc)-induced writhing response were studied [in vivo]. Activity of cyclooxygenase (COX), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in rat basophilic leukemia (RBL 2H3) cells and DPPH scavenging activity were also determined [in vitro]. These phenolic compounds not only had antiinflammatory and analgesic properties [in vivo] but also inhibited COX activity and silica-induced ROS generation in a dose-dependent manner. Results indicate that phenolic compounds are antiinflammatory, which may be related to inhibition of COX activity and to antioxidant activity. Consideration of the structure-activity relationship of the phenolic derivatives revealed that both C-4 hydroxy and C-3 methoxy radicals of benzyl aldehyde play an important role in antiinflammatory activities.

2007-03-1066 Lee, S.H.; Shin, Y.W.; Bae, E.A.; Lee, B.; Min, S. ; Baek, N.I.; Chung, H.G.; Kim, N.J.; Kim, D.H.* (College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Dongdaemun-ku, Seoul 130-701, Korea) Lactic acid bacteria increase antiallergic effect of Artemisia princeps Pampanini SS-1. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(9): p. 752-756, 2006 ( Eng; 18 ref).

[Artemisia princeps] (Asteraceae), was fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and passive cutaneous anaphylxis reaction-inhibitory activity was investigated. Of these fermented agents, SS-1 extract fermented with [Bifidobacterium infantis] K-525 (F-SS-1) most effectively inhibited the release of beta-hexosamindase from RBL-2H3 cells induced IgE. In IgE-induced RBL-2H3 cells, F-SS-1 inhibited proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA expression. Oral administration of SS-1 and F-SS-1 to mice inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction induced by IgE and scratching behaviors induced by compound 48/80. The inhibitory activity of F-SS-1 against scratching behaviors was more effective than that of SS-1. These findings suggest that the fermentation of SS-1 with LAB can increase its antiallergic activity.

2007-03-1067 Lee, H.S.; Yoo, C.B.; Ku, S.K. (Pharmacology and Toxicology Lab., Central Research Laboratories, Dong-Wha Pharmaceutical Industrial Co, Anyang 430-017, Republic of Korea) Hypolipemic effect of water extracts of Picrorrhiza kurroa in high fat diet treated mouse. Fitoterapia v. 77(7-8): p. 579-584, 2006 (Eng; 35 ref).

A hypolipemic effect of the water extract of [Picrorrhiza kurroa](PR) (Scrophulariacea) was observed in a high fat diet feeding hyperlipemic mouse at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, orally, once a day for 12 weeks. Liver weight, serum aspartate transferase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were significantly reduced by the treatment. On the contrary, serum HDL level seems not affected by [P. kurroa] water extract.

2007-03-1068 Lim, D.Y. (Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju 501 759, Korea) Green tea extract (CUMS6335) inhibits catecholamine release in the perfused adrenal medulla of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Natural Product Sciences v. 13(1): p. 68-77, 2007 (Eng; 51 ref).

CUMS6335 and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) one of biologically the most powerful catechin compounds found in green tea. CUMS6335 (100 (micro g/ml), when perfused into an adrenal vein for 60 min. time-dependently inhibited the catecholamines (CA) secretory responses evoked by ACh (5.32 mM), high K+ (56 mM). DMPP (100 micro M), and McN-A-343 (100 micro M) from the isolated perfused adrenal glands of spontaneously hypertensive rats. However, CUMS6335 itself did fail to affect basal catecholamine output. Also, in adrenal glands loaded with CUMS6335 (100 micro g/ml), the CA secretory responses evoked by Bay-K-8644 (10 micro M) and cyclopiazonic acid (10 micro M) were also inhibited in a relatively time-dependent fashion. However, in the presence of EGCG (8.0 micro g/ml) for 60 min. The CA secretory response evoked by ACh. high K+ DMPP, McN-A-343, Bay-K-8644 and cyclopiazonic acid were not affected except for last period. Collectively,, these results indicate that CUMS6335 inhibits the CA secretion evoked by stimulation of cholinergic (both nicotinic and muscarinic) receptors as well as by direct membrane-depolarization from the perfused adrenal gland of the SHR by blocking both the calcium influx into the rat adrenal medullary chromaffin cells and the uptake of Ca2+ into the cytoplasmic calcium store, which are at least partly relevant to the direct interaction with the nicotinic receptor itself. It seems likely that there is much difference in mode of the CA-releasing action between CUMS6335 and EGCG.

2007-03-1069 Lima, V.; Silva, C.B.; Mafezoli, J.; Bezerra, M.M. ; Moraes, M.O.; Mourao, G.S.M.M.; Silva, J.N.; Oliveira, M.C.F. ( Health Sciences Center, Course of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Fortaleza (UNIFOR) Fortaleza, Brazil) Antinociceptive activity of the pyranocoumarin seselin in mice. Fitoterapia v. 77(7-8): p. 574-578, 2006 (Eng; 20 ref).

Seselin was isolated from MeOH extract of root powder of [Sigmatanthus trifoliatus] (Rutaceae). Seselin an angular pyranocoumarin at dose of 0.5, 4.5 or 40.5 mg/kg inhibited the writhing response induced by acetic acid in a significant and dose-dependent manner, by 19.5percent, 26.2percent and 41.4percent, respectively. Using the same doses, seselm elicited a significant inhibition of formalin response during the second phase (inflammatory), by 90.3percent, 97.8percent and 95.3percent, respectively. Besides, a significant reduction of licking time was observed during the first phase (neurogenic) at the highest doses of seselin, by 34.4percent and 66.9percent, respectively. On the contrary, in the hot plate test no effect was observed after seselin treatment. In conclusion, seselin was able to inhibit inflammatory hyperalgesia, suggesting that this natural product possesses both important peripheral antiinflammatory and antinociceptive properties.

2007-03-1070 Liu, C.S.; Hu, J.F.; Chen, N.H.; Zhang, J.T. ( Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China) Comparison of the inhibitory activities of salvianolic acid B and Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 on neurotoxicity of beta-amyloid peptide. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica v. 41(8): p. 706-711, 2006 (Chi; Eng; 20 ref).

Effect of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) and [Ginkgo biloba] (Ginkgoceae) extract EGb 761 on beta-amyloid peptide (beta-AP) fibril formation were determined by using fluorescence analysis with Thioflavin T and electron microscopic image. beta-AP was aged by incubating at 37 degree C for 7 d, then the protein was incubated with PC 12 cells. The protective effects of Sal B and EGb 761 against cytotoxicity induced by aged beta-AP in PC 12 cells were evaluated by MTT reduction assay and flow cytometric analysis, beta-AP induced accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species was determined by fluorescence analysis. Both Sal B and EGb 761 inhibited the formation of amyloid fibrils, protected PC12 cells from beta-AP induced cytotoxicity and decreased ROS accumulation caused by beta-AP. The effective doses of Sal B were far lower than those of EGb 761.

2007-03-1071 Long, L.; Li, Q.* (Yangling, Shannxi Province 712100, People's Republic of China) The effect of alkaloid from Oxytropis ochrocephala on growth inhibition and expression on PCNA and p53 in mice bearing H22 hepatocellular carcinoma. Yakugaku Zasshi v. 125(8): p. 665-670, 2005 (Jap; Eng; 24 ref ).

The effect of alkaloid extracted from [Oxytropis ochrocephala] (Leguminosae) and its possible mechanism, were observed on tumour weight and expression of PCNA and p53 in mice bearing H22 hepatocellular carcinoma by means of immunohisiochemistry SP method. After treatment, the results showed that alkaloid administration (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) could inhibit H22 hepatocellular carcinoma growth to various extent, and the rates of inhibition were 48.5percent and 57.7percent respectively. The antitumour activity of the alkaloid is in a dose dependent manner, with no signs of toxicity. The expression of PCNA and mutant p53 protein positive cell numbers in mice bearing H22 hepatocellular carcinoma suppressed by alkaloid. It suggested that alkaloid showed antitumour effect and its possible mechanism might be associated with the expression inhibition of PCNA and mutant p53 protein.

2007-03-1072 Luo, M.J.; Yang, X.Y.; Liu, W.X.; Xu, Y.; Huang, P.; Yan, F.; Chen, F. (College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China) Expression, purification and anti-tumor activity of curcin. Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica v. 38(9): p. 663-668, 2006 (Eng; 23 ref).

Curcin a recombinant protein purified from the seeds of [Jatropha curcas] (Euphorbiaceae) was evaluated for its antitumour activity. The segment encoding the mature protein of curcin was inserted into [Escherichia coli] strain M15, and the recombinant strain was induced to express by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside at a concentration of 0.5 mM. The recombinant protein was expressed in the form of inclusion bodies and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The target protein was incubated with the tumour cells at different concentrations for different times and the results demonstrated that the target protein could inhibit the growth of tumour cells (NCL-H446, SGC-7901 and S180) at 5 micro g/ml.

2007-03-1073 Luu, C.V.; Chau, M.V.; Lee, J.J.; Jung, S.H.* ( College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea) Exploration of essential structure of malloapelta B for the inhibitory activity against TNF induced NF-kB activation. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(10): p. 840-844, 2006 ( Eng; 13 ref).

Malloapelta B (MB), isolated from [Mallotus apelta] (Euphorbiaceae) was reduced by catalytic hydrogeneation, sodium borqhydride, and lithium aluminumhydride. Catalytic hydrogenation with 30 psi or 15 psi of H2 gas of MB generated compounds 2 and 3. Reduction with sodium borohydride occurred at the double bond of alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone of MB generated compounds 4 and reduction of MB with lithium aluminumhydride and then quenched with methanol and water produced (5 and 6). These are formed from the isomerization of initial product through the continuous conjugate carbocation intermediate. Addition of ethylmagnesium bromide and dimethyl malonate anion to MB gave the conjugate adducts 7 and 8. Ethylmagesium bromide and sodium borohydride reduction unusually gave the conjugate addition due to steric congestion around carbonyl group of MB. Only one compound 8-butyal-5,7-dimethexy-2,2-dimethylcharman exhibited the reduced inhibitory activity against NF-kB (necrosis factor kappa B) activation . Therefore alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl group of MB should be important for its inhibitory activity.

2007-03-1074 Makino, T. (Department of Kampo Medicinal Science, Hokkaido College of Pharmacy, 7-1 Katsuraoka, Otaru 047-0264, Japan) Pharmacological properties of Gyokuheifusan, a traditional Kampo medicinal formula. Yakugaku Zasshi v. 125(4): p. 349-354, 2005 (Jap; Eng; 9 ref).

The immunopharmacologic properties of Gyokuheifusan (GHS) as a holistic Kampo medicine, which can affect human homeostasis and constitution of human beings have been reviewed. Oral treatment with GHS has preventive and curative effects in allergic rhinitis induced by Japanese cedar pollen in guinea pigs. Since these effects do not occur with authentic antiallergic agents, GHS appears to have holistic effects on allergic rhinitis. In another study, the effects of GHS on murine antibody production against ovalbumin (OVA) were evaluated. When mice were sensitized (i.p.) to OVA, the concentration of OVA-specific immunoglobulins in the sera significantly increased with GHS treatment. When they were sensitized intranasally to OVA, GHS significantly reduced the concentration of OVA-specific antibodies in the sera. It was suggested that GHS stimulats immune responses when the antigen had already invaded the body, and that GHS might consolidate the resistance of nasal mucosa to protect from OVA invasion, and then OVA-specific antibodies in sera might be suppressed.

2007-03-1075 Malaivijitnond, S.; Chansri, K.; Kijkuokul, P.; Urasopon, N.; Cherdshewasart, W. (Primate Research Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok-10330, Thailand) Using vaginal cytology to assess the estrogenic activity of phytoestrogen-rich herb. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(3): p. 354-360, 2006 (Eng ; 35 ref).

To assess the estrogenic activities of synthetic estrogen, synthetic phytoestrogen [Pueraria lobata] and three distinct cultivars of [Pueraria mirifica] {Leguminosae} a phytoestrogen-rich herb, a vaginal cytology assay in ovariectomized rats were used. Rats were ovariectomized and treated with distilled water {DW} estradiol valerate (1 mg/kg BW), genistein (0.25-2.5 mg/kg BW), [Pueraria lobata] and [Pueraria mirifica] (10-1000 mg/kg BW) for 14 days. The vaginal cytology was checked daily and the uteri were dissected and weighed at the end of treatment or post-treatment periods. The treatments of DW, genistein and [Pueraria lobata] did not influence the vaginal epithelium, but the injection of estradiol valerate induced a vaginal cornification from day-3 of treatment to day-14 of post-treatment period. The occurrence of vaginal cornification after treatment and the recovery after the cessation was dependent on dosages and cultivars of [Pueraria mirifica]. The increments of uterus weight in all rats agreed with the cornification of vaginal epithelium. Although both uterotropic and vaginal cytology assays can be used to assess the estrogenic activity of phytoestrogen-rich herb, however, using vaginal cytology assay has two advantages: (1) do not need to kill the animals and (2) can follow up the recovery after the cessation of treatment.

2007-03-1076 Manjunatha, B.K. (Department of Botany, S.R.N.M.N. College of Applied Sciences, Shimoga, Karnataka, India) Hepatoprotective activity of Pterocarpus santalinus L.f., an endangered medicinal plant. Indian Journal of Pharmacology v. 38(1): p. 25-28, 2006 (Eng; 28 ref).

The aqueous (45 mg/ml) and ethanol (30 mg/ml) extracts of [Petrocarpus santalinus] (Fabaceae) stem bark in 1 percent gum tragacanth was administered orally for 14 days and the hepatoprotective activity studied in CCl4 induced hepatic damage model. There was a significant increase in serum levels of bilirubin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase with a decrease in total protein level, in the CCl4 treated animals, reflecting liver injury. In the aqueous and ethanol extracts treated animals there was a decrease in serum levels of the markers and significant increase in total protein, indicating the recovery of hepatic cells. Histological study of aqueous extract treated group exhibited moderate accumulation of fatty lobules and cellular necrosis where as ethanol extract treated animals revealed normal hepatic cords without any cellular necrosis and fatty infiltration.

2007-03-1077 Mao, Y.J.; Wang, L.; Wang, W.J.* (Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical and Pecking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China) Effect of ginkgolide B on the function of rat aorta smooth cells and U937 cells stimulated by oxLDL. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica v. 41(1): p. 36-40, 2006 (Chi; Eng; 13 ref).

Using H-Tdr incorporation assay, the proliferation of VSMC was measured. The protein and mRNA levels of MCP-1 and IL-8 in U937 cells were determined by RT-PCR and ELISA. Using Western blotting the p65 and IkB was quantified. The binding of oxLDL to U937 cell was measured by a radio-ligand binding assay of 3H-PAF. Ginkgolide B inhibited, in dose-dependent manner, the proliferation of VSMC and the secretion of chemokines by U937 cells stimulated by oxLDL, and inhibited the oxLDL-induced p65 activation and depletion of IkB. oxLDL inhibited PAF binding to U937 cells. Ginkgolide B, as a PAF antagonist, possesses the antiproliferation effect of VSMC and the secretion of chemokines by U937 cells stimulated by oxLDL [in vitro].

2007-03-1078 Martins, J.V.C.; Otobone, F.J.; Sela, V.R.; Obici, S.; Trombelli, M.A.; Garcia Cortez, D.A.; Audi, E.A. (Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Estadual de Maringa, Brazil) Behavioral effects of Kielmeyera coriacea extract in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology v. 38(6): p. 427-428, 2006 ( Eng; 5 ref).

The ethanolic extract of [Kielmeyera coriacea] (Clusiacea) stem was purified by vacuum chromatography on silica gel eluted with hexane and dichloromethane (DcM) to yield a semi-pure DcM fraction with high degree of purity, and the effect of chronic administration of DcM on forced swimming test (FST) or open field test (OFT) was investigated. Male Wistar rats (55 days old, 240-270 g) were housed in groups of four and treated with different doses (4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 mg/kg) of the semi-pure DcM fraction, nortriptyline (both dissolved in saline containing 0.2 percent Tween 80 used as a vehicale), or vehicle (control group). All treatments were given i.g. for 45 days. The effect of the semi-pure fraction in reducing immobility time in the FST at doses of 5.0 and 6.0 mg/kg was comparable to the ethanolic extract at a dose of 60.0 mg/kg. These results suggest that the semi pure DcM fraction possesses an antidepressant-like drug profile, and contains the component or components responsible for antiimmobility effect detected with the ethanolic extract.

2007-03-1079 Min, Y.D.; Kwon, H.C.; Yang, M.C.; Lee, K.H.; Choi, S.U.; Lee, K.R.* (College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Korea) Isolation of limonoids and alkaloids form Phellodendron amurense and their multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 30(1): p. 58-63, 2007 (Eng; 20 ref).

Three limonoids and five alkaloids were isolated from the chloroform layer of the MeOH extract of the bark of [Phellodendron amurense] (Rutaceae). The structures of the isolated compounds were determined to be obacunone (1), limonin (2), 12alpha-hydroxylimonin (3), gamma-fagarine (4), oxyberberine (5) canthin-6-one (6), 4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-quinolone (7) and oxypalmatine (8) on the basis of physicochemical and spectroscopic data. The isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against five human tumour cell lines [in vitro] using the SRB method. Compound 5 showed significant cytotoxicity against the five tumour cell lines with ED50 values ranging from 0.30 to 3.0 microg/mL. The marginal or noncytotoxic compounds (1, 2, 3, 4, and 7) were examined for their P-gp related MDR reversal activities. Compound 1 showed significant P-gp MDR inhibition in MES-SA/DX5 and HCT15 cells with an ED50 value of 0.028 microg/mL and 0.0011 microg/mL, respectively.

2007-03-1080 Min, Y.D.; Yang, M.C.; Lee, K.H.; Kim, K.R.; Choi, S.U.; Lee, K.R.* (Natural Products Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 Korea) Protoberberine alkaloids and their reversal activity of P-gp expressed multidrug resistance (MDR) form the rhizome of Coptis japonica Makino. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(9): p. 757-761, 2006 ( Eng; 15 ref).

Six protoberberine alkaloids were isolated from the chloroform extract of the rhizome of [Coptis japonica] (Ranunculaceae). The structure of the isolated compounds were determined by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. The compound , 8-oxo-epiberberine was first isolated from natural sources. The compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against five tumour cell lines [in vitro] by SRB method, and also tested for the MDR reversal activities. Compound 8-oxocoptisine exhibited significant P-gp MDR inhibitory activity with ED50 value 0.018 microg/ml in MES-SA/DX5 cell and 0.0005 microg/mL in HCT15 cell, respectively.

2007-03-1081 Morikawa, T.; Nakamura, S.; Kato, Y.; Muraoka, O.; Matsuda, H.; Yoshikawa, M. (Kyoto Pharmaceutical University; Misasagi, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8412, Japan) Bioactive saponins and glycosides. XXVII.1) New triterpene saponins, foliatheasaponins I, II, III, IV and V, from Tencha (the leaves of Camellia sinensis). Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin v. 55(2): p. 293-298, 2007 (Eng; 45 ref).

New triterpene saponins, foliatheasaponins, were isolated from the methanolic extract of Tencha, the leaves of [Camellia sinensis] (Theaceae). The chemical structures of these new saponins were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Among the new saponins, foliatheasaponins II and III, were found to inhibit release of beta-hexosaminidase as a marker of antigen-induced degranulation, in RBL-2H3 cells.

2007-03-1082 Muhtadi; Hakim, E.H.; Juliawaty, L.D.; Syah, Y.M.; Achmad, S.A.; Latip, J.; Ghisalberti, E.L. (Department of Chemistry, Institut Bandung, Jalan Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia) Cytotoxic resveratrol oligomers from the tree bark of Dipterocarpus hasseltii. Fitoterapia v. 77(7-8): p. 550-555, 2006 (Eng; 14 ref).

A new resveratrol tetramer, named diptoindonesin E, was isolated from the acetone extract of the tree bark of [Dipterocarpus hasseltii] (Dipeterocarpaceae) together with five known resveratrol oligomers (-)-E-viniferin, laevifonol, (-)-alpha-viniferin, vaticanol B, (-)-hopeaphenol, and a coumarin, scopoletin. The structures of these compounds were determined from spectroscopic evidence. Cytotoxicity test of the isolated compounds showed that hopeaphenol strongly inhibited murine leukemia P-388 cells.

2007-03-1083 Mukherjee, A.; Visen, P.K.S.; Saraf, S.A. ( Department of Pharmacy, Allahabad Agricultural Institute-Deemed University, Allahabad, U.P., India) Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Citrullus colocynthis roots against CCl4 induced toxicity in albino rats. Natural Product Sciences v. 13(1): p. 23-26, 2007 (Eng; 20 ref).

Hepatoprotecive activity of different extracts of [Citrullus colocynthis] (roots) (Cucurbitaceae) was investigated in albino rats by inducing hepatotoxicity with carbon tctrachloride. The alcoholic extract of [C.colocynthis] 100mg/kg b.w. has been shown to posses significant hepatoprotective effect by lowering the serum level of transaminases (GPT & GOT), alkaline phosphate (ALP) and bilirubin (P less than 0.05 to P less than 0.001).

2007-03-1084 Natarajan, B.; Muralidharan, A.; Satish, R.; Dhananjayan, R. (Department of Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, Dr. A.L.M. PGIBMS, University of Madras, Chennai 600 113, Tamil Nadu, India) Neuropharmacological activity of Trigonella foenum graecum Linn. seeds. Journal of Natural Remedies v. 7(1): p. 160-165, 2007 (Eng; 20 ref).

Total alcoholic extract (TA), Total aqueous extract (TQ), Petroleum ether extract (PE), Total alkaloidal extract (TK) Total glycosidal extract (TG), Fenugreek oil (FO), Diosgenin (DI) and Trigonelline (TR) of [Trigonella foenum graecum] (Leguminosae) (Fenugreek) seeds were assessed for their neuropharmacological activity in primary screening studies, locomotor activity and phenobarbitone induced sleeping time using albino Wistar rats. The extracts TA, TQ, PE and FO were administered 100 mg/kg b.w. and TK, TG, DI and TR were administered 50 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. Caffeine (CF) (48 mg/kg) and Chlorpromazine hydrochloride (CP) (150 microg/kg) were used as standard drugs. In all the studies, all the extracts and active principles except TQ showed significant central nervous system (CNS) stimulant activity, while TQ alone showed significant CNS depressant activity.

2007-03-1085 Nikhil, S.; Sudha, S.*; Aruna, B.; Amarjeeth, R.; Guido, S.; Amit, A. (Department of Pharmacology, St. John's Medical College, Bangalore 560 034, India) Preliminary evaluation of different components of Bacopa monnieri for laxative effect. Journal of Natural Remedies v. 7(1): p. 174-182, 2007 (Eng; 14 ref).

In study 1, rats and mice were given p.o. different doses of the four different test substances (40, 120 and 500 mg/kg b.wt.). Vehicle, loperamide (5 mg/kg b.wt.) and castor oil (2 ml/rat and 0.4 ml/mouse) were used for comparison. The stools were observed and graded. Animals given vehicle were observed to have normal stools, while all animals showed diarrhea with castor oil and loperamide caused constipation. Significant diarrhea (p less than 0.05) was observed in rats administered with fraction 1 and 2 of [Bacopa monnieri] (Scrophulariaceae) (100 percent, and 71 percent respectively) at a dose of 500 mg/kg. Diarrhea was observed in one mouse administered fraction 1 at 500 mg/kg. In study 2, when the four different test substances were given in combination with loperamide, fraction 1 (500 mg/kg) resulted in non significant diarrhea in 29 percent of rats. Studies on the rate of small intestine propulsion in mice also indicate that fraction 1 showed the maximal distance traversed by carbon black (p less than 0.05). It could be noted that fraction 1 (non-polar fraction) exhibited the maximum diarrhea while fraction 3 (polar fraction) exhibited no diarrhea.

2007-03-1086 Nishimura, N. (Department of Pharmacy, Shimane University Hospital, 89-1 Enya-cho, Izumo 693-8501, Japan) Effects of Chinese herbal medicines on intestinal drug absorption. Yakugaku Zasshi v. 125(4): p. 363-369, 2005 (Jap; Eng; 27 ref ).

The effects of Sho-saiko to a traditional Chinese medicine were examined on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of concomitant drugs in the gastrointestinal tract. Sho-saiko-to slightly hastens the gastrointestinal absorption of the sulfonylurea compound tolbutamide. Furthermore, it is considered that the increase in the gastrointestinal absorption rate by Sho-saiko-to may potentiate the hypoglycemic effects of tolbutamide in the early period after oral administration. Sho-saiko-to can facilitate the epithelial membrane permeability of tolbutamide at an early phase across the rat jejunum [in situ] and Caco-2 cell monolayers. It is also suggested that Sho-saiko-to enhances the energy-dependent transport of tolbutamide and has an inhibitory effect on the passive paracellular transport of tolbutamide in Caco-2 cells. This result might be related to the accelerated [in vivo] absorption rate of tolbutamide by concomitant dosing with Sho-saiko-to in rats. In addition, Sho-saiko-to has inhibitory effects on the efflux pump mediated by MDR1, and it appears that the crude constituents in [Glycyrrhizae radix], glycyrrhizic acid and liquiritin, contribute to MDR1 suppression.

2007-03-1087 Nwafor, P.A.; Hamza, H.G. (Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, P.M.B.1017, Uyo Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria) Anti-diarrhoeal and anti-inflammatory effects of methanolic extract of Guiera senegalensis leaves in rodents. Journal of Natural Remedies v. 7(1): p. 72-79, 2007 (Eng; 37 ref).

The anti-diarrhoeal effect of extract (250-750 mg/kg; p.o.), of [Guiera senegalensis] (Combretaceae) leaves on intestinal propulsion in unanaesthetized rats was tested using charcoal meal method, castor oil-induced diarrhoea and fluid accumulation respectively. Its anti-inflammatory property was also investigated in carrageenin - induced rat hindpaw edema, acetic acid-induced writhing in mice as well as indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in rats. The extract effects were compared with standard drugs (atropine, 1.0 mg/kg; yohimbine, 1.0 mg/kg; diphenoxylate, 5.0 mg/kg and cimetidine, 100.0 mg/kg respectively). The extract (250-750 mg/kg) dose-dependently, reduced significantly (p less than 0.01-0.001) the intestinal propulsive movement, castor oil-induced diarrhoea and intestinal fluid accumulation. Similarly, it also reduced indomethacin-induced ulceration, carrageenin-induced inflammation and acetic acid-induced writhing in mice.

2007-03-1088 Oh, S.H.; Cho, K.H.; Yang, B.S.; Roh, Y.K. ( Department of Family Medicine, Korea University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea) Natural compounds form Danshen suppress the activity of hepatic stellate cells. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(9): p. 762-767, 2006 ( Eng; 22 ref).

Danshen, root of [Salvia miltiorrhiza] (Lamiaceae), an oriental medicine is used to treat liver or kidney malfunction. Compounds purified from Danshen exhibit an inhibitory activity against Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2) tyrosine kinase. Through this inhibition, these compounds also inhibited the growth of HSC T6 cells and suppressed the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and MMP2, as well as collagen synthesis, all of which are increased in activated liver stellate cells. Given that activation of liver stellate cells is the hallmark of liver fibrosis and that DDR2 plays a critical role in this activation, these results suggest that one of the pharmacological activities of Danshen extract that protects the liver is the inhibition of key cell-signaling kinases, such as DDR2, in liver stellate cells.

2007-03-1089 Panda, S.K.; Si, S.C.; Bhatnagar, S.P. (Institute of Pharmacy & Technology, Salipur, Cuttack, Orissa, India) Studies on hypoglycaemic and analgesic activities of Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant & Ferz. Journal of Natural Remedies v. 7(1): p. 31-36, 2007 (Eng; 12 ref).

Anti-hyperglycaemic activity of the methanol extract of the roots of ([Chlorophytum borivilianum], Liliaceae) was evaluated by using both normoglycaemic and alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats of six numbers in a group. The analgesic activity was assessed by using methanol extract of the roots (100 mg & 200 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) on mice of six numbers in a group by Tail flick and Tail immersion method. The methanol extract was found to produce significant reduction of blood glucose concentration between 2-4 hr. of administration in alloxan induced hyperglycemic rats at tested dose levels. However, in normoglycaemic animals, the extract at 200 mg/kg produced significant reduction of blood glucose between 2-4 hr. of administration. In the analgesic study, the root extract showed significant activity. In tail flick method the extract at 100 mg/kg showed activity after 45 minutes whereas in tail immersion test, it showed significant activity after 30 minutes interval.

2007-03-1090 Park, S.H.; Lee, S.G.; Kang, S.K.; Chung, S.H. ( College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Korea) Acanthopanax senticosus reverses fatty liver disease and hyperglycemia in ob/ob mice. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(9): p. 768-776, 2006 ( Eng; 20 ref).

Ethanol extract 50 percent of [Acanthopanax senticosus] (Araliaceae) stem bark (ASSB) was found to reduce body weight and insulin resistance in high fat diet-induced hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic ICR mice. To evaluate the antisteatosis action of ASSB, insulin-resistant ob/ob mice with fatty livers were treated with ASSB ethanol extract for an 8 week-period. ASSB ethanol extract reversed the hepatomegaly, as evident in reduction of percent liver weight/body weight ratio. ASSB ethanol extract also lowered circulating glucose and lipids, and enhanced insulin action in the liver. These changes culminated in inhibition of triglyceride synthesis in non-adipose tissues including liver and skeletal muscle. Gene expression studies confirmed reductions in glucose 6-phosphatase and lipogenic enzymes in the liver. These results demonstrate that ASSB ethanol extract is an effective treatment for insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in ob/ob mice by decreasing hepatic lipid synthesis.

2007-03-1091 Park, J.S.; Hwang, S.Y.; Lee, W.S.; Yu, K.W.; Paek, K.Y.; Hwang, B.Y.; Han, K. (College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763, Korea) The therapeutic effect of tissue cultured root of wild Panax ginseng C.A. Mayer on spermatogenetic disorder. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(9): p. 800-807, 2006 ( Eng; 30 ref).

The effect of tissue cultured root of wild [Panax ginseng] (tcwPG) (Araliaceae) was examined on spermatogenesis using male rats. The tcwPG crude powder was administered orally to 7-week-old rats over a 6-week/period. The number of sperm in the testes and epididymides was significantly higher than the control. A histological examination did not reveal any morphological changes in the testes from the tcwPG powder treated rats. Moreover, there were no significant differences in the weights of the heart, spleen, liver, kidney, brain, testes and epididymides. Oligospermia was also induced by administering 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodaibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to the rats in order to estimate the feasibility of using tcwPG as treatment for infertility caused by spermatogenic disorders. After exposing the rats to TCDD, the tcwPG saponin fraction treated rats showed some improvement in the body weight, sperm number and testis morphology. It was estimated that tcwPG had feasibility as a fertility agent on spermatogenic disorder.

2007-03-1092 Park, K.M.; Yang, M.C.; Lee, K.H.; Kim, K.R.; Choi, S.U.; Lee, K.R.* (Natural Products Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Korea) Cytotoxic phenolic constituents of Acer tegmentosum Maxim. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(12): p. 1086-1090, 2006 ( Eng; 19 ref).

The chromatographic separation of the MeOH extract from the twigs of [Acer tegmentosum] (Aceraceae) led to the isolation of ten phenolic compounds. The structures of the compounds were determined using spectroscopic methods. All the compounds were examined for cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines. Compound 2,b-dimethoxy-p-hydroquinone exhibited anticancer activity against five human cancer cell lines with ED50 values ranging from 1.32 to 3.85 microM.

2007-03-1093 Park, J.S.; Kim, G.Y.; Han, K. (College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Heungdukga Gaeshindong San 12, Chungbuk 361-763, South Korea) The spermatogenic and ovogenic effects of chronically administered shilajit to rat. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(3): p. 349-353, 2006 (Eng ; 13 ref).

Shilajit (biological name Asphaltum is compact mass of vegetable organic matter which composed of gummy matrix interspersed with vegetable fibres and minerals) was administered orally to 7-week-old rats over a 6-week period. In the male rats, the number of sperms in the testes and epididymides was significant higher than in the control. A histological examination revealed an apparent increase in the number of seminiferous tubular cell layers in the testes of the treated rats. However, there were no significant differences in the weights of heart, spleen, liver, kidney, brain, testes and epididymides. In the female rats, the effect of Shilajit was estimated by the ovulation inducing activity. Over a 5-day, ovulation was induced in seven out of nine rats in the Shilajit administration group and in three out of nine rats in the control. It was estimated that Shilajit had both a spermiogenic and ovogenic effect in mature rats .

2007-03-1094 Park, S.A.; Choi, M.S.; Kim, M.J.; Jung, U.J.; Kim, H.J.; Park, K.K.; Noh, H.J.; Park, N.M.; Park, Y.B.; Lee, J.S.; Lee, M.K. (Department of Food and Nutrition, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749, Republic of Korea) Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic action of Du-zhong (Eucommia ulmoides Oliver) leaves water extract in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(3): p. 412-417, 2006 (Eng ; 23 ref).

The antidiabetic efficacy of Du-zhong [Eucommia ulmoides] leaves water extract (WDZ) was investigated in type 2 diabetic animals. The WDZ was given to C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice as a dietary supplement based on 1 percent dried whole Du-zhong leaves (0.187 g WDZ/100 g standard diet) for 6 weeks. The WDZ supplementation significantly lowered the blood glucose level and enhanced the glucose disposal in an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. The plasma insulin and C-peptide levels were significantly higher in the WDZ group than in the control group, while the glucagon level was lower. The hepatic glucokinase activity was significantly higher in the WDZ group, whereas, the glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activities were significantly lower. The WDZ supplementation also significantly lowered the hepatic fatty acid synthase, HMG-CoA reductase and ACAT activities compared to the control group, while it elevated the lipoprotein lipase activity in the skeletal muscle. The WDZ also altered the plasma and hepatic lipid levels by lowering the cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, while elevating the plasma HDL-cholesterol level.

2007-03-1095 Pavana, P.; Manoharan, S.*; Sethupathy, S. ( Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India) Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-lipidperoxidative effects of Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Journal of Natural Remedies v. 7(1): p. 43-49, 2007 (Eng; 29 ref).

The aqueous extract of [Tephrosia purpurea] (Leguminosae) leaves (TPALet) was evaluated for its anti-hyperglycemic and anti-lipidperoxidative effects in streptozotocin (50 mg/kg bw) induced diabetic rats. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of the leaf extract was also compared with the standard anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide (600 microg/kg bw). Glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, total hemoglobin, lipid peroxidation by products (TBARS), enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants in blood sample and hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase activities in liver were estimated calorimetrically in control and experimental animals. "TpALet" considerably reduced the levels of blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and enhanced the status of total hemoglobin, anti-oxidants and hepatic hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase activities. "TpALet" also showed a comparable effect to that of glibenclamide.

2007-03-1096 Peng, S.Y.; Zhang, F.Y.; Yang, X.Y. Ou; Liu, Y.; Wang, W.J.* (Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China) Effect of ginkgolide B on the platelet-activating factor induced changes of chemotaxis and cytoskeleton of macrophages. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica v. 41(2): p. 156-160, 2006 (Chi; Eng; 17 ref).

Chemotaxis assays were performed using a modified 48-well Boyden chamber. Actin polymerization of murine peritoneal macrophages was analyzed by flow cytometry using a specific fluroscent stain. Peritoneal macrophages significantly migrated toward platelet-activating factor (PAF) through a micropore filter; however, in the presence of PAF receptor antagonist BN52021 (0.01 nmol/L-0.1 micromol/L), the migration was significantly inhibited. Moreover ginkgolide B (BN5202) inhibited the actin polymerization of murine peritoneal macrophages induced by PAF in the presence of calci muion not in -free medium. The results suggested that preventing polymerization of F-actin may be a pathway by BN52021 to inhibit the chemotaxis of macrophages, and this effect seems to be Ca- ion dependent. The data further indicated that inhibition of PAF induced macrophage chemotaxis is an important mechanism underlying the antiinflammatory action of ginkglide B, a component of [Ginkgo biloba] (Ginkgoaceae) extract.

2007-03-1097 Piao, X.L.; Yoo, H.H.; Kim, H.Y.; Kang, T.I.; Hwang, G.S.; Park, J.H.* (Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea) Estrogenic activity of furanocoumarins isolated form Angelica dahurica . Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(9): p. 741-745, 2006 ( Eng; 30 ref).

Eleven furanocoumarins were isolated from [Angelica dahurica] (Apiaceae) and tested for their estrogenic activity on the Ishikawa cell line. Among the compounds tested, 9-hydroxy-4-methoxypsoralen and alloisoim-peratorin showed strong abilities to induce alkaline phosphatase with EC50 values of 1.1 and 0.8 microg/mL, respectively, whereas the other nine furanocoumarins were weakly or slightly active.

2007-03-1098 Pillai, S.G.; Patil, M.B. (Department of Botany, Shri Shivaji College, Parbhani, Maharashtra, India) Mycotoxigenic fungi in bakery. Bioinfolet v. 4(1): p. 71-72, 2007 (Eng; 12 ref).

Aeromycoflora at bakery in relation to the incidence of mycotoxigenic fungi, was studied during the year 2005-2006. Altogether 11 mycotoxins producing genera could be spotted during the observation period. The incidence of [Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger] and [Asperagillus fumigatus] followed by [Pencillium] species was highest. Species of [Mucor, Rhizopus] and [Trichothecium] were low in their percentage of incidence.

2007-03-1099 Pladio, L.P.; Villasenor, I.* (Institute of Chemistry, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Phipippines) Anti-spasmodic constituents from Drimys piperita Hook F. leaves. Philippine Journal of Science v. 133(1): p. 17-21, 2004 (Eng; 14 ref, recd 2006).

15-Nonacosanol and bis (tridecyl) phthalate were isolated as antispasmodic constituents from the leaves of [Drimys piperita] (Winteraceae) locally known as sapal, using the charcoal tracing method. 15-Nonacosanol and immodium, showed almost 100 percent inhibition, at dosages of 2.00 mg and 0.20 mg/20 g mouse, respectively, while bis(tridecyl)phthalate, at a dosage of 0.80 mg/20 g mouse, exhibited 88 percent antispasmodic activity. Student t test showed that there is no significant difference between the treatment means of 15-nonacosanol, bis(tridecyl)phthalate, and immodium while all 3 differ significantly from normal saline solution, the solvent control, at 1 percent and 5 percent levels of significance.

2007-03-1100 Prabha, T.; Singh, S.K. (Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India) Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Euphorbia thymifolia Linn.. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences v. 67(6): p. 736-738, 2005 (Eng; 6 ref).

The antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of the whole plant of [Euphorbia thymifolia] (Euphorbiaceae) has been evaluated in both [in vivo] and [in vitro] experimental models, by estimating the malondialdehyde content of rat brain, which is one of the products of the lipid peroxidation. The ethanolic extract of the plant showed significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation level comparable to that of vitamin E used as standard.

2007-03-1101 Pramyothin, P.; Samosorn, P.; Poungshompoo, S.; Chaichantipyuth, C. (Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand) The protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(3): p. 361-364, 2006 (Eng ; 17 ref).

[Phyllanthus emblica] {PE} {0.5 and 1 mg/ml} increased cell viability of rat primary cultured hepatocytes being treated with ethanol (96 microl/m) by increasing percent MTT and decreasing the release of transaminase. Pretreatment of rats with PE at oral dose of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg or SL (silymarin, a reference hepatoprotective agent) at 5 mg/kg, 4 h before ethanol, lowered the ethanol induced levels of AST. ALT and IL-lbeta. The 75 mg/kg PE dose gave the best result similar to SL. Treatment of rats with PE (75 mg/kg/day) or SL (5 mg/kg/day) for 7 days after 21 days with ethanol (4 g/kg/day, p.o.) enhanced liver cell recovery by bringing the levels of AST, ALT, IL-lbeta back to normal.

2007-03-1102 Punitha, R.; Vasudevan, K.; Manoharan, S. ( Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608002, India) Effect of Pongamia pinnata flowers on blood glucose and oxidative stress in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology v. 38(1): p. 62-63, 2006 (Eng; 5 ref).

Albino Wistar male rats (7-8 week old, weighing 150-200g) were divided into five groups of 6 each. The diabetic condition was assessed by determining the blood glucose concentration 3 and 5 days after alloxan treatment. The rats with blood glucose level above 260 mg/dl and urinary sugar (+ + +) were selected for study. A significant decrease in the level of blood glucose and glucose-6-phosphatase activity and a significant increase in the plasma insulin level and hexokinase activity were noted at the end of the experimental period in diabetic rats treated with [Pongamia pinnata], (Leguminosae) flowers (PpFAet) (300 mg/kg, orally). PpFAet also significantly reduced the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level and enhanced the antioxidants status in induced diabetic rats after 45 days of treatment. PpFAet showed antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects in a manner similar to that of the reference drug glibenclamide in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

2007-03-1103 Qian, W.; Wang, L.N.; Song, M.; Zheng, X.W.; Heng, T.J.; Zhang, Z.X. (Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China) Excretion of (-)-clausenamide in rats. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica v. 41(8): p. 789-792, 2006 (Chi; Eng; 6 ref).

The urine, feces and bile were collected at predetermined time points after (-)-clausenamide, a consitutent of [Clausena lansium] (Rutaceae) was orally administrated to 6 rats (30 mg/kg). The concentrations of (-)-clausenamide and its metabolite 6-OH-(-) clausnamide were determined by HPLC-MS/MS method and their accumulative excretion amount was calculated in the urine, feces and bile, separately. (-)-Clausenamide was recovered mostly (44 percent) from feces in 112 hours, 7.1 percent was found from urine in 120 hours and 0.013 percent was detected from bile in 24 hours. The accumulative excretions of 6-OH-(-)-clausenamide were 0.92 percent, 0.46 percent and 0.0003 percent of the administered dose from feces, urine and bile, respectively.

2007-03-1104 Qureshi, S.; Al-Rejaie, S.S.; Aleisa, A.M.; Al-Bekairi, A.M.; Al-Shabanah, O.A.; Al-Majed, A.; Qureshi, M.R.; Qureshi, M.F.; Al-Bakrah, M. (Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh-11451, Saudi Arabia) Search of a non-toxic therapeutic solution of erectile dysfunction and/or impotence in men. Pharmacognosy Magazine v. 3(9): p. 1-15, 2007 (Eng; 144 ref).

The objective of this review is to highlight the common conditions of erectile dysfunction, impotence and infertility that affects majority of world's men population. An attempt is made to focus the etiological factors, including (i) pathology of the disease (ii) addiction to alcohol and smoking habits and (iii) the adverse effects of some synthetic and natural drugs. Different available treatment modalities have been described and the toxicological manifestations of the erectogenic drugs have been discussed. Synthetic drugs are well-known for their side effects and the undesirable effect of natural drugs has not been thoroughly worked out on the assumption that they are harmless. Nevertheless, since the erectogenic drugs are a sure way to a possible conception, the adverse effects of such drugs could result in deterioration of the future generations resulting in physically crippled and mentally retarded children, in addition to syndrome menace in human population. Finally it is concluded that doctors prescribing erectogenic drugs should have a thorough knowledge of the literature on undesirable effects of such drugs. The erectogenic drugs (whether, synthetic or natural) should be regulated by strict protocols before they are available for human consumption.

2007-03-1105 Raghavan, B.; Krishna Kumari, S. (Department of Biochemistry, P.S.G. College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641 014, India) Effect of Terminalia arjuna stem bark on antioxidant status in liver and kidney of alloxan diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology v. 50(2): p. 133-142, 2006 (Eng; 40 ref).

The present study examined the effect of ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) of [Terminalia arjuna] (Combretaceae) stem bark and its lipid peroxidation, enzymatic and nonenzymatic activity in the liver and kidney tissues. The extract produced significant (P more than 0.05) reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO). The effect of oral dose of 500 mg/kg body weight was more than the 250 mg/kg body weight. The extract also causes a significant (P more than 0.05) increase in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase glutathione reductase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, reduced glutathione, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, total sulfhydryl groups (TSH) and non protein sulfhydryl groups (NPSH) in liver and kidney of alloxan induced diabetic rats, which clearly shows the antioxidant property.

2007-03-1106 Ramesh, C.; Gopal, V.; Sembulingam, K. (College of Pharmacy, Mother Theresa Institute of Health Sciences, Gorimedu, Pondicherry 605 006, India) Acute and subacute toxicity of an antidiabetic Siddha herbal formulation. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge v. 5(4): p. 459-462, 2006 (Eng; 15 ref).

For sub-acute toxicity studies, different doses of FS002, a polyherbal Siddha formulation prepared by using bark of [Ficus racemosa] (Moraceae), and fresh seasame ([Sesamum indicum], Pedaliaceae) cake, were administered orally to rats once daily for 30 days. Animals were observed for physiological and behavioral responses, mortality, food, water intake and body weight changes. Hematological evaluation was performed weekly. Biochemical studies were done on liver and serum enzyme levels. No mortality was observed up to 4 g/kg of FS002 in acute studies. Daily administration of as high as 2 g/kg of FS002 did not result in mortality or changes in behaviour, body weight, organ weight, histology, serum and liver biochemistry. The dose required to produce significant antidiabetic activity in rats, 0.2-0.5 g/kg, is much lower than doses used in the study. For a chronic disease like diabetes such doses may be safe for daily administration without causing any serious side effects.

2007-03-1107 Rathi, B.S.; Baheti, A.M.; Khandelwal, K.R.; Parakh, S.R.; Bodhankar, S.L. (Department of Pharmacognosy, MAEER's Maharashtra Institute of Pharmacy, Ex-servicement Colony, MIT Campus, Kothrud, Pune 412 038, Maharashtra, India) Diuretic activity of coconut husk Mashi-an Ayurvedic formulation. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge v. 5(4): p. 471-473, 2006 (Eng; 8 ref).

Investigated and rationalized the diuretic activity of coconut ([Cocos nucifera], Palmae) husk Mashi an Ayurvedic formulation prepared by Anterdhum Padhati (APM) and Bahirdhum Padhati (BPM) in exerimental rats. The diuretic properties of APM and BPM were evaluated by determination of urine volume, electrolyte concentration and diuretic potency in male albino rats. Different concentrations of Mashi (250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg) were orally administered to hydrated rats and their urine output was immediately measured after 5 hrs of treatment. Frusemide (10 mg/kg) was used as reference drug while normal saline (0.9 percent) solution was used as control. BPM exhibited dose dependent diuretic property and APM failed to show activity. The onset of diuretic action was extremely prompt (within 1 hr) and lasted throughout the study period (up to 5 hrs). BPM at 500 mg/kg displayed highest activity with potency value of 0.92 and same dose of APM gave a value of 0.24. BPM caused mark increased in Na+, K+ and Cl- level.

2007-03-1108 Raut, N.A.; Gaikwad, N.J. (Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, R.T.M. Nagpur University Campus, Amravati Road, Nagpur-440 033) Antidiabetic activity of hydro-ethanolic extract of Cyperus rotundus in alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Fitoterapia v. 77(7-8): p. 585-588, 2006 (Eng; 15 ref).

In light of the traditional claim of [Cyperus rotundus] (Cyperaceae) in the treatment of diabetes, investigations were carried out to evaluate its effect on alloxan induced hyperglycemia in rats. Oral daily administration of 500 mg/kg of the extract (once a day for seven consecutive days) significantly lowered the blood glucose levels. This antihyperglycemic activity can be attributed to its antioxidant activity as it showed the strong DPPH radical scavenging action [in vitro].

2007-03-1109 Ray, D.; Sharatchandra, K.; Thokchom, I.S. ( Department of Pharmacology, Agartala Govt. Medical College, Po. Kunjavan, Agartala 799 006, Tripura, India) Antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, hypoglycaemic and hepatoprotective activities of ethyl acetate extract of Acacia catechu Willd. in albino rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology v. 38(6): p. 408-413, 2006 (Eng; 28 ref).

Single administration of the ethyl acetate extract of [Acacia catechu] (Leguminosae) at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. showed significant antipyretic activity (P less than 0.01) in albino rats. At a dose of 250 mg/kg, p.o., (single dose) has been found to possess highly significant antidiarrhoeal property (P less than 0.001) in respect of latent period of onset of diarrhoea, average number of stool passed and purging index. Significant reduction of blood glucose level was observed in nondiabetic albino rats following single dose treatment with the test drug at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. (P less than 0.01). Significant reduction of blood glucose level was also evident in diabetic rats at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg (P less than 0.001). Highly significant hepatoprotective activity was also observed when the extract (250 mg/kg) was administered prophylactically for seven days (P less than 0.001).

2007-03-1110 Ren, G.; Liu, X.Y.; Zhu, H.K.; Yang, S.Z.; Fu, C.X. (Research Center of Siynan Natural Pharmacy and Bio-toxicity, College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China) Evaluation of cytotoxic activities of some medicinal polypore fungi from China. Fitoterapia v. 77(5): p. 408-410, 2006 (Eng; 21 ref).

The petrol ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of eight medicinal polypore fungi from China were evaluated for cytotoxic activities using MTT-dye assay. All the petrol ether and ethyl acetate extracts exhibited cytotoxicity against human cervix epitheloid carcinoma cell lines (Hela) and human hepatoma cell lines (SMMC-7721). Cytotoxicity activity was also observed in the methanol extracts of [Phellinus conchatus] and [Pycnoporus sanquineus], but the methanol extracts from [Cryptoporus volvatus, Fomitopsis pinicola, Fomes hornodermus, Lenzites betulina, Trametes gihhosa] and [Trametes orientalis] showed weak activity when compared with quercetin.

2007-03-1111 Resmi, C.R.; Venukumar, M.R.; Latha, M.S. (School of Biosciences, Mahatama Gandhi University, P.D. Hills P.O., Kottayam 686 560, India) Antioxidant activity of Albizzia lebbeck (Linn.) Benth. in alloxan diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology v. 50(2): p. 297-302, 2006 (Eng; 30 ref).

The oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats was determined by estimating the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes (CD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in liver and kidneys. Activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione S transferase (GST) were assessed in diabetic as well as rats co-administered with [Albizzia lebbeck] (Mimosaceae). Oxidative damage in the liver and kidneys of diabetic rats as evidenced by a marked increment in the levels of TBARS and CD, and also a distinct diminution in GSH content was nullified by ALL, as these parameters showed a tendency to retrieve towards normalcy on co-administration of the herbal drug. The antioxidant enzymes registered a decline in activity in diabetic rats thus revealing the damaging effects of free radicals generated due to alloxan exposure. The activities of these enzymes returned to normalcy in ALL-administered rats indicating the antioxidant efficacy of the drug in resisting oxidative insult.

2007-03-1112 Rios, M.V.; Leon, I.I. (Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas de la Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Mexico) Chemical constituents and cytotoxic activity of Smallanthus maculatus. Chemistry of Natural Compounds v. 42(4): p. 497-498, 2006 ( Eng; 12 ref).

The bioguided analysis of acetone extract of [Smallanthus maculatus] syn [Polymnia maculata] (Asteraceae) yielded two active fractions; F-4 and F-5 ED50 = 17.4 microg/mL against HCT-15 COLADCAR, ED50 = 15.5 microg/mL. Both the fractions composed of the mixture of ent-kaur-en-19-ioc acid and ent-kaur-15-en-19-ioc acid, 15 alpha-angeloyloxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, 12 alpha-hydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, and urosolic acid in different proportions. All these compounds were identified by comparison of their IR 1H, and 13C NMR data with those previously reported. The cytotoxicity of the extract, fractions and pure compunds was evaluated. Of the compounds tested, ursolic acid was active against cell lines, HCT-15 COLADCAR, VISO-SQC-1 and OVCAR-5.

2007-03-1113 Sadaf, F.; Ahmed, M.; Saleem. R.; Ahmad, S.I.; Navaid-ul-Zafar (Dr. HMl Institute of Pharmacology and Herbal Sciences, Hamdard University, Karachi 74600, Pakistan) Healing potential of cream containing extract of Sphaeranthus indicus on dermal wounds in guinea pigs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(2): p. 161-163, 2006 (Eng ; 13 ref).

A cream containing ethanolic extract of aerial parts of [Sphaeranthus indicus] (Asteraceae) was evaluated for wound healing activity in guinea pigs. The cream was applied in vivo on the paravertebral area of six excised wounded models once a day for 15 days. The cream significantly enhanced the rate of wound contraction and the period of epithelialization comparable to neomycin.

2007-03-1114 Saha, B.K.; Sarker, A.K.; Ahmed, K.; Bidhan Krisan ; Hossain, K.E. (Drugs and Toxins Research Division, BCSIR Laboratories Chittagong, Chittagong-4220, Bangladesh) Effect of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. (Jarul) leaves extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic rat. Hamdard Medicus v. 49(2): p. 23-28, 2006 (Eng; 24 ref).

Effect of [Lagerstroemia speciosa] (Lythraceae) (locally known as Jarul) leaves extracts (ethanol, chloroform, hot water and 0.5 percent NaHCO3 solution) on chemically induced diabetes in rats was investigated. Experimental result showed that, alloxan significantly (p less than 0.001) elevated the normal blood sugar level whereas ethanol, chloroform, hot water and 0.5 percent NaHCO3 solution extracts depressed the alloxan-induced high blood sugar level by about 30.91 percent, 35.51 percent, 43.25 percent and 45.55 percent, respectively as compared to their respective diabetic controls. Thus, among the extracts, hot water extract and 0.5 percent NaHCO3 solution extracts showed more blood sugar lowering activity than those of ethanol and chloroform extracts. These studies strongly suggest that various extracts of leaves possess prominent hypoglycaemic activity.

2007-03-1115 Santhosh, C.R.; Shridhar, N.B.; Narayana, K.; Ramachandra, S.G.; Dinesh, S. (Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary College, Hebbal, Bangalore 560024, India) Studies on the luteolytic, oestrogenic and follicle-stimulating hormone like activity of plant Rhaphidophora pertusa (Roxb.). Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(3): p. 365-369, 2006 (Eng ; 14 ref).

Phytosteroids, flavonoids, tannins glucosides were detected in the [Rhaphidophora pertusa] (Arecaceae) extracts. In cross-bred (Zebu X Holstein-Friesian or Jersey) dairy cows, subsequent to prostaglandin PG induced oestrus, to each group (n=4), cloprostenol (PG control) 100 microg i.m. on day 10, the rice gruel (vehicle) was fed on day 10 or the fresh stem (1 kg/animal/day) in rice gruel on day 9, or days 9 and 10, or days 9-11 of the oestrous cycle. Each group received subcutaneously either 5 percent gum acacia suspension or the plant ethyl acetate or methanol extract (1 g in gum acacia) on days 8 (to bannur ewes) or 10 (to dairy cows) of the oestrous cycle. In PG control cows or ewes, there was induction of oestrus in 48h and a tall in serum progesterone concentration. The feeding of fresh stem in the rice gruel or the s.c. administration of the plant extract did not induce oestrus or significantly (P more than 0.05) alter the serum progesterone, bilirubin, calcium, creatinine, phosphorus, magnesium and glucose concentrations or the total erythrocyte and leucocyte count, differential leucocyte count and haemoglobin concentration. The plant did not cause any toxicity in the cow or ewe. In immature rats, the aqueous or methanol (hot or cold) extract did not cause any follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-like activity.

2007-03-1116 Schoenfelder, T.; Cirimbelli, T.M.; Citadini-Zanette, V. (Departamento de Farmacia, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Av. Universitaria no. 1105, Bairro Universitario CEP 88806-000, Criciuma SC, Brazil) Acute effect of Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) on serum glucose levels in normal and diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(3): p. 456-459, 2006 (Eng ; 23 ref).

[Trema micrantha] (Ulmaceae) ethanolic crude extract (ECE) was screened for its hypoglycemic activity (250, 500 and l000 mg/kg v.o). The animals were divided in three groups for the evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect: normal rats, rats with alloxan-induced diabetes and hyperglycemic normal rats. The antihyperglycemic activity was compared to the treatment with glibenclamide, an oral hypoglycemic agent. The acute treatment with [T.micrantha] ECE (250 and l000 mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in the blood glucose levels in diabetic rats, but no effect was observed among the normal treated rats for the hyperglycemic normal rats.

2007-03-1117 Schutz, K.; Carle, R.; Schieber, A. (Institute of Food Technology, Section Plant Foodstuff Technology, Hohenheim University, August-von-Hartmann-Strasse 3, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany) Taraxacum-A review on its phytochemical and pharmacological profile. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(3): p. 313-323, 2006 ( Eng; 88 ref).

The genus [Taxacum] is a member of the family (Asteraceae), subfamily Cichorioideae, tribe Lactuceae, commonly known as dandelion or bed wetter, and widely distributed in the warmer temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere. The perennial weed has been known since ancient times for its curative properties and has been utilized for the treatment of various ailments such as dyspepsia, heartburn, spleen and liver complaints, hepatitis and anorexia. However, its use has mainly been based on empirical findings. This contribution provides a comprehensive review of the pharmacologically relevant compounds of [Taraxacum] characterized so far and of the studies supporting its use as a medicinal plant. Particular attention has been given to diuretic, choleretic, antiinflammatory, antioxidative, anticarcinogenic, analgesic, antihyperglycemic, anticoagulatory and prebiotic effects. Finally, research needs such as quantification of individual [Taraxacum] constituents and assessment of their pharmacological activities in humans have briefly been outlined.

2007-03-1118 Senthilvel, G.; Anoop, A.; Egadeesan, M.; Thirugnanasambantham, P.; Mayisvren, E. (Rumi Herbals, B 25, Kambar Salai, Mugappair West, Chennai 600 037, India) Antiinflammatory activities of Calamus rotang Mill. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences v. 67(4): p. 499-500, 2005 (Eng; 7 ref).

[Calamus rotang] (Palmae) is a shrub, which is not much explored scientifically. Studies on the ethanolic (95 percent) extract of rhizome exhibited antiinflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma pouch models and the results were comparable with that of standard drug Phenylbutazone.

2007-03-1119 Shalam, M.; Harish, M.S.; Farhana, S.A. ( Department of Pharmacology, V.L. College of Pharmacy, Raichur 584103, India) Prevention of dexamethasone- and fructose-induced insulin resistance in rats by SH-01D, herbal preparation. Indian Journal of Pharmacology v. 38(6): p. 419-422, 2006 ( Eng; 14 ref).

Two models of insulin resistance were used (dexamethasone 10 mg/kg, s.c. once daily and fructose 10 percent w/v, p.o., ad libitum) in rats for a period of 10 and 20 days, respectively. Two doses of SH-01D, a herbomineral preparation (30 mg and 60 mg/kg, p.o.) were used. In both the models, SH-01D at 60 mg/kg showed significant effect. Fructose feeding increased serum biochemical parameters and decreased liver and skeletal muscle glycogen levels. Dexamethasone caused an increase in serum glucose, triglyceride levels and a decrease in body weight. In fructose-fed rats, SH-01D at 60 mg/kg significantly prevented the increase in serum biochemical parameters and the decrease in glycogen levels. In the dexamethasone model, SH-01D prevented the rise in serum glucose and triglycerides and improved the body weight.

2007-03-1120 Shan, L.; Liu, R.H.; Shen, Y.H.; Zhang, W.D.; Zhang, C.; Wu, D.Z.; Min, L.; Su, J.; Xu, X.K. (School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, 325# Guo He Road, Shanghai 200433, PR China) Gastroprotective effect of a traditional Chinese herbal drug "Baishouwu" on experimental gastric lesions in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(3): p. 389-394, 2006 (Eng ; 7 ref).

Baishouwu is an appellative name of dried root tubers from three [Asclepiadaceae] plants: [Cynanchum auriculatum], [Cynanchum bungei] and [Cynoctonum wilfordii]. Oral administration of ethanol extract and chloroform fraction of [C.wilfordii] collected from Changbai Cordillera at doses of 150 and 68 mg/kg, respectively, significantly inhibited the development of ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and also caused significant decrease of gastric acid secretion after histamine-induced gastric lesion. Oral administrations of ethanol extract and chloroform fraction of [C.auriculatum] collected from Binhai at the doses of 300 and 69 mg/kg, respectively, significantly inhibited ethanol and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions.

2007-03-1121 Sharma, A.; Reddy, G.D.; Kaushik, A.; Shanker, K.; Tiwari, R.K.; Mukherjee, A.; Rao, C.V. (Ethno pharmocology and Pharmacognosy Division, N.B.R.I., Lucknow, U.P. India) Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Carissa carandas Linn fruits and Microstylis wallichii Lindl tubers. Natural Product Sciences v. 13(1): p. 6-10, 2007 (Eng; 25 ref ).

The ethanolic (50 percent v/v) extracts of [Carissa carandas] (fruits) (Apocynaceae) and [Microstylis wallichii] (tubers) (Orchidaceae) were examined for antiinflammatory and analgesic activities in experimental animals. [C.carandas] and [M.wallichii] (50- 200 mg/kg) caused a dose dependent inhibition of swelling caused by carrageenin significantly in cotton pellet induced granuloma in rats (P less than 0.05 to P less than 0.001). There was a significant increase in the analgesy meter induced pain in rats. The extracts of [C.carandas] and [M.wallichii] resulted in an inhibition of stretching episodes and percentage protection was 16.05-17.58 percent respectively in acetic acid induced writhing.

2007-03-1122 Sheeja, E.; Edwin, E.; Dhanbal, P.; Suresh, B. ( Department of Pharmacognosy, J.S.S. College of Pharmacy, Ooty 643 001, India) Antiinflammatory activity of the leaves of Nothapodytes foetida, Miers. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences v. 67(2): p. 251-253, 2005 (Eng; 11 ref).

The leaves of [Nothapodytes foetida] (Icacinaceae) were extracted using petroleum ether and then with ethanol for 72 h each. Both the extracts were in 3 dose levels of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg. Antiinflammatory activity of the extracts was studied by carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats and the paw measured plethysmometrically at 0, 2 and 4 h after injection. The activities of the extracts were compared with control and standard, ibuprofen. All the drugs were administered orally. When compared to the petroleum ether extract the antiinflammatory activity of ethanolic extract was found to be effective and 200 mg/kg dose of ethanolic extract significantly (P more than 0.01) reduced the inflammation, which was comparable with that of the standard, ibuprofen.

2007-03-1123 Shetty, S.; Udupa, S.; Udupa, L.; Somayaji, N. ( Department of Biochemistry, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal 576 104, India) Wound healing activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn. with supportive role of antioxidant enzymes. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology v. 50(2): p. 163-168, 2006 (Eng; 23 ref).

Albino rats of either sex were divided into 2 groups. Group I: Wounded control rats; Group II: Wounded rats administered [Ocimum sanctum] (Labiaceae) aqueous extract. Wound breaking strength in incision wound model, epithelization period and percent wound contraction in excision wound model were studied. Using dead space wound model, granulation tissue breaking strength, granulation tissue dry weight, hydoxyproline level in dry granulation tissue, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels in wet granulation tissue were estimated in both the groups. Increased wound breaking strength, decreased epithelization period, increased percent wound contraction, increased granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline concentrations were observed. The increased activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, catalase level in extract treated group compared to controls. Granulation tissue was subjected to examination to determine the pattern of lay-down for collagen using Haematoxylin and Eosin stains which confirm the results.

2007-03-1124 Shirwaikar, A.; Rajendran, K.; Barik, R. ( Department of Pharmacognosy, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal, Karnataka, India) Effect of aqueous bark extract of Garuga pinnata Roxb. in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetes mellitus. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(2): p. 285-290, 2006 (Eng ; 23 ref).

A study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of aqueous extract of bark of [Garuga pinnata] (Burseraceae). The various parameters studied included fasting blood sugar levels, serum lipid levels, liver glycogen content, serum insulin level and glycated hemoglobin in diabetic and normal rats. Streptozotocin-nicotinamide was used to induce type-II diabetes mellitus. Treatment with the extract at two dose levels showed a significant increase in the liver glycogen and serum insulin level and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels. The total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels were also significantly reduced and the HDL cholesterol levels were significantly increased upon treatment with the extract thus proving the potent antidiabetic property of the plant.

2007-03-1125 Shivakumar, H.; Prakash, T.; Nagendra Rao, R.; Jayakumar Swamy, B.H.M.; Nagappa, A.N. (P.G. Department of Pharmacology, S.C.S. College of Pharmacy, Harapanahalli 583 131, Karnataka, India) Wound healing activity of the leaves of Thespesia populnea. Journal of Natural Remedies v. 7(1): p. 120-124, 2007 (Eng; 17 ref).

The different extracts of the leaves of [Thespesia populnea] (Malvaceae) are obtained by successive soxhlet extraction with petroleum ether, alcohol and aqueous were subjected to acute toxicity studies. All the three extracts showed significant increase in wound contraction and formation of scar in excision wound model. These extracts showed significant increase in the breaking strength of resutured incision wound as compared to control group (P less than 0.001). Glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, and phytosterols have been reported to be present in leaves of [T. populnea].

2007-03-1126 Shoji, Y.; Nakashima, H. (Department of Microbiology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1, Sugao, Miyamae-ku Kawasaki, Kanagawa 216-8511, Japan) Glucose-lowering effect of powder formulation of African black tea extract in KK-Ay/TaJcl diabetic mouse. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(9): p. 786-794, 2006 ( Eng; 40 ref).

African black tea extract prepared from the leaves of [Camellia sinensis] (Theaceae) [Ay/TaJcl] showed suppressive effect of the elevation of blood glucose on oral glucose tolerance test of 8 week-old KK-Ay/TaJcl mice (P less than 0.05). Long-term treatment with extract showed significant suppression of post-prandial blood glucose and obesity (P less than 0.05). The weight of the intestine of mice treated with black tea extract was significantly reduced (P less than 0.05). From these results, African black tea used in this study showed a suppressive effect on the elevation of blood glucose during food intake and the body weight.

2007-03-1127 Shukla, S.; Jadon, A.; Bhadauria, M. (Reproductive Biology & Toxicology Laboratory, School of Studies in Zoology, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, India) Comparative effect of Terminalia belerica fruit extract and its active principle against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences v. 67(6): p. 681-686, 2005 (Eng; 35 ref).

Carbon tetrachloride caused significant increase in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, transaminases and protein content. Hepatic lipid peroxidation increased significantly while reduced glutathione level in liver decreased after toxicant administration. Considerable inhibition was observed in glycogen content as well as in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, succinic dehydrogenase and adenosine triphosphatase in liver and kidney. Activity of acid phosphatase elevated significantly in both the organs. Recoupment was seen in almost all the parameters by therapy with extract and active principle intoxicant induced subjects. The degree of protection conferred by active principle (gallic acid: 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) was more as compared to ethanolic extract of [Terminalia belerica] (Combretaceae).

2007-03-1128 Somchit, M.N.; Siti Rahmah, S.; Zuraini, A.; Ahmad Bustamam, A.; Zakaria, Z.A.; Somchit, N.; Shamsuddin, L. ( Laboratory of Natural Products, Institute of Bioscience, University of Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia) Gastroprotective activity of Spirulina platensis in acetic acid and ethanol induced ulcers in rats. Journal of Natural Remedies v. 7(1): p. 37-42, 2007 (Eng; 22 ref).

Administration of 2 and 4 mg/kg [Spirulina platensis] extract was investigated in acetic acid and ethanol induced ulcers in rats for 7 days. Control rats received saline or anti-ulcer drug omeprazole (20 mg/kg) prior to ulcer induction. The extract inhibited the mean lesion score of acetic acid, 4.333 to 3.000. Whereas, for ethanol induced ulcers, the extract reduced the lesion scoring from 2.833 to 1.677. However, this activity was statistically less potent than the anti-ulcer drug, omeprazole. [Spirulina platensis] alone did not induce any ulcers in rats.

2007-03-1129 Sreekanth, P.; Narayana, K.; Shridhar, N.B.; Bhat, A. (Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Veterinary College, Hebbal, Bangalore-560024, India) Toxicity studies of Calycopteris floribunda Lam. in calf, rabbit and rat. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(2): p. 229-233, 2006 (Eng ; 15 ref).

The toxicological evaluation of the plant [Calycopteris floribunda] was done in calf, rabbit and rat. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and saponins. Morbidity and mortality was observed in methanol extract-treated rats and rabbits. In rabbits (25 g/kg/day) and calves (35 g/kg/day) fed fresh leaves showed morbidity and mortality with premonitory clinical signs like depression, downer status, polyuria and characteristic forelimb paresis (seen only in rabbits). The serum urea, alanine-amino transferase, glucose and total cholesterol concentrations were significantly (p less than 0.05) increased compared to control values. Necropsy of calves revealed the congestion of liver, lung and petechiae on epicardium. The present study indicated the toxic nature of the plant in calf, rabbit and rat.

2007-03-1130 Sumanth, M.; Rana, A.C. (Al Ameen College of Pharmacy, Hosur Road, Opp. Lalbagh Main Gate, Bangalore 560 027, India) In vivo antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Taraxacum officinale roots in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology v. 38(1): p. 54-55, 2006 (Eng; 7 ref).

Albino rats of Wistar strain, weighing 100-150 g, maintained on normal diet and water ad libitum, were divided into five groups of six animals each. CCl4 treatment decreased SOD, catalase, glutathione, and peroxidase and increased lipid peroxidation. Pretreatment with 100 mg/kg (p.o.) of [Taraxacum officinale] (Compositae) extract improved the SOD, catalase, glutathione, and peroxidase levels significantly and reduced lipid peroxidation levels significantly, which were comparable with Liv 52.

2007-03-1131 Sumathi, T.; Balakrishna, K.; Veluchamy, G.; Devaraj, S.N. (Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Madras, Dr. A.L.M.P-G.I.B.M.S., Taramani Campus, Chennai-600 113, Tamil Nadu, India) Inhibitory effect of Bacopa monniera on morphine induced pharmacological effects in mice. Natural Product Sciences v. 13(1): p. 46-53, 2007 (Eng; 29 ref).

The effects of the alcoholic extract of [Bacopa monniera] (Scrophulariaceae) on morphine-induced pharmacological activities were studied in mice. Oral administration of the extract (40 mg/kg) significantly inhibited morphine-induced analgesic tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, hyperactivity, dopamine receptor supersensitivity and apo-morphine-induced climbing behaviour in mice. The results of this study showed that, alcoholic extract of [Bacopa monniera] (BMA) exerted inhibitory effect against morphine-induced pharmacological effects, suggesting that the extract could be useful in the treatment of morphine toxicity.

2007-03-1132 Surendra Kumar, M.; Jaiprakash, B.; Hukkeri, V.I. (Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, K.M.C.H. College of Pharmacy, Kovai Estate, Kalapatti Road, Coimbatore-641 035, TN, India) Preventive effect of Phyllanthus amarus on prostatic hyperplasia. Hamdard Medicus v. 49(2): p. 114-117, 2006 (Eng; 14 ref).

The ethanolic extract of [Phyllanthus amarus] (Euphorbiaceae) was evaluated for its preventive effect against benign prostatic hyperplasia in experimentally induced rats using testosterone undeconate. The extract showed significant preventive effect by reduction in the elevated organ weights and prostatic serum acid phosphatase level. Histopathological examinations confirm the protective effect of the extract.

2007-03-1133 Suresh Kumar, S.V.; Mishra, S.H. (Sri Padmavathi School of Pharmacy, S.N. Puram, K.T. Bye Pass Road, Tirupati 517 507, India) Hepatoprotective activity of rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus Linn against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences v. 67(1): p. 84-88, 2005 (Eng; 13 ref).

Ethyl acetate extract and two crude fractions, solvent ether and ethyl acetate, of the rhizomes of [Cyperus rotundus] (Cyperaceae) were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in rats by inducing liver damage by carbon tetrachloride. The ethyl acetate extract at an oral dose of 100 mg/kg exhibited a significant protective effect by lowering serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Silymarin was used as positive control.

2007-03-1134 Sureshkumar, S.V.; Mishra, S.H. (Pharmacy Department, Kalabhavan, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390001, Gujarat, India) Hepatoprotective effect of extracts from Pergularia daemia Forsk.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(2): p. 164-168, 2006 (Eng ; 20 ref).

[Pergularia daemia] (Asclepiadaceae) is a perennial herb growing widely along the road sides of India. The ethanolic extract at an oral dose of 200 mg/kg exhibited a significant (p less than 0.05) protective effect by lowering serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and total cholesterol and increasing the levels of total protein and albumin levels as compared to silymarin used as a positive control. The activity may be a result of the presence of flavonoid compounds. Furthermore, the acute toxicity of the extracts showed no signs of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/kg.

2007-03-1135 Suresh, H.M.; Hatapakki, B.C.; Shivakumar, S.I.; Hallikeri, C.S.; Swamy, B.M.; Chandur, V.K. (K.L.E. Society's College of Pharmacy, J.T. College Campus, Gadag 582 101, Karnataka, India) Laxative activity of Cassia auriculata pods in rats. Journal of Natural Remedies v. 7(1): p. 150-154, 2007 (Eng; 14 ref).

Evaluated ethanol extract of pods of [Cassia auriculata] (Caesalpinacea) at different doses (100, 200 mg/kg, p.o.) for laxative activity in rats. At the dose 200 mg/kg, p.o. showed significant (P less than 0.001) activity as observed from different evaluation parameters. However, the same at the dose 100 mg/kg, p.o. was less significant. The ethanol extract showed the presence of flavonoids, triterenoids, tannins, sterols and anthracene derivatives.

2007-03-1136 Tajuddin; Nasiruddin, M.; Ahmad, N (Department of Ilmul Advia, A.K. Tibbiya College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002, UP, India) Effect of an Unani formulation on lipid profile in rat. Indian Journal of Pharmacology v. 38(1): p. 56-57, 2006 (Eng; 10 ref).

Extracts of [Terminalia arjuna] (Combretaceae), [Nepeta hindostana] (Labiatae) and [Bombyx mori] (Malvaceae) were combined in ratio of 1:2:1, respectively and freshly dissolved in distilled water on each day before administration to the animals which were divided into four groups. The dose was calculated in the usual manner by multiplying the Unani clinical dose by factor 7 for rat. The serum was analysed and found that a significant increase in total cholesterol, free cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, free fatty acids, low density (LDL) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) in isoproterenol treated group as compared with their respective control but the levels were statistically same in control and in Unani formulation pre-treated rats. Serum level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) was lowest in isoproterenol treated groups as compared with control and Unani formulation pre-treated group.

2007-03-1137 Takashima, J.; Ikeda, Y.; Komiyama, K.; Hayashi, M.; Kishida, A.; Ohsaki, A.* (Pharmaceuticals Research Division, Mitsubishi Pharma Corporation; 1000 Kamoshida-cho, Aoba-ku, Yokohama 227-0033, Japan) New constituents from the leaves of Morinda citrifolia. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin v. 55(2): p. 343-345, 2007 (Eng; 24 ref).

A new iridoid glycoside citrifoside, and a new anthraquinone 1,5,15-trimethylmorindol, together with 24 known compounds, were isolated from the leaves of [Morinda citrifolia] (Rubiaceae). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectral data. 1,5,15-Trimethylmorindol did not show significant cytotoxicity by itself but showed cytotoxicity when combined with tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, while citrifoside did not show any activity even with tumour necrosis factor.

2007-03-1138 Tangpu, T.V.; Yadav, A.K. (Department of Zoology, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793022, India) Anticestodal efficacy of Psidium guajava against experimental Hymenolepis diminuta infection in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology v. 38(1): p. 29-32, 2006 (Eng; 15 ref).

The leaf extract of [Psidium guajava], (Myrtaceae) was administered orally to different groups of experimental [Hymenolepis diminuta] infections in rats. The efficacy was adjudged in terms of parasite eggs/g (EPG) of faeces count before and after treatment, direct count of surviving worms remaining in small intestines after completion of treatment and by host clearance of parasite. The leaf extract showed reduction in parasite EPG of faeces count in a dose-dependent manner. It further showed comparatively low recovery of worms including scolices in the small intestine and host clearance of parasite in a dose dependent manner. In all the experimental models the anticestodal efficacy of leaf extract was significantly comparable with that of praziquantel, a standard anticestodal drug.

2007-03-1139 Thanabhorn, S.; Jaijoy, K.; Thamaree, S.; Ingkaninan, K.; Panthong, A. (Department of Preclinical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand) Acute and subacute toxicity study of the ethanol extract from Lonicera japonica Thunb.. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(3): p. 370-373, 2006 (Eng ; 14 ref).

The ethanol extract from the leaves of [Lonicera japonica] {Caprifoliaceae} at 5000 mg/kg did not produce mortality or significant changes in the general behaviour and gross appearance of the internal organs of rats. In subacute toxicity study, the ethanol extract was administered orally at a dose of 1000 mg/kg/day for a period of 14 days. The satellite group was treated with the ethanol extract at the same dose and the same period and kept for another 14 days after treatment. There were no significant differences in the body and organ weights between the control and the treated group of both sexes. Hematological analysis and clinical blood chemistry revealed no toxicity effects of the extract.

2007-03-1140 Topashka-Ancheva, M.N.; Taskova, R.M.; Handjieva, N.V. (Institute of Zoology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences,1000 Sofia, Bulgaria) Mitogenic effect of Carthamus lanatus extracts fractions and constituents. Fitoterapia v. 77(7-8): p. 608-610, 2006 (Eng; 12 ref).

Extracts, fractions and constituents of [Carthamus lanatus] (Asteraceae) were tested for their mitogenic effect on bone marrow cells in mice. Most of the studied samples inhibited cell proliferation and only the flavonoid glycoside rutin caused increasing of mitotic activity.

2007-03-1141 Vali, L.; Febel, H.; Stefanovits-Banyai, E.; Sardi, E.; Lugasi, A.; Szentmihalyi, K.; Blazovics, A.* (Biochemical Research Group, 2nd Department of Medicine, Semmelweis University, H-1088 Budapest, Szentkiralyi u. 46, Hungary) Duodenum protecting effects of table beet (Beta vulgaris. ssp. esculenta var. rubra) during hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion. Acta Alimentaria v. 35(4): p. 445-453, 2006 (Eng; 32 ref).

The gut protecting properties of bioactive substances of table beet [Beta vulgari] var. [rubra] (Chenopodiaceae) were determined in a model of ischaemic-reperfusion injury of the rat liver. Chemiluminescent intensity, hydrogen (H) donating ability reducing power and free SH-group concentration were determined by luminometry and spectrophotometry in duodenum and plasma. Lyophilized table beet increased significantly) the free radical scavenging property of the plasma measured by chemiluminometry. Other antioxidant parameters of the plasma increased in rats fed table beet diet, and change in reducing power was significant. Beneficial effect of the treatment was found in changes of total scavenger capacity of the duodenum during ischaemia-reperfusion injury. H-donating ability and reducing power of the gut decreased in the table beet-fed group during ischaemia-repeifusion compared to normal group with ischaemia-reperfusion. Based on these data, it can be concluded that table beet can protect the entire body from the oxidative damage caused by ischaemia-reperfusion of the liver.

2007-03-1142 Vasudeva, N.; Sharma, S.K. (Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar-125001, India) Post-coital antifertility activity of Achyranthes aspera Linn. root. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(2): p. 179-181, 2006 (Eng ; 15 ref).

[Achyranthes aspera] (Amaranthaceae) is an abundant indigenous herb in India. It is traditionally being used as an abortifacient. The ethanol extract of the root was screened for antifertility activity in proven fertile female albino rats at 200 mg/kg body weight and given orally on days 1-7 of pregnancy. The ethanol extract exhibited 83.3 percent antiimplantation activity when given orally at 200 mg/kg body weight. The rats, which continued their pregnancy, did not deliver any litters after their full term. Hence the combined antifertility (antiimplantation and abortifacient) activity of ethanol extract was l00 percent. The ethanol extract also exhibited estrogenic activity tested in immature ovariectomised female albino rats.

2007-03-1143 Velavan, S.; Nagulendran, K.; Mahesh, R.; Hazeena Begum, V. (Department of Siddha Medicine, Faculty of Science, Tamil University, Vakaiyur, Thanjavur 613 005, Tamilnadu, India) In vitro antioxidant activity of Asparagus racemosus root. Pharmacognosy Magazine v. 3(9): p. 26-33, 2007 (Eng; 42 ref).

To understand the mechanisms of pharmacological actions, the [in vitro] antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of [Asparagus racemosus] (Liliaceae) was investigated for activity of scavenging superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical, and hydrogen peroxide, metal chelation and reducing power. The extract was also studied for lipid peroxidation assay using young and aged rat brain mitochondria. In all the testing, a significant correlation existed between concentrations of the extract and percentage inhibition of free radicals, metal chelation, reducing power or inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The antioxidant property may be related to the antioxidant vitamins, phenolic acids and micronutrients present in the extract.

2007-03-1144 Vendruscolo, A.; Takaki, I.; Bersani-Amado, L.E.; Dantas, J.A.; Bersani-Amado, C.A.; Cuman, R.K.N. (Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Maringa, 87020-900, Maringa, PR Brazil) Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Zingiber officinale Roscoe essential oil in experimental animal models. Indian Journal of Pharmacology v. 38(1): p. 58-59, 2006 (Eng; 5 ref).

Groups of 10 male Swiss mice (25-30 g) and male Wistar rats (190-230 g) were used for evaluation of the antinoceptive and antiinflammatory effects, respectively. Ginger essential oil (GEO) from ginger [Zingiber officinale] (Zingiberaceae) (100, 200, and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) and indomethacin (5 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered 30 min before the test. The antinociceptive activity of the GEO was assessed using the writhing test. GEO was found to contain monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes as principal compounds, suggesting that the antiinflammatory and analgesic effects could be correlated to these essential oil constituents.

2007-03-1145 Venkat Rao, N.; Chandra Prakash, K.; Shanta Kumar, S.M. (Department of Pharmacology, V.L. College of Pharmacy, Raicur 584103, India) Pharmacological investigation of Cardiospermum halicacabum (Linn) in different animal models of diarrhoea. Indian Journal of Pharmacology v. 38(5): p. 346-349, 2006 ( Eng; 26 ref).

Petroleum ether (PeCH) and alcoholic (AICH) extracts of whole plant of [Cardiospermum halicacabum] (Sapindaceae) were prepared, with successive extraction in soxhlet apparatus and aqueous (AqCH) extract, by the maceration process. LD50 studies for all the three extracts were carried out up to the dose limit of 2000 mg/kg in albino mice. No mortality was observed with any of the three extracts up to the maximum dose of 2000 mg/kg. Further, all the three extracts at 400 mg/kg, p.o. had significantly (P less than 0.01) reduced the fecal output in castor oil-induced diarrhoea, intestinal secretions in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)- induced enteropooling and peristaltic movement in charcoal meal test, indicating antidiarrhoeal activity.

2007-03-1146 Vitali, F.; Fonte, G.; Saija, A.; Tita, B. ( Department of Human Physiology and Pharmacology University of Rome "La Sapienza", Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy) Inhibition of intestinal motility and secretion by extracts of Epilobium spp. in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(3): p. 342-348, 2006 (Eng ; 20 ref).

Ethanol extracts of the fresh aerial parts of various [Epilobium] species {Onagraceae} were tested to elucidate the mechanism of their gastrointestinal activity in animals. The methods of charcoal meal, castor oil-induced diarrhoea, and enteropooling assay were used to evaluate their effect on mouse gut at various dose levels. The extracts were found to have a significant activity in all models. Moreover, the extracts resulted to possess very little toxicity. Thus, it can be concluded that [Epilobium] possesses antidiarrhoeal, antimotility and antisecretory activities and can prove beneficial in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

2007-03-1147 Wang, H.; Gao, J.; Zhu, D.*; Yu, B. (Department of Traditional Chinese Prescription, China Pharmaceutical University; Nanjing, 210038, P.R. China) Two new triterpenoid saponins isolated form Polygala japonica. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin v. 54(12): p. 1739-1742, 2006 (Eng; 12 ref).

Bioassay guided investigation of whole herb of [Polygala japonica] (Polygalaceae) afforded two new triterpenoid saponins, characterized as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl medicagenic acid 28-O-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1 to 4)-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl (1 to 3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 to 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl} ester (1), 3-beta-D-glucopyranosyl 2-oxo-olean-12-en-23, 28-dioic acid 28-O-{beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1 to 4)-beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1 to 3)]-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 to 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl} ester (2), together with four known triterpenoid saponins (3-6). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Saponins 3, 4 and 5 showed significant antiinflammatory activity against on carrageenan-induced acute paw edema in mouse.

2007-03-1148 Watcho, P.; Fotsing, D.; Zelefack, F.; Nguelefack, T.B.; Kamtchouing, P.; Tsamo, E.; Kamanyi, A. (Animal Physiology and Phytopharmacology Laboratory, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Box 67 Dschang, Cameroon) Effect of Mondia whitei extracts on the contractile responses of isolated rat vas deferens to potassium chloride and adrenaline. Indian Journal of Pharmacology v. 38(1): p. 33-37, 2006 (Eng; 20 ref).

Isolated strips of normal adult rat vas deferens were mounted in a Ugo Basile single-organ bath containing Krebs solution. Cumulative concentration-response curves of KCl (1-7 x 10 -2 M) and adrenaline (1.21-8.45 x 10 -7 M) were established in the absence and presence of [Mondia whitei] (Periplocaceae) C 50-400 microg/ml). In separate experiments, after obtaining a stable plateau of contractions with KCl (60 mM), [M. whitei] samples (50-400 microg/ml) were added cumulatively to relax the preparation. In KCl (60 mM), containing depolarizing medium, cumulative concentration-contraction curve to CaCl2(2-14 x 10 -2 M) was elicited in the absence and presence of the hexane fraction of (50-400 microg/ml). All the [M. whitei] samples produced rightward shift of the concentration-response curves to KCl and Adr. At high concentration of the plant extracts (400 microg/ml), a decrease of the maximal response to the contractile agents was observed compared with that obtained with the control. All the three extracts produced concentration-dependent relaxation of the plateau of contraction induced by KCl and the hexane fraction appeared to be the more potent. In calcium-free physiological salt solution, the hexane fraction of [M. whitei] produced rightward shift to the concentration-response curve to CaCl2 and completely abolished the contractile effect of calcium at high concentration (400 microg/ml).

2007-03-1149 Wesolowska, A.; Nikiforuk, A.; Michalska, K.; Kisiel, W.; Chojnacka-Wojcik, E. (Department of New Drugs Research, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 12 Smetna Str., 31-343 Krakow, Poland) Analgesic and sedative activities of lactucin and some lactucin-like guaianolides in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(2): p. 254-258, 2006 (Eng ; 19 ref).

Lactucin (1) and its derivatives lactucopicrin (2) and 11 beta,13-dihydrolactucin (3), which are characteristic bitter sesquiterpene lactones of [Lactuca virosa] and [Cichorium intybus] {Asteraceae} were evaluated for analgesic and sedative properties in mice. The compounds showed analgesic effects at doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg in the hot plate test similar to that of ibuprofen, used as a standard drug, at a dose of 30 mg/kg. The analgesic activities of the compounds at a dose of 30 mg/kg in the tail-flick test were comparable to that of ibuprofen given at a dose of 60 mg/kg. Lactucopicrin appeared to be the most potent analgetic of the three tested compounds. Lactucin and lactucopicrin, but not 11 beta, 13-dihydrolactucin, also showed sedative properties in the spontaneous locomotor activity test.

2007-03-1150 Xia, T.; Wang, Q. (College of Life Science, East China Normal University, 3663 Zhongshang North Rd., Shanghai 200062, PR China) Antihyperglycemic effect of Cucurbita ficifolia fruit extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Fitoterapia v. 77(7-8): p. 530-533, 2006 (Eng; 21 ref).

The antihyperglycemic effects of [Cucurbita ficifolia] (Cucurbitacea) fruit extract were investigated on streptozotocin induced experimental diabetes in rats. Oral administration of the extract (300 and 600 mg/kg body weight, day) for 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose. glycosylated haemoglobin, and an increase in plasma insulin and total haemoglobin. The effect was compared with 150 mg/kg b.w. tolbutamide.

2007-03-1151 Xie, Q.M.; Deng, J.F.; Deng, Y.M.; Shao, C.S.; Zhang, H.; Ke, C.K. (Mecical School of Zhejiang University, Hnagzhou 310031, China) Effects of Crytoporus polysasccharide on rat allergic rhinitis associated with inhibiting ecotaxin mRNA expression. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(3): p. 424-430, 2006 (Eng ; 20 ref).

Aqueous extract from the fruiting body of [Cryptoporus volvatus] has been reported to present antitumour, antiallergy, antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Rats were immunized with ovalbumin and consecutive topical antigen instillation was performed. Repeated intranasal ovalbumin challenge caused rhinitis symptom airway hyperresponsiveness {AHR) to methacholine {MCh), eosinophil infiltration and histological alterations into the nasal mucosa and increase of eotaxin mRNA expression in nasal mucosa and lung tissue were examined. Pretreatment with CP 3, 9 and 27 mg/kg-1 (ig) decreased the numbers of sneezing 27.4 percent, 38.4 percent and 44.3 percent and nasal rubbing 27.5 percent. 34.9 percent and 47.7 percent comparison with model group, respectively. CP caused a dose-related inhibition of MCh-induccd AHR. CP 27 mg kg -1 decreased the expression of eotaxin mRNA in the nasal mucosa by 35percent. These results suggest CP can relieve the symptom, eosinophil infiltration and injury of tissue in nasal mucosa and lung tissue and AHR of allergic rhinitis in rats. Its action mechanism may be associated with the decrease of eotaxin mRNA expression.

2007-03-1152 Xu, M.L.; Choi, Y.; Jeong, B.S.; Li, G.; Lee, K.R. ; Lee, C.S.; Woo, M.H.; Lee, E.S.; Jahng, Y.; Chang, H.W.; [et al.] ( College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan 712-749, Korea) Cytotoxic constituents lsolated form the fruit bodies of Hypsizigus marmoreus. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 30(1): p. 28-33, 2007 (Eng; 22 ref).

The bioactivity-guided fractionation of chloroform extracts of the fruit bodies of mushroom [Hypsizigus marrnoreus] led to isolation of three sterols structure of these compounds was identified as follows: (22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-diene-3beta,5alpha,6beta-triol, ergosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 5alpha,8alpha-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3beta-of and four hypsiziprenols Ag AA8, AA9, BA10. Among these seven isolates, beta-D-glucopyranoside was identified for the first time from this plant. All the compounds exhibited moderate cytotoxicity towards cultured human colon carcinoma (HT-29), human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and human hepatoblastoma (HepG-2) cells lines.

2007-03-1153 Xu, M.L.; Zheng, M.S.; Lee, Y.K.; Moon, D.C.; Lee, C.S.' Woo, M.H.; Jeong, B.S.; Lee, E.S.; Jahng, Y.; Chang, H.W. [et al.] (College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan, 712-749, Korea) A new stilbene glucoside form the roots of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(11): p. 946-951, 2006 ( Eng; 18 ref).

One new stibene glucoside along with five known compounds were isolated from the roots of [Polygonum multiflorum] (Polygonaceae). Their structures were established based on physicochemical and spectroscopic data. Of the compounds, beta-sitosterol showed DNA topoisomerase 1 and 11 inhibitory activities. New compound showed cytotoxicity against the HT29 and MCF-7 cell lines.

2007-03-1154 Yakubu, M.T.; Akanji, M.A.; Oladiji, A.T. ( Medicinal Plant Research Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria) Hematological evaluation in male albino rats following chronic administration of aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem. Pharmacognosy Magazine v. 3(9): p. 34-38, 2007 (Eng; 14 ref).

The haematological indices (Haemoglobin (Hb), Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Red Blood Cell Count (RBC), White Blood Cell Count (WBC), Platelets. Neutrophil and Eosinophil) following oral administration of aqueous extract of [Fadogia agrestis] (Rubiaceae) stem at the doses of 18, 50 and 100mg/kg body weight in male albino rats were evaluated progressively on daily basis at 24hrs after 1, 7, 14 and 21 days. Extract administration significantly altered (P less than 0.05) WBC count and those relating to it while it produced no significant change on RBC count and its related indices (P greater than 0.05). The result suggest that aqueous extract of [Fadogia agrestis] stem has exhibited localized systemic toxicity which will impair the normal functioning of the WBC and its related indices.

2007-03-1155 Yan, M.; Zhang, L.Y.; Sun, L.X.; Jiang, Z.Z.; Xiao, X.H. (National Drug Screening Laboratory, China Pharmaceutical University, No. 1 Shen Nong Roa, E-04#, Nanjing City, 210038 Jiangsu Province, China) Nephrotoxicity study of total rhubarb anthraquinones on Sprague Dawley rats using DNA microarrays. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(2): p. 308-311, 2006 (Eng ; 14 ref).

Total rhubarb anthraquinones (TRAs) are the active therapeutic components from the rhizomes of [Rheum palmatum] (Polygonaceae), which are widely used in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and have been reported to have cell toxicity recently. This study focuses on the toxicity of TRAs on Sprague Dawley (S.D.} rats. TRAs administrated per os for 13 weeks induced nephrotoxicity on S.D. rats as renal tubule epithelial ceils swelled and denatured in tissue slice examination. After high-density oligonucleotide microarrays scanning, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase 6 was identified to be the target gene which causes cell cycle arrest and proliferation inhibition and contributes to nephrotoxicity on S.D. rats.

2007-03-1156 Yang, Y.J.; Park, J.I.; Lee, H.J.; Seo, S.M.; Lee, O.K.; Choi, D.H.; Paik, K.H.; Lee, M.K.* (College of Pharmacy and Research Center for Bioresource and Health, Chhungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, Korea) Effect of (+)-eudesmin from the stem bark of Magnolia kobus DC. var. borealis Sarg. on neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(12): p. 1114-1118, 2006 ( Eng; 23 ref).

(+)-Eudesmin [4,8-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3, 7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane] was isolated from the stem bark of [Mangolia kobus] (Magnoliaceae) var [borealis] and found to have neuritogenic activity. Eudesmin (50 microM+) induced neurite outgrowth and enhanced nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells. At this concentration, (+)-eudesmin also enhanced NGF-induced neurite-bearing activity and this activity was partially blocked by various protein kinase inhibitors. Results suggest that (+)-eudesmin can induce neurite out growth from PC12 cells by stimulating up-stream protein kinase inhibitors pathways.

2007-03-1157 Yang, L.; Xu, S.J.; Zeng, X.; Liu, Y.M.; Deng, S.G.; Wu, Z.F.; Ou, R.M. (Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhon University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510120, China) Determination of ginsenoside Rd and its metabolites in rat urine by LC-MS. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica v. 41(8): p. 742-746, 2006 (Chi; Eng; 5 ref).

Urine samples were collected before and after 24 h of single oral administration of 150 mg and intravenous administration of 60 mg of ginsenoside Rd to six rats, separately. The samples were purified by SPE column and then were analyzed by liquid chromatography-ESI-mass spectrometry for putative metabolites. Parent drug and its seven metabolites were identified in rat urine based on comparing total ion chromatograms of the blank with the metabolic urine as well as mass spectra. Its main metabolic pathways and possible structures were elucidated. Oxidation, combination and deglucosylation were found to be the major metabolic pathways pathway of ginsenoside Rd in rats.

2007-03-1158 Yang, T.H.; Jia, M.; Mei, Q.B. (Department of Pharmacology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China) Effect of Angelica sinensis polysaccharide fraction AP-3 on IL-2 and IFN-gamma induction. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica v. 41(1): p. 54-57, 2006 (Chi; Eng; 12 ref).

Effects of [Angelica sinensis] (Apiaceae) polysaccharide fraction AP-3 on IL-2 and IFN-gamma induction and its immunomodulatory activity were evaluated. The percentage of CD4+ lymphocyte was detected by flow cytometric method, the production of IL-2 and IFN-gamma in cell culture supernatant were determined by ELISA, mRNA expressions of IL-2 and IFN-gamma cytokines were detected by RT-PCR. At the range of 0. 6 - 2 micro mol/L , AP-3 significantly enhanced the percentage of CD4+ lymphocytes in total splenocytes. At the range of 2 - 6 micro mol/L, the treatment of AP-3 augmented both productions of IL-2 in cell culture supernatant and cell IL-2 mRNA transcription level in a time and dose dependent manner. While in the case of IFN-gamma, AP-3 stimulated at early time after exposure but down-regulated thereafter. It is conduded that the polysaccharide could regulate the immune response through upregulating IL-2, IFN-gamma expression and activating Thl cell.

2007-03-1159 Yeligar, V.C.; Murugesh, K.; Dash, D.K.; Nayak, S.S.; Maiti, B.C.; Maity, T.K. (K.L.E. Society's College of Pharmacy, Rajajinagar, Bangalore, Karnataka-10, India) Evaluation of antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of Luffa tuberosa (Roxb.) fruits in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Natural Product Sciences v. 13(1): p. 17-22, 2007 (Eng; 36 ref).

Fresh unripe whole fruits of [Luffa tuberosa] or [Momordica tuberosa] (Cucurbitaceae) were evaluated for the antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential in streptozotocin (STZ) 35 mg/kg body weight induced diabetic rats. After the induction of diabetes aqueous extract of [L.tuberosa] (AELT) was administered orally at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. body weight/day for a period of 14 days. In diabetic rats, the AELT exhibited significant reduction in blood glucose levels. Antihyperlipidemia in diabetic rats after the extract supplementation was confirmed by significant reduction in the levels of hyperlipidemic indicators. This study focus on the efficacy of [L. tuberosa] fruits for the management of experimental STZ induced diabetic rats and provides the scientific basis of ancient herbal therapy and use of these fruits as vegetable.

2007-03-1160 Yin, S.Y.; Jin, C.M.; Yang, Y.J.; Lim, S.C.; Lee, C.K.; Hwang, B.Y.; Ro, J.S.; Lee, M.K.* (College of Pharmacy and Research Centre for Bioresource and Health, Chungbuk National University, Chenongju 361-763, Korea) Inhibitory effects of (1R, 9S)-beta-hydrastine on calcium transport in PC12 cells. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 30(1): p. 109-113, 2007 ( Eng; 39 ref).

The effects of (1R,9S)-beta-hydrastine (BHS), isolated from the roots of [Hydrastis canadensis] (Ranunculaceae) were examined on Ca2+ transport from Ca2+ stores in the absence of external Ca2+ in PC12 cells. BHS decreased the basal intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]) in the absence of external Ca2+ in PC12 cells. In the absence of external Ca2+ pretreating PC12 cells with 100 microM BHS reduced the rapid increase in the [Ca2+] elicited by 20 - mM caffeine but not that by 1 microM thapsigargin. In addition, BHS inhibited the increase in the [Ca2+], elicited by restoration of 2 mM CaCI2 after the Ca2+ stores had been depleted by 20 mM caffeine, but not those depleted by 1 microM thapsigargin, in the absence of external Ca2+. These results suggested that BHS mainly inhibited Ca2+ leakage from the Ca2+ stores and the caffeine-stimulated release of Ca2+ from the caffeine-sensitive Ca2+ stores in PC12 cells.

2007-03-1161 Yoon, W.J.; Lee, H.J.; Kang, G.J.; Kang, H.K.; Yoo, E.S.* (Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Cheju National University, Jeju 690-756, Korea) Inhibitory effects of Ficus erecta leaves on osteoporotic factors in vitro. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 30(1): p. 43-49, 2007 (Eng; 25 ref).

To investigate the antiosteoporotic activity of [Ficus erecta] (Moraceae), MG-63 cells were stimulated with 1L-1beta (10 ng/mL) to induce osteoporotic factors (IL-6, COX-2 and PGE2) and RAW 264.7 ceils were stimulated with RANKL (100 ng/mL) to induce their differentiation into osteoclasts. [F. erecta] fractions decreased the mRNA expression of IL-6 and COX-2, and protein levels of COX-2 and PGE2 production. Among sequential solvent fractions, hexane and EtOAc fractions decreased differentiation into osteoclasts of RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that [F. erecta] may have significant effects on osteoporotic factors and may provide possible cure against osteoporosis.

2007-03-1162 Yoshikawa, M.; Xu, F.; Morikawa, T.; Pongpiriyadacha, Y.; Nakamura, S.; Asao, Y.; Kumahara, A.; Matsuda, H. (Kyoto Pharmaceutical University; Misasagi, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8412, Japan) Medicinal flower. XII. 1) Few spirostane-type steroid saponins with antidiabetogenic activity from Borassus flabellifer. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin v. 55(2): p. 308-316, 2007 (Eng; 45 ref).

The methanolic extract from the male flowers of palmyra palm [Borassus flabellifer] (Palmae) was found to inhibit the increase of serum glucose levels in sucrose-loaded rats at a dose of 250 mg/kg p.o. From the methanolic extract, six new spirostane-type steroid saponins, borassosides A-F, were isolated together with 23 known constituents. The structures of borassosides, were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidences. The principal steroid saponin, dioscin was found to inhibit the increase of serum glucose levels in sucrose-loaded rats at a dose of 50 mg/kg, p.o..

2007-03-1163 Yu, J.Y.; Jin, Y.R.; Lee, J.J.; Chung, J.H.; Noh, J.Y.; You, S.H.; Kim, K.N.; Im, J.H.; Lee, J.H.; Seo, J.M. [et al] ( College of Pharmacy, Research Center for Bioresource and Health, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361763, Korea) Antiplatelet and antithrombotic activites of Korean red ginseng. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(10): p. 898-903, 2006 ( Eng; 20 ref).

Activities of Korean red ginseng (KRG) [Panax ginseng] (Araliaceae) were examined on rat carotid artery thrombosis [in vivo] and platelet aggregation [in vitro] and [ex vivo]. Administration of KRG to rats not only prevented carotid artery thrombosis [in vivo] in a dose dependent manner, but also significantly inhibited ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation [ex vivo] while failed to prolong coagulation times such as activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT), indicating the antithrombotic effect of KRG might be due to its antiplatelet aggregation rather than anticoagulation effect. KRG also inhibited U46619-, arachidonic acid-, collagen- and thrombin-induced rabbit platelet aggregation [in vitro] in a concentration-dependent manner. Results suggest that KRG has a potent antithrombotic effect [in vivo] and may be beneficial to the individuals with high risks of thrombotic and cardiovascular diseases.

2007-03-1164 Yu, H.H.; Seo, S.J.; Kim, Y.H.; Lee, H.Y.; Park, R.K.; So, H.S.; Jang, S.I.; You, Y.O. (Department of Food and Nutrition, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, South Korea) Protective effect of Rehmannia glutinosa on the cisplatin-induced damage of HEI-OCl auditory cells through scavenging free radicals. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(3): p. 383-388, 2006 (Eng ; 32 ref).

It was shown that the ethanol extract of steamed roots of [Rehmania glutinosa] {Scrophulariaceae} {SRG) protected HEI-OC1 auditory cells from cisplatin cytotoxicity in a dose-dependent fashion. In addition, to investigate the protection mechanism of SRG on cisplatin cytotoxicity towards HEI-OC1, the effects of SRG was measured on lipid peroxidation of cisplatin treated cells as well as scavenging activities against superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, and DPPH radical. SRG (5-100 microg/ml) had protective effect against the cisplatin-induced HEI-OC1 cell damage and reduced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner.

2007-03-1165 Zhang, Y.W.; Wen, J.; Xiao, J.B.; Talbot, S.G.; Li, G.C.; Xu, M.* (Research Institute for Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083, China) Induction of apoptosis and transient increase of phosphorylated MAPKs by diallyl disulfide teartment in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cell. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(12): p. 1125-1131, 2006 ( Eng; 39 ref).

The effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS), an oil-soluble organosulfur compound found in garlic ([Allium sativum], Liliaceae) was evaluated in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. A potent increase (of at least 9-fold) in apoptotic cells was found along with a decreases in cell viability, and increase of the fraction of S-phase cells by up to 63.8percent. A transient increase of the phospho-p38 and phospho-p42/44 (phosphorylated p38 MAPK and phosphorylated p42/44 MAPK) in a time-and concentration-dependent manner was also observed. These results indicate that DADS can supress human nasopharyngeal carcinoma via, at least partly, S-phase block of the cell cycle, related to a rise in MAPK phosphorylation.

2007-03-1166 Zhang, X.F.; Hung, T.M.; Phuong, P.T.; Ngoc, T.M.; Min, B.S.; Song, K.S.; Seong, Y.H.; Bae, K.H. (College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea) Anti-inflammatory activity of flavonoids from Populus davidiana. Archives of Pharmacal Research v. 29(12): p. 1102-1108, 2006 ( Eng; 30 ref).

An [in vitro] bioaasay-guide study revealed that the methanol extract of the stem bark of [Populus davidiana] (Salicaceae) show considerable inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenase (COX-1, COX-2). Continuous phytochemical study of the MeOH extract of this plant led to the isolation of ten flavonoids; sakuranetin, rhamnocitrin, 7-O-methylaromadendrin, naringenin, eriodictyol, aromadendrin, kaempferol , neosakuranin , sakuranin and sakurenetin-5,4'-di-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Their structures were identified on the basis of their physicochemical and spectroscopic analyses. All isolated compounds were tested against COX-1 and COX-2. Some isolates were found active against COX1 only and some showed santhin oxidase inhibition. These results may explain, in part, the traditional uses of [P. davidiana] in ethnomedicine.

2007-03-1167 Zhang, C.F.; Yang, Z.L.; Luo, J.B. (School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China) Effects of D-limonene and L-limonene on transdermal absorption of ligustrazine hydrochloride. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica v. 41(8): p. 772-777, 2006 (Chi; Eng; 35 ref).

The effects and permeation mechanism of D-limonene and L-limonene on transdermal delivery of ligustrazine hydrochloride were examined. Transdermal flux of LH through porcine skin was determined [in vitro] by Franz-type diffusion cells. The peak shift and peak areas of C-H stretching vibration absorption were estimated by Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR). Morphological changes in the stratum corneum (SC) treated with enhancers were observed by a scanning electron microscope and apparent density. There was no statistic difference between the transdermal fluxs of the enantiomer enhancers which were higher than those of control and azone. But the lag time of L-limonene was 2.55 times than that of D-limonene. The FTIR results revealed that the shift and decreased peak area of C-H stretching vibrations in the SC lipids were dependent on the enhancers. The enantiomers permeation 'enhancers, D-limonene and A-limonene, were able to perturb and extract the SC lipids to different extent. The disordering and extracting lipids activity of L-limonene was stronger than that of D-limonene. SEM studies demonstrated that the extraction of lipids depend on the selected penetration promoters.

2007-03-1168 Zhou, B.H.; Li, X.J.; Liu, M.; Wu, Z.; Hu, X.M. ( College of Pharmacy, Wuhan University, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China) Antidepressant-like activity of the Gastrodia elata ethanol extract in mice. Fitoterapia v. 77(7-8): p. 592-594, 2006 (Eng; 10 ref).

The hydroalcoholic extract of [Gastrodia elata] (Orchidaceae) was evaluated for the antidepressant-like activity by means of behavioral models that included forced swimming, tail suspending and open-field tests. According to the results, [G. elata] extract is effective as an antidepressant drug.

2007-03-1169 Zou, Y.; Yang, Y.; Li, J.; Li, W.; Wu, Q. (School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China) Prevention of hepatic injury by a traditional Chinese formulation, Bj-JN, in mice treated with Bacille-Calmette-Guerin and lipopolysaccharide. Journal of Ethnopharmacology v. 107(3): p. 442-448, 2006 (Eng ; 48 ref).

The hepatoprotective effects of BJ-JN were evaluated in Bacille-Calmette-Guerin and lipopolysaccharide (BCG/LPS}-induced immunological liver injury (IL1) in mice. BJ-JN (0.75, 1.5, 3 g/kg) was administered via gavage daily for 10 days. BJ-JN {0.75, 1.5, 3 g/kg) effectively reduced the BCG/LPS-induced elevated liver index, serum ALT levels, hepatic NO and MDA content, and restored hepatic SOD activity in IL1 mice. BJ-JN treatment also alleviated diminished splenocyte proliferation induced by concanavalin A (ConA) and repressed abnormally high levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1 from peritoneal macrophages. The histopathological analysis suggested that BJ-JN reduced the degree of liver injury of ILI mice.