Total visitors:2,296 since 13-02-04

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts

(bimonthly)

 

 

 

ISSN : 0250-4367

 

 

VOLUME 25

NUMBER 6

DECEMBER  2003

 

 

Agronomy
Botany (General & Systematic) 
Breeding & Genetics
Diseases & Pests    
Physiology & Biochemistry 
Pharmacognosy
Clinical Studies
Pharmacology & Toxicology 
Antimicrobial Activity 
Insecticidal & Piscicidal Activity
Phytochemistry
Chemotaxonomy
Ethnomedicine
Analytical & Processing Techniques
Miscellaneous
New Publications 
Patents
Marketing and Trade

 

 
Agronomy

2003-06-3150 Bhattacharyya, R.; Bhattacharya, S. (Department of Botany, Bose Institute 93/1 A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700 009, WB, India) A study on introduction of Coleus forskohlii in West Bengal agroclimate - a lab to land study report. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 169-172, 2003 (Eng; 10 ref).

It was observed that regeneration potential of leaf fragments of (Coleus forskohlii) was very high (90 percent) and the acclimatized plants survived at a high percentage (94 percent) with normal growth and flowering in Institute’s garden soil. The plants withstood the day temperture of summer (optimum of 40 degree C) of Kolkata. In rainy season, drainage was required otherwise waterlogged plants deteriorated due to the attack of a disease decaying the stem. After one year of cultivation in the field, roots, fibrous in nature, increased in mass and number with an average weight/plant 25-30 g against about 100 g of the total plant weight. This observation gives a postive indication in favour of adaptation and cultivation of this plant in this agroclimatic belt of India.

2003-06-3151 Csizinszky, A.A. (Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, IFAS, University of Florida, Bradenton, FL 34203, USA) Multiple harvest yield response of microirrigated herbs to nitrogen and potassium. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, v. 10(2): p. 5-17, 2002 (Eng; 16 ref).

Italian parsley, Petroselinum crispum, summer savory, Satureja hortensis, sweet marjoram, Origanum majorana, and French thyme,Thymus vulgaris, were evaluated for potential yield in a multiple harvest system during the fall-winter-spring (November-June) 1995-1996 and (December-June) 1996-1997. The herbs were grown with a full-bed polyethylene mulch-micro-(trickle)-irrigation system using two nitrogen and potassium rates as fertilizer treatments. Phosphorus was applied pre-plant at 21.3 kg/ha with both nitrogen and potassium rates. Except for summer savory and Italian parsley, yields of the herbs at the two nitrogen and potassium rates were inconsistent in the two seasons. Yields were higher at higher fertilizer rates.

2003-06-3152 Jai Prakash; Kasera, P.K.* (Laboratory of Plant Ecology, Department of Botany, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur 342 001, Rajasthan, India) Response of nutritional treatments on growth and biomass of Salvadora persica, an important medicinal plant of Thar desert,India. Advances in Plant Sciences, v. 16(1): p. 247-252, 2003 (Eng; 16 ref).

Field experiments were conducted during rainy season 1999-2001 to evaluate the response of different nutritional treatments {AM, FYM, Hexameal, NPK: full dose, NPK:half dose, NPK:full dose+Hexameal and NPK:half+Hexameal} on the growth parameters and biomass production of Salvadora persica. Results revealed that various nutritional treatments increased the plant growth and biomass production significantly over control. AM treated plants showed maximum plant growth and biomass in terms of fresh and dry weights of leaves, stem bark and roots at the end of 24 months under field conditions.

2003-06-3153 Jeliazkova, E.A.; Craker, L.E. (Department of Environmental Sciences, Nova Scotia Agricultural College, P.O.Box 550, Nova Scotia B2N 5E3, Canada) Seed germiantion of some medicinal and aromatic plants in heavy metal environment. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, v. 10(2): p. 105-112, 2002 (Eng; 10 ref).

The effect of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) on seed germination and root growth in Pimpinella anisum L.(anise), Carum carvi L. (caraway), and Foeniculum vulgare L.(fennel) was evaluated on randomly selected samples of 50 seeds in three replicates from each of the plant species. Heavy metal test solutions were prepared from each metal at two concentrations, the critical concentration of the metal in the soil and, except for Pb, approximately two times the critical concentration. Test solutions of Pb were prepared at the critical concentration and five times the critical concentration. Distilled water was used as a control. Root growth was affected more by the heavy metals than was seed germination. Cd at 6 mg/liter stimulated seed germination and root growth of caraway by approximately 20 percent as compared with the control. Caraway seed germination was also stimulated by Pb at 100 mg/liter. Copper and zinc reduced seed germination and root growth as compared with control in all the tested species.

2003-06-3154 Jordan, M.J.; Martinez, R.M.; Cases, M.A.; Sotomayor, J.A. (Murcian Institute of Investigation and Agricultural Development (IMIDA), C./Mayor s/n 30150 La Alberca (Murcia) Spain) Watering level effect on Thymus hyemalis Lange essential oil yield and composition. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p. 5420-5427, 2003 (Eng; 29 ref).

Thymus hyemalis (chemotype thymol) was cultivated as an experimental crop under different watering level conditions in order to achieve 80, 60, 40, and 20 percent of the local potential evapotranspiration (Eto). Two harvesting periods were considered, winter and spring. Essential oil yield percentages did not show statistically significant differences among seasons and different levels of water supply. Capillary GC-MS analysis of the essential oils identified 84 volatile components. Among them, 54 are described for the first time as volatile constituents of the chromatographic profile of this Thymus species. Winter harvesting showed high concentrations in thymol percentage (25.92+-4.39), the 40 percent Eto watering level being the best with respect to obtaining the optimum quality of this essential oil. However, in spring this thyme species needs a greater water supply (80 percent Eto) to achieve the same amount of thymol in the essential oil (29.20+-2.83).

2003-06-3155 Kopsell, D.E.; Kopsell, D.A.; Randle, W.M.; oolong, T.W.; Sams, C.E.; Curran-Celentano, J. (Department of Plant Biology, The University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824, UK) Kale carotenoids remain stable while flavor compounds respond to changes in sulfur fertility. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p. 5319-5325, 2003 (Eng; 54 ref).

Dietary intake of certain carotenoids has been associated with a reduced risk of disease, Kale (Brassica oleracea has the highest levels of carotenoids lutein and beta-carotene, and is an excellent source of minerals among the green leafy vegetable crops. The influence of increased S fertility levels on (1) elemental accumulation, (2) GS and MCSO production, and (3) the accumulation patterns of carotenoid pigments in the leaves of three kale cultivars. Winterbor, Redbor, and Toscano kale were greenhouse-grown using nutrient solution culture with S treatment concentrations of 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 mg of S/L. Decreasing S fertility decreased S leaf content, but increased the levels of Mg and Ca accumulation, two important minerals for human health. Levels of GS and MSCO decreased in response to a decreasing S level in nutrient solution. However, accumulation of lutein and beta-carotene was unaffected by S treatment. Lowering the S fertility in the production of kale should decrease the levels of negative flavors associated with high levels of GS and MSCO without affecting carotenoid pigment levels.

2003-06-3156 Kumawat, P.D.; Choudhary, G.R.; Pareek, R.G. ( Department of Agronomy, S.K.N. College of agriculture, Jobner R.A.U., Bikaner, Rajasthan, India) Response of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), to iron, molybdenum and rhizobium inoculation. Advances in Plant Sciences, v. 16(1): p. 83-85, 2003 (Eng; 6 ref).

A field experiment was conducted on loamy sand soil of Jobner (Rajasthan) to study the effect of iron, molybdenum and Rhizobium inoculation on fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graeum). Application of iron at 3.0 kg/ha, molybdenum at 0.5 kg/ha and seed inoculation with Rhizobium significantly increased plant height, dry matter accumulation/metre row length, branches/plant, number and dry weight of root nodules/plant, pods/plant, seed, straw and biological yields and net return as compared to control. Seeds/pod and test weight were also significantly higher with Rhizobum noculation over no inoculation.

2003-06-3157 Kurian, A.; Augustin, A.; Nybe, E.V. (College of Horticulture, Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara 680 656, Kerala, India ) Economic analysis of resource-based cropping in selected medicinal plants species. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 47-49, 2003 (Eng).

The adaptability and performance analysis of five medicinal plants having high demand in Ayurvedic medicine viz. Satavari (Asparagus racemosus), rose coloured leadwort (Plumbago rosea), Vasaka (Adhatoda beddomei), Jivanti (Holostemma adakodien) and Kacholam (Kaempferia galanga) were carried out by growing them as inter crop in 20 year old coconut plantation with light infiltration ranging from 27 to 35 percent as compared to pure crop. All the five test species were found to be adaptable to the shade of coconut as indicated by the non significant difference in the yield of officinal part. However, Jivanti and Vasaka recorded more yield as pure crop. Economic analysis revealed that the high benefit cost ratio (BCR) for rose coloured leadwort. Kacholam and Satavri raised as inter crop showed its better adaptability for intercropping. Among the five tested species, the cultivation of rose coloured leadwrot as inter crop was the most profitable with a BCR of 3.50. Jivanti recorded slightly high BCR for pure crop (1.19) against 1.17 for inter crop. At the prevailing market price growing Vasaka alone under both cropping situations and Satavari as pure crop resulted in a net loss.

2003-06-3158 Mondal, T.; Ghanti, P.; Mahato, B.; Mandal, A.R.; Thapa, U. (Department of Vegetable Crops, Faculty of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krihi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur 741 252, WB, India) Effect of spacing and biofertilizer on yield and yield attributes of direct sown chilli (Capsicum annuum L. cv Bona Lanka). Environment & Ecology, v. 21(3): p. 712-715, 2003 (Eng; 3 ref).

Study was conducted with three levels of biofertilizer (Azotobacter-seed treatment, soil treatment, normal) and four levels of spacing (45 x 40 cm, 45 x 30 cm, 45 x 20 cm and 45 x 10 cm). The experiment revealed that the closer spacing of 45 x 20 cm was found to be best for fruit setting percentage; fruit yield and other yield attributing parameters were obtained superior with wider spacing (45 x 40 cm). The plant height and days to first harvesting were recorded ideal when the spacing was 45 x 10 cm. The use of biofertilizer (Azotobacter) as seed treatment was found to be suitable for all the growth and yield attributing characters except the percentage of fruit setting. The highes fruit yield of 3.34 t/hectare was obtained with Azotobacter treated seeds.

2003-06-3159 Pandey, A.K.; Patra, A.K.; Shukla, P.K. (Centre for Forestry Research and Human Resource Development, Chhindwara 480 001, MP, India) Prospects of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata) - Cultivation in Madhya Pradesh. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 158-161, 2003 (Eng; 12 ref).

Andrographis paniculata is found wild in Madhya Pradesh as an undergrowth in forests. Kalmegh has potential to grow as a rainfed crop in the available culturable wasteland. To ensure better return from Kalmegh cultivation, studies on co-cultivation of Kalmegh (as intercrop) and other compatible medicinal tree species e.g. Aonla (Emblica officinalis). Harrar (Terminalia chebula), Baheda (Terminalia bellirica), Neem (Azadiorachta indica), Sinduri (Bixa orellana), Bijasal (Pterocarpus marsupium), Bel (Aegle marmelos), Khamer (Gmelina arborea) and Kachnar (Bauhinia variegata) were undertaken. Preliminary observations indicated that Kalmegh can be cultivated as intercrop with (Bixa orellana), (Emblica officinalis), (Buchanania lanzan) and (Gmelina arborea).

2003-06-3160 Pratibha, G.; Korwar, G.R. (Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (ICAR), Santoshnagar, Saidabad, Hyderabad 500 059, AP, India) Crop diversification through medicinal, aromatic and dye yielding plants for sustainability in semi-arid regions. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 129-132, 2003 (Eng; 2 ref).

An experiment was conducted during 1996-2001, to study the production potential and economics of crop diversification with medicinal plants like ashwagandha, senna, Vinca rosea, Solanum aromatic crops like palmarosa, lemon grass, Ocimum and dye crops like henna, Indigo and Bixa and were compared with traditional crops of the region, viz., sunflower and sorghum under rainfed conditions of Hyderabad (semi-arid regions of South India). This study suggests wide variation among different crop with respect to yield and economic returns. The equivalent yields and economics of medicinal, aromatic and dye yielding crops were higher than the traditional agricultural crops of the region. Among the medicinal plants, Vinca rosea and senna being at par recorded higher yields over other crops. In aromatic crops, lemongrass recorded higher yields and economic returns than palmarosa and Ocimum, among dye crops henna recorded higher net returns and benefit: cost ratio than Bixa and Indigo. Hence, for efficient utilization of rainfed Alfisols, selection of suitable crop is important. The alternate crops are likely to ensure better returns due to better utilization of land and rainfall. Further, planting these crops may minimize the risk of crop failure due to biotic and abiotic factors.

2003-06-3161 Saravanan, S.; Buvaneswaran, C. (Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, (Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education), P.B.No.1061 R.S. Puram, Coimbatore 641 002, TN, India) Gloriosa superba L. cultivation in Tamil Nadu - A socio-economic analysis. Advances in Plant Sciences, v. 16(1): p. 23-28, 2003 (Eng; 10 ref).

A study was conducted in selected districts of Tamil Nadu to evaluate socio-economic impact of Gloriosa superba cultivation. General cultivation practices followed in the studied area were presented. The reasons for opting G.superba cultivation were ranked using Garrett scoring technique and it was found that profitability and one time investment in planting operation are two important motivating factors for G.superba cultivation in this regions. Limiting factors were also discussed. Investment analysis showed that G.superba cultivation is profitable under both irrigated and rainfed condition.

2003-06-3162 Sharma, G.; Verma, S.; Mishra, A. (College of Agricultural, India Gandhi Agricultural University, Raipur 492 012, Chhattishgarh, Inida) Prospects of Ashwagandha cultivation in Chhattishgarh. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 162-164, 2003 (Eng; 2 ref).

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is found wild in forest lands of Bastar (Chhattishgarh). Upland of this region is not suitable for rice cultivation due to erratic rainfall and lack of irrigation facilities. Farmers either leave the land as fallow or sometimes they grow millets on this type of land, which is uneconomical. This type of land could be utilized for ashwagandha cultivation as the natural drainage system of upland, soil type, climate and low fertility status are suitable for above and below ground development. This paper discusses the prospects, cultivation techniques diseases and insect pests, and grading of Ashwagandha in upland situations of Chhattishgarh region.

2003-06-3163 Srinivasulu, R.; Venkateswarlu, V.; Prasad, J.; Narasimba Rao, C.V.; Rao, M.N. (CTRI Research Station, Kandukur, Prakasam district, AP, India) Adaptability and economic viability of some medicinal and aromatic crops in the rainfed alfisols of Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 176-178, 2003 (Eng; 3 ref).

The aromatic plants viz. lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus), palmarosa (Cymbopogon martini) and bhuthulasi (Ocimum basilicum) and the medicinal plants viz., kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata), senna (Cassia angustifolia), and aswagandha (Withania somnifera) were studied for their adaptability and economic viability on the rainfed Alfisols of Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh for three years during 1998 to 2001. Based on the productivity and economics of cultivation, lemon grass and palmarosa among aromatic crops and aswagandha and senna among medicinal crops could be included as viable crop alternatives in the tobacco based cropping system of the Prakasam district of Andhra Pradesh.

2003-06-3164 Yang, Q.H.; Feng, H.L.; Ye, W.H.; Cao, H.L.; Deng, X.; Xu, K.Y. (South China Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China) An investigation of the effects of environmental factors on the flowering and seed setting of Mikania micrantha H.B.K (Compositae). Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, v. 11(2): p. 123-126, 2003 (Chi; Eng; 10 ref).

The effects of soil fertility, soil moisture content and shade density on flowering and seed setting of Mikania micrantha were investigated at different habitats. The plants growing on less fertile soil caused fewer flowers, lower seed setting percentage, less 1000 grain weight and shorter flowering duration than those on more fertile soil. However, over-fertile soil also resulted in fewer flowers and low seed setting percentage. The plants growing in open habitat had more flowers with longer flowering duration, whereas under shade the 1000-grain weight was shown to have a slight increase. The seed setting percentage was highest at 10 percent to 20 percent of shade density. Moist soil had no significant effect on 1000-grain weight, but obviously led to more flowers, high seed setting percentage and longer flowering duration.

 

 

Botany(General & Systematic)

 

2003-06-3165 Bukhari, M.J.; Khade, S.W.; Jaiswal, V.; Gaonkar, U.C.; Rodrigues, B.F. (Department of Botany, Government College of Arts, Science & Commerce Quepem 403 705, Goa, India) Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) status of tropical medicinal plants: A field survey of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal association in herbs. Plant Archives, v. 3(2): p. 167-174, 2003 (Eng; 35 ref).

The status of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and spore density was critically examined in twenty medicinal herbs belonging to fourteen angiospermic families. All the plant species examined were colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi having colonization levels ranging from 10 percent in Achyranthes aspera belonging to family Acanthaceae. Spore number ranged from 10 spore/100 g rhizosphere soil in Ludwigia linifolia belonging to family Onagraceae to 382 spores/100g rhizosphere soil in Leucas aspera belonging to Lamiaceae. A total of twenty arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species belonging to four genera viz., Acaulospora, Gigaspora, Glomus and Scutellospora were recorded.

2003-06-3166 Chauhan, J.S.; Tomar, Y.K.*; Bisht, T.S. ( Department of Botany (*Horticulture), HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar Garhwal 246 174, Uttaranchal, India) Certain aspects of seed development in Bauhinia purpurea L.. Advances in Plant Sciences, v. 16(1): p. 43-46, 2003 (Eng; 18 ref).

Simultaneous studie were carried out on pollination subsystem and development of seed of Bauhinia purpurea. Protoderm of stigma differentiates into a glandular epidermis, which is rich in protoplasm and totally papillate covered with a cuticle and secretes a stigmatic fluid. The pollen tube penetrafes through several-layered transmitting tissue and extends to placenta. 5-10 ovules are arranged all along the length of ovary in a row and most of these are fertile. The endosperm development evinces reduced amount of cytoplasm in the chalazal chamber and disintegration of nuclei. The seed coat consists of more or less vacuolated thin-walled cells. Protodermal cells are elongated at right angles to the surface and differentiate into macrosclerieds. Mature seed consists of an embryonal axis with two large, lateral cotyledons covered by a seed coat.

2003-06-3167 Dubey, O.P.; Oudhia, P. (Srishti Herbal Academy and Research Institute (SHARI) 66 Jairam Complex, GE Road, Raipur 492 001, Chhattisgarh, India) New record of white flowered variety of medicinal weed Asteracantha species in Chhattisgarh (India). Ecology Environment & Conservation, v. 9(2): p. 125-126, 2003 ( Eng; 1 ref).

During the floristic surveys of Chhattisgarh, a white flowered variety of Asteracantha longifolia was found growing. Surveys revealed the high density of this herb in Raipur and Durg district. It was also noticed that traditional healers prefer white flowered variety of Asteracantha for medicinal use as compared to purple variety. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3168 Li, A.M.; Ye, X.L.*; Chen, Z.L. (South China Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China) Developmental anatomy of Cymbidium sinense in vitro. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, v. 11(2): p. 161-165, 2003 (Chi; Eng; 29 ref).

The growth and development of Cymbidium sinense in vitro were observed under scanning electron microscopy. The cells in mesophyll near midrib are often elongated as palisade-liked tissue in young leaves. With the development of the plantlets, cells in mesophyll near midrib of leaf base are found to be gradually rounded or elliptic, but those in leaf apex and near midrib are still arranged as palisade-liked tissue. The development of the stem goes through protocorm, rhizome and pseudobulb stages. There are a large number of starch grains in most cells of protocorm and in cells of cortex parenchyma of rhizome. In mature roots, there are medullas with starch grains. Generally, of the four axillary buds, only the outmost floral bud and the innermost leaf bud are developmental.

2003-06-3169 Nawchoo, I.A.; Beigh, S.Y.; Ganie, K.A. ( Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Srinagar 190 006, JK, India) Conservation strategies for Inula racemosa and Saussurea costus-two critically endangered medicinal plants of N.W.Himalayas, India. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 133-140, 2003 (Eng; 19 ref).

Inula racemosa and Saussurea costus are two species faced with a threat of extinction and have been categorized as critically endangered. In order to salvage the precious genetic resource of these plants an integral effort in terms of their domestication and low altitude multiplication was taken up and attempts were made to develop complementary and appropriate agro-technique for conservation and cultivation. Results obtained in transplant studies and in vitro seed germination are suggestive of a wide adaptability at low altitudes under simulated soil conditions as well of enhancing seed germination using different treatments.

2003-06-3170 Omori, Y.; Ohba, H. (Department of Botany, University Museum, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan) Embryology of a Himalayan glasshouse plant, Rheum nobile Hook.f. Thoms. (Polygonaceae). Journal of Japanese Botany, v. 78(3): p. 145-151, 2003 (Eng; 19 ref).

The embryological process of Rheum nobile was anatomically analyzed. Its megagametophyte development was classified as Polygonum type, embryogenic type as Polygonad type and endosperm formation as the Nuclear type. These embryological features of R.nobile were almost the same as those of R.palmatum and some species of Polygonum. The embryological evidences suggest that this species steadily carries out normal amphimixis and produces a great number of seeds at the final year of its life under severe environmental conditions such as low temperature with much rain, strong window and intense UV radiation.

2003-06-3171 Phipps, J.B.; Cafferty, S.; Macklin, J.A. ( Department of Plant Sciences, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7, Canada) Lectotypification of Crataegus coccinea L. and its conspecificity with C.pedicellata Sarg. (Rosaceae). Taxon, v. 52(2): p. 337-338, 2003 (Eng; 19 ref).

Crataegus coccinea, a name with an erratic history of usage but which has given its name to an important subdivision of the genus, C. ser- (or sect) Coccineae is lectotypified. it is held to be identical to the well-known North American species (C.pedicellata Sarg., which it can now safely displace. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3172 Rivera, D.; Friis, I.; Indocencio, C.; Obon, C.; Alcaraz, F.; Reales, A. (Departmento de Biologia Vegetal, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain) The typification of Capparis inermis Forssk., C.sinaica Veill and C.cartilaginea Decne (Capparaceae). Taxon, v. 52(2): p. 307-311, 2003 (Eng; 38 ref).

The binomials (Capparis inermis and C.cartilaginea are neo and lectotypified, respectively. Thus, typified, C.inermis and C.cartilaginea are conspecific, and the correct name for the taxon would be the older binomial, C.inermis, useless a current proposal to conserve C.cartilaginea against C.intermis is accepted. C.sinaica is lectotypified by an illustration cited in protologue and becomes a synonym of C.aegyptia and C.inermis is an illegitimate, later homonym of Forsskal’s name and C.dahi Forssk does not refer to a taxon belonging to genus Capparis. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3173 Schmitt, E. (43, rue des Vosges, F 59100, Roubaix, France) Typification of the Linean names of genus Paeonia L.. Candollea, v. 58(1): p. 183-188, 2003 (Eng; Fre; 25 ref).

Linnaeus published five names (three species and two varieties) in Paeonia. These names are lectotypified after the study of Linnean specimens kept at various herbaria.

2003-06-3174 Shahi, V.K.; Bharati (Central Research Institute (Ayurveda), Punjabi Bagh, New Delhi, India) Availability and identification of herbal drugs in the present context. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 42-46, 2003 (Eng).

Availability, identification, time of collection and therapeutic uses of Gymnema sylvestre, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Celestrus paniculatus, Acorus calamus, Tinospora cordifolia, Terminalia chebula, Bacopa monniera and Centella asiatica have been discussed.

2003-06-3175 Sharma, M.P. (Department of Botany, Hamdard University, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110 062, India) Research and utilization of medicinal plants: The need for botanical methods. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 151-157, 2003 (Eng).

Botanical methods: collection and inventories, identification and determination of plants nomenclature and synonymy, author citation, and documentation of medicinal plants have been discussed.

2003-06-3176 Tiwari, R.K.S.; Singh, V.; Ojha, B.M.; Chandravanshi, S.S.; Singh, L. (College of Agriculture and Research Station(IGKV) Bilaspur 495 001, Chhattisgarh, India) Distribution pattern of medicinal plants in the forest area of Chhattisgarh with special reference to identification of endangered species. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 126-128, 2003 (Eng; 1 ref).

Distribution of 49 plant species at seven sites in Chhattisgarh has been recorded. Some of the endangered species have also been identified.

 

 

Breeding & Genetics

 

2003-06-3177 Chen, L.J.; Tian, H.Q.; Wu, J. (School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China) The study on RAPD fingerprints of Narcissus in China and Europe. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, v. 11(2): p. 177-180, 2003 (Chi; Eng; 12 ref).

Three cultivars of Narcissus tazetta var.chinensis and three cultivars of N.poeticus have been studied by RAPD. Twelve 10-bp arbitrary primers were screened and 119 DNA bands were amplified, among which 84.86 percent were polymorphic. Genetic similarities were calculated using simple matching coefficient, and the phenogram was constructed by using UPGMA method. Three cultivars of N.tazetta were very closely related, while the three cultivars ofN.poeticus were clustered together; indicating that there is a distance in relationship between the first three and the latters. It is suggested that molecular marker technique is helpful for the breeding and variety identification of Narcissus.

2003-06-3178 Dhanaraj, A.L.; Nirmala, K.S.; Sondur, S.N.* ( Division of Horticulture, UAS, GKVK, Bangalore 65, Karnataka) Use of molecular markers and transformation in the improvement of medicinal plants. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 21-29, 2004 (Eng; 35 ref).

Medicinal plants can be improved at the genetic level by various biotechnological techniques that have been developed recently. DNA based markers are tools which have been developed in the past two decades and find an important place in diversity studies, genetic evolution, DNA fingerprinting, gene tagging etc. Molecular markers can help breeders to improve their breeding techniques and ease their efforts in producing superior varieties in a shorter period of time. Another aspect of genetic improvement is the introduction of foreign genes to bring about desired characters. Genetic introduction of foreign genes to bring about desired characters. Genetic transformation overcomes the problem of introducing genes across species which cannot be transferred by traditional crop improvement techniques such as hybridization. Vectors such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A.rhizogenes can be used to bring about genetic transformation systems that have been successfully used in the improvement of medicinal plants.

2003-06-3179 Fujikawa, K.; Ohba, H. (University Museum, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan) A cytological study of Saussurea subgenus eriocoryne (Asteraceae) from the Nepal Himalaya. Journal of Japanese Botany, v. 78(3): p. 135-144, 2003 (Eng; 38 ref).

Somatic chromosome numbers and karyotypes of eight species of Saussurea subgenus Eriocoryne were analyzed. The chromosome numbers of Saussurea laminamaensis, S.bhutkesh and S.kanaii were reported for the first time. The chromosome numbers were 2n=32 and 36. The chromosome number 2n=26 was found in S.gossipiphora, S.laminamaensis, S.nishiokae, S.tridactyla and S.bhutkesh; 2n=32 was found in S.sanpsoniana, S.topkegolensis and S.kanaii. All of these are considered to be diploid, but the basic chromosome numbers, x= 16 and 18, differ among the species. These findings suggest an evolutionary trend toward the formation of aneuploids at the diploid level during species diversification in the Himalayas. The chromosomes were gradually reduced from the longest to the shortest and had median, submedian, subterminal, and terminal centromeres.

2003-06-3180 Lattoo, S.K.; Dhar, A.K.; Upadhya, R.; Ahmed, S.M. ; Verma, A. (Regional Research Laboratory, Canal Road, Jammu Tawi 180 001, JK, India) Breeding behaviour, genetic system and reproductive effort in Sisymbrium irio under cultivation experiment. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 106-113, 2003 (Eng; 38 ref).

Observations on cultivated population of Sisymbrium irio reveal that it is an essentially self-pollinated species and the pollination is strictly chasmogamous. Selfing results in the high rate of seed set. Meiotic system in this species does not guarantee release of much variation as a consequence of low recombination index. The reproductive effort calculated on the basis of (i) dry biomass of foliar and floral parts and (ii) seed output-weight (mg) per unit leaf area (centimeter square) exhibits relation with breeding system. In terms of male and female allocation, it invests more on female side which is in conformity with the postulates of sex allocation theory for autogamous species. higher reproductive success (0.712) is ensured by high seed to ovule and fruit to flower ratios.

2003-06-3181 Maiti, S.; Biswas, A.K. (Department of Botany, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741 235, WB, India) Correlation and path-coefficient analysis of yield components in Nigella sativa L.. Environment & Ecology, v. 21(3): p. 688-691, 2003 (Eng; 5 ref).

The interrelationship of yield with differnt yield attributing parameters in 25 genotypes of Nigella sativa was estimated by computing their correlation and path coefficient. Genotyplically, number of primary branches per plant was strongese contributor to wards yield but 100 seed weight was supposed to be a probable cause for variations in genotypic and phenotypic levels. At both levels, however, the contributions of 100-seed weight and number of capsules per plant were highly significant and positive.

2003-06-3182 Misra, H.O.; Shukla, N.; Sharma, J.R.; Lal, R.K.; Naqvi, A.A. (Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, P.O.CIMAP, Lcuknow 226 015, UP, India) Assessment of genetic variability of different traits in Anethum graveolens. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 141-144, 2003 (Eng; 6 ref).

More than 27 individual selections from diverse populations were analyzed for morpho-metric and qualitative traits including carvone, dillapiole and limonene contents. Out of these, 12 diverse collections from U.P., Uttaranchal, Gujarat and Punjab were raised in RBD, to access the existing variability for desirable plant traits i.e. flower initiation 50 percent flowering, plant height, number of primary branches, stem diameter, seed yield, oil content and phyto-chemical quality. Simple statistics i.e. range, variance, coefficient of variation (C.V.), heritability and genetic advance were analyzed for seed yield and its contributing traits. There was a good extent of variation among collections for desirable attributes. Moderate C.V., high heritability coupled with moderate genetic advance in few plant traits, suggest additive gene effects and others under control of non-additive gene effects. Therefore, breeding procedure which could exploit both type of gene effects are suggested through raising of polycross nursery, sorting desirable segregants for high seed and oil yield with better-phyto-chemical attributes.

2003-06-3183 Nemeth, E. (Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Szent Istvan University, 1118 Budapest, Villanyi str. 29, Hungary (1518 Budapest, P.O. Box. 53)) World tendencies, aims and results of poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) breeding. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p.129-143, 2004 (Eng; 69 ref).

The article gives an overview about different aims in poppy breeding through the world. It presents the most important data on the genetic background of plant characteristics such as plant height, leaf form, petal colour, seed yield, level and spectrum of alkaloid accumulation etc. Determination and assumptions on gene actions seem to be more simple in case of morphological characteristics, while there exists a lot of contradictions in case of the quantitative fruits such as morphine content, opium content or capsule yield. Data are based on relevant publications from the past 30 years. Moreover, the main methods of poppy breeding and practical results of heterosis breeding, selection, mutation breeding and gene transformation are summarised. Certian differences in breeding and gene transformation are summarised. Certain differences in breeding aims and methods can be observed between India and Europe. Each method has its place in reaching the breeding aims.

2003-06-3184 Nieri, P.; Adinolfi, B.; Morelli, I.; Breschi, M.C.; Simoni, G.; Martinotti, E. (Department of Psychiatry, Neurobiology, Pharmacology and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Italy) Genetic charactrization of the three medicinal Echinacea speices using RAPD analysis. Planta Medica, v. 69(7): p. 685-686, 2003 (Eng; 14 ref).

The three medicinal species of the Echinacea genus, E.angustifolia, E.pallida and E.purpurea were distinguished using the RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) technique. Species-specific markers were identified from amplicons obtained with four of the twenty 10-mer primers contained in the Operon RAPD kit A. In particular, one marker was identified for E.angustifolia (OPA 20, 1800 pb) and E.pallida(OPA 10, 600 pb) and three markers for E.purpurea(OPA). Genetic distance analysis indicated a high degree of ditterence among the three species with a relative lower difference between E.angusifolia and E.pallida.

2003-06-3185 Peeters, K.; Wilde, C.D.; Jaeger, G.D.; Angenon, G.; Depicker, A.* (Vakgroep Moleculaire Genetica, Universiteit Gent, K.L. Ledeganckstraat 35, B-9000 Gent, Belgium) Transient expression systems for the production of recombinant antibodies in plants. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 295-306, 2004 (Eng; 30 ref).

The ability of plants to functionally express a wide range of complex, heterologus proteins, such as antibodies, has a great potential as a means for industrial protein production. Proteins can be produced in either transiently or stably transformed plants. Transient production of recombinant proteins has the advantage of being a rapid and convenient method for laboratory-scale production, allowing initial characterization and analysis of proteins. This review focus on the production of antibodies by using agroinfiltration or viral vectors.

2003-06-3186 Prohens, J.; Anderson, G.J.; Rodriguez-Burruezo, A.; Nuez, F. (Centro de Conservacion y Mejora de la Agrodiveridal Valenciana, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia 46022, Valencia, Spain) Exploiting wild species for the genetic improvement of the pepino (Solanum muricatum). Journal of Applied Botany-Angewandte Botanic, v. 77(1): p. 21-27, 2003 (Eng; 44 ref).

Among the wild species of Solanum; S.caripense and S.tabanoense are sexually compatible with S.muricatum bear relatively large fruits, especially S.tabanoense and have high soluble solids content (SSC) titratable acidity (TA) and ascorbic contents (AAC). Results of the study showed that interspecific hybrids are intermediate for most traits, but are very vigorous and their yield can be as high as those of cultivated clones. Backcrosses followed by selection showed that it is possible to rapidly recover the productive traits characteristic of the pepino, while increasing the SSC and AAC; thus contributing to the overall improvement of fruit quality. Results indicated that wild species can make a significant contribution to pepino breeding and can be easily integrated in local breeding programmes. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3187 Seidler Lozykowska, K. (Research Institute of Medicinal Plants, Ul. Libelta 27, 61-707, Poznan, Poland) Determination of the ploidy level in chamomile (Chamomilla recutita (L.)  Rausch.) strains rich in alpha-bisabolol. Journal of Applied Genetics, v. 44(2): p. 151-155, 2003 (Eng; 6 ref).

Study was conducted to identify morphological traits like flower head diameter, 100 flower head weight, 1000 seed weight, pollen grain diameter, stoma length and number of chloroplasts etc. whose performance depends on plant ploidy in Chamomilla recutita. Out of the traits examined stomata length, number of chloroplasts per guard cells, 100 flowerhead weight and 1000 seed weight, proved to be significantly higher in tetraploid strains and can be used for indirect identification of tetra- and diploid genotypes in various developmental stages of this spcies.

2003-06-3188 Sharma, J.R. (Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, PO CIMAP, Lucknow 226 015, UP, India) Varietal improvement for subtainable utilization of medicinal and aromatic plants in India: CIMAP’s contribution. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 87-93, 2003 (Eng; 10 ref).

Improved varieties (introduced by CIMAP) of medicinal and aromatic plants along with their yield and quality components have been described. Plant species used for modern drugs in India and major aromatic plants used by essential oil industry in India have also been tabulated.

2003-06-3189 Shukla, N.; Mishra, H.O.; Sharma, S. (Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow 226 015, UP, India) Utility of correlation studies to selection for yield components in Boerhaavia diffusa. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 102-105, 2003 (Eng; 10 ref).

Correlation coefficients have been calculated for root yield and other thirteen components from 71 genetically and morphologically diverse genetic stocks of Boerhaavia diffusa collected from different regions of India. Significant variation was observed for all the traits studied. Dry and fresh root yield exhibited significant and postive association with root length, root width and alkaloid content and yield. Dry root yield was significantly and positvely associated with leaf length x breadth. Fresh herb yield showed highly significant and positive association with plant height, stem diameter, and internode length and root length. The study revealed that root width, alkaloid content and yield were important traits for selection to improve root yield whereas, root length was important for both herb and root yield.

2003-06-3190 Singh, N.; Lal, R.K.; Sharma, S. (Central Institute of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, Lucknow 226 015, UP, India) Genetics of economic traits related to seed and husk yield and their utilization in psyllium (Plantago ovata F.). Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 94-97, 2003 (Eng; 6 ref).

Generation mean analysis of 4 crosses P1xP4,P3xP5,P3xP7 and P4xP7 involving 5 inbreds lines of Plantago ovata was carried out. The four scales A,B,C,D were calculated out of which atleast one scale was found significant for all the characters in the cross P1xP4 and P4xP7 and for most of the characters in P3xp5 and P3xP7. This indicated the presence of epistatic interactions. The study clearly indicates the significant role of epistasis for different traits in different crosses. Seed and husk yield exhibited additive x additive and dominance x dominance interaction in P1xP4 only and dominance x dominance in P3xP5 and P3 x P7 and all the three types of interactions in P4xP7. Duplicate gene action was observed for most of the characters.

2003-06-3191 Singh, S.M.; Yadav, H.S.; Singhs, S.R.J. ( J.N.Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, College of Agriculture, Rewa 486 001, MP, India) Genetics of BOAA content and seed yield in Lathyrus. Advances in Plant Sciences, v. 16(1): p. 329-331, 2003 (Eng; 4 ref).

Generation mean analysis was carried out to know the genetics of B-N-Oxalyl aminolanine(BOAA) content and seed yield in Lathyrus. Presence of epistasis was detected for all the characters except days to maturity and 1000 seed weight. Both additive and dominace components of genetic variance were found significant for seed yield/plant and BOAA content in seed. Complementary type of epistsis was operative in the inheritance of branches/plant, seed/pod and seed yield/plant.

2003-06-3192 Sreshty, T.V.; Kumar, P.* (National Research Centre for Plant Biotechnology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012, India) Genetic engineering of plants for therapeutic purposes. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 275-293, 2004 (Eng; 85 ref).

Advent of plant molecular biology and genetic engineering has ushered in a new revolution in biological sciences which encompasses virtually every facet of human life. In addition to the development of new crop varieties for resistance to insect pests, diseases, herbicides etc., transgenic plants have become a source of many products having industrial, pharmaceutical and therapeutic value. Because of many inherent advantages, expression of foreign peptides, proteins, enzymes, antigens and secondary metabolites in plants is an attractive proposition. In the past decade, considerable work has been done in expressing a plethora of genes having therapeutic value to humans and animals. The present review discusses the problems and prospects of this interesting area.

2003-06-3193 Takeuchi, M.; Kang, D.H.; Yamamoto, Y.; Suzuki, S. ; Kohda, H. (The Experimental Station of Medicinal Plant, Hiroshima University School of Medicine, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan) RAPD analysis of Coptis plants. Natural Medicines, v. 57(4): p. 139-145, 2003 (Eng; 11 ref).

Genomic DNAs from fresh leaves of Coptis plants were studied by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The dendrogram retrieved from the RAPD profiles revealed that C.chinensis, C.japonica var. japonica, C.japonica var. Dissecta and C.japonica var. Major are clearly distinguishable from each other. All of the domestic three groups of cultivated Coptis plants belonged to the cluster of C.japonica var. dissecta and no samples spread to the cluster of C.japonica var japonica. The bands specifically amplified in each variety are useful for identification of Coptis plants.

2003-06-3194 Verma, P.K.; Saini, M.L.; Yadav, O.P.; Madan, V.K. ; Tyagi, C.S. (Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Section, Department of Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hissar 125 004, Haryana, India) Association and path analysis for oil yield and different morphological characters in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus). Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 114-118, 2003 (Eng).

Prevalence of sufficient genetic variability was recorded for plant height, tillers per plant, leaf length, leaf width, fresh herb yield, oil content and oil yield in three harvests of 12 lemongrass genotypes. Path analysis based on partitioning of genotypic correlations revealed that oil content, fresh herb yield and leaf length had the highest and positive direct effects on oil yield in that order. Oil content had the highest positive indirect effects on oil yield via tillers per plant, while oil content had negative indirect effects via plant height, leaf length, leaf width and fresh herb yield in all the cuts. Therefore, oil content and tillers per plant should be the main criteria during selection for increasing oil yield in lemongrass.

2003-06-3195 Zhu, S.; Fushimi, H.; Cai, S.; Komatsu, K. ( Institute of Natural Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama, 930-0194, Toyama, Japan) Phylogenetic relationship in the genus Panax: Inferred from Chloroplast trnK gene and nuclear 18SrRNA gene sequences. Planta Medica, v. 69(7): p. 647-653, 2003 (Eng; 17 ref).

Chloroplast trnK gene and nuclear 18S rRNA gene sequences of 13 Panax taxa, collected mainly from Sino-Japanese floristic region, were invesigated in order to construct phylogenetic relationship and toassist taxonomic delimitation within this genus. The length of trnK gene sequence varied from 2537 bp to 2573 bp according to the taxa, whereas matK gene sequences, embedded in the intron of trnK gene, were of 1512 bp in all taxa species specific trnK/matK sequence provided much insight into phylogeny and taxonomy of this genus. 18S rRNA gene sequences were of 1808 to 1809 bps in length, only 9 types of 18S rRNA sequences were observed among 13 taxa. By comparing trnK and 18S rRNA gene sequences among 13 Panax taxa a set of valuable molecular evidences for identification of ginseng drugs was obtained.

 

 
Diseases & Pests

 

2003-06-3196 Balachandar, D.; Kannaiyan, S.; Ono, H.; Murooka, Y. (Azolla Laboratory, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore 641 003, India) Curing of symbiotic plasmid of Mesorhizobium huakuii subsp. rengei isolated from Astragalus sinicus. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, v. 41(8): p. 912-914, 2003 (Eng; 11 ref).

Astragalus sinicus (Chinese Milk vetch), a green manure leguminous plant, harbors (Mesorhizobium huakuii subsp. rengei strain B3 in the root nodules. The visualization of symbiotic plasmid of strain B3 showed the presence of one sym plasmid of about 425 kbp. Curing of sym plasmid by temperature and acrydine orange was studied. Growing rhizobial cells at high temperature (37 degree C) or treating the cells with acrydine orange at 50 mg/l eliminated sym plasmid of M.huakuii strain B3, which was confirmed by sym plasmid visualization and plant infection test of cured strains.

2003-06-3197 Devi, M.R.; Bidisa Das; Sarmah, R. (Department of Botany Cotton College, Guwahati 781 001, Assam, India) Phylloplane mycoflora on Cycas and Gnetum. Advances in Plant Sciences, v. 16(1): p. 333-335, 2003 (Eng; 7 ref).

Qualitative as well as quantitative estimation of phylloplane micro-fungi of Cycas and Gnetum leaves of different ages. The type of mycoflora isolated varied from each other and some species were common in both the type of leaves. In Cycus leaf surface Monilia group were found in all the stages of leaf growth where as in Gnetum, Curvularia species were present only on the surface of the yound leaves.

2003-06-3158 Kalra, A.; Singh, H.B.; Patra, N.K.; Sushil Kumar (Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Planta, Lucknow 226 015, UP, India) Integrated host plant resistance and fungicide application on leaf blight control in menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L.). Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, v. 10(2): p. 83-87, 2002 (Eng; 8 ref).

The effects of host resistance and fungicide (chlorothalonil) applications on leaf blight (Alternaria alternata(Fr.) Keissler) disease on the transplanted crops of menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L.) were evaluated under natural epidemics in Tarai region of Uttar Pradesh, India. Essential oil yield were reduced 36 percent in suscptible plants (cv Shivalik) not treated with fungicide as compared with control plants protected by fungicide. The corresponding yield loss in leaf blight resistant plants (cv. Kosi) was only 13 percent as compared with plants not treated with fungicide. The combined effects of the host resistance and the fungicide application resutled in 91 percent increase in essential oil yields compared with unsprayed susceptible plants. The results suggest that planting disease resistant cultivars could prevent most crop losses and minimize the amount of fungicide needed to adequately protect M.arvensis crops even in high blight years.

2003-06-3199 Rahman, A.; Basumatary, S.K.; Ahmed, M. ( Department of Botany & Biotechnology, Goalpara College, Goalpara 783 101, Assam, India) Comparison of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere microflora of som (Machilus bombycina) and Soalu (Litsea polyantha) plants growing in Goalpara district, Assam, India. Environment & Ecology, v. 21(3): p. 617-619, 2003 (Eng; 6 ref).

A comparative study of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere microflora of som (Machilus bombycina) and soalu (Litsea polyantha) plants was carried out to identify the fungal populations in summer and winter. Thirteen fungal genera were recorded from soil of som and soalu plantations in both the seasons. Highest mycoflora was recorded in rhizosphere soil and the number was higher in Som plant.

 

 

Physiology & Biochemistry

 

2003-06-3200 Abdin, M.Z.; Israr, M.*; Kumar, P.A.; Jain, S.K.* (Centre for Biotechnology, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India) Molecular approaches to enhance artemisinin content in Artemisia annua L.. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 145-161, 2004 (Eng; 79 ref).

Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene-lactone with endoperoxide bridge, is a highly potent, non-conventional, antimalarial drug. It has been isolated from Artemisia annua. The relatively low yield of artemisinin (0.1-0.5 percent) in A.annua is a serious limitation to the commercialization of the drug. The enhanced production of artemisinin, therefore, is highly desirable, and can be achieved either by cell tissue culture fed with the precursors, metabolites and inhibitor of the terpene biosynthetic pathway or by selection and breeding of high yielding strains of A.annua. Another approach is to synthesize this drug through bioconversion of less complex and more easily accessible precursors such as arteannuin-B and artemisinic acid employing cell-free enzymes derived from the plant itself. Using cell-free enzymes from A.annua the artemisinic acid and arteannuin-B were converted into artemisinin by 7.2 per cent and 6.5 percent, respectively. The biotransformation studies with cell-free enzymes conducted in the laboratory with a new substrate, dihydroarteannuin-B, suggest that before being converted into artemisinin the arteannuin B is converted into this compound, which is then rapidly converted into artemisinin. Consequently, it does not exist in vivo. It has been also found that HEPES is a better buffer for bioconversion studies as it has higher buffering capacity and is less prone to variation in pH with the change in temperature. Further, the genetic engineering tools can be employed to enhance in vivo synthesis of artemisinin.

2003-06-3201 Agte, V.V.; Tarwadi, K.V.; Patil, S.G. (Agharkar Research Institute, G.G. Agarkar Road, Pune 411 004, Maharashtra, India) Studies on micronutrient and antioxidant potential of grapes available in India for their nutraceutical value. Journal of Food Science & Technology, v. 40(1): p. 106-108, 2003 (Eng; 20 ref).

The study reports results for 14 grape hybrids, 7 market types, i.e. ‘Thompson seedless’, ‘Sonaka’, ‘Kishmish chorni’, ‘Malaga’, ‘Catauba’, ‘Concord’, ‘Large white’, 2 raisins types and 5 juice samples. Purple hybrid and market grapes performed better than their white counterparts in the superoxide scavenging activity (SOSA) and inhibition of thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) with ‘Large White’ showing highest antioxidant value for TBARS. Purple marketed grapes on dry basis indicated 4 times higher value than raisins for TBRAS. Ferrous iron chelation activity (FICA) was highest in market whites and lowest in hybrid purple types. Juice samples exhibited highest value for SOSA. Raisins and juices showed good potential in terms of TNRAS activity probably due to the higher levels of polyphenols which are powerful antioxidants. Raisins showed the highest tannin content and white hybrids the least-content. The levels of micronutrients from 100 g of grapes will be equal to 11 percent RDA for vitamin C, 10 percent RDA of riboflavin, 6 percent RDA for thiamine, 3 to 4 percent for Mn and Se. Grapes however, seem to be poor sources for beta carotene, iron and zinc.

2003-06-3202 Arrebola, M.L.; Verpoorte, R. (Department of Pharmacognosy, Leiden/Amsterdam Center for Drug Research, Gorlaeus Laboratories, Leiden University, P.O.Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands) Micropropagation of Isoplexis isabelliana (Webb & Berth.) Masf., a threatened medicinal plant. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, v. 10(2): p. 89-94, 2002 (Eng; 13 ref).

In vitro propagation of Isoplexis isabelliana, an endemic Spanish medicinal plant, using nodal segments of stems is described. Optimum shoot proliferation was achieved on Murashige and Skoog liquid medium supplemented with 0.44 microM BA. Plantlets were successfully acclimatized without previous in vitro rooting of the shoots.

2003-06-3203 Babiker, H.A.A.; Nakajima, H.; Inanaga, S.*; Sugimoto, Y. (Arid Land Research Centre, Tottori University, 1390 Hamasaka, Tottori 680 0001, Japan) Biological activities of oxoisoaporphines isolated from Menispermum dauricum root cultures. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 163-173, 2004 (Eng; 14 ref).

The effects of seven isoquinoline alkaloids, isolated from Menispermum dauricum root cultures, on melanin biosynthesis by the fungus Pyricularia oryzae IFO 31177, and on seedling growth of rice (Oryza sativa cv. Yamahikari) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Kingcisco) were investigated. Three oxoisoaporphine alkaloids, namely 2,3 dihydrodauriporphine, tyraminoporphine and dauriporphine, exhibited inhibitory effects on melanin production of the fungus. The same alkaloids also displayed a contrasting effect on the root growth of rice and lettuce. On the average the length of rice roots was reduced by 53-91 percent, while that of lettuce was enhanced by 12-95 percent relative to the control. However, a less effect was obtained on the shoot growth of both crops.

2003-06-3204 Bhushan, B.; Bhat, R.; Sharma, A. (Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri, Mangalore 574 199, Karnataka, India) Status of free radicals in Indian monsooned coffee beans gamma-irradiated for disinfestation. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 4960-4964, 2003 (Eng; 24 ref).

Free radicals in two cultivars of Indian monsooned coffee beans, gamma-irradiated for hygienic and quarantine purposes, were examined by entrapping the small amount of samples in potassium chloride powder in ESR quartz tubes. In contrast to a prominent free radical signal at g=2.002, observed in spermoderm (silver skin) and cotyledon (whole seed without skin) parts of normal coffee beans, the same was not discernible in monsooned coffee bean parts of both cultivars. The ESR signal was found to be more prominent in the spermoderm than in the whole seed portion of the normal coffee beans. Common practices of roasting and powdering were found to generate quantitatively more free radicals in coffee beans than gamma-irradiation alone. Phenols, contributing maximally to observed free radical signals in coffee beans, were significantly different in normal and monsooned coffee beans. These observations on insignificant free radical population in irradiated monsooned coffee beans may be attributed to their inherent possession of high water activity, favoring decay of free radicals produced.

2003-06-3205 Chishti, N.T.N.; Siddiqui, B.A. (Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002, UP, India) Direct multiple shoot regeneration in Mentha arvensis L.. Advances in Plant Sciences, v. 16(1): p. 1-4, 2003 (Eng; 13 ref).

Leaf explant of Mentha arvensis (0.5-1.0 cm) were cultured in vitro on MS (Murashige and Skoog’s, 1962) basal medium singly as well as in various combination of growth hormones viz; BAP,BAAP+IBA,BAP+NAA,BAP+IAA,Kn+NAA,Kn+IBA, 1/2MS+Kn+NAA, Kn+BAP+IAA. The best response for direct multiple shoot regeneration and subsequent rooting was observed on MS+Kn (9.3 microM)+BAP:8.9 microM)+IAA (2.2 microM) followed by BAP (8.9 microM)+NAa(5.4 microM). This vividly demonstrates that lower auxin to higher cytokinin containing media proved best. The well developed microshoots having roots were transpianted to soil and soilritemixutre (3:1) and kept for 8 days in controlled conditions (25+-2 degree C, 50-55 percent relative humidity). Subsequently they were shifted successfully to earthen pot having pure garden soil and reared to maturity.

2003-06-3206 Chishti, N.T.N.; Siddiqui, B.A. (Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002, UP, India) Clonal propagation of Mentha arvensis L. by use of shoot tip. Advances in Plant Sciences, v. 16(1): p. 13-16, 2003 (Eng; 15 ref).

Shoot tip as an explant of Mentha arvensis (1.0-2.0 cm) in length was taken from in vivo grown plants and cultured in vitro on MS basal (Murashige and Skoogs, 1962) medium augmented singly or in combination with viz; IBA,IAA,NAA,Kn,BAP,BAP+IAA,BAP+IBA,BAP+NAA, Kn+BAP+IAA. The best response for maximum multiple shoot regeneration and subsequent rooting was observed on MS+Kn (9.3 microM)+BAP(8.9 microM)+IAA (2.2 microM) followed by IAA (4.4 microM). Rooted plantlets were transferred to the pot in a mixture of soil and soilrite (3:1) and kept for a week under the controlled conditions (25+-2 degree C, 50-55 percent relative humidity). Subsequently they were shited to field condition successfully.

2003-06-3207 Choudhary, M.; Kumar, A. (Biotechnology Laboratory No.17, Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004, Rajasthan, India) Effect of different growth regulators and fertilizers in improving growth and productivity of isabgol (Plantago ovata). Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 173, 2003 (Eng; 5 ref).

Growth regualtors treatment at lower concentations enhanced growth, IAA was the best among IBA, NAA and GA3 employed in the present investigations. Seed germination was improved at lower dosages of salt and thus the plant is relatively salt tolerant. It also tolerated lower levels of water stress given as PEG6000. Nitrogen sources like KNO3, NH4,NO3 when applied  to seeds, promoted seed germination and seedling growth at lower concentation but inhibited at higher concentation. Apparently, psyllium is salt and stress tolerant. Its growth and productivity could be enhancd by proper treatment with growth regulators and inorganic macronutrients.

2003-06-3208 Cushman, K.E.; Maqbool, M.; Gerard, P.D.; Bedir, E.; Lata, H.; Moraes, R.M. (North Mississippi Research & Extension Center, P.O. Box 1690, Verona, MS 38879, USA) Variation of podophyllotoxin in leaves of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 477-478, 2003 (Eng; 9 ref).

Podophyllotoxin content of red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) (Cupressaceae), immature, mature male, and mature female plants (approximately 1.45 mg/g) was significantly higher than that of leaves of juvenile plants (0.60 mg/g). Sampling date also affected podophyllotoxin content. Leaves harvested in January and April exhibited higher podophyllotoxin contents (1.56 and 1.45 mg/g, respectively) than leaves harvested in February and June (1.06 and 1.08 mg/g, respectively). There was no obvious pattern or trend in the data due to sampling date. There was no significant interaction between plant type and sampling date. These results indicate that foliage of mature Eastern red cedar, a waste product of the lumber industry, could be a low-yielding, but relatively stable, source of podophyllotoxin.

2003-06-3209 Das, R.K.; Kanp, U.K.; Bhattacharjee, A. (Plant Physiology & Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Botany & Forestry Vidyasagar University, Midnapore 721102, WB, India) Influence of plant extracts of Eucalyptus, turmeric and ginger on seed potentiation of mung bean cultivar. Environment & Ecology, v. 21(3): p. 599-606, 2003 (Eng; 28 ref ).

An attempt was made to enhance storage potential of mung bean seeds by using leaf extracts of Eucalyptus and rhizome extracts of turneric (Curcuma longa) and ginger (Zingiber officinale). From the results it was concluded that plant extracts are the promisig herbal agents for substantial restoration of viability and storability of seeds under unfavourable ambient climatic conditions.

2003-06-3210 Das, B.; Das, R.* (Organic Chemistry Division-1, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500 007, AP, India) Biotechnological applications in anticancer medicinal plants. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p.53-62, 2004 (Eng; 58 ref).

Vinblastine and vincristine (alkaloids of Catharanthus species, podophyllotoxin (lignan of Podophyllum species), camptothecin (alkaloid of Camptotheca and Nothapodytes species) and taxol (diterpenoid of Taxus species) are the examples of the promising natural anticancer molecules derived from plants. However, these compounds are present in low concentration in the plants and some of the plants are rare and slow growing. For rapid and large production of the anticancer compounds biotechnology has now been applied in the above mentioned species and successful results have already been obtained in several cases. In the present review article the biotechnological applications in the anticancer medicinal plants (e.g. Catharanthus, Podopyllum, Camptotheca, Nothapodytes and Taxus species) for production of their active constituents have been presented.

2003-06-3211 Deng, X.; Feng, H.L.; Ye, W.H.; Yang, Q.H.; Xu, K.Y.; Cao, H.L.; Fu, Q. (South China Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China) A study on the control of exotic weed Mikania micrantha by using parasitic Cuscuta campestris. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, v. 11(2): p. 117-122, 2003 (Chi; Eng; 17 ref).

Parasite Cuscuta campestris was examined for controlling the growth and spread of harmful weed Mikania micrantha. The experiments were carried out to estimate biomass production by sowing the seeds of M.micrantha in sample plots where weed grew densely, and for physiological study by cultivation of both plants in pots. The result exhibited that the leaf number, stem length, and biomass dry weight of individual of the host M.micrantha began to decrease after the host was parasitized for about 30 days. The parasite hampered the growth and reproduction of the host and depressed it even to die. It is suggested that C.campestris might be a promising plant for controlling the weed.

2003-06-3212 Dubey, V.S.; Bhalla, R.; Luthra, R. ( Neurobiotechnology Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA) An esterase is involved in geraniol production during palmarosa inflorescence development. Phytochemistry, v. 63(3): p. 257-264, 2003 (Eng; 28 ref).

Among the major essential oil constituents, biogenesis of geranyl acetate was much higher than that of geraniol. Alkaline hydrolysis of {14C} labeled geranyl acetate revealed that the majority of the label incorporated into geranyl acetate was present in the geraniol moiety, indicating that only newly synthesized geraniol gets acetylated to form geranyl acetate. Geranyl acetate cleaving esterase (GAE) activity followed a similar pattern during both in vivo and in vitro inflorescence development, with maximum activity at immature inflorescence stages, suggesting the involvement of GAE in geraniol production during inflorescence development. Five esterase isozymes (Est-A to E) were detected in the enzymic fraction of palmarosa inflorescence and all showed GAE activity, with Est-B being significantly increased during inflorescence development. The role of GAE in geraniol production and improving the palmarosa oil quality is discussed.

2003-06-3213 Dunisch, O.; Puls, J.* (Institute fur Holzchemie der Bundesforschungsanstalt fur Forst und Holzwirtschaft Hamburg, Leuschner Stress 91, D-21031, Hamburg, Germany) Changes in contents of reserve materials in an evergreen, a semi-deciduous and a deciduous Meliaceae species from the Amazon. Journal of Applied Botany-Angewandte Botanic, v. 77(1): p. 10-16, 2003 (Eng; 41 ref).

Study was conducted to determine the relationship of changes in the content of reserve materials, the phenological characteristics and the cambial growth dynamics of an evergreen (Carpa guianensis), a semideciduous (Swietenia macrophylla) and a deciduous (Cedrela odorata) grown in the Central Amazon. From the results obtained it was concluded that the changes in the content of reserve materials of the three species are related to seasonal changes of the water supply. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3214 Eapen, S. (Plant Biotechnology and Secondary Products Section, Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India) Use of medicinal plants cell cultures in biotechnology: Problems and prospects. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p.31-51, 2004 (Eng; 134 ref).

Plants have been the traditional source of biopharmaceuticals and use of cell and tissue culture is an alternate approach to obtain these compounds on a commercial scale without destroying the natural resources. The significance of medicinal plant cell cultures in biotechnology is discussed with special emphasis on commercial production of secondary products of pharmaceutical importance. Manipulation of various factors such as components of media, biotransformation, elicitation, use of hairy root cultures and transgenic technology to improve productivity is dicussed.

2003-06-3215 Eckhart, W.; Wink, M. (Research and Development, ROOTec Gesellchaft fur bioactive Wirkstoffe mbH, 1NF 515, Technologiepark, 69 120 Heidelberg, Germany) Biotechnology potential of hairy root culture. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 441-453, 2004 (Eng; 52 ref).

Plant derived secondary metabolites are of great importance for the production of pharmaceuticals, either as herbal remedies or as single entities. Hairy root cultures are considered as an interesting means for valuable secondary metabolite production. In general, hairy roots combine fast growth with the chemical and biochemical characteristics of roots from untreated plants. Contrary to plant suspension cultures, hairy roots provide a genetically stable culture system with fully differentiated tissues. However, commercial production of bioactive compounds via hiary root cultures requires novel designs for bioreactors since hairy roots represent a heterogenous mass of tissues with unusual morphology.

2003-06-3216 Fournier, A.R.; Proctor, J.T.A.; Gauthier, L.; Khanizadeh, S.; Belanger, A.; Gosselin, A.; Dorais, M.* (Les Fraises de Ille a Orleans Inc., Ile d’Orleans, Quebec, Canada GOA 3ZO) Understory light and root ginsenosides in forest-grown Panax quinquefolius. Phytochemistry, v. 63(7): p. 777-782, 2003 (Eng; 16 ref).

The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between light levels in the understory of a broadleaf forest and the content of six ginsenosides (Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rd) in 1- and 2-years-old American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) roots. Results revealed that ginsenoside contents in 1- and 2 year-old roots collected in September were significantly related to direct and total light levels, and duration of sunflecks. At this time, the effect of light levels accounted for up to 48 and 62 percent of the variation in ginsenoside contents of 1- and 2-year-old American ginseng roots. Also, red (R) and far red (FR) light and the R:FR ratio significantly affected Rd, Rc, and Rg1 contents in 2-year-old roots accounting for up to 40 percent of the variation in ginsenoside contents.

2003-06-3217 Fukuda, T.; Ito, H.; Yoshida, T.* (Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530, Japan) Antioxidative polyphenols from walnuts (Juglans regia L.). Phytochemistry, v. 63(7): p. 795-801, 2003 (Eng; 16 ref).

Three hydrolyzable tannins, glansrins A-C, together with adenosine, adenine, and 13 known tannins were isolated from the n-BuOH extract of walnuts (the seeds of Juglans regia). Glansrins A-C were characterized as ellagitannins with a tergalloyl group, or related polyphenolic acyl group based on spectral and chemical evidence. The 14 walnut polyphenols had superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity with EC50 21.4-190 microM and a remarkable radical scavenging effect against 1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH)(EC50 0.34-4.72 microM).

2003-06-3218 Gupta, V. (National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBGPR), Pusa Campus, New Delhi- 110 012, India) Conservation strategies for plants used in Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 373-385, 2004 (Eng; 11 ref).

As there is a rapid increase in the demand of plant based raw materials, predominantly used in Indian System of Medicine, many of these valuable plants are facing threat. In addition, various abiotic and biotic stresses coupled with ownership issues on biological resources after the Convention of Biodiversity have made the situation worse. A holistic approach is needed to conserve the diversity both at regional and global levels. Various strategies to conserve the variability for current and future use is discussed. Ex-situ conservation in the form of seeds is the cheapest and safest technology and as a prerequisite for this, seed germination and dormancy breaking studies have been done on large number of medicinal and aromatic plants. Successful algorithms for enhanced germination and dormancy removal have been achieved and described.

2003-06-3219 Herath, W.; Mikell, J.R.; Ferreira, D.; Khan, I.A.* (National Center of Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Mississippi University, MS 38677, USA) Microbial metabolites of harman alkaloids. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(6): p. 646-648, 2003 (Eng; 18 ref).

Harman alkaloids, harmaline, harmalol and harman were converted by Rhodotorula rubra ATCC 20129 into the tryptamines, 2-acetyl-3-(2-acetamidoethyl)-7-methoxyindole and 2-acetyl-3-(2-acetamidoethyl)-7-hydroxyindole, respectively. Harman was biotransformed by Cunninghamella echinulata NRRI, 3655 into 6-hydroxy-harman and harman-2-oxide.

2003-06-3220 Hisamoto, M.; Kikuzaki, H.; Ohigashi, H.; Nakatani, N.* (Division of Food and Health Sciences, Graduate School of Human Life Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585, Japan) Antioxidant compounds from the leaves of Peucedanum japonicum Thunb. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p. 5255-5261, 2003 (Eng; 43 ref).

Seventeen compounds were isolated from the n-butanol soluble fraction of the leaves of Peucedanum japonicum. On the basis of MS and various NMR spectroscopic techniques, the structures of the isolated compounds were determined as isoquercitrin (1), rutin (2), 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid (3), 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4), 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5), cnidioside A (6), praeroside II(7), praeroside III (8), apterin (9), esculin (10), (R)-peucedanol (11), (R)-peucedanol 7-O-beta-D- glucopyranoside (12), L-tryptophan (13), uracil (14), guanosine (15), uridine (16), and thymidine (17). All compounds except R-peucedanol and 7-O-beta-D- glucopyranoside were isolated for the first time from P.japonicum. Several isolated compounds were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. In addition, all isolated compounds were examined for radical scavenging on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and for inhibition of oxidation of liposome induced by 2,2’-azobis (2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride. Compounds 2-5 were found to be the major potent constituents, which contribute to the antioxidant activity of P.japonicum leaves.

2003-06-3221 Jacob, C.; Joseph, P.V. (P.G. Department of Zoology, Alphonsa College, M.G. University, Kottayam 686 574, Kerala, India) Isolation and trypsin inhibitors from Paspalum scrobiculatum: Effect of domestic processing and cooking methods. Asian Journal of Chemistry, v. 15(2): p. 746-750, 2003 (Eng; 18 ref).

Proteinase inhibitor specific to trypsin was isolated from cereal grain Pokadi, (Paspalum scrobiculatum) by ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis and ion exchange chromatography and purity was checked by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The molecular weight of the inhibitor protein is roughly more than 12 kDa (Kunitz type). The inhibitors were positively charged and contained isoinhibitors. Wet and heat treatments reduced the activity of inhibitors. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3222 Johnson, E.L. (Weed Science Laboratory, Plant Sciences Institute, USDA ARS, Building 001, Room 329, BARC-W, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Beltsvile MD 20705-2350, USA) Alkaloid content in two Erythroxylum taxa during juvenile growth and development. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, v. 10(2): p. 47-61, 2002 (Eng; 42 ref).

Erythroxylum coca var.coca and Erythroxylum novogranatense var.novogranatense were grown in a controlled environment for 52 weeks to monitor the content of hygrine, tropinone, tropacocaine, methyl ecgonine, cocaine and cis- and trans-cinnamoylcocaine in seeds, plant parts, and organs during juvenile growth. Embryos and endosperms of var.coca contained cocaine while only embryos of var.novogranatense contained cocaine. Tropacocaine was present in hypocotyls, stems and roots of var.novogranatense, but not in var.coca. Trans-cinnamoyllcocaine was the most abundant alkaloid in cotyledons (12 weeks after seeding) and leaves (24 weeks after seeding) in both var.coca and var.novogranatense. After 52 weeks of seeding growth, cocaine was the main alkaloid in leaves of both taxons with a cocaine content of 0.66 percent in var.coca and 1.04 percent in var.novogranatense.

2003-06-3223 Kakoniova, D.; Janotkova, I.; Lux, A.; Liskova, D.*; Tekelova, D. (Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 842 38 Bratislava, Slovak Republic) In vitro cultures of Ginkgo biloba L.. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p.63-74, 2004 (Eng; 17 ref).

Ginkgo biloba is the only species of the family (Ginkgoaceae) belonging to gymnosperms with the maximum of extension in Trias and Jura. The survival of this vigorous tree is probably due to the content of compounds which are today interesting for the pharmacy, besides others, flavonoids and terpenoids. To obtain these substances, as well as for the propagation of this tree, cultures in vitro are used at present. Green, friable calli were initiated and grown from G.biloba mature zygotic embryos and leaves. The production of flavanoids in these callus cultures and in the leaves was determined. An in vitro protocol for direct somatic embryogenesis from stem apex of mature zygotic embryos has been established. The formation of somatic embryoids was initiated within eight weeks of culture on MS induction medium supplemented with BAP in the dark.

2003-06-3224 Kamarainen, T.; Uusitalo, J.; Jalonen, J.; Laine, K.; Hohtola, A. (Department of Biology Botany, University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu, Finland) Regional and habitat differences in 7-methyljuglone content of Finnish Drosera rotundifolia. Phytochemistry, v. 63(3): p. 309-314, 2003 (Eng; 18 ref).

The concentration of 7-methyljuglone was studied in the round-leaved sundew Drosera rotundifolia L. collected from different regions in Northern Finland. Samples of analysis were collected from peat bogs and sandpit habitats. The mean concentration of 7-methyljuglone varied from 1.0 to 2.3 percent of dry weight. Variation between years in the amount of 7-methyljuglone was significant in plants growing on sand, and in the northernmost region studied. Overall, the variation in the production of 7-methyljuglone among different populations of round-leaved sundew in Northern Finland was rather low. The variation between years in the production of 7-methyljuglone was more significant.

2003-06-3225 Kiakosyan, A.; Kaufman, P.B. (Faculty of Biology, Yerevan State University, 375049, Yerevan, Armenia) In vitro cultures of Hypericum perforatum: Secondary metabolite production. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 201-224, 2004 (Eng; 51 ref).

The biosynthesis of hypericins, hyperforin, and other secondary metabolites from Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) using cell suspension techniques and organ cultures were investigated in an effort to elucidate the biosynthetic pathways and to increase the production of the products. Different systems of cell cultures, namely, callus, cell suspensions, and organ cultures of H.perforatum were established. The studies on growth of Hypericum plant shoot cultures showed that they have greatest biomass accumulation per unit time. The yield of secondary metabolites was also greater. The enhancement of hypericin production in liquid-cultivated cell aggregates was different from the shoots. Cell aggregates, such as compact globular structure, proved to be excellent producers of hypericins and hyperforin.

2003-06-3226 Kumar, A.; Bisht, P.S.; Kumar, V.A.* (College of Forestry and Hill Agriculture, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Ranichauri 249 199, UP, India) In vitro conservation of germplasm of medicinal plants. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 359-371, 2004 (Eng; 33 ref).

India, being one of the richest countries for medicinal and aromatic plant (MAP) genetic resources in the world, is under constant threat of being robbed of its valuable plant genetic heritage, particularly of medicinal plants like Aconitum heterophyllum, Nardostachys jatamansi, Orchis latifolia, Ephedra gerardiana, Rheum emodi, Polygala crota, Polygonatum multiflorum, Eulophia campestris, Didinocarpus latifolia, Podophyllum hexandrum, Swertia chirata, Gentiana kurroa, Taxus baccata and Berberis aristata. In order to safeguard this valuable wealth, ten biosphere reserves are, at present, operational in India. However, conventional method of conservation has its own limitations like: (i) germplasm in field is exposed to vagaries of extreme weather conditions, and risk of diseases and pests, and (ii) conservation of germplasm of especially recalcitrant types, where seed can not be preserved, poses problems. Here, cryopreservation of germplasm enables conservation on a long-term basis in a reliable and efficient manner. Experience gained by successful cryopreservation of cell cultures of Datura, Dioscorea, Catharanthus, Anisodus, Atropa etc. suggests that long-term conservation through cryopreservation technology should be extended to other medicinal plants also to harness potential benefits of this in vitro conservation technique.

2003-06-3227 Kusano, A.; Seyama, Y.; Usami, E.; Katayose, T.; Shibano, M.; Tsukamoto, D.; Kusano, G. (Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1094, Japan) Studies on the antioxidant active constituents of the dried powder from Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Sch.. Natural Medicines, v. 57(3): p. 100-104, 2003 (Eng; 25 ref).

The boiling water extract of dried powder from the aerial parts of Bidens pilosa var. radiata was chromatographed and 13 known compounds were obtained and characterized. The antioxidant activity of the fractions, isolated compounds, and some related compounds was measured and compared with that of Trolox C (a water-soluble tocopheroxyl vitamin E analogue). The active fractions proved to contain coffee tannins, caffeic acid derivatives, and flavonoids.

2003-06-3228 Lata, H.; De Andrade, Z.; Schaneberg, B.; Bedir, E.; Khan, I.; Moraes, R. (National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, MS 38677, USA) Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation Enhances survival rates and growth of microporpagated plantlets of Echinacea pallida. Planta Medica, v. 69(7): p. 679-682, 2003 (Eng; 12 ref).

To induce positive effects on the acclimatization of in vitro propagated Echinacea pallida four arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, Gllomus mosseae, Cigaspora ramisporophora, Scutellospora fulgida and Entrophospora colombiana were selected to aid the soil adaptation process. Fungal inocula affected the survival of E.pallida plantlets ranging from 83 percent to 92 percent, depending on the AM species and also contrasting with 58 percent survival of the non-inoculated plantlets. Growth and development were faster in mycorrhizal treated with Glomus mosseae and Scutellospora fulgida. The presence of well-formed arbuscules and vesicles in Echinacea infested roots was confirmed by microscopic examinations in addition to 90 percent success in the survival rate of vigorous plants indicated that mycorrhization is a valuable tool to overcome Echinacea acclimatization shock.

2003-06-3229 Lockwood, G.B.; Asghari, G.; Hakimi, B. (School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK) Production of essential oil constituents by cultured cells of Carum copticum L.. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, v. 17: p. 456-458, 2002 (Eng; 12 ref).

Callus cultures of Carum copticum were established from cotyledons and healthy suspensions grown using Murashige and Skoog medium. The dichloromethane extract of cell suspension culture of Carum copticum was analysed by GC and GC-MS; 41 components were identified, of which the major constituents were found to be elemol (11.5 percent), alpha-cadinol (10.6 percent), delta-cadinene (7.8 percent), caryophyllene (6.2 percent), muurolol (4.9 percent), beta-eudesmol (3.1 percent), beta-elemene (3.9 percent), alpha-muurolene (2.6 percent), limonene (2.4 percent) and alpha-humulene (2.0 percent).

2003-06-3230 Lux, A.; Liskova, D.; Masarovicova, E.*; Kakoniova, D.; Hanackova, Z.; Argalasova-Sutovska, K.; Kollarova, K.; Henselova, M.; Ordonez, J.R.; Pineyro-Lopez, A. (Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 842 38 Bratislva, Slovakia) Biology of Karwinskia spp., experimental cultivation and secondary metabolites production. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 175-200, 2004 (Eng; 40 ref).

Species of the American genus Karwinskia (Rhamnaceae) produce anthracenones with broad spectrum of activity. The most important sources of peroxisomicine A1, compound with documented antitumoural activity, are K.parvifolia and K.humboldtiana. Anatomy of vegetative organs and basic embryological characteristics of these species was studied. The most conspicuous structures are secretory ducts and cavities, where anthracenones are produced and accumulated. The plants are successfully cultivated in European conditions in greenhouse. In vitro cultures were derived from different types of explants. High multiplication potential was exhibited by K.humboldtiana. Long-term organ and callus cultures were induced. Photosynthesis, respiration, and the effect of nitrogen supply on the carbon metabolism were observed. The relationship between primary and secondary metabolism was shown. HPLC analysis of plant material demonstrated the presence of peroxisomicine A1 in all vegetative and generative organs in both species. The ability of in vitro cultures to synthesize anthracenones was confirmed.

2003-06-3231 Ly, T.N.; Shimoyamada, M.; Kato, K.; Yamauchi, R.* (The United Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Department of Bioprocessing, Faculty of Agriculture, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu City, Gifu 501-1193, Japan) Isolation and characterization of some antioxidative compounds from the rhizomes of smaller Galanga (Alpinia officinarum Hance). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 4924-4929, 2003 (Eng; 25 ref).

Antioxidative compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of fresh rhizome of smaller galanga (Alpinia officinarum). Seven phenylpropanoids were finally obtained by reversed-phase HPLC, and their structures were elucidated by MS and NMR analyses. They comprised the two known compounds, (E)-p-coumaryl alcohol gamma-O-methyl ether and (E)-p-coumaryl alcohol, and the five novel compounds, steroisomers of (4E)-1,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methoxy-2-(methoxymethyl)-4-pentene, stereoisomers of (4E)-1,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-ethoxy-2-(methoxymethyl)-4-pentene, (4E)-1,5-bis(4-hydroxy- phenyl)-1-{(2E)-3- (4-acetoxyphenyl)-2- propenoxy} -2-(methoxymethyl)-4- pentene, (4E)-1,5-bis(4-hydroxy- phenyl)-2-(methoxymethyl)-4-penten-1-ol, and (4E)-1,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4-penten-1-ol. All the compounds were detected for the first time as constituents of galanga rhizomes and exhibited antioxidative activities against the autoxidation of methyl linoleate in bulk phase.

2003-06-3232 Marri, C.; Frazzoli, A.; Hochkoeppler, A.; Poggi, V.* (Department of Industrial Chemistry, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 4, I-40136 Bologna, Italy) Purification of a polyphenol oxidase isoform from potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers. Phytochemistry, v. 63(7): p. 745-752, 2003 (Eng; 26 ref).

A different expresion pattern of polyphenol xidases has been observed during storage in cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum) featuring different length of dormancy: a short-dormant cultivar showed, as the end of the dormancy, both the highest polyphenol oxidase activity and the largest number of enzyme isoforms. An isoform of polyphenol oxidase isolated at the end of the physiological dormany from a short dormant cultivar has been purified to homogeneity by means of column chromatography on phenyl Sepnarose and on Superdex 200. The purification factor has been determined equal to 88, and the molecular mass of the phenylisoform has been estimated to be 69 and 340 kDa by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gell filtration on Superdex 200 respectively, indicating this PPO isoform as a multimer. The corresponding zymogram features a diffused single band at the cathodic region of the gel and the pI this polyphenol oxidase has been calculated equal to 6.5.

2003-06-3233 Merai, M.; Boghra, V.R.; Sharma, R.S. (Dairy Chemistry Department, SMC College of Dairy Science, Gujarat Agricultural University, Anand Campus, Anand 388 110, Gujarat, India) Extraction of antioxygenic principles from tulsi leaves and their effects on oxidative stability of ghee. Journal of Food Science & Technology, v. 40(1): p. 52-57, 2003 (Eng; 27 ref).

For antioxygenic compounds from two varieties of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) ‘Sri Tulsi’ and ‘Krishna Tulsi’) leaves powder were extracted with methanol. After vacuum drying they were fractionated into water soluble fraction (WSF) and water insoluble fractions (WIF). The WSF carried pro-oxidant principles whereas the WIF exhibited good antioxygenic properties. WIF was further treated with silica gel and charcoal mixture to remove colur-imparting pigments and was designated as silica gel charcoal treated fraction (SCF). The leaves powder from ‘Sri Tulsi’ and ‘Krishna tulsi’ contained on an average 8.80 and 6.82 percent moisture, 0.78 and 1.24 percent volatile oil, 21.78 and 20.34 percent protein, 12.59 and 11.44 percent total ash, 9.56 and 10.28 percent crude fibre, respectively. The SCF fractions from 1Sri’ and ‘Krishna Tulsi’ leaves powder respectively contained on dry matter basis the total phenolics of 107.53 mg/g and 154.13 mg/g with negligible amounts of phospholipids. ‘Krishna Tulsi’ leaves exhibited slightly higher antioxygenic activity as compared to ‘Sri Tulsi’ leaves. The addition of SCF pre-extract of ‘Krishna Tulsi’ leaves powder at a level of 0.6 percent (w/v) into creamery butter ghee was found almost equally effective as that of BHA at a level of 0.02 percent in preventing autoxidation for a period of 8 days (192 h) at 80 +- 2 degree C storge or until the peroxide value of 5 meq. of peroxide oxygen was reached. The phenolics present in the ‘Tulsi’ leaves appeared to be the main contributory factors in extending the oxidative stability of ghee.

2003-06-3234 Mujib, A.; Ilah, A.; Gandotra, N.; Abdin, M.Z.* ( Department of Botany, Hamdard University, New Delhi 110 062, India) In vitro application to improve alkaloid yield in Catharanthus roseus. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 415-439, 2004 (Eng; 112 ref).

The alkaloids of Catharanthus roseus show anticancerous property. Several aspects of cultural establishment in cell and tissue culture, used as successful alternative for alkaloid extraction and in turn secondary metabolites production are discussed. Attention is paid towards aspects which control enhanced accumulation of alkaloids in culture.

2003-06-3235 Nkya, E.; Kouno, C.; Li, Y.J.; Yang, C.P.; Hayashi, N.; Fujita, S.* (Laboratory of Food Science, Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University, Saga 840-8502, Japan) Purification and characterization of polyphenol oxidase from garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p. 5467-5471, 2003 (Eng; 30 ref).

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) of garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium) was purified approximately 32-fold with a recovery rate of 16 percent by ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange chromatography, hydrophobic chromatography, and gel filtration. The purified enzyme appeared as a single band on PAGE and SDS-PAGE. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be about 47000 and 45000 by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE, respectively. The purified enzyme quickly oxidized chlorogenic acid and (+)-epicatechin. The Km value (Michaelis constant) of the enzyme was 2.0 mM for chlorogenic acid (pH 4.0, 30 degree C) and 10.0 mM for (-)-epicatechin (pH 8.0, 40 degree C). The optimum pH was 4.0 for chlorogenic acid oxidase (ChO) and 8.0 for (-)-epicatechin oxidase (EpO). In the pH range from 5 to 11, their activities were quite stable at 5 degree C for 22 h. The optimum temperatures of ChO and EpO activities were 30 and 40 degree C, respectively.

2003-06-3236 Palaniswamy, U.R.; McAvoy, R.J.; Bible, B.B.; Stuart, J.D. (School of Allied Health-Asian American Studies, U-2101, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269, USA) Ontogenic variations of ascorbic acid and phenethyl isothiocyanate concentrations in watercress (Nasturtium officinale R.Br.) leaves. v. 51(18): p. 5504-5509, 2003 (Eng; 43 ref).

Watercress (Nasturtium officinale) is the richest source of glucosinolate nasturtiin, which on hydrolysis produces phenethyl isothiocyante (PEITC). Interest in growing watercress is stimulated since demonstration of the role of PEITC in protection against cancers associated with tobacco specific carcinogens. Twenty-one days old watercress seedlings were transplanted into growth chambers (16-h days/8-h nights of 25/22 degree C and photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) of approximately 265 micromol m-2 s-1). The study was replicated three times. Leaves were analyzed for PEITC and ascorbic acid concentrations at transplant, and harvested at 10-days intervals until 60 days after transplant. The PEITC and ascorbic acid concentrations were the highest in leaves harvested at 40 days and the lowest at transplant. Leaves harvested at 40 days produced about 150 percent higher PEITC concentrations compared to the leaves at transplant. Both PEITC and ascorbic acid concentrations of leaves increased linearly with age until 40 days after transplant after which there was no significant increase. Seedlings at transplant had the lowest dry mass and leaf area, while plants harvested at 60 days had the highest dry mass and leaf area.

2003-06-3237 Pastrana-Bonilla, E.; Akoh, C.C.; Sellappan, S.; Krewer, G. (Department of Food Science and Technology, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602-7610, USA) Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of muscadine grapes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p.5497-5503, 2003 (Eng).

Fruits of 10 cultivars of muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia) were separated into skin, seed, and pulp. Each fruit part and the leaves from the corresponding varieties were extracted for HPLC analysis of major phenolics. Antioxidant capacity was determined by the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Gallic acid, (+)-catechin, and epicatechin were the major phenolics in seeds, with average values of 6.9, 558.4, and 1299.4 mg/100 g of fresh weight (FW), respectively. In the skins, ellagic acid, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, and trans-resveratrol were the major phenolics, with respective average values of 16.5, 8.4, 1.8, 0.6, and 0.1 mg/100 g of FW. Contrary to previous results, ellagic acid and not resveratrol was the major phenolic in muscadine grapes. The HPLC solvent system used coupled with fluorescence detection allowed separation of ellagic acid from resveratrol and detection of resveratrol. Reported here for the first time are the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of muscadine leaves. Major phenolics in muscadine leaves were myricetin, ellagic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, and gallic acid, with average concentrations of 157.6, 66.7, 8.9, 9.8 and 8.6, respectively.

2003-06-3238 Pedreschi, R.; Campos, D.; Noratto, G.; Chirinos, R.; Cisneros-Zevallos, L.* (Department of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA) Andean yacon root (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. Endl) fructooligosaccharides as a potential novel source of prebiotics. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p. 5278-5284, 2003 (Eng; 44 ref).

The ability of three known prebiotic strains (two lactobacilli and one bifidobacterium) to ferment fructooligosaccharides (FOS) from yacon roots (Smallanthus sonchifolius) was compared to commercial FOS in the study. Results indicate that Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL-1910, Lactobacillus plantarum NRRL B-4496, and Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 15696 were able to ferment yacon root FOS. FOS consumption apparently depended on the degree of polymerization and the initial FOS composition. L.plantarum NRRL B-4496 and L.acidophilus NRRL B-1910 completely utilized 1-kestose molecules, while B.bifidum was able to utilize 1-kestose molecules as well as molecules with a higher degree of polymerization.

2003-06-3239 Porres, J.M.; Aranda, P.; Lopez-Jurado, M.; Urbano, G.* (Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Nutricion y Tecnologia de Alimentos, Campus Universitario de Cartuja s/n, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071, Spain) Effect of natural and controlled fermentation on chemical composition and nutrient dialyzability from beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 5144-5149, 2003 (Eng; 58 ref).

The effect of natural and controlled fermentation with an inoculum of Lactobacillus plantarum and additional thermal treatment (dry heat at 120 degree C for 20 min) on Ca, and Mg from Phaseolus vulgaris var. Carrilla was estimated using an in vitro method based on equilibrium dialysis. Natural and controlled fermentations caused significant reductions in the pH and phytate content (36 percent) of the bean flours, with a concomitant increase in the titratable acidity and free phosphorus content, and had no effect on the other nutrients studied. The percentage of dialyzable N, P, Cu and Mg was significantly improved by both types of fermentation, whereas Zn dialyzability was significantly reduced. The greatest reduction was observed for the bean flour fermented with an inoculum of L.plantarum. The percentage of dialyzable Fe improved significantly as a result of natural fermentation but was not affected by controlled fermentation. The application of dry heat at 120 degree C for 20 min caused a significant increase in Fe dialyzability and a further reduction in the percentage of dialyzable Zn in fermented bean flours but did not affect the dialyzability of the other nutrients studied.

2003-06-3240 Pouvreau, L.; Gruppen, H.; van Koningsveld, G.A.; van Den Broek, L.A.M.; Voragen, A.G.J. (Centre for Protein Technology TNO-WU, P.O.Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands) The most abundant protease inhibitor in potato tuber (Cv. Elkana) is a serine protease inhibitor from the Kunitz family. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 5001-5005, 2003 (Eng; 28 ref).

The gene of the most abundant protease inhibitor in potato cv. Elkana was isolated and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of this gene showed 98 percent identity with potato serine protease inhibitor (PSPI), a member of the Kunitz family. Therefore, the most abundant protease inhibitor was considered to be one of the isoforms of PSPI. The PSPI group represent approximately 22 percent of the total amount of proteins in potato cv. Elkana and is composed of seven different isoforms that slightly differ in isoelectric point. Antibodies were raised against the two most abundant isoforms of PSPI. The binding of these antibodies to PSPI isoforms and protease inhibitors from different groups of protease inhibitor in potato showed that approximately 70 percent of the protease inhibitors present in potato juice belong to the Kunitz family.

2003-06-3241 Prigent, S.V.E.; Gruppen, H.; Visser, J.W.G.; van Koningsveld, G.A.; De Jong, G.A.H.; Voragen, A.G.J. (Center for Protein Technology, TNO-WU, Wageningen, The Netherlands) Effects of non-covalent interactions with 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (Chlorogenic acid) on the heat denaturation and solubility of globular proteins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 5088-5095, 2003 (Eng; 39 ref).

The non-covalent interactions between the monomeric phenolic compound chlrogenic acid (5-CQA)and bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme, and alpha-lactalbumin were characterized, and their effect on protein properties was examined. 5-CQA had a low affinity for all three proteins, and these interactions seemed to show a negative coopertivity. 5-CQA-BSA binding decreased with increasing temperature, whereas pH (pH 3.0 compated to pH 7.0) and ionic strength and no pronounced effect. At high 5-CQA/protein molar ratios, both the denaturation enthalpy and temperature of BSA increased; however, covaient bonds were created at high temperatures. The presence of 5-CQA had no effect on the solubility of BSA and alpha-lactalbumin as a function of pH, whereas it decreased lysozyme solubility at alkaline pH due to covalent interactions. These results indicate that the non-covalent interactions with 5-CQA do not have pronounced effects on the functional properties of globular proteins in food systems.

2003-06-3242 Puricelli, L.; Caniato, R.*; Delle Monache, G. ( Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Padova, via U.Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padova, Italy) Biotransformation of a dibenzylbutanolide to podophyllotoxin analogues by shoot cultures of Haplophyllum patavinum. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(7): p. 848-850, 2003 (Eng; 13 ref).

A peroxidase from spent medium of shoot cultures from Haplophyllum patavinum catalyzes the biotransformation of a synthetic dibenzybutanolide into a podophyllotoxin analogue and a novel compounds, deorived by the opening of the lactone ring.

2003-06-3243 Raguso, R.A.; Levin, R.A.; Foose, S.E.; Holmberg, M.W.; McDade, L.A. (Department of Biology, Coker Life Sciences Building, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA) Fragrance chemistry, nocturnal rhythms and pollination “syndromes” in Nicotiana. Phytochemistry, v. 63(3): p. 265-284, 2003 (Eng; 93 ref).

GC-MS analyses of nocturnal and diurnal floral volatiles from nine tobacco species (Nicotiana; Solanaceae) resulted in the identification of 125 volatiles, including mono- and sesquiterpenoids, benzenoid and aliphatic alcohols, aldehydes and esters. Fragrance chemistry was species-specific during nocturnal emissions, whereas odors emitted diuranlly were less distinct. All species emitted greater amounts of fragrance at night, regardless of pollinator affinity. However, these species differed markedly in odor complexity and emission rates, even among close relatives. Species-specific differences in emission rates per flower and per unit fresh or dry flower mass were significantly correlated; fragrance differences between species were not greatly affected by different forms of standardization. Flowers of hawkmoth-pollinated species emitted nitrogenous aldoximes and benzenoid esters on nocturnal rhythms. Four Nicotiana species in section Alatae sensu strictu have flowers that emit large amounts of 1,8 cineole, with smaller amounts of monoterpene hydrocarbons and alpha-terpineol on a nocturnal rhythm.

2003-06-3244 Rajasekharan, P.E.; Ganeshan, S.* (Division of Plant Genetic Resources, Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake, P.O. Bangalore 560 089, Karnataka, India) Biotechnology and conservation of medicinal plants in India. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 1-19, 2004 (Eng; 40 ref).

Biopiracy, intellectual property rights (IFR) and loss or extinction of plant species have promoted the country to initiate remedial measures to protect her indigenous and rare biodiversity, especially of those plant species having medicinal value, in order to prevent claims by other nationalities with regard to their orgin and value addition. The present review attempts to analyze the status of the ongoing activities in the Indian subcontinent, assess the threat to these species, and their existing diversity, distribution, need for conservation, applicability of international guidelines, choice of appropriate conservation strategy along with the merits and demerits. Present efforts made to formulate national legislations, the adequacy of National Biodiversity Act in light of the impact of biotechnology, IPR and international trade of value added produce originating from these plant species, are discussed along with the nations future outlook in such an important area of commerce.

2003-06-3245 Rajendra, K.; Nivas, S.; Hegde, S.*; Cardoza, V.; Anuradha, M.; D’Souza, L. (Laboratory of Applied Biology, St. Aloysius College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India) Biotechnological applications in Ayurvedic medicinal plants. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p.99-108, 2004 (Eng; 41 ref).

Since ex vitro methods of cultivation are beset by many problems, micropropagation techniques are increasingly being used for rapid and large scale propagation of medicinal plants. Production of herbal drugs in vitro is still at an experimental level. Apart from a few products like shikonin and ginseng, in most cases, the yield from cell cultures is too low to be commercially feasible. Strategies such as biotransformation, cell permeabilization, immobilization, elicitation and hairy root culture are being applied to increase yield of herbal drugs in vitro.

2003-06-3246 Raju, C.R.; Kavitha, R.; Rekha, R.; Dayal, A.* ( Biotechnology Centre for Rural Development, Mavelikara 690 106, Kerala, India) In vitro propagation of selected medicinal plants. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 387-398, 2004 (Eng; 29 ref).

There is an urgent need to conserve Indian exotic germplasm for posterity through tissue culture, micropropagation, cryopreservation and related techniques. The in vitro propagation techniques for a selected medicinal plants such as Tylophora asthmatica, Withania somnifera, Plumbago rosea, Rauwolfia serpentina, Ruta graveolens etc. is described. The composition of culture media, hormonal combinations and culture conditions are discussed in detail.

2003-06-3247 Reyes, L.F.; Cisneros-Zevallos, L.* (Department of Horticultural Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-2133, USA) Wounding stress increases the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of purple-flesh potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p. 5296-5300, 2003 (Eng; 32 ref).

Several abiotic stresses, including ethylene, methyl jasmonate, temperature, light and wounding, were tested for their ability to induce accumulation of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in purple-flesh potatoes (cv. All Blue). Results indicated that temperature, ethylene, methyl jasmonate, and light treatments did not significantly affect the accumulation of phenolic compounds compared to control samples. Only tubers with low initial anthocyanin levels treated with methyl jasmonate showed approximately 60 percent anthocyanin accumulation. Wounding induced the accumulation of phenolics compounds and an increase of PAL-activity in sliced tissue compared to the control. Total phenolics increased approximately 60 percent with a parallel 85 percent increase in antioxidant capacity. These results show that selection of approporiate abiotic stresses can enhance the nutritional and functional value of potatoes.

2003-06-3248 Romani, A.; Vignolini, P.; Galardi, C.; Aroldi, C. ; Vazzana, C.; Heimler, D. (Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita degli Studi di Firenze via G. Capponi, 9 50121 Firenzy, Italy) Polyphenolic content in different plant parts of soy cultivars grown under natural conditions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p.5301-5306, 2003 (Eng; 23 ref).

Roots, cotyledons, leaves, stems, pods, and seeds of three soy cultivars were analyzed for their content of isoflavones, flavonols, coumarins, and phenolic acid derivatives with three samplings during a three-month period. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC/DAD and HPLC/MS, to confirm the presence of daidzein and genistein derivatives as the major isoflavones and to characterize coumarins, most flavonols and phenolic acid derivatives. Seeds exhibited the highest content of isoflavones: 12.61 g/kg of dry weight (DW) in cv. Emillana; 8.97 g/kg of DW in cv. Elvir; 4.49 g/kg of DW in cv. Kure, and roots are the only part with coumarins, ranging from 4.08 g/kg of DW (cv. Emiliana) to 1.29 g/kg of DW (cv. Elvir) for the longest sampling period. Leaves, pods and stems have flavonols, and in particular leaves showed 7.28 g/kg of DW in cv. Emiliana; 6.57 g/kg of DW in cv. Elvir; 7.08 g/kg of DW in cv. Kure. The high content of isoflavones found in the seeds could be ascribed to the natural conditions under which the soy plants were grown.

2003-06-3249 Rout, G.R. (Plant Biotechnology Division, Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Regional Plant Resource Centre, Bhubaneswar, 751 015, Orissa, India) Application of cell culture on production of secondary metabolites: A review. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 237-258, 2004 (Eng; 140 ref).

Recent developments in the biotechnological aspects of plant cell and organ cultures have led to successful exploitation of in vitro cultures for the production of secondary products. The medium constituents and environmental factors (both physical and chemical environment) make to scale-up of the production of a secondary product. The applications of different elicitors, cell immobilization as well as genetic transformation which help significant production of secondary metabolites have been discussed.

2003-06-3250 Rout, G.R.; Das, P.* (Plant Biotechnology Division, Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Regional Plant Resource Centre, Bhubaneswar 751 015, Orissa, India) In vitro studies of ginger: A review of recent progress. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 307-326, 2004 (Eng; 54 ref).

Nutritional requirements, carbohydrates and other organic compounds (vitamins and aminoacids etc.), environmental factors (light, gaseous environment, temperature and humidity) and treatments with growth regulators have helped in achieving high proliferation rates to allow commercially viable micropropagation. An overview of the regeneration of ginger by indirect organogenesis, embryogenesis from callus and in vitro tuberization is presented. Biochemical changes during organogenesis and rhizogenesis are also presented. In addition, the use of these techniques in association with several biotechnological methods to establish the genetic stability and selection of somaclonal variation is reviewed.

2003-06-3251 Rout, G.R.; Das, P.* (Plant Biotechnology Division, Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Regional Plant Resource Centre, Navapalli, Bhubaneswar 751 015, Orissa, India) Role of growth regulators on micropropagation of medicinal plants: A review. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 327-358, 2004 (Eng; 179 ref).

An overview of the regeneration of medicinal plants by meristem culture, direct and indirect organogenesis and by somatic embryogenesis from various explants is presented, and the use of these techniques combined with other biotechnological approaches to improve the propagation techniques on medicinal plants is presented.

2003-06-3252 Ryu, G.; Lee, S.Y.; Kim, B.S.; Ryu, S.Y.; Hwang, H.J.; Choi, B.W.; Lee, B.H.; Jung, D.S. (Regional Reserch Center and Department of Chemical Technology, Hanbat Naional University, 16-1 Dukmyung-dong, Yusung-ku, Daejon 305-719, Korea) Ardimerin, a new dimeric lactone from the herb of Ardisia japonica. Natural Product Sciences, v. 8(2): p. 108-110, 2002 (Eng; 17 ref).

A new ardimerin, isolated from the MeOH extract of herb of Ardisia japonica showed potent radical scavenging effect on DPPH radical (IC50, 0.32 microM). Its structure was determined by the elucidation of spectroscopic data and a chemical transformation.

2003-06-3253 Sanchez-Moreno, C.; Cao, G.; Ou, B.; Prior, R.L. ( Nutrition and Neurocognitive Laboratory, Jean Mayer Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA) Anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin content in selected white and red wines. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity comparison with nontraditional wines obtained from highbush blueberry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 4889-4896, 2003 (Eng; 62 ref).

Antioxidant capacity, as measured by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORACpe), total phenolic, total and individual anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidin fraction contents were evaluated in red and white wines from grapes. A comparison in terms of antioxidant capacity is made with nontraditional wines made from highbush blueberry. Blueberries are among fruits that are best recognized for their potential health benefits. In red wines, total oligomeric proanthocyanidin content, including catechins, was substantially higher (177.18+-96.06 mg/L) than that in white wines (8.75+-4.53 mg/L). A relative high correlation in red wines was found between ORACpe values and malvidin compounds (r=0.75, P less than 0.10), and proanthocyanidins (r=0.87, P less than 0.05). In white wines, a significant correlation was found between the trimeric proanthocyanidin fraction and peroxyl radical scavenging values (r=0.86, P less than 0.10). A moderate drink (1 drink per day, about 140 mL) of red wine, or white wine, or wine made from highbush blueberry corresponds to an intake of 2.04+-0.81 mmmol of TE, 0.47+-0.15 mmol of TE, and 2.42+-0.88 mmol of TE of ORACpe/day, respectively.

2003-06-3254 Santha Kumari, P. (College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Trivandrum 695 522, Kerala, India) Biotechnological applications in medicinal plants. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 475-497, 2004 (Eng; 214 ref).

Forty genera of medicinal plants with their alkaloid content and pharmaceutical use are listed. It also covers important medicinal plants showing their in vitro regeneration through various techniques. The scope for biotechnology in medicinal industry is also illustrated.

2003-06-3255 Sarma, A.; Sarma, T.Ch.; Handique, A.K.; Baruah, A.K.S. (Regional Research Laboratory, Jorhat 785 006, Assam, India) Variation in major chemical constituents in oil of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus (Steud) Watts accessions in different seasons under Brahmaputra valley agro-climatic conditions. Fafai Journal, v. 5(2): p. 43-49, 2003 (Eng; 10 ref).

Essential oil of lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuous) obtained by hydrodistillation of freshly harvested leaves at different seasons was analysed by gas chromatography. Eight major components were identified constituting about 91 percent of the oil. Citral was found to be major constituents. Variation in major components was observed due to seasonal changes. Percentage of citral was found to be decreased (less than 80 percent) with increase of nerol and nerylacetate. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3256 Shanthi, P.; Xavier, Sr.A. (Department of Botany, Holy Cross College (Autonomous), Tiruchirapalli 620 002, TN, India) In vitro micropropagation of Enicostemma littorale bluem. from nodal explants. Advances in Plant Sciences, v. 16(1): p. 9-12, 2003 (Eng; 9 ref).

A protocol for micropropagation of a plant species, Enicostemma littorale through in vitro culture and its rapid multiplication is established. Multiple shoots were induced from the nodal explants cultured on MS medium fortified with BA and Kn at various concentration. A maximum of 87 shoots per explant were harvested at 2.5 mg/IBA. Repeated harvesting was done at 3 weeks interval. The in vitro derived shoots were rooted on MS medium containing NAA (0.2 mg/l)+IAA(0.1 mg/l) and IBA (0.1 mg/l). The well rooted plantlets were hardened by growing them in plastic cups containing vermiculite for about 20 days.

2003-06-3257 Shin, S.; Kim, Y.S.; Kang, C.A. (College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women’s University, Seoul 132-714, Korea) Production of volatile oil components by cell culture of Agastache rugosa O.Kuntze. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(2): p. 120-123, 2001 (Eng; 12 ref).

The volatile oil fraction was extracted from the callus and investigated by means of GC-MS. The composition of the oil was compared with that of the mother plant. As a result, sixty five compounds including feruginol were identified in the essential oil fraction. The main component of the oil from the leaves of Agastache rugosa was methyl chavichol (53.6 percent). Methyl rasmonate and jasmonic acid were added to the culturing cell suspension, separately and the composition of induced oil were compared. The oils from cultured cells treated with jasmonates showed considerably different patterns. Especially, the peak of estragole was found in callus oil after treatment with methyl jasmonate as though the amount was limited to 0.85 percent. In general, the TIC pattern of GC-MS of the callus oil became more similar to the oil from the leaves after elicitation.

2003-06-3258 Shotipruk, A.; Wang, H.Y.*; Kaufman, P.B. (The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michingan 48109-2136, USA) Production of secondary metabolites of medicinal value from plants using a two-stage programmable photobioreactor. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 225-236, 2004 (Eng; 23 ref).

A novel two-stage hydroponic photobioreactor for high-density cultivation of medicinal plants is designed. The first stage fosters rapid biomass accumulation, and the second stage favours secondary metabolite accumulation. The primary goal of this photobioreactor design is to cultivate plants that produce high value secondary metabolites in high density year round. To achieve high-density cultivation, hydroponics cultivation is employed. Another key consideration in the successful implementation of the photobioreactor design is the light delivery into, and its distribution inside, the photobioreactor. Mentha piperita (peppermint) was used as the model plants to validate the growth model. The predicted growth results agree reasonably well with most experimental results for the initial growth period. In the second stage, the production of secondary metabolites is of main concern. The photobioreactor conditions used in this stage must be plant specific. The environmental, nutrient, hormonal conditions and elicitor treatments that favour high levels of biosynthesis of camptothecin in Camptotheca accuminata (tree of joy), vincristine, vinblastine, and ajmalicine in Catharanthus roseus and genistein and daidzein isoflavonoids in Pueraria lobata (kudzu) and Psoralea corylifolia.

2003-06-3259 Sivakumar, G.; Krishnamurthy, K.V.; Rajendran, T.D. (Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita della Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci Cubo 15C 87036 Arcavacata di Rende, Italy) Embryoidogenesis and plant regeneration from leaf tissue of Gloriosa superba. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 479-481, 2003 (Eng; 3 ref).

The induction, maturation and germination of embryoids from leaf tissue of Gloriosa superba were developed by exploiting solid and liquid culture. Nodular calli were obtained from SH medium supplemented with 2,4-D and 1iP. In solid culture, the nodular calli when transferred to 2,4-D along with glycerol gave the best response (68.4 percent) in embryoid induction after 20 days. After two subcultures at 7-day intervals in a medium with thiamine instead of glycerol, the embryoids matured. When mature embryoids were transferred to BAP and IBA medium, they gave rise to plantlets with single shoots and roots. In liquid culture, the medium supplemented with NAA and L-glutamine with continous agitation, the embryoidogenic calli produced embryoids (85 percent) after 21 days. The mature embryoids began to turn green and produced-shoots and elongated “radicles” after 35 days.

2003-06-3260 Srivastava, H.K. (Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, P.O. CIMAP, Lucknow 226 015, UP, India) Genetic and biotechnological approaches for enhanced indole alkaloid production in periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus). Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 399-413, 2004 (Eng; 50 ref).

Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) is one of the most important anticancerous drug-producing medicinal plants. Two dimeric alkaloids, vincristine and vinblastine obtained from its leaves find extensive use in the treatment of human neoplasms. Recent advances in biotechnology and genetic engineering and metabolic flux enhancement in secondary metabolites pathway(s) of periwinkle have been elaborated. The foucs has been shifted towards the identification of alternative input routes for desired secondary metabolites, and related isolation of unique gene(s) or their cDNAs and DNA sequence(s) for marked activities leading to active metabolites productivity. The enzyme ‘strictosidine synthase’ has been considered a key point for limiting flux in the pathway. Full length cDNA coding for this enzyme has been obtained. The veracity of the clone got confirmed as it produced tryptophan decarboxylase activity when expressed in Escherichia coli. The production of novel alkaloids with higher biological activities and potential versatile uses as nematocide and phagodeterrent in addition to its already recognized medicinal values promise a greater and diverse role of C.roseus in future.

2003-06-3261 Srivastava, H.K. (Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, PO CIMAP, Lucknow 226 015, UP, India) Biotechnology for enhanced production of morphinane alkaloids in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 455-473, 2004 (Eng; 82 ref).

Among the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) alkaloids, morphine is a strong analgesic, while codeine is antitussive and papaverine antispasmodic. The focus in most opium poppy growing countries (e.g. EU countries and Australia) has been shifted in favour of growing concentrated poppy straw (CPS) varieties of opium poppy rich in morphine/codeine, i.e. non-narcotic opiumless and alkaloid-free. The scientific perception has accordingly been changed for genetical interventions in developing hyper-alkaloid CPS varieties in the last decade. These dual purpose CPS chemovarieties/chemotypes additionally possess delicious protein-rich seeds which are used as food items whereas the poppy seeds extracted oil is a very healthy cooking medium. Biotechnology and genetic engineering find much scope and offer novel avenues to alter the whole synthesis patterns of plant secondary metabolites in opium poppy. Considerations for overexpressing tyrosine decarboxylase in transgenic opium poppies so as to determine which subclass of alkaloid might increase with a rise in the tyramine and dopamine pool sizes have been elaborated. The urgency in India is for evolving high poppy straw alkaloids/CPS varieties through biotechnology to prohibit misuse and abuse through clandestine means of opium poppy. The poppy seeds oil being largely apportioned by unsaturated fatty acids provide a natural dietary control of coronary heart diseases.

2003-06-3262 Sundravelan; Desireddy, R.B.; Ciddi, V. (Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kakatiya University, Warangal 506 009, AP, India) Camptothecine - A novel anticancer agent from tissue cultures of Nothapodytes foetida. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, v. 65(2): p. 101-105, 2003 (Eng; 37 ref).

Camptothecines have a broad spectrum to antitumour activity both in vitro and in vivo and various clinical properties. Nothapodytes foetida has much higher contents of camptothecine (0.3 percent dry weight) and its analogs than all other botanical sources of camptothecines. Need for systematic studies on cell cultures of Nothapodytes foetida to enhance the production of camptothecine and its analogs by employing various strategies has been discussed.

2003-06-3263 Topuz, A.; Ozdemir, F.* (Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University, 07059, Antalya, Turkey) Influences of gamma-irradiation and storage on the carotenoids of sun-dried and dehydrated paprika. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 4972-4977, 2003 (Eng; 31 ref).

The effects of drying methods, gamma-irradiation, and storage on the carotenoids (capsanthin, capsorubin, zeaxanthin, capsolutein, violaxanthin, beta-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin) of paprika were investigated. Sun-dried and dehydrated paprika samples were irradiated in a 60CO gamma-irradiator at five doses (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 kGy) in polyethylene bags and stored for 10 months at ambient temperature. Individual carotenoid analyses were carried out on the paprika and fresh red pepper during a 2 month period using the reverse phase HPLC technique. The concentrations of capsanthin and capsorubin, which are responsible for the red color of sun-dried paprika, were higher than those of dehydrated paprika. Higher irradiation doses and a longer storage period resulted in a significant (P less than 0.01) reduction of all the carotenoids, except capsorubin. There was no significant (P less than 0.05) effect of irradiation dose on capsorubin destruction. The decrease of red carotenoids, for all irradiation treatments, was less than that of the storage period. Even the highest irradiation dose, 10kGy, caused a 11.1 percent capsanthin reduction; however, 10 months of storage at the ambient temperature caused a 42.1 percent reduction of capsanthin. Yellow pigments of paprika (zeaxanthin, capsolutein, violaxanthin, beta-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin) were significantly (P less than 0.01) decreased by all treatments.

2003-06-3264 Tripathi, Y.C. (Non-Wood Forest, Products Division, Arid Forest Research Institute, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India) Biotechnology towards enhanced production of phytopharmaceuticals. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p.75-97, 2004 (Eng; 129 ref).

More than 20,000 different biologically active chemicals have so far been isolated from plants. But many of these complex bio-chemicals cannot be synthesized economically on commercial basis. Biotechnology has played an important role in the area of secondary metabolite production. Distinct progress made in stimulation of synthesis of plant chemicals, screening and selection of high yielding cell lines, plant cell and tissue culture, cell immobilization, hairy root culture, use of elicitors, feeding metabolic precursors and biotransformation, genetic engineering have offered mankind the great potency of powerful techniques and provided much needed boost to secondary metabolite production.

2003-06-3265 Vaughn, S.F.; Tisserat, B.; Cantrell, C.L.; Berhow, M.A. (U.S.Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 North University Street, Peoria, IL 61604, USA) Ultrahigh carbon dioxide atmospheres increase the growth rate, morphogenesis and naphthodianthrone levels in St.John’s Wort (Hypercium perforatum) plants. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, v. 10(2): p. 35-46, 2002 (Eng; 28 ref).

The effec of increased levels of carbon dioxide on the growth (fresh weight), morphogenesis (formation of leaves, roots and shoots) and tissue concentrations of the naphthodianthrones (hypericin and pseudohypericin) was determined for St.John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum). Plants started from shoot cuttings in a vermiculite-peat moss mixture within a greenhouse employing natural sunlight, were grown for eight weeks under CO2 levels of 350,1500, 3000, 10,000 and 30,000 microl CO2/liter atmospheres. Elevated CO2 levels (equal or more than 1500 mcirol CO2/liter) significantly increased growth and morphogenesis and levels of hypericin as compared with ambient (350 microl CO2/litre levels (control).

2003-06-3266 Venu, T.; Vishwandham, D.; Jayashree, P.R.; Manish Kumar, P.R. (Department of Biochemistry, University of Calicut, P.O. Malappuram, Kerala 673 635, India) Ethanolic extract of Bacopa monniera (Brahmi) induces shortening of cell-cycle durations in naturally synchronous Physarum polycephalum. Current Science, v. 85(3): p. 245-247, 2003 (Eng; 21 ref).

The phase-specific effects of Brahmi on cell-cycle durations in the lower eukaryotic myxomycete fungus, (Physarum polycephalum) has ben investigated. In surface cultures of this syncytial organism, over a million nuclei divide in perfect natural synchrony, making it an ideal model system for such studies. Bacopa monniera plants were collected from the botanical garden at the University of Calicut during February and March 2002. Authenticated fresh plants were ground in a mortar, defatted with petroleum ether (1:10 w/v; 60-80 degree C) and filtered. The residue was then Soxhlet extracted with 80 percent ethanol (1:10 w/v) for 12h. The extract was evaporated to dryness and dissolved in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). The study reveals the cell cycle phase-specific effects of Brahmi in a normal eukaryotic cycle system. Also, the study reveals, the ability of the ethanolic brahmi extract to advance the initiation of mitotis at two doses (100 and 250 microg/ml SDM), resulting in 10 percent overall reduction in cell-cycle duration. Moreover when the dose is increased from 100-250 microg/ml. SDM, the advancing effect is seen to decreases, following almost an apparent inverse relationship w.r.t. cell cycle phase.

2003-06-3267 Waheed, A.; Mahmud, S.; Saleem, M. (Applied Chemistry Research Centre, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Lahore, Pakistan) Activity of lipase and phospholipase extracted from the seed meal of Nicotiana tabacum L.. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(1): p. 17-20, 2001 (Eng; 15 ref ).

The activity of the lipase and phospholipase enzymes extracted from the seed meal of Nicotiana tabacum was studied with the help of spectrophotometer at different pH, temperatures and Solvents. Both lipase and phospholipase shown optimum activity at pH 6 and 45 degree C. Their activities also maximize when n-heptane was used as solvent media. These enzymes hydrolyse triglycerides and phosphoglycerides respectively and the liberated fatty acids serve as an indicator of their activity.

2003-06-3268 William Decruse, S.; Gangaprasad, A.; Seeni, S.; Menon, V.S. (Plant Biotechnology Division, Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram 695 562, Kerala, India) A protocol for shoot multiplication from foliar meristem of Vanda spathulata (L.) Spreng. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, v. 41(8): p. 924-927, 2003 (Eng; 16 ref).

Leaf explants collected from flowering plants of Vanda spathulata were cultured in Mitra medium with combinations of 6-benzyladenine (BA; 13.2-88.8 microM) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA; 0.0-85.6 microM). Combination of BA (66.6 microM) and IAA (28.5 microM) induced maximum shoots (17.33) from foliar meristems (leaf base). BA individually did not induce caulogenesis in leaf explants. For optimized multiplication, BA:IAA (2:1 microM) was essential at 22.2-88.8 microM of BA. Recultured leaf explants produced lesser number of shoots compared to original explants and were nearly equal at combinations of 22.2-44.4 microM of BA and 5.7-28.5 microM of IAA. Rooting of shoots (more than 95 percent) occurred in medium containing banana pulp (75 g/l) and IAA (5.7 microM) within 3-9 weeks. Plantlets with 2-5 roots of 2-5 cm length established easily in community pots at 80-90 percent rates without hardening.

2003-06-3269 Yadav, R.S.; Agrawal, M. (Department of Botany, D.A.V. (P.G.) College, Muzaffarnagar 2510 001, UP, India) Seasonal variations in ascorbic acid content of some exotic and indigenous plant species growing in an opencast coal mine. Biochemical and Cellular Archives, v. 3(1&2): p. 109-112, 2003 (Eng; 11 ref).

Ascorbic acid of four exotic plant species namely Eucalyptus hybrid, Cassia siamea, Acacia auriculiformis, Casuarina equisetifolia and three indigenous plant species namely Azadirachta indica, Albizia lebback and Dalbergia sissoo growing in Jayant opencast coal mine was estimated. It was noted that content of ascorbic acid decreased with increased pollution load. Ascorbic acid was recorded maximum in rainy season followed by winter and minimum in summer season and plant species at all the sites. D.sissoo showed maximum ascorbic acid content followed by C.siamea, E.hybrid, C.equisetifolia, A.indica, A.auriculiformis and minimum in A.lebback.

2003-06-3270 Zafar, R.; Siddiqui, E.; Siddiqui, D.; Ahmad, S.; Ahmad, S.; Zafar, S. (Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Department of Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110 062, India) Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of callus culture of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. Journal of Science and Pharmacy, v. 4(3): p. 97-100, 2003 (Eng ; 11 ref).

Alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, proteins, saponins and sterols were detected in the callus cultures generated from the seedlings of Trigonella foenum-graecum. The chloroform extract of the callus exhibited significant antimicrobial activity (higher than the standard Gatiquin) against gram negative bacteria, E.coli.

2003-06-3271 Zia-ur-Rehman (Biotechnology & Food Research Centre, Pakistan, CSIR Laboratories Complex, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600, Pakistan) Evaluation of antioxidant activity of methanolic extract from peanut hulls in fried potato chips. Journal of Plant Food for Human Nutrition, v. 58(1): p. 75-83, 2003 (Eng; 23 ref).

Methanolic extract from peanut hulls (MEPH) was evaluated in fried potato chips during storage at 25 and 45 degree C. Free fatty acids (FFA) and peroxide values (POV) were used as criteria to assess (MEPH) as an antioxidant. After 6 months storage at 45 degree C potato chips treated with 1200 and 1600 ppm of MEPH showed lowere values of FFA (0.083, 0.080 percent) and POV (30.0, 29.0 m Eq/kg) than the control samples (FFA 0.377 percent, and POV 180 m Eq/kg). Potato chips treated with BHA and BHT showed POvs of 29.0 and 25.0 in Eq/kg whereas FFA values were 0.0086 and 0.074 percent, respectively, after 6 months storage at 45 degree C. These results indicate that MEPH exhibited very strong activity which was almost equal to synthetic antioxidants (BHA & BHT). NSL, New Delhi.

 

 

Pharmacognosy

 

2003-06-3272 Baker, J.I.; Zhang, X.; Boucher, T.A.; Keyler, D.E. (Center for Addiction and Alternative Medicine Research, Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation, 914 South Eighth Street D-361, Minneapolis, MN 55404, USA) Investigation of quality in ephedrine-containing dietary supplements. Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, v. 3(2): p. 5-17, 2003 (Eng ; 20 ref).

Ephedra alkaloids in 47 dietary supplements were measured to examine variability within and between products as well as for comparison of actual constituents with label claims of manufactured products. Samples were analyzed for (-)-ephedrine, (+)-pseudoephedrine, (-)-methylephedrine, (+)-methylpseudoephedrine, (-)-norephedrine, and (+)-norpseudoephedrine without derivatization using gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Samples were then screened for pharmaceutically derived chiral contaminants. The result showed that label claims matched total ephedra alkaloid content to within about 25 percent for most of the supplements and no products purporting to be ephedrine free contained any ephdera alkaloids.

2003-06-3273 Brovelli, E.A.; Li, Y.; Chui, K. (Nutrilite Division of Access Business Group, L.L.C., Lakeview, CA 92567, USA) Image analysis reflects drying conditions of Echinacea purpurea herb. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, v. 10(2): p. 12-24, 2002 (Eng; 15 ref).

The visual effects of oven-and freeze-drying on Echinacea purpurea herb were assessed by image analysis. Aerial parts of full-bloom plants were chopped by hand and randomly allocated to four drying conditions: freeze-drying and oven-drying at 40,60, and 80 degree C. Significant differences in various physical traits of the ligulate flowers (level of red, green, blue and gray colours) and the stems (level of red, green, blue and gray colours and the ratio of brown:green colour) were observed among the tested drying conditions. some of the traits appeared to have potential for use as visual markers to surmise the drying environment of echinacea.

2003-06-3274 Dobriyal, R.M. (Dabur Research Foundation, 22 Site IV, Sahibabad 201 010, UP, India) An overview of safety of Ayurvedic plant based crude drugs. Proceedings of WHO Training-cum-Workshop on Quality, Safety and Efficacy of Drugs of Indian System of Medicine, . 145-154, 10-12, April 2002 (Eng; 25 ref).

Safety of Ayurvedic drugs is one of the main concerns, which invariably requires professional attention to give due impetus to the subject. However, lot has been changed, when it comes to environmental status, quality of drugs, life style of people, job profiles, food habits, daily routines etc. and hence what was validated thousands of years back, needs to be re-validated in new light with much more sophisticated tools available today. So far as the safety is concerned, it is not that the ancient saints have not given any thought to it when Ayurveda was in its development phase. The fact that Ayurveda duly recognized, “Agada Tantra” (Toxicology), as one of its eight basic branches, shows the importance given to the subject during those days. The following are the important factors which may render herbal product unsafe for human consumption. They include, improper collection, processing and storage, adulteration/subtitution of herbs, microbiological contamination, heavy metal content, residual pesticides, chemical content of herbs, shelflife of herbs/products, interaction of herb/product with foods and other herbs/drugs, adverse effects associated with overdose and long usage of medicines.

2003-06-3275 Garg, V.K. (Product Executive, Aimil Pharmaceuticals (India) Ltd., 2994/4, Street No. 17, Ranjeet Nagar, New Delhi 110 008, India) Safety and efficacy of herbal formulations. Proceedings of WHO Training-cum-Workshop on Quality, Safety and Efficacy of Drugs of Indian System of Medicine, . 157-164, 10-12, April 2002 (Eng).

In the global prospects, due to the fast pace of technological advancement and awareness towards health issues, everybody in the world is rushing towards herbal products, which has increased the demand of these products thereby quality of herbal formulations in order to ensure the safety and efficacy of these formulations. Significance of specific parts of some plants such as rhizomes of rhubarb, liquorice, turmeric, ginger, acorus, colchicum roots of rauwolfia, aconite, ashwagandha, dashmool; barks of cinchona, cinnamon, kutaj, ashoka; leaves of visa, digitalis, senna, dhatura, bilv; flowers of clove, rose, saffron; fruits of cardamom, coriander, fennel, gokhru; seeds of linseed, mustard, plantago, babchi, almond; whole plant of ergot, ephedra, chirata, shankhpushpi, banafsha; dried latex of opium and gum resin of asafoetida, myrrh; have been dealth with. Also included phytoconstituents from vegetative sources, animal product formulations and mineral formulations.

2003-06-3276 Singhal, K.C. (Department of Pharmacology, J.N. Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002, UP, India) Safety of medicinal products of Indian System of Medicine. Proceedings of WHO Training-cum-Workshop on Quality, Safety and Efficacy of Drugs of Indian System of Medicine, . 10-12, 10-12, April 2002 (Eng).

It is true that adverse reactions are a cost of modern medical therapy, but indigenous drugs used in traditional medicines are also not safe, tried and true. Although, it is mandatory to ensure those drugs are safe and effective before launching into the market. The anticipated benefit from any clinical use must be balanced by the potential risks. In other words, rise:benefit ratio should be assessed beforehand. Patients, and to some extent physicians, are unaware of the limitations of the pre marketing phase of drug development in defining common risks of new drugs. Frequency of adverse reaction more than 1 in 1000 patients may not be detected prior to release of drug into market. Post-marketing surveillance of drug usage is thus imperative to detect infrequent but significant adverse effects.

2003-06-3277 Srinivas, K.; Prakash, K.; Kiran, H.R.; Prasad, P.M.; Rao, M.E.B. (Roland Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khodasingi, Berhampur 760 010, Orissa, India) Study of Ocimum basilicum and Plantago ovata as disintegrants in the formulation of dispersible tablets. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, v. 65(2): p. 180-183, 2003 (Eng; 18 ref).

Ibuprofen dispersible tablets using Plantago ovata mucilage powder, (Ocimum basilicum mucilage powder, (Plantago ovata husk powder and Ocimum basilicum seed powder as disintegrants were prepared and disintegrating property was studied. The swelling index of the above disintegrants was studied. Disintegrating property of the above disintegrants were evaluated by comparing with the formulations of starch powder as standard disintegrant. Plantago ovata seed powder and mucilage powder were effective in low concentrations (5 percent) as distintegrants compared to others. A poor relation between the swelling index and disintegrating efficiency was noticed.

2003-06-3278 Srivastava, S.K.; Khatoon, S.; Rawat, A.K.S.; Mehrotra, S.; Pushpangadan, P. (National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow 226 001, UP, India) Pharmacognostic evaluation of the root of Berberis aristata DC. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(2): p. 102-106, 2001 (Eng; 20 ref).

Morphological, anatomical and phytochemical aspects of B.aristata were carried out. Diagnosite features of B.aristata root were identified and characterized. Some of the diagnostic features of the root drug noted from the anatomical study are patches of pericyclic fibre, pitted sclerieds, berberine containing cells and heterocyclic medullary rays. HPTLC analysis showed three distinct bands of which berberine was identified as the major constituents. The Rf value of other bands was also calculated.

2003-06-3279 Srivastava, M.; Srivastava, S.K.; Khatoon, S.; Rawat, A.K.S.; Mehrotra, S.* (Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanical Research institute, Lucknow 226 001, UP, India) Pharmacognostical evaluation of seed of Butea monosperma Kuntze. Natural Product Sciences, v. 8(2): p. 83-89, 2002 (Eng; 33 ref ).

Butea monosperma, commonly known as ‘Palash’, is employed in various indigenous systems of medicine against several diseases and almost every part of the plant has diversified medicinal properties. The seeds are used as anthelmintic, aperient, digestive and to treat piles, skin diseases and abdominal troubles. A detailed pharmacognostical evaluation of seeds taht includes macro- and micro-scopical details, fluorescence powder study and HPTLC fingerprinting is given. The seed is characterized by finely ridged seed coat and palisade-like malpighian cells, discontinuous transparent linea lucida in upper half of malpighian layer and simple & oblong hilum. The study also concludes that the seed samples procured from different places have similar morphological and physico-chemical characteristics. These observations are also supported by similar TLC profiles. The estimation of heavy metals (to detect permissible toxic limits), and fatty acid composition have been carried out.

2003-06-3280 Suthanthirarajan, N. (Department of Physiology, Dr. ALM, PG Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani, Chennai 600 113, TN, India) Efficacy of herbal medicine in stress management. Proceedings of WHO Training-cum-Workshop on Quality, Safety and Efficacy of Drugs of Indian System of Medicine, . 131-135, 10-12, April 2002 (Eng).

It is known that stress affects the physiology of body systems. Nature is a reservoir of resources, replete with healing capabilities. Herbal extracts specially have rich source of antioxidant properties and also certain plants exhibit adaptogenic properties for example Ocimum sanctum, licorice, chicory, aswagandha, asparagus, gotukola, turmeric etc. Healing food vegetables like; cauliflower, cucumber, garlic, sprouted seeds, spinach, jamun fruits, onion, cabbage, bitter gourd, tender mango leaf, turnip, methi seeds etc. can alleviate stress induced changes. Some of these herbal medicine have been dealt with.

2003-06-3281 Tran, Q.L.; Than, M.M.; Tezuka, Y.; Banskota, A.H. ; Kouda, K.; Watanabe, H.; Zhu, S.; Komatsu, K.; Thet, M.M.; Swe, T. et al. (Institute of Natural Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan) Wild ginseng grows in Myanmar. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(6): p. 679-682, 2003 (Eng; 19 ref).

Ginseng, the underground parts of plants of Panax species, has been used in oriental traditional medicine for centuries. Unfortunately, because of extensive exploitation over thousands of years, the natural source of these species has been almost exhausted. Recently, wild ginseng was found growing in Myanmar. Wild Panax species was unambigously identified as P.zingiberensis, based on chemical constituent analysis by liquid chromatography -electrospray ionization -mass spectrometry and gene sequence studies.

2003-06-3282 Zhang, X.; Cui, Z.*; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.Y. ( Pharmacognosy Department of Traditional Chinese Medicines College, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103 Wen Hua Street, Shenyang, 110016, China) High performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint evaluation of the quinolizidine alkaloids from commercial radix Sophorae flavescentis. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, v. 5(3): p. 171-182, 2003 (Eng; 12 ref).

Fifteen commercial samples of Radix Sophorae Flavescentis were collected from different parts of China. HPLC analysis showed that the commercial samples all contained quinolizidine alkaloids and a total of nine chromatographic peaks were identified by referring to standard compounds, HPLC/MS analysis and comparison of the physicochemical data of the isoalted peak with the literature. The contents of the major alkaloids were determined and the ratio of the major alkaloids contents was shown to be correlated with their source of origin. The commercial samples from China gave a distinct HPLC pattern showing the main optimized. Reproducible HPLC fingerprints can be obtained for the quinolizidine alkaloids under the well-controlled extraction conditions. The HPLC fingerprint analysis method is suitable for the quality control of the Radix Sophorae Flavescentis and the standardization of phytomedicines.

 

 

Clinical Studies

 

2003-06-3283 Aggrawal, G.N.; Katiyar, C.K.; Arora, D.; Kachroo, P. (Department of Radiotherapy, KGMC, Lucknow, UP, India) Usefulness of Dabur Chyawanprash special an Ayurvedic medicine in prevention of early reactions during radiotherapy. Antiseptic, v. 100(5): p. 189-192, 2003 (Eng; 5 ref).

A comparative randomised study was conducted in 75 patients of head and neck cancer to evaluate the effect of Chyawanprash in prevention of early reactions and management of anaemia during radiotherapy. Results suggested that regular intake of Chyawanprash is effective as a supportive therapy and its use as an adjuvant to radiotherapy minimise the adverse reactions on skin and in mucosal reactions during radiotherapy. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3284 Agnihotri, V.K. (Department of Kayachikitsa, Rishikul State, Ayurvedic College & Hospital, Hardwar, UA, India) Role of Ayurvedic drug Respicare in asthma bronchitis and respiratory allergies: An open level clinical trial. Antiseptic, v. 100(3): p. 101-103, 2003 (Eng; 14 ref).

Respicare tablet, containing herbal ingredients was tried in 75 patients at a dose of 1-2 tab. a day for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks improvement recorded was 85.29 percent in patients of asthma and 83.33 percent in patients of bronchitis. None of the patients showed any adverse side effect. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3285 Atanasov, A.T.; Tchorbanov, B. (Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Thracian University, Stara Zagora 6000, Bulgaria) Antiplatelet aggregation activity of a fraction isolated from Galega officinalis L.. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, v. 10(2): p. 63-71, 2002 (Eng; 18 ref).

A fraction isolated from a crude aqueous extract of Galega officinalis and purified by column chromatography inhibit platelet aggregation in platelet-rich plasma. The active fraction of the extract, molecular weight of 100-140 kDa, appeared to be a polysaccharide-protein complex. Aggregation of platelets initiated by 25 microM ADP was inhibited 50 percent by 11.2 microg/ml of the fraction. Aggregation of platelets initiated by 100 microg/ml collagen and 0.8 U/ml thrombin was completely inhibited by 16 microg/ml and 18.3 microg/ml, respectively.

2003-06-3286 Avinash Shankar (Centre for Research in indigenous medicine, RA Hospital & Research Centre, Warisaliganj, Nawada, Bihar, India) Indigenous drug, a boon in management of leucoderma. Antiseptic, v. 100(3): p. 104-108, 2003 (Eng; 8 ref).

Efficacy of herbal medicine viz., Vitalini cap, Hepton cap and ointment Vitalin was tried in 14800 patients by leucoderma at various selected hospitals. Marked improvement was observed in 1-2 months therapy, for complete cure of stage 1 required 18 months, stage 2 required 24-30 months stage 3-30-36 months, stage 4-48, 56 months or more. No pateints had any untoward effects, relapse or recurrence during 3 years of post therapy follow-up. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3287 Awang, D.V.C. (Mediplant Consulting Inc., White Rock, BC, Canada) Of mice and men-ginseng preparations as treatment for diabetes and obesity. Editorial. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, v. 10(2): p. 1-4, 2002 (Eng; 6 ref).

A comparative analysis of two reports on use of American ginseng root and Asian ginseng berry to keep diabetes in check, is given. Public and scientific interest was generated by clinical reports in 2000 on the ability of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) to reduce blood glucose levels in both non-diabetics and type II diabetics. Ingestion of 1 g of powdered whole ginseng root at least 40 minutes before meals reduced blood sugar level by roughly 20 percent. The Canadian researchers at St.Michael’s Hospital and the University of Toronto that reported these results,acknowledged the need to expand their limited, initial studies in order to determine the breadth of the application. The University of Chicago researchers attribute the antidiabetic effects of the Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) berry to its constituents, ginsenoside. Re-present at levels five to seven times greater that concentration recorded for American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) root. For an effective human dose of Asian ginseng berry could be attained, the true active oral agent would most probably be ginsenoside Rh1.

2003-06-3288 Basch, E.; Ulbricht, C.; Harrison, M.; Sollars, D. ; Smith, M.; Dennehy, C.; Szapary, P. (Natural Standard, 1130 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138-5204, USA) Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.): A clinical decision support tool. Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, v. 3(2): p. 69-90, 2003 ( Eng; 56 ref).

Alfalfa has a long history of medicinal and nutritional use. Basic science, animal research, and preliminary human studies of alfalfa have demonstrated reduction in cholesterol and atherosclerotic plaque formation. Evidences suggests that alfalfa may possess hypoglycemic and antifungal activities. However, there is currently insufficient information from clinical trials to adequately evaluate the safety and efficacy of alfalfa for any indication. Folkloric precedent, scientific evidences, toxicology, standardization, adverse effects, contraindications, drug interactions, pharmacology and clinical trials of alfalfa are described.

2003-06-3289 Chaudhary, P.C.; Bihari, M.; Shukla, M.P. (P.G. Department of Kayachikitsa, State Ayurvedic College Lucknow, UP, India) A clinical study on the efficacy of Vaishvanar churna in cases of Amavata. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, v. 23(1-2): p. 36-41, 2002 (Eng; Hin; 14 ref).

Vaishvanar Churna (Saindhaw lavan, Ajwain, Ajmoda, Shunthi and Haritaki in the ratio of 2:2:3:5:12) was given to the 50 Amavata (rheumatoid arthritis) patients in the dose of 3 gm/twice a day in the powder form for 8 weeks with warm water. Of the 50 cases 31 (62 percent) were completely cured, 13 (26 percent) were highly improved and rest 6 (12 percent) were slightly improved.

2003-06-3290 Chrubasik, S.; Conradt, C.; Black, A. (Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany) The quality of clinical trials with Harpagophytum procumbens. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 613-623, 2003 (Eng; 43 ref).

The uncontrolled trials, though providing useful preliminary estimates of the possible effect of treating various conditions, could not separate the effects of the Harpagophytum product from whatever placebo effect might have been exerted in the circumstances of the study. The 2 open comparisons were open to performance, detection and/or selection bias. Of the 8 randomised double blinded controlled comparisons with placebo, 6 were marred by lack of transparency, one could not provide definitive evidence from its pre-selected principal outcome measure, and one provided good quality evidence of a dose dependent superiority of effect over placebo, though this was with a product that is not generally available for clinical practice. One of the randomised controlled comparisons with comparator (Doloteffin(R) versus rofecoxib) was intended only as a pilot and studied too few patients for definitive conclusions whereas the other did provide good evidence that the powder, Harpadol(R) is not importantly less effective than the weak NSAID diacerhein. Evidence of effectiveness of Harpagophytum products is not transferrable from product to product. The results of some studies suggest some effectiveness for some products, but for none of the clinically available products is the quality of evidence totally satisfactory. It is better so far with products that contain at least 50 mg of harpagoside in the daily dosage than with products (which happen to be of ethanolic extraction) that contain less.

2003-06-3291 Degenring, F.H.; Suter, A.; Weber, M.; Saller, R. (Bioforce AG, Roggwil, Switzerland) A randomised double blind placebo controlled clinical trial of a standardised extract of fresh Crataegus berries (Crataegisan) in the treatment of patients with congestive heart failure NYHA II. Phytomedicine, v. 10(5): p. 363-369, 2003 (Eng; 14 ref).

A total of 143 patients (72 men, 71 women, mean age of 64.8 (8.0 years) were recruited and treated with 3 times 30 drops of the extract (n=69) or placebo (n=74) for 8 weeks. The primary variable for the evaluation of efficacy was the change in exercise tolerance determined with bicycle exercise testing, secondary variables included the blood pressure-heart rate product (BHP). Subjective cardiac symptoms at rest and at higher levels of exertion were assessed by the patient on a categorical rating scale. In the ITT population there was a significant increase in exercise tolerance in both groups between visit 1 and visit 3. The difference between the treatment groups was 8.3 watts in favour of the standardised extract of fresh Crataegus berries (p=0.045). The result is confirmed in the PP population (p=0.047). Changes in BHP at 50 watts and at comparable maximum load were in favour of Crataegus extract but the results are not statiscally significant. The subjective assessment of cardiac symptoms at rest and at higher levels of exertion did no change significantly and the patient and investigator overall assessment of efficacy were similar for the two groups. The medication was well tolerated and had a high level of patient acceptability.

2003-06-3292 Dixit, S.P.; Dubey, G.P. (Centre of Psychosomatic and Biofeedback Medicine, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP, India) Combined effect of brahmi, jyotishmati and Vacha on overall mental performance among mentally retarded children. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, v. 23(1-2): p. 64-70, 2002 (Eng; Hin; 19 ref).

An attempt has been made to evaluate the beneficial role of the organic extract of combined formulation of Brahmi (Bacopa monniera), jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus) and Vacha (Acorus calamus) on mild degree of mentally retarded children. The improvement facets of cognitive functions like short term and long term memory, attention span and finger dexiterity test were measured under influence of above formulation. After nine months of therapy a significant improvement was noticed among treated group on the above parameters. The formulation did not produce any side effect. Thus the formulation can be used as safe remedy for the improvement of mental performance among mild degree of mental retarded children.

2003-06-3293 Donangelo, C.M.; Woodhouse, L.R.; King, S.M.; Toffolo, G.; Shames, D.M.; Viteri, F.E.; Cheng, Z.; Welch, R.M.; King, J.C.* (Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1 Shields Avenue, 1155 Surge 4, University of California) Iron and zinc absorption from two bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes in young women. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 5137-5143, 2003 (Eng; 49 ref).

Extrinsic and intrinsic iron and zinc labels were used to test iron and zinc absorption from two bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genotypes, containing normal (common beans, CB) or higher (HFeZnB) iron and zinc concentrations, fed in single meals to yound women with low iron reserves. The women were divided into two groups, with one receiving a CB test meal (n=12) and the other, an HFeZnB test meal (n=11). The beans were intrinsically labeled hydroponically with 55Fe (CB and HFeZmB) and with 70Zn (HFeZnB). Concentrations of zinc and iron were 98 and 65 percent higher, respectively, in HFeZnB as compared to CB, but phytic acid contents were similar. Extrinsic labels were 59Fe (CB and HFeZnB), 67Zn (CB), and 69Zn (HFeZnB). Iron and zinc percent absorption levels were calculated from radio-iron activity in red blood cells and from urinary excretion of zinc isotopes. Intrinsic and extrinsic iron absorption measures were highly correlated (R2= 0.986) (average extrinsic/intrinsic ratio was 1.00). Iron absorption was low (geometric mean less than 2 percent) in both bean types, and total iron absorbed was not different between types. Intrinsic zinc absorption from the HFeZn beans was higher than extrinsic absorption (15.2 percent vs 13.4 percent, p less than 0.05) (average extrinsic/intrinsic was 0.90). The correlation between intrinsic and extrinsic zinc measures was not as high as that for iron (R2=0.719). Percent zinc absorption levels were similar in both bean types, but total extrinsic zinc absorbed was 90 percent higher (p less than 0.05) from the HFeZnB meal.

2003-06-3294 Fraser, A.D.; Worth, D. (Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, 1278 Tower Road, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 2Y9, Canada) Urinary excretion profiles of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol: Study III. A delta9-THC-COOH to creatinine ratio study. Forensic Science International, v. 137(2-3): p. 196-202, 2003 ( Eng; 13 ref (Science Direct)).

Urine specimens (N=376) were collected from 29 individuals more or less 96 h between urine collections. The mean urinary delta9-THC-COOH concentration was 464.4 ng/ml, mean delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio (ng/(ml delta9-THC-COOH mmol 1 creatinine)) was 36.9 and the overall mean delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio of specimen 2/mean delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio of specimen 1 was 1.37. The Huestis ratio calculation indicated new drug use in 83 percent of all sequentially paired urine speciments. The data were subdividied into three groups (Groups A-C) based on mean delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine values. Interindividual mean delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine values ranged from 4.7 to 13.4 in Group A where 80 percent of paired specimens indicated new drug use (N=10) and 20.4-39.6 in Group B where 83.6 percent of paired specimens indicated new drug use (N=7). Individual mean delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine values ranged from 44.2 to 120.2 in Group C where 84.5 of paired urine specimens indicated new marijuana use (N=12). Correcting delta9-THC-COOH excretion for urinary dilution and comparing delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine concentration ratios of sequentially paired specimens (collected more or less 96h apart) may provide an objective indicator of ongoing marijuana or hashish use in this population.

2003-06-3295 Herrera-Arellano, A.; Rodriguez-Soberanes, A.; de los Angeles Martinez-Rivera, M.; Martinez-Cruz, E.; Zamilpa, A.; Alvarez, L.; Tortoriello, J. (Centro de Investigacion Biomedica del Sur, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Argentina 1, Xochitepec, Mor, Mexico 62790) Effectiveness and tolerability of a standardized phytodrug derived from Solanum chrysotrichum on Tinea pedis: A controlled and randomized clinical trial. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 390-395, 2003 (Eng; 22 ref).

The therapeutic effect and the tolerability of a standardized phytodrug from Solanum chrysotrichum (experimental group) has been compared with 2 percent ketoconazole (control group), applied externally (4 weeks) to 101 patients diagnosed with Tinea pedis. After the treatment, the results showed a clinical effectiveness (more than- 75 percent improvement of signs and symptoms) of 96.08 percent for the group treated with the S.chrysotrichum extract and 91.67 percent for the ketoconazole group, the mycologic effectiveness (direct examination and negative culture) was 78.43 percent and 77.78 percent, respectively, whilst the tolerability was 100 percent for both treatments. The therapeutic successes was 74.51 percent with the experimental treatment and 69.44 percent with the control. These results support the safety and effectiveness of S.chrysotrichum standardized phytodrug for the treatment of Tinea pedis.

2003-06-3296 Hikiami, H.; Goto, H.; Sekiya, N.; Hattori, N.; Sakakibara, I.; Shimada, Y.; Terasawa, K. (Department of Japanese Oriental (Kampo) Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Sugitani, Toyama, Japan) Comparative efficacy of Keishi-bukuryo-gan and pentoxifylline on RBC deformability in patients with “oketsu” syndrome. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 459-466, 2003 (Eng; 27 ref).

Keishi-bukuryo-gan (Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan) (KBG) is one of the prescriptions in Japanese traditional medicine for improving the “oketsu” syndrome, so-called blood stasis syndrome. “Oketsu” syndrome is an important pathological conception in Japanese traditional medicine and often accompanies cerebro-vascular disorders. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether KBG has an effect on RBC deformability in comparison with pentoxifylline ()XF). The subjects were 30 male patients with multiple lacunar infarctions. Eighteen patients (44-79 yrs, mean +-SD, 66.1+-10.7 yrs) were treated with 12 g of KBG daily for 4 weeks (KBG group). Twelve patients (59-78 yrs, 70.7+- 6.4 yrs) were treated with 300 mg of PXE daily for 4 weeks (PXF group). Based on the “oketsu” score, the patients of each group were divided into two subgroups, a non-"oketsu" group (“oketsu” score 20 points or less) and an “oketsu” group (“oketsu” score 21 points or higher). KBG had significant effects on RBC deformability as evaluated by filtration method. KBG also significantly increased intracellular ATP content, as did PXF. Moreover, KBG was more effective for patients with a more severe “oketsu” state. However, PXF was effective only in patients with “oketsu” syndrome, who might have deteriorated RBC deformability. In conclusion, the effect of KBG on RBC deformability was by no means inferior to PXF.

2003-06-3297 Jain, A.K.; Shaw, B.P.; Bhatt, N.S. (Institute of PG Training & Research Institute in Ayurveda, Calcutta, WB, India) A clinical study of U-144 (indigenous compound) in urinary tract infection . Antiseptic, v. 100(9): p. 362-364, 2003 (Eng; 22 ref).

U-144 was tried in 30 cases of UTI at dose of 2 tabs four times a day for 2 weeks followed by 2 tabs twice daily for another 2 weeks. After four weeks pyuria was reduced from 12 to 4 cases (33.33 percent), epithelial cells from 6 to 2 cases (33.33, haematuria from 2 to 1 case (50.00) and bacteriurea reduced in all the cases but number of colonies did not reduce. Pyrexia and anaemia was corrected in 80.80 percent cases. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3298 Jang, J.C.; Lee, K.S.; Kim, Y.S.; Bae, H.S.; Cho, K.H.; Park, S.H.; Kim, D.H.* (College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, 1, Hoegi, Dongdaemun-ku, Seoul 130-701, Korea) Purgative activities of Whangryunhaedoktang and Chunghyuldan. Natural Product Sciences, v. 9(2): p. 64-67, 2003 (Eng; 15 ref ).

The purgative activities of Whangryunhaedoktang (WT), Chunghyuldan (CD) and Rhei Rhizoma were measured to choose herbal formulae available for stroke patients suffering from constipation. WT consisted of 80 percent EtOH extracts of Coptidis Rhizoma 4 g, Phellodendri Cortex 4 g, Scutellariae Radix 4 g, and Gardeniae Fructus 4 g. CD consisted of 80 percent ethanol extracts of Rhei Rhizoma. When the laxative activity of Rhei Rhizoma and CD (the same dose as Rhei Rhizoma) compared, Rhei Rhizoma was more potent than CD. WT contained Gardeniae Fructus which has been used as a laxative, as a ingredient. Nevertheless, WT did not show the purgative activity. WT and CD did not stimulate the transportation of small intestine. However, CD weakly stimulated the transportation of large intestine than Rhei Rhizoma. Accordingly, CD can be used as a useful purgative for stroke patients with constipation.

2003-06-3299 Javidnia, K.; Dastgheib, L.; Mohammadi Samani, S.; Nasiri, A. (Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shaheed Faghini Hospital, Shiraz, Iran) Antihirsutism activity of fennel (fruits of Foeniculum vulgare) extract: A double-blind placebo controlled study. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 455-458, 2003 (Eng; 6 ref).

Clinical response of idiopathic hirsutism to topical Fennel extract. Fennel, (Foeniculum vulgare), is a plant, which has been used as an estrogenic agent. The ethanolic extract of fennel was obtained by using a soxhlete apparatus. In a double blind study, 38 patients were treated with creams containing 1 percent, 2 percent of fennel extract and placebo. Hair diameter was measured and rate of growth was considered. The efficacy of treatment with the cream containing 2 percent fennel is better than the cream containing 1 percent fennel and these two were more potent than placebo. The mean values of hair diameter reduction was 7.8 percent, 18.3 percent and -0.5 percent for patients receiving the creams containing 1 percent, 2 percent and 0 percent (placebo) respectively.

2003-06-3300 Kang, J.K.; Bae, H.S.; Kim, Y.S.; Cho, K.H.; Lee, K.S.; Park, E.K.; Kim, D.H. (College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, 1, Hoegi, Dongdaemun-ku, Seoul 130-701, Korea) Anti-thrombosis of Chungpesagan-tang is activated by human intestinal bacteria. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(2): p. 53-59, 2001 (Eng; 14 ref ).

The possibility of Chungpesagan-tang, which has been recommended on the stroke patients with constipation in Korean traditional clinic, and its ingredients as a novel antithrombotic agent was evaluated. Most of its ingredients except Puerariae Radix exhibited in vitro antiplatelet aggregation activity. However Puerariae radix was effective on ex vivo antiplatelet aggregation activity, whereas Angelicae Tenuissimae Radix, Raphani Semen and Angelicae Dahuricae Radix was not effective. Plasma recalcification was potently inhibited only by Puerariae Radix and Rhei Rhizoma treated with intestinal bacteria. Urokinase was also activated only by Chungpesagan-tang. Angelicae Tenuissimae Radix and Puerariae Radix treated with intestinal bacteria, Chungpesagan-tang exhibited the potent anti-thrombotic activity in vitro. These results suggest that anti-thrombotic activity of Chungpesagan-tang should be activated by intestinal bacteria and may be important in the prevention of thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infraction stroke and arteriosclerosis.

2003-06-3301 Kurilich, A.C.; Britz, S.J.; Clevidence, B.A.; Novotny, J.A.* (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA) Isotopic labeling and LC-APCI-MS quantification for investigating absorption of carotenoids and phylloquinone from kale (Brassica oleracea). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 4877-4883, 2003 (Eng; 62 ref).

This work describes a method for studying the bioavailability of nutrients from kale (Brassica oleracea var. Acephala) by labeling the nutrients with carbon-13, feeding the kale to an adult volunteer, and analyzing plasma samples for labeled nutrients. Results showed that conditions for producing atomospheric intrinsically labeled kale had no detrimental effect on plant growth. Lutein, beta-carotene, retinol, and phylloquinone were analyzed using liquid chromatography- atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spctrometry. Analysis of plasma samples showed that labeled lutein peaked in plasma at 11 h (0.23 microM), beta-carotene peaked at 8 (0.058 microM) and 24 h (0.062 microM), retinol peaked at 24 h (0.10 microM), and phylloquinone peaked at 7 h (3.0 nM). This method of labeling kale with 13C was successful for producing clearly defined kinetic curves for 13C-lutein, 13C-beta-carotene, 13C-retinol, and 13C-phylloquinone.

2003-06-3302 Nanda, G.C.; Padhi, M.M.; Sahu, D.P.; Pathak, N.N. ; Chopra, K.K. (Central Research Institute (Ay.), Unit-1, Bhubaneswar-9, Orissa, India) Effect of some Ayurvedic drugs on A.S.O.- A out line study. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, v. 23(1-2): p. 29-35, 2002 (Eng; Hin; 5 ref).

A compound formulation of puskar, amla, haldi, guduchi, neem and guggulu was put to trial only on the antistreptolysin-O (ASO)+ve arthritis cases to find out the probable anti ASO activities. Patients were advised above medicine for two months, followed by further test after two months and restricted diet. Results are reported .

2003-06-3303 Pillai, B.K.R.; Amma, K.C.B.; Nair, S.S.; Pillai, N.G.K.; Nair, C.P.R. (Regional Research Institute (D.R.) Poojapura, Trivandrum 695 012, Kerala, India) The effect of Nimbathiktha (nimbidin) in Kitibha (Psoriasis)- A double blind clinical study. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, v. 23(1-2): p. 42-50, 2002 (Eng; Hin; 4 ref).

A study was carried out to assess the therapeutic efficacy of the drug Nimbidin in psoriasis. Patients were randomly grouped into two and one group was treated with Nimbidin 200 mg capsule and the other group with Lactose (placebo) 200 mg capsule. All other conditions were same for both the groups. From the study it was concluded that the drug Nimbidin had an edge over placebo in the treatment of psoriasis.

2003-06-3304 Pillai, B.K.R.; Pillai, N.G.K.; Nair, C.P.R. ( Regional Research Institute (Ay.), A.V.S. Hospital Complex, Kathakal 676 503, Thiruvananthapuram) The effect of Psoralia-5 on folicular eczema. Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, v. 23(1-2): p. 56-63, 2002 (Eng; Hin; 5 ref).

Twenty one patients were given Psoralia-5, 15 ml to 30 ml for external application twice daily for one month. The use of soap was prohibited. No internal medicine was given. Study after one month revealed that out of 21 cases, 12 got complete relief, 2 got marked relief, 4 got moderate relief and 4 patients discontinued the study. No relapse were noticed within a period of 2 years. Psoralia 5 is an ointment containing 5 percent alcoholic extract of Psoralea corylifolia (Bakuchi) mixed with coconut oil.

2003-06-3305 Raina, V.; Sharma, A.; Mohanti, B.K.; Rajive Kumar ; Dawar, R.; Rath, G.K. (All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, India) Etoposide, vinblastine, adriamycin and prednisolone (EVAP) combination chemotherapy as first-line treatment for Hodgkin’s disease. National Medical Journal of India, v. 16(4): p. 199-203, 2003 ( Eng; 16 ref).

Patients (66) for Hodgkin’s disease with stages IA (bulky)-IVB disease were given 6-8 courses of etoposide, vinblastine, doxorubicin and prednisolone (EVAP) as first-line chemotherapy. Radiotherapy (RT) was given to the involved fields of those patients who had bulky stages I or II disease at presentation. The end-points were (i) complete and overall response; (ii) disease-free and overall survival; and (iii) toxicity. Complete response was seen in 78.8 percent and partial response in 12.2 percent of patients; the overall response rate was 91 percent. The median follow up was 48 months. The 5-year overall and disease-free survivals were 72 percent and 62 percent, respectively. There were 3 episodes of grade IV neutropenia requiring hospitalization. One patient developed a vascular necrosis of the femur. There were 2 deaths during treatment, one due to chemotoxicity, and another due to progressive disease. Results were inferior to other therapies. The advantages of the EVAP combination over other therapies are abscence of pulmonary toxicity, markedly lower incidence of sterility and nausea and vomiting. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3306 Ranade, G. (Goldfield Fragrance Ltd., 1/17, Prabhadevi Industrial Estate, Veer Savarkar Marg, Prabhadevi, Mumbai 400 025, Maharashtra, India) Aromatherapy and hair care. Fafai Journal, v. 5(2): p. 53-55, 2003 (Eng).

Different disorders are associated with hair and these disorders are classified depending upon symptoms, they include, defects in hair shaft, greying hair, defects of scalp, dandruff, infection, inflammation, diffuse alopecia, alopecia areata, anagen effluvium, postpartum alopecia etc. The problem involves knowing individual hair types, subjects diet, emotional characterisation and any allergen history in addition to age, sex and profession. Different essential oils could be useful in each of the above conditions, depending on the nature of the problem and emotionality of the patient, oils to be used should be suggested. Aromatherapy does work in health care and it is useful in haircare. If used correctly, aromatherapy will help in achieving healthy hair. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3307 Singh, P.; Padhi, M.M.; Tewari, N.S. (Central Institute, Unit-1, B.B.S.R.-9) A comparative clinical evaluation of Karvir in the management of pama (scabies). Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, v. 23(1-2): p. 51-55, 2002 (Eng; Hin; 4 ref).

The clinical evaluation of Karvir oil (Nerium indicum in mustard oil base) was carried out on 30 patients of Pama (scabies). Results were found highly significant in clearing the lesion of scabies. The controlled study was also carried out with benzyl benzoate lotion in 10 patients and found highly significant. Both the drugs are advised for external application.

2003-06-3308 Strong, K.M. (Hampton University School of Pharmacy, Hampton, VA, USA) Butterbur for allergic rhinitis. Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, v. 3(2): p. 45-51, 2003 ( Eng; 10 ref).

Patients suffering from allergic rhinitis may complain of rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal congestion, headache and ocular irritation after allergen exposure. Allergens may include pollen from trees, grass and weeds, dander from animals, fecal proteins from cockroaches and dust mites, as well mold spores. On a cellular level, exposure of mucous membranes to the antigenic material activates IgE molecules bound to nasal mast cells resulting in release of inflammatory mediators, including, histamine, neutrophil and eosinophil chemotactic factors, kinins, leukotrienes, platelet-activating factor, and thromboxanes. Butterbur (Petasites hybridus), an herbaceous plant of family Asteraceae is used for the prevention of migraine headaches and allergic rhinitis. Studies conducted on the clinical trials of butterbur extract ZE 339, are reported. Petasites hybridus does not appear to be more effective for allergic rhinitis than antihistamines, it does appear to be less sedating than cetrizine. The extract must be free of pyrrolizidine alkaloids that are toxic to the liver.

2003-06-3309 Teschke, R.; Gaus, W.; Loew, D. (Medical Department II, City Hospital Hanau, Teaching Hospital of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, frankfurt/Main, Germany) Kava extracts: Safety and risks including rare hepatotoxicity. Phytomedicine, v. 10(5): p. 440-446, 2003 (Eng; 31 ref).

Toxicological and clinical studies have shown that kava extracts are virtually devoid of toxic effects with the exception of rare hepatotoxic side effects reported in few patients. A critical analysis of 19 suspected cases in Germany revealed that only in 1 patient a very probable causal relationship could be established between kava treatment and the development of toxic liver disease due to a positive result of an unscheduled re-exposure test, whereas in another patient there might be a possible association. Out of the remaining 17 cases 12 patients were not yet assessable due to insufficient data and in 5 other cases a causal relationship was unlikely or could be excluded. The German regulatory authority might therefore well be advised to provide now additional information for those 12 patients with so far unsatisfactory data, facilitating a more appropriate assessment of causality. Nevertheless, in the meantime physicians and patients should continue to keep an eye on possible hepatotoxic side effects in the course of kava treatment, to stop the treatment already at first suspicion and to start with a careful diagnostic work up ruling out all other causes.

2003-06-3310 van Lieshout, M.; West, C.E.*; van de Bovenkamp, P.; Wang, Y.; Sun, Y.; van Breemen, R.B.; Muhilal, D.P.; Verhoeven, M.A.; Creemers, A.F.L.; Lugtenburg, J. (Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands) Extraction of carotenoids from feces, enabling the bioavailability of beta-carotene to be studied in Indonesian children. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 5123-5130, 2003 (Eng; 20 ref).

A method for quantifying beta-carotene bioavailability based on analysis in serum, following administation of 13C-labeled beta-carotene was known. Because stool samples can be collected nonivasively. Method of measure the bioavailability basedon measurements in feces has been made use of. An extraction method was developed to enable mesurement of concentraions and degree of isotopic enrichment of retinol, retinyl palmitate and carotenoids in feces. Relative bioavailability of beta-carotene from pumpkin (n=6) was found to be 1.8 times (interval, 0.6,5.5) greater than that from spinach (n=8), based on data from feces compared with 1.7 times (interval, 0.9, 3.1) based on data from serum .

 

 

Pharmacology & Toxicology

 

2003-06-3311 Agarwal, R.B.; Rangari, V.D.* (Department of Pharmacognosy, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s Poona College of Pharmacy, Erandwane, Pune 411 038, Maharashtra, India) Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of essential oil of Strobilanthus ixiocephala Benth. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, v. 41(8): p. 890-894, 2003 (Eng; 17 ref).

Column chromatographic fractionation of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the flowering tops of Strobilanthus ixiocephala resulted in the isolation of beta-caryophyllene, fenchyl acetate, T-cadinol and a new sesquiterpene alcohol for which a name ixiocephol has been proposed. The beta-caryophyllene and fenchyl acetate were identified by Co-TLC with authentic samples whereas T-cadinol and ixiocephol were structurally elucidated by UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil has also revealed the presence of various monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids. The essential oil demonstrated a dose dependant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema. It has also revealed good activity in cotton pellet granuloma and adjuvant induced arthritis model in rats.

2003-06-3312 Ahn, S.C.; Oh, W.K.; Kim, B.Y.; Kang, D.O.; Kim, M.S.; Heo, G.Y.; Ahn, J.S. (Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, P.O.Box 115, yusong, Taejon 305-600, Korea) Inhibitory effects of rosmarinic acid on Lck SH2 domain binding to a synthetic phosphopeptide. Planta Medica, v. 69(7): p. 642-646, 2003 (Eng; 20 ref).

Rosmarinic acid was isolated from the MeOH extract of Prunella vulgaris, which showed lymphocyte cell-specific kinase inhibitory activity. The IC50 value for LcK SH2 binding to phosphopeptide (SGSGEEPOpYEEIP) of hamster polyomavirus middle-sized tumour(hmT pY324) was 7 microM. However, even at concentations of 0.1 to 1000 microM, no signifgicant inhibitions were observed against other SH2 domains binding such as the growth factor receptor binding protein 2 (Grb2) SH2 domain to phosphopeptide of Shc and phospholipase Cgammal (PLCgaamal) SH2 domain to translational elongation factor 1alpha(EF1alpha) C-terminal. Rosmarinic acid inhibited interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene expression by 50 percent at a concentation of 8 microM in Jurkat cells stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD4 antibodies. FK506 and cyclosporin A (CsA) employed as postive controls showed less than 30 percent inhibition at the same concentration. In addition, rosmarinic acidinhibited the intracellular {Ca2+} increase in lurkat cells after 1 cell activation in a dose-dependent manner.

2003-06-3313 Ahn, H.; Kim, J.Y.; Lee, H.J.; Kim, Y.K.; Ryu, J.H.* (College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Womens University, Seoul 140-742, Korea) Inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression from Artemisia iwayomogi. Archives of Pharmacal Research, v. 26(4): p. 301-305, 2003 ( Eng; 22 ref).

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important bioactive agent that mediates a wide variety of physiological and pathophysiological events. NO overproduction by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) results in severe hypotension and inflammation. Two sesquiterpenes were isolated from Artemisia iwayomogi (Compositae) and were found to inhibit NO synthesis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Their structures were identified as 3-O-methyl-isosecotanapartholide (1) and iso-secotanapartholide (2). Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited the LPS-induced expression of the iNOS enzyme in the RAW 264.7 cells. The inhibition of NO production via the down regulation of iNOS expression may substantially modulate the inflammatory responses.

2003-06-3314 Al-Rehaily, A.J.; El-Tahir, K.E.H.; Mossa, J.S.; Rafatullah, S. (Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal, Aromatic and Poisonous Plants Research Center, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2457, Riyadh-11451, Saudi Arabia) Pharmacological studies of various extracts and the major constituent, lupeol, obtained from hexane extract of Teclea nobilis in Rodents. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(2): p. 76-82, 2001 (Eng; 29 ref ).

Oral adminsitration ofthe acetonitile (MeCN), hexane extracts of the leaves of Teclea nobilis (TN) at doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg and lupeol 5 and 10 mg/kg showed a significant antiinflammatory activity in rats. The extracts of TN and isolated pure terpenoid compound lupeol significantly decreased the number ofcontractions and stretchings indued by acetic acid and heat-induced pain in mice. The antipyretic effect of extracts and lupeol was also found to be significant. The behavioral obsrvation of animals showed that the hexane extract and lupeol caused CNS depressant activity and did not produce any toxic or lethal effects in animals at various dose levels. The results suggest that the Teclea nobilis extracts and lupeol possesses antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities.

2003-06-3315 Anbalagan, N.; Rajinikanth, K.N.; Gnanasam, S.K.; Leonard, J.T.; Balakrishna, K.; Ramachandran, S.; Sridhar, S.K. ( Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, C.L.Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Thorapakkam, Chennai 600 096, TN, India) Analgesic, antiinflammatory and diuretic activities of Pisonia grandis. Natural Product Sciences, v. 8(2): p. 97-99, 2002 (Eng; 9 ref).

Vacuum dried chloroform (CE) and methanol (ME) extracts of Pisonia grandis leaves were evaluated for analgesic, antiinflammatory (acute and chronic) and diuretic activity at two dose levels (250 and 500 mg/kg) in Wistar albino mice (25-30 g) and Wistar albino rats (150-200 g). Significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities were associated with CE and ME. CE at the dose level of 500 mg/kg was found to exhibit equivalent chronic antiinflammatory activity as diclofenac at 50 mg/kg dose level. Significant diuretic activity was exhibited by ME. Graded dose response for all the activities were observed for the extracts.

2003-06-3316 Ang, H.H.; Ngai, T.H.; Tan, T.H. (School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University Science Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia) Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on sexual qualities in middle aged male rats. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 590-593, 2003 (Eng; 22 ref).

The effects of Eurycoma longifolia were studied on the sexual qualities of middle aged male rats after dosing them with 0.5g/kg of various fractions of E.longifolia whilst the control group received 3 ml/kg of normal saline daily for 12 weeks. Results showed than E.longifolia enhanced the sexual qualities of the middle aged male rats by decreasing their hesitation time as compared to controls with various fractions of E.longifolia produced in contrast to controls which produced throughout the investigation period. Besides these, there was a transient increase in the percent of the male rats responding to the right choice after chronic administration of 0.5 g/kg E.longifolia with more than 50 percent of the male rats scored right choice after 2 weeks post-treatment and the effect was more prominent at the dose of the observation period. However, there was no sexual enhancement of the middle aged male rats which consumed normal saline since only 45-55 percent of the male rats responded to right choice throughout the investigation period. Study shows that E.longifolia enhanced the sexual qualities of the middle aged male rats, further supports the folkuse of E.longifolia as an aphrodisiac.

2003-06-3317 Ang, H.H.; Lee, K.L. (School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University Science Malaysia, Minden, 11800, Penang, Malaysia) Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on masculine copulatory behaviour in middle aged male rats - a comparison study. Natural Product Sciences, v. 8(2): p. 44-47, 2002 (Eng; 23 ref ).

The effects of methanol-chloroform, methanol-butanol-water and methanol-butanol extract, of the roots of Eurycoma longifolia on mascaline copulatory behaviour were studied in the middle aged male Sprague-Dawley rats, 9 months old and retired breeders after dosing them with 500 mg/kg twice daily for 10 dyas prior to test. The result showed that although E.longifolia continued to enhance the sexual activity of the middle aged male rats by extending the duration of coitus and decreasing the refractory period between the different series of copulation, but to a smaller degree as compared to sexually active, adult male rats.

2003-06-3318 Ansari, Z.; Zafar, E.; Nehal, M. (Biochemistry Division, University Department of Zoology, L.N.Mithila University, Darbhanga 846 004, Bihar, India) Effect of bittermelon (Momordica charantia) on serum levels of key hepatic enzymes and proteins in alloxan-diabetic rats. Journal of Science and Pharmacy, v. 4(3): p. 109-114, 2003 ( Eng; 20 ref).

A partially purified fraction from acid-ethanolic seed extract of bittermelon, designated as K3, administered to experimental rats intraperitoneally at a daily dose of 15 mg/kg body weight for 20 days while the control group received equivalent volume of saline under ideal conditions (n=6 in each case). Biochemical parameters like gammaglutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine amino transferase (ALT), asparatate amino transferase (AST), total protein (TP) and albumin (Alb) in serum were estimated post treatment to assess liver function. Serum concentrations of GGT and ALT were found to be significantly lowered (P less than 0.05) following intra peritoneal administration of fraction K3. Significant but small decrease (P less than 0.05) in serum level of AST was also observed upon K3 treatment. In addition the levels of total protein and albumin in serum were significantly increased in K3 treated diabetic animals. Treatment with M.charantia succeeded partially to restore the diabetes induced changes in serum GGT, ALT, AST, TP as well as Alb levels, thus, suggesting hepatoprotective potential of fraction K3 in alloxan diabetes.

2003-06-3319 Arimoto-Kobayashi, S.; Inada, N.; Sato, Y.; Sugiyama, C.; Okamoto, K.; Hayatsu, H.; Negishi, T. (Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 1-1-1 Tsushima, Okayama 700-8530, Japan) Inhibitory effects of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate on the mutation, DNA strand cleavage, and DNA adduct formation by heterocyclic amines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 5150-5153, 2003 (Eng; 20 ref).

In this study, the inhibitory activities of tea extracts, and in particular the polyphenolic component (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), against heterocyclic amine-induced genotoxicity has been investigated. The tea extracts displayed inhibition of 2-hydroxyamino-6-methyldipyridol{1,2-a,3’,2’-d}imidazole (Glu-P-1(NHOH))-induced mutagenicity. This inhibition can be accounted for by the presence of EGCG in the extracts. The mutagenic effect of Glu-P-1 (NHOH), which induces single-strand cleavage in supercoiled circular DNA under neutral conditions, was inhibited by EGCG. Using the Drosophila repair test, a test for gross DNA damage, and DNA adduct detection by 32P-postlabeling, we showed that EGCG prevented 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo{4,5-f}quinoline-induced DNA damage and adduct formation in insect DNA. EGCG was found to accelerate the degradation of Glu-P-1(NHOH) in vitro. This observation suggested that the inhibition by EGCG is associated with an accelerated degradation of metabolically activated heterocyclic amines.

2003-06-3320 Bakthavathsalam, R. (Department of Zoology, Government College, Kumbakonam 612 001, TN, India) Effect on neem products on cocoon production, hatching ability and hatchling growth rate of the earthworm Lampito mauritii. Environment & Ecology, v. 21(3): p. 575-579, 2003 (Eng; 14 ref ).

Effects of three sub lethal doses (96 hour LC degreee 1/2 of 96 hour LC degree and 1/10 of 96 hour (LC degree) of neem cake (40, 20 and 4 g /kg dry substrate) and neem seed (30, 15 and 3 g/kg dry substrate) were studied on cocoon production, hatching ability and hatchling growth rate of the earthworm. All the worms kept in 96 hour LC degree doses died after 20 days of exposure. The worms kept in untreated control (without neem products) for 8 weeks produced 1,8 cocoons/worm and all of them wer hatched out into 1 hatchling/cocoon after 1-2 weeks of incubation period. A reduction of 78 and 61 percent in cocoon production and 75 and 71 percent in hatching success over control was noted in the worms kept in 20 and 4 g of neem cake doses. But the worms kept in 15 and 3 g neem seed doses, a reduction of 78 and 55 percent in cocoon production and only 50 percent in hatching success over control was noticed.

2003-06-3321 Ban, H.S.; Lim, S.S.; Suzuki, K.; Jung, S.H.; Lee, S.; Lee, Y.S.; Shin, K.H.; Ohuchi, K. (Laboratory of Pathophysiological Biochemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578, Japan) Inhibitory effects of furanocoumarins isolated from the roots of Angelica dahurica on prostaglandin E2 production. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 408-412, 2003 (Eng; 15 ref).

Five furanocoumarins, byakangelicin, phellopterin, imperatorin, isoimperatorin, and oxypeucedanin methanolate were isolated from the roots of Angelica dahurica and prepared five semi-synthesized compounds by the partial reduction of each isolated furanocumarin, and the effects of these compounds on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in rat peritoneal macrophages were examined. Among these compounds, imperatorin showed the most potent inhibitory activity on the LPS-induced PGE2 production. It also inhibited the LPS-induced expressions of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES). These findings suggest that the inhibitory effect of furanocoumarins on the LPS-induced PGE2 production is due to the inhibition of the expression of COX-2 and mPGES.

2003-06-3322 Bao, G.H.; Wang, L.Q.; Cheng, K.F.; Feng, Y.H.; Li, X.Y.; Qin, G.W. (Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica - Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 294 Tai-Yuan Road, Shanghai 200 031, People’s Republic of China) Diterpenoid and phenolic glycosides from the roots Rhododendron molle. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 434-439, 2003 (Eng; 20 ref).

Two new grayanane diterpenoid glucosides, rhodomosides A, B and two new phenolic glycosides 3, 4 together with a known glucosyringic acid (5) were isolated from the roots of Rhododendron molle. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis. Compounds 3, 4 and 5 were found to inhibit the proliferation of murine B lymphocytes in vitro while compound 3 also showed stimulatory activity on the proliferation of murine T lymphocytes in vitro.

2003-06-3323 Behera, B.C.; Adawadkar, B.; Makhija, U. (Plant Science Division, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune, Maharashtra, India) Inhibitory activity of xanthine oxidase and superoxide-scavenging activity in some taxa of the lichen family Graphidaceae. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 536-543, 2003 (Eng; 17 ref).

The potential of the extracts for scavenging of superoxide and inhibtion of xanthine oxidase under various physiological conditions has been evaluated. The methanolic extracts of the species of family Graphidaceae showed inhibitory properties of xanthine oxidase (IC50=2.0 to 5.26 microg/ml) with an additional superoxide scavenging capacity (IC50=3.63 to 13.88 microg/ml). The potential of the methanolic extracts for scavenging of superoxide and inhibition of xanthine oxidase remained stable at 4 degree C. Thus the extracts can be maintained for longer periods for their therapeutic uses.

2003-06-3324 Bezivin, C.; Tomasi, S.; Lohezic-Le Devehat, F.; Boustie, J. (Laboratoire de Pharmacognosie et de Mycologie, U.P.R.E.S.(EA) 2234 Synthese et exraction de molecules a visee therapeutique, Rennes, France) Cytotoxic activity of some lichen extracts on murine and human cancer cell lines. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 499-503, 2003 (Eng; 20 ref).

Eight lichens were extracted successively with n-hexane, diethyl ether and methanol using a Soxhlet proces. The cytotoxic activity of the 24 lichen extracts was evaluated in vitro using two murine (the L1210: lymphocytic leukaemia, and the 3LL: Lewis lung carcinoma) and four human (the K-562:chronic myelogenous leukaemia, the U251: glioblastoma, the DU145: prostate carcinoma, and the MCF7: breast adenocarcinoma) cancer cell lines and non-cancerous cells, the Vero cell line (African green monkey kidney cell line). The MTT assay revealed significant cytotoxicity (IC50 equal to or less than 20 microg/ml) on one of the tested cancer cell lines for at least one extract of each lichen species. Some extracts of Cladonia convoluta, Cladonia rangiformis, Parmelia caperata, Platismatia glauca and Ramalina cuspidata demonstrated interesting activities particularly on human cancer cell lines as good selectivity indices were recorded (SI less than 3).

2003-06-3325 Chang, K.C.; Duh, C.Y.; Chen, I.S.; Isai, I.L. ( School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China) A cytotoxic butenolide, two new dolabellane diterpenoids, a chroman and a benzoquinol derivative formosan Casearia membranacea. Planta Medica, v. 69(7): p. 667-672, 2003 (Eng; 20 ref).

Investigation of a cytotoxic chloroform-soluble fraction of the stem of Casearia membranacea(Flacourtiaceae) led to the isolation of five new compound, including one butenolide, casea-lactone, one chroman, caseamemin, two dolabellane diterpenoids, casearimene A and casearimene B, one benzoquinol ether, casearinone, together with fifteen known compounds, including two amides, six steroids, two triterpenoids, two benzenoids, one ester, methyl hexadecanoate, and anthraquinone, respectively. Among these isolates, casealactone showed cytotoxicity against P-388 and HT-29 cancer cell lines in vitro and amides showed cytotoxicity against the P-388 cancer cell line. The structures of these compounds were determined by means of spectroscopic techniques, and the structure of casearimene A was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis.

2003-06-3326 Chaturvedula, V.S.P.; Schilling, J.K.; Miller, J.S.; Andriantsiferana, R.; Rasamison, V.E.; Kingston, D.G.I.* ( Department of Chemistry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA) New cytotoxic oleanane saponins from the infructescences of Polyscias amplifolia from the Madagascar rainforest. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 440-444, 2003 (Eng; 21 ref).

Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the infructescences of Polyscias amplifolia resulted in the isolation of two new oleanolic acid saponins, polyfoliolides A and B, in addition to the two known saponins 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyloleanolic acid and 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 to 4)-beta-D-galactopyranosyloleanolic acid. The structures of the two new compounds were established as 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 to 4)-beta-D-xylopyranosyloleanolic acid and 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 to 4)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data interpretation and chemical conversions. All the isolated compounds showed weak cytotoxicity against A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line, with IC50 values in the range 6.7 to 10.8 microg/mL.

2003-06-3327 Chen, C.C.; Hsu, J.D.; Wang, S.F.; Chiang, H.C.; Yang, M.Y.; Kao, E.S.; Ho, Y.C.; Wang, C.J. (Institute of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan) Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p. 5472-5477, 2003 (Eng; 35 ref).

Hibiscus sabdariffa, a local soft drink material and medicinal herb, is usually used effectively in native medicines against hypertension, pyrexia, and liver disorders. An extract of HSE (H.sabdariffa extract), which is designed to exhibit hypolipidemia and antiatherosclerotic effects in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis has been investigated. New Zealand White rabbits were fed with a normal diet, high cholesterol (1.3 percent), lard oil (3 percent) diet (HCD) with or without 0.5 or 1 percent HSE for 10 weeks. The levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were lower in the serum of rabbits fed HCD plus HSE than in the serum of rabbits fed HCD. Feeding HSE (0.5 and 1 percent in the diet) to rabbits significantly reduced severe atherosclerosis in the aorta. Histopathological examination showed that HSE reduced foam cell formation and inhibited smooth muscle cell migration and calcification in the blood vessel of rabbits. These results suggest that HSE inhibits serum lipids and shows an antiatherosclerotic activity.

2003-06-3328 Chen, K.S.; Wu, C.C.; Chang, F.R.; Chai, Y.C.; Chiang, M.Y.; Wo, Y.C.* (Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsung 807, Taiwan, Republic of China) Bioactive coumarins from the leaves of Murraya omphalocarpa. Planta Medica, v. 69(7): p. 654-657, 2003 (Eng; 11 ref).

Using antiplatelet aggregation as a guide to fractionation, eight coumarins, omphalocarpinol (1), 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(3’-methyl-2’oxobatyl) coumarin (2), murralongin, murrayanone, omphamurin (5), murragleinin, mexoticin and murrangatin, were isolated from the leaves of Murraya omphalocarpa. Compound 1 is new, and 5 is a new enantiomer of omphamurin. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic techniques, and the structure of compound 1 was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Among them, compounds 1,2 and 5 exhibited significant antiplatelet aggregation activity.

2003-06-3329 Chiang, L.C.; Ng, L.T.; Chiang, W.; Chang, M.Y.; Lin, C.C.* (Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan, Republic of China) Immunomodulatory activities of flavonoids, monoterpenoids, triterpenoids, iridoid glycosides and phenolic compounds of Plantago species. Planta Medica, v. 69(7): p. 600-604, 2003 (Eng; 19 ref).

The immunomodulatory activities of five chemical classes of pure compounds obtained from the Plantago genus was evaluated in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Studies were conductedon lymphocyte transformation by BrdU immunoassay and secretion of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) using an ELISA assay. Results showed that the water-soluble compounds, namely aucubin, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid, enhanced the activity of human lymphocyte proliferation and secretion of IFN-gamma. Among the water-insolubie compounds, with the exception of luteolin, both baicalein and baicalin showed an enhancement of the human PBMC. Although oleanolic acid and ursolic acid of the triterpenoids did not significantly affect the proliferation of PBMC, they exhibited a strong stimulation of IFN-gamma secretion. Linalool, a monoterpenoid, showed a similar immunomodulatory activity as the triterpenoids.

2003-06-3330 Cho, E.J.; Yokozawa, T.; Rhyu, D.Y.; Kim, S.C.; Shibahara, N.; Park, J.C. (Institute of Natural Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama, Japan) Study on the inhibitory effects of Korean medicinal plants and their main compounds on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 544-551, 2003 (Eng; 51 ref).

Among the Rosaceae, Rosa rugosa and Rosa davurica showed strong DPPH radical-scavenging activity. The most effective medicinal plant from families other than Rosaceae was Cedrela sinensis, followed in order by Nelumbo nucifera, Eucommia ulmoides, Zanthoxylum piperitum, Cudrania tricuspidata and Houttuynia cordata. These results serve as a good index of the free radical-scavenging activities of Korean medicinal plants. Furthermore, the polyphenols isolate from these plants, procyanidin B-3, (+)-catechin, gallic acid, methyl gallae, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-beta- galactoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinose and kaempferol, exerted strong DPPH radical-scavenging activity. These results suggest that the Korean medicinal plants and the polyphenols isolated from them that exhibited effective radical-scavenging activity may be promising agents for scavenging free radicals and treating diseases asociated with excess free radicals.

2003-06-3331 Choi, J.; Yoon, B.J.; Han, Y.N.; Lee, S.K.; Lee, K.T.; Park, H.J.* (Division of Applied Plant Sciences, Sangji University, Wonju 220-702, Korea) Sulfuretin, an antinociceptive and antiinflammatory flavonoid from Rhus verniciflua. Natural Product Sciences, v. 9(2): p. 97-101, 2003 (Eng; 9 ref ).

MeOH extract of the heartwood extract of Rhus verniciflua, its EtOAc-soluble portion and sulfuretin showed significant antinociceptive activity in writhing and hot plate test assays and antiinflammatory effects in carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. In particular, treatment of sulfuretin with 10 mg/kg dose (i.p) reduced writhing frequency by 48.0 percent (p less than 0.01) compared to that of a control group. Further, the treatment of sulfuretin (5, 10 mg/kg, i.p.) for 7 days prevented the carrageenan-induced hind paw edema significantly (p less than 0.01). The antiinflammatory effect of sulfuretin was also confirmed by microscopic observation of mast cell numbers in muscle. In addition, sulfuretin suppressed the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity (IC50=28.7 microM) in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophage cells. This result indicates that the inhibitory effect of sulfuretin on COX-2 may be one of the antinociceptive/antiinflammatory mechanism.

2003-06-3332 Choi, J.; Lee, K.T.; Jung, W.T.; Jung, H.J.; Lee, S.H.; Park, H.J.* (Division of Applied Plant Sciences, Sangji University, Wonju 220 702, Korea) Inhibitory effects of the essential oils on acetaminophen-induced lipid peroxidation in the rat. Natural Product Sciences, v. 8(1): p. 18-22, 2002 (Eng; 24 ref ).

The oil of Artemisia princeps var.orientalis buds (AP-oil) showed the most significant hepatic malondialdehyde value which was comparable to those of ascorbic acid and methionine. This was warranted by the protective effect on hepatic glutathione depletion. Overview of the data on the activities of hepatic microsomal enzymes, aminopyrine N-demethylase and aniline hydroxylase led to the notice that the suppressed activities of those enzymes are mainly responsible for the anti-lipid peroxidation. The interpretation of GC-MS data on the AP-oil revealded the ingredient of cineol, thujone, carvone, borneol, camphor and terpineol.

2003-06-3333 Choi, J.H.; Kim, H.S.; Jung, M.J.; Choi, J.S. ( Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Pusan 608-737, Korea) (+)-Catechin, an antioxidant principle from the leaves of Pinus densiflora that acts on 1,1,-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(1): p. 1-4, 2001 (Eng; 12 ref).

The antioxidant activity of Pinus densiflora was determined by measuring the radical scavenging effect on 1,1,-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The methanol extract of P.densiflora showed strong antioxidant activity, and thus fractionated with several solvents. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction exhibiting strong antioxidant activity was further purified by repeated silica gel column chromatography. Antioxidant (+)-catechin was isolated as one of the active principles from the ethyl acetate fraction, together with the inactive components, dihydrokaempferol and 1-O-benzoylglucose. The radical scavenging effect of (+)-catechnin on DPPH radical exceeded to that of L-ascorbic acid which is a well known antioxidant.

2003-06-3334 Chung, J.S.; Lee, M.S.; Chung, J.Y. (R&D Center for Household Products & Personal Care, Cheiljedang Co., Incheon 400-103, Korea) Antioxidative activity of the extracts from the leaves and fruits of Acer ginnala. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(2): p. 45-48, 2001 (Eng; 15 ref ).

The antioxidative effect of the extracts from the leaves and fruits of Acer ginnala against free radicals was studied by two different methods using DPPH radical-generating system, and hydroxyl radical-generating system (Cu++/H2O2 system) which induces DNA strand breaking. Compared with well known antioxidative plants, green tea, Scutellaria baicalensis, the Acer ginnala extracts showed excellent radical-scavenging activity in DPPH radical-generating system and inhibited effectively hydroxyl radical induced-DNA strand breaking in a concentration-dependent manner in Cu++/H2O2 system whereas the green tea extract stimulated the strand breaking at a low concentration.

2003-06-3335 Daniel, J.; Abraham, L.; Balaji, K.; Rajasekharan, R. (Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, Karnataka, India) Biosynthesis of stearate-rich triacylglycerol in developing embryos and microsomal membranes from immature seeds of Garcinia indica Chois. Current Science, v. 85(3): p. 363-370, 2003 (Eng; 28 ref).

Analysis of fatty acid composition and storage lipid content of Garcinia indica during seed development showed high stearate content at the early stages, with progressive increase to 60 percent of the total fatty acids during development. When 14C-acetate was used as a precursor, it was preferentially incorporated into stearate that, in turn, was esterified to triacylglycerol. Kinetics of incorporation of radioactive stearate into diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol was about two fold higher than that of palmitate during various stages of seed development. Pulse-chase experiments with 14C-acetate provided evidence that phosphatidylcholine is involved in donating stearate and oleate for triacylglycerol biosynthesis. When assays were performed for acyltransferase activities in the microsomal membrane fraction with palmitoyl-, stearoyl0, and oleoyl-CoAs, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and diacylglycerol acyltransferase showed preference for stearoyl-CoA, whereas lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase had a preference for oleoyl-CoA. These results indicate that stearic acid preferring triacylglycerol biosynthetic machinery exists in the G.indica seeds.

2003-06-3336 Deshpamde, U.R.; Joseph, L.J.; Samuel, A.M. ( Radiation Medicine Centre (BARC), Tata Memorial Hospital Annexe, Parel, Mumbai 400 012, Maharashtra, India) Hepatobiliary clearance of labelled mebrofenin in normal and D galactosamine HCL-induced hepatitis rats and the protective effect of turmeric extract. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, v. 47(3): p. 332-336, 2003 (Eng; 13 ref).

Hepatitis rats (induced with 400 mg/kg b.w. injection (i.p.) of D-galactosamine) were given 1 percent turmeric (Curcuma longa) extract (TE) along with normal diet for 15 days. TE increased the hepatic uptake of radioactivity and accelerated the excretion of Tc Mebrofenin, which suggest the improvement of the liver function by detoxification. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3337 Dey, L.; Xie, J.T.; Wang, A.; Wu, J.; Maleckar, S.A.; Yuan, C.S. (Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA) Anti-hyperglycemic effects of ginseng: Comparison between root and berry. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 600-605, 2003 (Eng; 30 ref).

In the present study, compared anti-hyperglycemic effect between Panax ginseng root and Panax ginseng berry in ob/ob mice, which exhibit profound obesity and hyperglycemia that phenotypically resemble human type-2 diabetes. It was observed that ob/ob mice had high baseline glucose levels (195 mg/dl). Ginseng root extract (150 mg/kg body wt.) and ginseng berry extract (150 mg/kg body wt.) significantly decreased fasting blood glucose to 143+-9.3 mg/dl and 150+-9.5 mg/dl on day 5, respectively (both P less than 0.01 compared with the vehicle). On day 12, although fasting blood glucose level did not continue to decrease in the root group (155+-12.7 mg/dl), the berry group became normoglycemic (129+-7.3 mg/dl; P less than 0.01). It was evaluated glucose tolerance using the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. On day 0, basal hyperglycemia was exacerbated by intraperitoneal glucose load, and failed to return to baseline after 120 min. After 12 days of treatment with ginseng root extract (150 mg/kg body wt.), the area under the curve (AUC) showed some decrease (9.6 percent). However, after 12 days of treatment with ginseng berry extract (150 mg/kg body wt.) overall glucose exposure improved significantly, and the AUC decreased 31.0 percent (p less than 0.01). In addition, it was observed that body weight did not change significantly after ginseng root extract (150 mg/kg body wt.) treatment, but the same concentration of ginseng berry extract significantly decreased weight (P less than 0.01). These data suggest that, compared to ginseng root, ginseng berry exhibits more potent anti-hyperglycemic activity, and only ginseng berry shows marked anti-obesity effects in ob/ob mice.

2003-06-3338 Eddouks, M.; Jouad, H.; Maghrani, M.; Lemhadri, A. ; Burcelin, R. (UFR Physiology of the Nutrition and Endocrinian Pharmacology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques Errachidia, Boutalamine, Errachidia, Morocco) Inhibition of endogenous glucose production accounts for hypoglycemic effect of Spergularia purpurea in streptozotocin mice. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 594-599, 2003 (Eng; 31 ref).

The aqueous extract was administered intravenously and the blood glucose levels were determined within 4 hours after starting the treatment. Plasma insulin concentrations and endogenous glucose production were also determined. The aqueous extract at a dose of 10 mg/kg produced a significant decrease in blood glucose levels in normal rats (P less than 0.05), and even more in diabetic rats (P less than 0.001). This hypoglycemic effect might be due to an extra-pancreatic action of the aqueous extract of SP, since the basal plasma insulin concentrations were unchanged after SP treatment. In diabetic mice, a similar effect was observed and the results showed that aqueous extract of SP caused a potent inhibitor effect on basal endogenous glucose production (p less than 0.001). It was concluded that aqueous extract perfusion of SP inhibits endogenous glucose production in mice. This inhibition is at least one mechanism explaining the observed hypoglycemic activity of this plant in diabetic animals.

2003-06-3339 Egashira, N.; Yuzurihara, M.; Hattori, N.; Sakakibara, I.; Ishige, A. (Medicinal Evaluation Laboratories, Tsumura & Co., Yoshiwara, Ami-machi Inashiki-gun, Ibaraki, Japan) Ninjin-yoei-to (Ren-Shen-Yang-Rong-Tang) and Polygalae radix improves scopolamine -induced impairment of passive avoidance response in mice. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 467-473, 2003 (Eng; 17 ref).

Effect of Ninjin-yoei-to (Ren-Shen-Yang-Rong-Tang), a Japanese herbal medicine at 1000 mg/kg p.o. improved the scopolamine-induced impairment of passive avoidance response in mice. Further, the same dose of Ninjin-yoei-to enhanced oxotremorine-induced tremors in mice. The water extract of Polygalae radix, one of the constituents herbs of Ninjin-yoei-to, at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly improved the scopolamine-induced impairment of passive avoidance response and enhanced oxotremorine-induced tremors in mice. Moreover, the enhancement of oxotremorine-induced tremors by Ninjin-yoei-to (1000 mg/kg) and Polygalae radix (100 mg/kg) was completely antagonized by pretreatment of scopolamine hydrobromide (0.5 mg/kg). These results suggest that Ninjin-yoei-to may improve the scopolamine-induced impairment of passive avoidance response to enhancing the cholinergic system and that Polygalae radix may be involved in the action of Ninjin-yoei-to.

2003-06-3340 Fan, G.J.; Han, B.H.*; Kang, Y.H.; Park, M.K. ( Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University, 28 Yungun-dong, Jongro-gu, Seoul 110-460, Korea) Evaluation of inhibitory potentials of Chinese medicinal plants on platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor binding. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(2): p. 33-37, 2001 (Eng; 8 ref).

Methanol extracts of eighty Chinese medicinal plants were investigated for platelet-activating factor(PAF) receptor binding inhibitory activity using rabbit platelet. Extracts of Cratoxylon ligustrinum, Kalimeris indica, Euonymus japonica, Ophiopogon japonicus, Gleditsia sinensis, Clausena lansium, Agave sisalana were found to exhibit significant inhibitory effects. Chloroform partition of the Methanol extract of Kalimeris indica was further fractionated by column chromatography to afford one strong active subfraction with 93.6 percent inhibition at a concentration of 100 microg/ml.

2003-06-3341 Fulzele, S.V.; Satturwar, P.M.; Joshi, S.B.; Dorle, A.K. (Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagpur University Campus, Amravati Road, Nagpur 440 010, Maharashtra, India) Immunostimulant activity of Kalayak ghrita. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, v. 65(2): p. 201-204, 2003 (Eng; 11 ref).

The immunostimulant effect of Kalayak ghrita, an herbal formulation containing Berberis aristata has been reported. Oral administration of Kalayak ghrita enhanced the antibody titre as well as foot pad swelling response to the antigenic challenges with sheep red blood cells. The herbal formulation belongs to the Panchgavya class of ayurvedic formulations in which one or more of the five bovine products (milk, ghee, curd, urine and dung) are used along with herbs. The formulation was administered at doses 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg/day to healthy rats. A dose-dependent immunostimulant effect of Kalayak ghrita in rats was observed.

2003-06-3342 Galati, E.M.; Mondello, M.R.; Giuffrida, D.; Dugo, G.; Miceli, N.; Perogolizzi, S.; Taviano, M.F. (Pharmaco-Biological Department, School of Pharmacy, Universita degli Studi di Messina, Vill. SS. Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy) Chemical characterization and biological effects of Sicilian Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. fruit juice: Antioxidant and antiulcerogenic activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 4903-4908, 2003 (Eng; 41 ref).

The juice of whole fruits of Sicilian cultivars of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) was investigated, and the contents of ascorbic acid, total polyphenols, and flavonoids were determined. In the juice, ferulic acid was the chief derivative of hydroxycinnamic acid and the mean concentration of total phenolic compounds was 746 microg/mL. The flavonoid fraction, analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection, consisted of rutin and isorhamnetin derivatives. The juice showed antioxidant activity in the DPPH test, probably due to the phenolic compounds that are effective radical scavengers. The preventive administration of the juice inhibited the ulcerogenic activity of ethanol in rat. Light microscopy observations showed an increase in mucus production and the restoration of the normal mucosal architecture. The juice is nutritionally interesting and its dietary intake could provide protection against oxidative damage.

2003-06-3343 Ganju, L.; Karan, D.; Chanda, S.; Srivastava, K.K. ; Sawhney, R.C.; Selvamurthy, W. (Immunomodulation Laboratory, Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110 054, India) Immunomodulatory effects of agents of plant origin. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, v. 57(7): p. 296-300, 2003 (Eng ; 20 ref (Science Direct)).

The immunomodulatory properties of amla (Emblica officinalis) and shankhpushpi (Evolvulus alsinoides) were evaluated in adjuvant induced arthritic (AIA) rat model. Injecting Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) in right hind paw of the animals induced inflammation. The crude extracts of both the herbs were administered intraperitonially following a repeated treatment profile. The anti-inflammatory response of both the extracts was determined by lymphocyte proliferation activity and hisotpathological severity of synovial hyperplasia. Both the extracts showed a marked reduction in inflammation and edema. At cellular level immunosuppression occurred during the early phase of the disease. There was mild synovial hyperplasia and infiltration of few mononuclear cells in amla or shankhpushpi treated animals. The induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was significantly decreased in treated animals as compared to controls. These observations suggest that both the herbal extracts caused immunosuppression in AIA rats, indicating that they may provide an alternative approach to the treatment of arthritis.

2003-06-3344 Geuns, J.M.C.; Bruggeman, V.; Buyse, J.G. (Lab Plant Physiology, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium) Effect of stevioside and stevil on the developing broiler embryos. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 5162-5167, 2003 (Eng; 31 ref).

At day 7 of incubation, fertile broiler eggs were injected with differnt amounts of stevioside and steviol of 0.08, 0.8 or 4 mg stevioside/egg and 0.025, 0.25, or 1.25 mg steviol/egg. At hatch (day 21) and 1 week later, not anyinfluence of the differnt treatmetns could be found on embryonic mortality, body weight of the hatchlings, deformations (e.g., bone, beak, and head malformations, abnormal feathering, open vent), or abnormal development of the gonads. No stevioside or steviol could be detected in the blood of the hatchlings. The hatchlings developed normally. It is concluded that prenatal exposure of stevioside and steviol is not toxic for the chicken embryo.

2003-06-3345 Goel, R.K.; Sairam, K.; Dora Babu, M.; Tavares, I.A.; Raman, A. (Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP, India) In vitro evaluation of Bacopa monniera on anti-helicobacter pylori activity and accumulation of prostaglandins. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 523-527, 2003 (Eng; 36 ref).

Bacopa monniera is an Indian tratidional medicine widely used to improve intellectual functions. The effect was due to augmentation of the defensive mucosal factors like increase in mucin secretion, life span of mucosal cells and gastric antioxidant effect rather than on the offensive acid-pepsin secretion. The present study includes evaluation of standardized BME (bacoside A content -35.5+-0.9) on other contributing factors towards ulcerogenesis, BME in the dose of 1000 microg/ml showed anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in vitro I and in the dose of 10 microg/ml increased in vitro of prostanoids (PGE and PGI2) in human colonic mucosal incubates. It may be concluded that these factors may contribute to antiulcerogenic activity of BME.

2003-06-3346 Gongora, L.; Manez, S.; Giner, R.M.; Recio, M.del C.; Schinella, G.; Rios, J.L. (Departament de Farmacologia, Facultat de Farmacia, Avda, Vicent Andres Estelles s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Spain) Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by phenolic conjugates of methylated quinic acid. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 396-401, 2003 (Eng; 20 ref).

The caffeoyl conjugates of prenylhydroquinone glucoside and of quinic acid, either in the carboxyl-free or carboxymethyl forms, isolated from Phagnalon rupestre (Asteraceae), showed inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation induced by Fe2+/ascorbate and by CCl4/NADPH in rat liver microsomes, with IC50 values ranging from 3 to 11 microM. After having demonstrated their effect on the xanthine oxidase-regulated superoxide production, the active compounds were tested for the direct inhibition of this enzyme. Methylated dicaffeoylquinic conjugates competitively inhibited the enzyme and the highest potency was obtained for the 4,5-diester, with an IC50 value of 3.6 microM, nearly ten times lower than that of the 3,5-analogue. In conclusion, the presence of the caffeoyl moeity is essential for both the antiperoxidative and radical scavenging activities, and the methylation of the quinic carboxyl group enhances the potency on xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity.

2003-06-3347 Govindarajan, R.; Vijayakumar, M.; Rawat, A.K.S.; Mehrotra, S.* (Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanic Research Institute, Lucknow 226 001, UP, India) Free radical scavenging potential of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, v. 41(8): p. 875-879, 2003 (Eng; 18 ref).

Free radical scavenging potential of Picrorhiza kurrooa extract was studied by lipid peroxidation assay using rat liver homogenate. The extract (1 mg/ml) showed marked protection (up to 66.68 percent) against peroxidation of liver phospholipids. Besides, reduced glutathione showed very encouraging activity. The extract also exhibited significant scavenging activity. Thus augmenting the wide use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine, which may partly be due to antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of the extract.

2003-06-3348 Gupta, R.S.; Sharma, A. (Reproduction Physiology Section, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004, India) Antifertility effect of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) stem extract in male rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, v. 41(8): p. 885-889, 2003 (Eng; 38 ref).

Oral administration of 70 percent methanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem to male rats at the dose level of 100 mg/rat/day for 60 days did not cause body weight loss but decreased the weight of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate in a significant manner. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced significantly which resulted in reduction of male fertility by 100 percent. The round spermatids were decreased by 73.12 percent. The population of preleptotene and pachytene spermatocytes were decreased by 47.60 percent and 52.85 percent, respectively, followed by secondary spermatocytes (48.10 percent). Biochemical parameters i.e. protein, sialic acid, glycogen contents of testes were also decreased significantly. These results suggested antifertility effects of the stem extract of T.cordifolia in male rats.

2003-06-3349 Han, A.R.; Mar, W.; Seo, E.K.* (Natural Products Chemistry Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea) DNA strand-nicking principles of Mucuna birdwoodiana. Natural Product Sciences, v. 9(2): p. 105-108, 2003 (Eng; 11 ref).

During our research program to find DNA strand-scission agents from higher plants, the MeOH extracts of the stems of Mucuna birdwoodiana (Leguminosae) exhibited the most potent activity with an IC50 value of 4.9 microg/ml. Thus, detailed laboratory investigation was performed and led to the isolation of known compounds, (+-)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin as active principles that showed significant activity of DNA strand-scission with IC50 values of 10.8 and 7.5 microg/ml, respectively (positive control, bleomycin:IC50 3.3 microg/ml).

2003-06-3350 Han, A.R.; Lee, E.J.; Min, H.Y.; Kim, H.R.; Lee, S.K.; Seo, E.K.* (College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea) A potential cytotoxic principle of Zingiber casumunar. Natural Product Sciences, v. 9(2): p. 109-111, 2003 (Eng; 9 ref).

A bioassay-guided fractionation of the active chloroform extracts of the rhizomes of Zingiber cassumunar led to the isolation of a potential cytotoxic principle, curcumin, along with two inactive compounds, (E)-4-(3’,4’-dimethoxyphenyl) but-3-en-l-ol and (E)-4-(3’,4’- dimethoxyphenyl) but-3-en-l-yl acetate. Curcumin showed a significant cytotoxicity against several human cancer cell lines (Col2: 2.30, A549; 12.30, SNU638; IC50 18.80 microg/ml).

2003-06-3351 Han, O.B.; Li, M.L.; Li, S.H.; Mou, Y.K.; Lin, Z.W.; Sun, H.D. (State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204, People’s Republic of China) Ent-kaurane diterpenoids from Isodon rubescens var.lushanensis. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(7): p. 790-793, 2003 (Eng; 20 ref).

Four new ent-kaurane diterpenoids lushanrubescensins F-I, together with 11 known ones, lasiodonin (5), oridonin (6), ponicidin (7), isodonoiol (8), isodonal (9), rabdosin B (10), rabdoternins A and B (11 and 12), enmenol (13), epinodosin (14), and inflexusin (15), were isolated from Isodon rubescens var.lushanensis, and the structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. The inhibitory effect against the K562, Bcap 37, BGC823, BIU87, CA, CNE, and Hela cell lines of compounds 3 and 5-10 were evaluated. Compounds 3, 7 and 9 showed abilities to inhibit K562 cells caparable to that of cisplatin, while compounds 6 and 7 exhibtied significant inhibitory effects against the CA cell line. But none of the compounds showed an obvious activity against Bcap 37, BGC 823, BIU 87, CNE and Hela cell lines.

2003-06-3352 Han, S.B.; Lee, C.W.; Park, S.K.; Yoon, W.K.; Moon, J.S.; Lee, K.H.; Kim, H.C.; Kim, H.M.* (Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 52 Oundong, Yusong, Taejon 305-333, Korea) Prevention of macrophage-related inflammatory diseases by Allergina. Archives of Pharmacal Research, v. 26(4): p. 312-316, 2003 ( Eng; 12 ref).

The oriental herbal combination, Allergina, which consists of 16 herbal ingredients, has been shown to inhibit allergic inflammation. The oral administration of Allergina markedly inhibited the progression of inflammatory diseases, such as graft-versus-host diseases (in the allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and the parent-into-F1 transplantation models), collagen-induced arthritis and sheep red blood cell-induced delayed type hypersensitivity. The immunosuppressive activity of allergina in vivo appears to be associated at least in part, with the inhibition of tumour necrosis factor-alpha production. Allergina has been suggested to be useful as a immunosuppressive agent for the treatment of macrophage-related inflammatory disease.

2003-06-3353 Havarasan, R.; Vasuldevan, M.; Anbazhagan, S.; Venkataraman, S.; Sridhar, S.K. (Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, C.L.Baid Metha College of Pharmacy, Jyothi Nagar, Old Mahabalipuram Road, Thorapakkam, Chennai 600 096, TN, India) Hepatoprotective activity of Thespesia populnea bark extracts against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity in rats. Natural Product Sciences, v. 9(2): p. 83-86, 2003 (Eng; 17 ref ).

The methanol and water extracts of Thespesia populnea(Malvaceae) bark were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage at 2 dose levels (250 and 500 mg/kg). The biochemical parameters observed in serum were total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) levels and total protein. Aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and total protein levels in liver were also evaluated. Histopathological study on the liver tissue was also performed. The extracts exhibited dose dependent reduction in total bilirubin, ALP, SGOT, SGPT, AST, ALT and increase in total protein (serum and liver) levels. The extracts also exhibited only mild hepatocytic damage compared to the CCl4 treated group. Methanol extract was found to exhibit higher hepatoprotection than aqueous extract.

2003-06-3354 Heo, Y.H.; Lee, S.K.* (College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, 11-1 Daehyun-dong, Seodaemun-ku, Seoul 120-750, Korea) Potential induction of quinone reductase activity of natural products in cultured murine Hepa1c1c7 cells. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(2): p. 38-44, 2001 (Eng; 17 ref ).

NAD(P)-H: quinone reductase(QR), known as DT-diaphorase, is a kind of detoxifying phase II metabolic enzyme catalyzing hydroquinone formation by two electron reduction pathway from quinone type compounds, and thus facilitating excretion of quinoids from human body. With the usefulness of QR induction activity assay system for the modulation of toxicants, in the course of searching for cancer chemopreventive agents from natural products, the methanolic extracts of approximately two hundreds of oriental medicines were primarily evaluated using the induction potential of quinone reducase (QR) activity in cultured murine Hepa1c1c7 cells. As a results, several extracts including Hordeum vulgare, Momordica cochinchinensis, Strychnos ignatii, Houttuynia cordata and Polygala japonica were found to significantly induce QR activity. In addition, the methylene chloride fraction of H.vulgare, one major dietary food source, showed potent induction of QR activity (CD=6.4 microg/ml). Further study for isolation of active principles from these lead extracts is warranted for the discovery of novel cancer chemopreventive agents.

2003-06-3355 Hilmi, F.; Sticher, O.*; Heilmann, J. (Department of Chemistry and Applied BioSciences, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland) New cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones from Warionia saharae. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 462-464, 2003 (Eng; 16 ref).

Cytotoxicity-guided fractionation of the methanol soluble part of the dichloromethane extract of the leaves of Warionia saharae led to the isolation of the two new guaianolide-type sesquiterpene lactones, 5alphaH-3beta,4beta-epoxy-14-oxo-guaia-1(10),11(13)-dien-6alpha,12-oli de, 5alphaH-2beta,4beta-epoxy-3alpha-hydroxy-guaia-1(10),11(13)-dien-6alph a,12-olide and the new eudesmane type sesquiterpene 1beta,6alpha-dihydroxycostic acid. In addition, the known sesquiterpene lactones were isolated together with the known flavone hispidulin. Cytotoxicity testing of the sesquiterpene lactones revealed that all except 1beta6alpha dihydroxycostic acid were active against the KB cancer cell line (ATCC CCL17).

2003-06-3356 Hu, C.; Zawistowski, J.; Ling, W.; Kitts, D.D.* ( Food Nutrition and Health, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4, Canada) Black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) pigmented fraction suppresses both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in chemical and biological model systems. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p. 5271-5277, 2003 (Eng; 44 ref).

Anthocyanin components extracted from black rice (Oryza sativa indica) separated by gel filtration and identified using LC-MS were cyanidin 3-glucoside and peonidin 3-glucoside. A standardized extract of black rice pigmented fraction (BRE) containing known proportions of cyanidin 3-glucoside and peonidin 3-glucoside exhibited marked antioxidant activities and free radical scavenging capacities in a battery of in vitro model systems. Significant (p less than 0.05) prevention of supercoiled DNA strand scission induced by reactive oxygen species (specifically, peroxyl radical and hydroxyl radicals) and suppression of the oxidative modification of human low-density lipoprotein was obtained with BRE. In addition, BRE reduced (p less than 0.05) the formation of nitric oxide by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, without introducing cell toxicity. The results of this study show that black rice contains anthocyanin pigments with notable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties for potential use in nutraceutical or functional food formulations.

2003-06-3357 Huong, D.T.L.; Dat, N.T.; Minh, C.V.; Kang, J.S.; Kim, Y.H.* (College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Taejon 305-764, Korea) Monoamine oxidase inhibitors from Aquilaria agallocha. Natural Product Sciences, v. 8(1): p. 30-33, 2002 (Eng; 13 ref ).

From the bioassay-directed fractionation and isolation of dichloromethane fraction of Aquilaria agallocha, four compounds having MAO inhibitory effect were isolated by repeated silica gel column chromatography. Their chemical structures were established as psoralen, bergapten, alpha-amyrin acetate and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural on the basis of their physicochemical and spectral data. Among these compounds psoralen and bergapten showed high inhibitory activities in vitro against mouse brain monoamine oxidase with IC50 values 21.3 microM and 13.8 microM, respectively.

2003-06-3358 Hur, J.M.; Park, S.J.; Park, J.G.; Hwang, Y.H.; Park, J.C.; Yokozawa, T.; Kim, M.S. (Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, Sunchon National University, Sunchon 540-742, Korea) Flavonoids from the leaves of Glycine max showing anti-lipid peroxidative effect. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(2): p. 49-52, 2001 (Eng; 14 ref ).

Antilipid peroxidative activity and phytochemical study on the leaves of Glycine max were investigated. The methanol extract of the leaves of G.max reduced the level of lipid peroxides induced by bromobenzene in vitro. From the leaves of this plant, apigenin, genistein 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside were isolated and characterized by spectral data.

2003-06-3359 Hwang, J.S.; Chung, H.K.; Bae, E.K.; Lee, A.Y.; Ji, H.J.; Park, S.W.; Jung, H.J.; Cho, C.W.; Choi, H.J.; Youn, H.J. etal. (Department of Microbiology and School of Biotechnology & Biomedical Science, Gimhae 621-749, Korea) The polysaccharide fraction AIP1 from Artemisia iwayomogi suppresses apoptotic death of mouse spleen cells in culture. Archives of Pharmacal Research, v. 26(4): p. 294-300, 2003 ( Eng; 34 ref).

A polysaccharide fraction, AIP1, purified from Artemisia iwayomogi was shown to have immunomodulating and antiumour activities in mice. In order to determine how the AIPI fraction exhibits the immunomodulating activity, the effect of the fraction on the apoptosis of mouse spleen cells was investigated. Treatment of the mouse spleen cells with the AIP1 fraction resulted in the suppression of apoptotic death and an extension of cell survival in culture, indicating that the fraction might modulate the death of spleen cells. Treatment of the mice with the AIP1 fraction in vivo also resulted in less apoptosis of the spleen cells, which indicates the physiological relevance of the anti-apoptosis effect of the fraction in vitro. A mouse gene array was used to determine the profile of the gene expression change showing a pattern of up- and down-regulated genes by the AIP1 treatment.

2003-06-3360 Iida, A.; Kiuchi, F.; Ito, M.; Honda, G.; Mizushina, Y.; Yoshida, H.; Sarsenbaey, K. (Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606 8501, Japan) Phenylethanoid glycosides targeting mammalian DNA polymerases. Natural Medicines, v. 57(4): p. 146-149, 2003 (Eng; 23 ref).

In continuing search to discover bioactive compounds from medicinal plants activity-guided fractionation of methanolic extract of Verbascum songaricum, using a sensitive assay to monitor DNA polymerase reactions, resulted in the isolation of two known phenylethanoid glycosides, poliumoside and verbascoside. Poliumoside was shown to inhibit mammalian DNA polymerases alpha, beta, gamma and theta with IC50 values of 42, 23, 35 and 9 microM, respectively, while those of verbascoside were all more than 100 microM.

2003-06-3361 Indap, M.A.; Barkume, M.S. (Chemotherapy Division, Cancer Research Institute, Tata Memorial Centre, ACTREC Kharghar, Navi Mumbai 410 208, Maharashtra, India) Efficacies of plant phenolic compounds on sodium butyrate induced anti-tumour activity. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, v. 41(8): p. 861-864, 2003 (Eng; 15 ref).

The ability of the differentiation inducing agent sodium butyrate (NaB) alone or combined with plant-derived phenolic compounds to produce growth inhibition in human erythroleukemic cells was investigated. As a single agent, curcumin produced a marked inhibition of proliferation indicated by its low concentration used. The effect of phenolics on the cell cycle could probably contribute to the augmented antiproliferative activity of NaB. The present data show that quercetin produced synergistic effect in terms of cell killing in association with NaB. Both curcumin and ferulic acid potentiated NaB-induced reduction of cell number. When NaB was added before exposure to graded doses of quercetin it did induce a greater inhibitory effect. The combination of NaB and quercetin seems less effective on S180 ascites tumour cells. As a single agent quercetin was found to be the most efficacious on S180 tumour model.

2003-06-3362 Ingale, S.V.; Ketkar, A.R.; Paradkar, A. ( Department of Pharmaceutics, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Poona College of Pharmacy, Erandwane, Pune 411 038, Maharashtra, India) A comparative study of marketed herbal liquid oral antacid formulations: In-vitro antacid activity, antiulcer activity and microbial standardization. Indian Drugs, v. 40(3): p. 183-185, 2003 (Eng; 12 ref).

An attempt was made to study in vitro antacid activity and antiulcer activity of three marketed herbal formulations along with microbial standardization. In-vitro antacid activity was checked by preliminary antacid test, acid neutralization capacity and rosset-rice test. Anti-ulcer activity was studied using aspirin induced gastric ulceration method on albino rats. Microbial standardization was carried out by following routine techniques. The product, which showed maximum antacid activity, also showed better antiulcer activity as compared to others. The study revealed a considerable difference in the antacid and antiulcer activities of products. One of the products failed microbial standardization with the total viable bacterial count above 10 bacteria/ml and showed presence of Shigella flexneri, an intestinal pathogen; and Xanthomonas axonopodis, a plant pathogen.

2003-06-3363 Ismail, N.H.; Mohamad, H.; Mohidin, A.; Lajis, N.H.* (Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia) Antioxidant activity of anthraquinones from Morinda elliptica. Natural Product Sciences, v. 8(2): p. 48-51, 2002 (Eng; 11 ref ).

Antioxidative properties of fifteen anthraquinone derivatives, including eleven natural anthraquinones isolated from the roots of Morinda elliptica and four from synthetic origin were evaluated using thin layer chromatography (TLC), ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) methods. Five of the compounds, nordamnacanthal, damnacanthal, 2-formyl-1-hydroxyanthraquinone, morindone and alizarin showed higher antioxidative activity than standard natural antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol, on the FTC assay. Morindone and alizarin showed the strongest antioxidant activity. The results from the bioassay using TBA method correlated well with the results of the FTC method.

2003-06-3364 Jeong, C.S.; Suh, I.O.; Hyun, J.E.; Lee, E.B. ( College of Pharmacy, Duksung Women’s University, Seoul 132-714, Korea) Screening of hepatoprotective activity of medicinal plant extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Natural Product Sciences, v. 9(2): p. 87-90, 2003 (Eng; 14 ref ).

Ninety five percent MeOH extracts of 36 traditional medicinal plant species were tested on hepatoprotective in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rats. Sixteen species, such as Mentha arvensis, Sophora japonica, Benincasa hispida, Lonicera japonica(Lomcerae Flos), Agaricus blazei, Epimedium koreanum, Aralia continentalis, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Cimicifuga foetida, Gastrodia elata, Sanguisorba officinalis, Cephalonoplos segetum, Bupleurum falcatum, Alisma plantago-aquatica var.orientale, Lonicera japonica(Lonicerae Folium) and Sinomenium acutum showed protective effect against increased serum alanine amitotransferase (ALT) and/or serum asparteate aminotransferase (AST) activities.

2003-06-3365 Jeon, S.Y.; Bae, K.H.; Seong, Y.H.; Song, K.S. ( Division of Applied Biology & Chemistry, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, 1370, Sankyuk-Dong, Daegu 702-701, South India) Green tea catechins as a BACE1 (beta-secretase) inhibitor. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, v. 13(22): p. 3905-3908, 2003 (Eng; 13 ref (Science Driect)).

In the course of searching for BACE1 (beta-secretase) inhibitors from natural products, the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of green tea (Camellia) species which was suspected to be rich in catechin content, showed potent inhibitory activity. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin gallate, and (-)-gallocatechin gallate were isolated with IC50 values of 1.6x10-6, 4.5x10-6, and 1.8x10-6M, respectively. Seven additional authentic catechins were tested for a fundamental structure-activity relationship. (-)-Catechin gallate, (-)-gallocatechin, and (-)-epigallocatechin significantly inhibited BACE1 activity with IC50 values of 6.0x10-6, 2.5x10-6, abd 2.4x10-6M, respectively. However, (+)-catechin, (-)-catechin, (+)-epicatechin, and (-)-epicatechin exhibited about ten times less inhibitory activity. The stronger activity seemed to be related to the pyrogallol moiety on C-2 and/or of C-3 catechin skeleton, while the stereochemistry of C-2 and C-3 did not have an effect on the inhibitory activity. The active catechins inhibited BACE1 activity in a non-competitive manner with a substrate in Dixon plots.

2003-06-3366 Jia, L.; Schweizer, J.; Wang, Y.; Cerna, C.; Wong, H.; Revilla, M. (Cancer Therapy & Research Center, Institute for Drug Development, 14960 Omicron Dr., San Antonio, TX 78245-3217, USA) Effect of nitric oxide on cytotoxicity of taxol: enhanced taxol transcellular permeability. Biochemical Pharmacology, v. 66(11): p. 2193-2199, 2003 (Eng; 26 ref (Science Direct)).

Studies were aimed at testing the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) may enhance taxol-induced cytotoxicity in carcinoma cells by increasing influx of taxol into intracellular compartments. Prostate carcinoma cells (PC-3, LNCaP) and neuroblastoma cells (SKNDZ, CHP212) were used to investigate both transmembrane permeability and cytotoxicity of taxol in the presence and absence of S-nitrosocaptopril (CapNO), a nitric oxide donating compound. The order of permeability rate of taxol across the four cell lines was SKNDZ more than LNCaP more than PC-3 more than CHP212. Pretreatment of the cell lines with CapNO (100 microM) enhanced permeability of taxol across prostate PC-3 and LNCaP cells, but not neuroblastoma SKNDZ and CHP212 cells. Taxol inhibited cell growth at nanomolar levels with IC50S of 0.21, 17.4, 96.4 and 842.9 nM corresponding to SKND, PC-3, LNCaP and CHP212 cells, respectively. However, CapNO inhibited proliferation of the four cell lines at millimolar levels with ranging from 0.3 to 1.1. mM. Enhancing effect of CapNO (100 microM) on taxol cytotoxicity were found in PC-3 and LNCaP cells, but not in SKNDZ and CHP212. The findings suggest that the cytotoxic potency of taxol is mainly dependent upon the cell membrane permeabilization to taxol, and the enhancing effect of CapNO on taxol-induced cytotoxicity is primarily mediated via the increased influx of taxol by NO into intracellular compartments, while NO-induced cytotoxicity cannot be excluded.

2003-06-3367 Jimenez-Escrig, A.; Dragsted, L.O.; Daneshvar, B.; Pulido, R.; Saura-Calixto, F. (Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Instituto del Frio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Ciudad Universitaria, E-28040, Madrid, Spain) In vitro antioxidant activities of edible artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and effect on biomarkers of antioxidants in rats. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p. 5540-5545, 2003 (Eng; 52 ref).

The study was performed to investigate the ability of the edible portion of artichoke to alter in vivo antioxidative defense in male rats using selected biomarkers of antioxidant status. One gram (dry matter) had a DPPH activity and a FRAP value in vitro equivalent to those of 29.2 and 62.6 mg of vitamin C and to those of 77.9 and 159 mg of vitamin E, respectively. Artichoke extracts showed good efficiency in the inhibition in vitro of LDL oxidation. Neither ferric-reducing ability nor 2,2’-azinobis-(3- ethylbenzothia- zolin-6-sulfonate) radical scavenging activity was modified in the plasma of the artichoke group with respect to the control group. Among different antioxidant enzymes measured (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase) in erythrocytes, only glutathione peroxidase activity was elevated in the artichoke group compared to the control group. 2-Aminoadipic semialdehyde, a protein oxidation biomarker, was decreased in plasma proteins and hemoglobin in the artichoke-fed group versus the control group. In conclusion, the in vitro protective activity of artichoke was confirmed in a rat model.

2003-06-3368 Joharapurkar, A.A.; Deode, N.M.; Zambad, S.P.; Umathe, S.N.* (Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagpur University Campus, Nagpur 440 033, Maharashtra, India) Immunomodulatory activity of alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia Linn. Indian Drugs, v. 40(3): p. 179-181, 2003 (Eng; 14 ref).

Rubia cordifolia, a common ingredient of several antiinfective herbal preparations, was investigated for its immunostimulant activity. The immunosuppression was induced in mice by prolonged exposure to artificially polluted air. Daily treatment of animals with suspension of alcholic extract of R.cordifolia, during the period of pollution exposure, significantly ameliorated the pollution-induced suppression of humoral as well as cell-mediated immunity. As the observed influence of R.cordifolia on these immunity parameters was comparable with vitamin E, the immunomodulatory activity appears to be related to its reported antioxidant activity.

2003-06-3369 Jouad, H.; Lemhadri, A.; Maghrani, M.; Burcelin, R.; Eddouks, M.* (BP 21 Errachidia, Morocco) Hawthorn evokes a potent anti-hyperglycemic capacity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, v. 3(2): p. 19-29, 2003 ( Eng; 19 ref).

The hypoglycaemic effect of an aqueous extract of hawthorn leaves (Crataegus oxyacantha) was investigated in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. After a single dose or 9 daily doses, oral administration of the aqueous extract produced a significant and dose-dependent decrease on blood glucose levels in STZ diabetic rats (P less than 0.001), but had no effect on blood glucose levels in normal rats. No changes were observed in basal plasma insulin concentrations after treatment in normal or STZ diabetic rats. In addition, the acute toxicity study of the extract was investigated in mice. The results obtained showed that the aqueous extract had a high LD50 value (13.5 g/kg) in mice.

2003-06-3370 Jung, M.J.; Chung, H.Y.; Choi, J.S.* (Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Pusan 608-737, Korea) Antioxidant activity of roasted defatted perilla seed. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(2): p. 72-75, 2001 (Eng; 12 ref ).

The antioxidant activity of roasted defatted perilla (Perilla frutescens) seed was determined by measuring its radical scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) radical, inhibitory activity on total reactive oxygen species generation in kidney homogenates using 2’,7’-dichlorodihydro-fluorescein diacetate, and scavenging effect on authentic peroxynitirites. Themethanolic extract of roasted detatted perilla seed showed strong scavenging activity in both DPPH and peroxynitirite radicals, and thus frashtionated with several solvents. The antioxidant activity potential of the individual fraction was in the order of ethyl acetate more than n-butanol more than dichloromethane more than water more than n-hexane fraction. The ethyl acetate soluble fraction exhibiting strong antioxidant activity was further purified by repeated silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Luteolin was isolated as one of the active principles from the ethyl acetate fraction, together with the inactive chrysoeriol and apigenin.

2003-06-3371 Jung, H.J.; Park, H.J.; Kim, R.G.; Shin, K.M.; Ha, J.; Choi, J.W.; Kim, H.Y.; Lee, Y.S.; Lee, K.T.* (Department of Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, Kyung-Hee University, Dongdaemun-ku, Hoegi-Dong 130-701, Seoul) In vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of liriodendrin isolated from the stem bark of Acanthopanax senticosus. Planta Medica, v. 69(7): p. 610-616, 2003 (Eng; 20 ref).

Liriodendrin isolated by activity-guided fractionation from the ethyl acetate (FtOAc) extracts of the stem bark of Acanthopanax senticosus, significantly inhibited the increase of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid in mice and reduced an acute paw edema induced by carrageenan in rats at doses, 5 and 10 mg/kg/day (p.o.). When the analgesic activity was measured by the acetic acid-induced writhing test and hot plate test, liriodendrin showed a dose-dependent inhibition in animal models. In addition, syringaresinol, the hydrolysate of liriodendrin, more potently inhibited the LPS-induced production of NO, PGE2 and TNF-alpha production of macrophages than liriodendrin. Consistent with these observations, the expression level of iNOS and COX-2 enzyme was decreased by syringaresinol in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of liriodendrin after oral administration were attributable to the in vivo transformation to syringaresinol, which may function as the active constituent.

2003-06-3372 Jung, S.H.; Lee, Y.S.; Lee, S.; Lim, S.S.; Kim, Y.S.; Ohuchi, K.; Shin, K.H.* (Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University, 28 Yeungun-dong, Jongro-gu, Seoul 110-460, Korea) Antiangiogenic and anti-tumour activities of isoflavonoids from the rhizomes of Belamcanda chinensis. Planta Medica, v. 69(7): p. 617-622, 2003 (Eng; 20 ref).

Tectorigenin and tectoridin isolated from the rhizomes of Belamcanda chinensis decreased angiogenesis of chick embryos in the chorioallantoic membrane assay and basic fibroblast growth factor-induced vessel formation in the mouse Matrigel plug assay in vitro and in vivo. Both compounds also reduced the proliferation of calf pulmonary arterial endothelial (CPAE) cells and found to possess relatively weak gelatinase/collagenase inhibitory activity in vitro tectorigenin exhibited a much stronger and proliferative activity than its glycoside, tectoridin and was almost equipotent to that of genistein, a reference drug. Tectorigenin, when administered subcutaneously at the dose of 30 mg/kg for 20 days to mice implanted with murine Lewis Lung carcinoma (LLC), caused a significant inhibtion of tumour volume by 30.8 percent. Tectorigenin and tectoridin, when treated i.p. at the same dosage for 10 days to ICR mice bearing sarcoma 180, caused a significant suppression in tumour weight by 44.2 and24.8 percent, respectively.

2003-06-3373 Jung, H.A.; Kim, J.E.; Chung, H.Y.; Choi, J.S.* ( Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, Korea) Antioxidant principles of Nelumbo nucifera stamens. Archives of Pharmacal Research, v. 26(4): p. 279-285, 2003 ( Eng; 40 ref).

The antioxidant activity of Nelumbo nucifera stamens was evaluated for their potential to scavenge stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals, inhibit total reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, in kidney homogenates using 2’,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCHF-DA), and scavenge authentic peroxynitrites (ONOO). A methanol (MeOH) extract of the stamens of N.nucifera showed strong antioxidant activity in the ONOO system, and marginal activity in the DPPH and total ROS systems, so these were fractionated with several organic solvents. The EtOAc soluble fraction, which exhibited strong antioxidant activity in all the model systems tested, was further purified by repeated silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Seven known flavonoids {kaempferol (1), kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl methylester (2), kaempferol 3-O-beta-D- glucopyranoside (3), kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (4), myricetin 3’,5’-dimethylether 3-O-beta- D-glucopyranoside (5), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 to 6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6) and kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside (7)}, along with beta-sitosterol glucopyranoside (8), were isolated. Compound 1 possessed good activities in all the model systems tested. Compounds 2 and 7 showed scavenging activities in the DPPH and ONOO- tests, while compounds 3 and 4 were only active in the ONOO- test. Compound 8 showed no activities in any of the model systems tested.

2003-06-3374 Kagawa, D.; Jokura, H.; Ochiai, R.; Tokimitus, I.* ; Tsubone, H. (Biological Science Laboratoires, Kao Corporation, 2606 Akabane, Ichikai-Machi, Haga-Gun, Tochigi 321-3497, Japan) The sedative effects and mechanism of action of cedrol inhalation with behavioral pharmacological evaluation. Planta Medica, v. 69(7): p. 637-641, 2003 (Eng; 22 ref).

Accumulative spontaneous motor activity was significantly decreased in the cedrol, a component of Cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana) oil, exposed Wistar rats. Exposure to cedrol also prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in Wistar rats. To investigate whether cedrol, which has a very faint aroma, affects the olfactory system, the nasal cavities of Wistar rats were treated with zinc sulfate to reduce olfactory function. Two days later, the pentobarbital-induced sleep time was measured. Compared to intact rats, the sleep prolongation effect was decreased in a lavender-Roman chamomile mixed oil exposure positive control group, indicating that olfactory function was impaired. In contrast, prolongation of the sleeping time did not change in the cedrol exposure group. The above findings indicate that cedrol inhalation had marked sedative effects regardless of the animal species or the functional state of the autonomic nerves, suggesting that the mechanism of action is via a pathway other than the olfactory system.

2003-06-3375 Kanehira, T.; Takekoshi, S.*; Nagata, H.; Osamura, R.Y.; Homma, T. (Department of Pathology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Bohseidai, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan) Kinobeon A as a potent tyrosinase inhibitor from cell culture of safflower: In vitro comparisons of kinobeon A with other putative inhibitors. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 457-459, 2003 (Eng; 7 ref).

Kinobeon A is produced from cell cultures of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). Mushroom tyrosinase activity was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner when treated with kinobeon A using L-tyrosine of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalannine (L-DOPA) as substrates. IC50 values were 22 microM (substrate: L-tyrosine) and 27 microM (L-DOPA). Inhibition of human tyrosinase activity also increased with increasing concentrations of kinobeon A using L-DOPA as the substrate, with an IC50 value of 2.5 microM. Kinobeon A was a more potent competitive inhibitor than kojic acid, arbutin or L-ascorbic acid for both mushroom and human tyrosinase as determined from Lineweaver-Burk plots. These results suggested that kinobeon A could be a potent natural tyrosinase inhibitor.

2003-06-3376 Kang, H.S.; Chung, H.Y.; Son, K.H.; Kang, S.S.; Choi, J.S. (Faculty of Food Science and Biotechnology, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737, Korea) Scavenging effect on Korean medicinal plants on the peroxynitrite and total ROS. Natural Product Sciences, v. 9(2): p. 73-79, 2003 (Eng; 34 ref ).

To discover the sources with antioxidative activity in traditional medicines, 100 extracts of Korean medicinal plants were screened for their scavenging effect on peroxynitrite (ONOO-) and total reactive oxygen species (ROS). The potency of total ROS scavenging activity was shown in the extracts of 25 plants, and 4 of their species, Macleaya cordata, Salvia plebeia, Cassia tora and Angelica gigas, had a greater effect with IC50 values of 1.7+-0.36, 4.3+-1.08, 4.9+-0.17 and 5.8+-1.01 microg/ml, respectively, than that of trolox, positive control (7.61+-0.12 microg/ml). Another 35 extracts exhibited inhibitory effect of below 50 percent at 100 microg/ml of sample concentrations on total ROS, while the rest observed total ROS generators rather than scavengers. Five of them, Schisandra chinensis, Campsis grandiflora, Cedrela sinensis, Pleuropterus multiflorus and Veronica linariaefolia represented scavenging activities on peroxynitrite twice as strong with IC50 values of 0.48+-0.10, 0.59+-0.15, 0.60+-0.10, 0.64+-0.10 and 0.91+-0.23 microg/ml, respectively, as that of penicillamine (1.72+-0.05 microg/ml), postive control. Consequently, 25 species of the entire plants tested, exhibited scavenging activities on total ROS and ONOO, Salvia plebeia, Macleaya cordata, Cassia tora and Angelica gigas exerted potent scavenging activities on both radicals.

2003-06-3377 Karunanidhi, N.; Saravanan, S.; Vinoth Kumar; Selvamani; Ghosh, S.; Gupta, J.K.* (Division of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, WB, India) Antinociceptive and sedative hypanotic effect of Artemisia pallens Wall. Natural Product Sciences, v. 9(2): p. 91-92, 2003 (Eng; 11 ref ).

The antinociceptive and sedative hyponotic effect of a vacuum dried methanol extract of aerial parts of Artemisia pallens was evaluated in the tail-flick method with Swiss albino mice. The methanol extract at the doses of (1500 mg/kg, 2000 mg/kg, and 2500 mg/kg) showed significant antinociceptive activity. Significant potentiation of Pentobarbitone sodium-induced sleeping time was observed in mice on co-administration of the various doses of the methanol extract of Artemisia pallens.

2003-06-3378 Kavitha, A.V.; Jagadeesan, G. (Department of Zoology, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar 608 002, TN, India) In vivo studies on the role of Tribulus terrestris extract on mercury intoxicated mice, mus musculus-large intestine - A histological survey. Journal of Experimental Zoology India, v. 6(2): p. 213-219, 2003 (Eng; 18 ref).

The effect of mercuric chloride on the histoarchitecture of the large intestine of mouse, Mus musculus, has been observed. Median-lethal dose of mercuric chloride (1.2 mg/kg body weight of animal) was administered through the drinking water to the female mice, every day for 45 days. Its toxicity alter the histoarchitecture of the large intestine like changes in the position of nuclei were away from the base, is noticed in the columnar epithelial cell in the mucosa and it also shows the complete damaged mucous layer, swelling of the epithelial cells in the lining epithelium, the irregular arrangement of goblet cells and picnotic nuclei are also appeared in the goblet cells. During the recovery period, the mice were again dosed with Tribulus terrestris extract of different solvent fractions of another 15 days. It showed the complete regeneration of large intestine from the mercury toxic effect.

2003-06-3379 Kawamoto, S.; Koyano, T.; Kowithayakorn, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Okuyama, E.; Hayashi, M.; Komiyama, K.; Ishibashi, M.* (Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-33, Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522, Japan) Wrightiamines A and B, two new cytotoxic pregnane alkaloids from Wrightia javanica. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(6): p. 737-739, 2003 (Eng; 8 ref).

Two new pregnane alkaloids, wrightiamines A and B, were isolated from the extract of the tropical Apocynaceous plant (Wrightia javanica collected in Thailand, and their structures were elucidated by spectral data. Wrightiamine B was prepared from 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one to establish the configuration of the C-20 position as S.Wrightiamine A exhibited cytotoxic activity against vincristine-resistant murine leukemia P388 cells.

2003-06-3380 Keuken, A.; Keser, B.J.G.; Khan, E.; Brouwer, A.*; Koeman, J.; Denison, M.S.* (Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, California 95616-8588, USA) Activation of the Ah receptor by extracts of dietary herbal supplements, vegetables, and fruits. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p.5478-5487, 2003 (Eng; 62 ref).

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that can be activated by a structurally diverse range of synthetic and natural chemicals, and it mediates the toxic and biological effects of environmental contaminants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Utilizing AhR-dependent gel retardation and reporter gene bioassays, the screening of extracts of 22 dietary herbal supplements and 21 food products (vegetables and fruits) was performed to identify those containing AhR agonists. Several herbal extracts (ginseng, Fo-Ti, white oak bark, licorice, Ginkgo biloba, and black cohosh) stimulated AhR DNA binding and gene expression to levels between 20 and 60 percent of that produced by TCDD. Although some food extracts (corn, jalapeno pepper, green bell pepper, apple, Brussels sprout, and potato) were relatively potent activators of AhR DNA binding (30-50 percent of TCDD), only corn and jalapeno pepper extracts induced AhR-dependent luciferase reporter gene expression. However, dilution of corn, jalapeno pepper, bell pepper, and potato extracts dramatically increased their ability to induce luciferase activity, suggesting that these extracts contained AhR antagonists whose effectiveness was overcome by dilution.

2003-06-3381 Kim, Y.; Min, H.Y.; Park, E.J.; Lee, Y.S.; Jin, C. ; Lee, S.K.* (College of Pharmacy, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Korea) Evaluation of the antioxidant potential of Korean Indigenous plant extracts by free radical scavenging activity. Natural Product Sciences, v. 9(2): p. 80-82, 2003 (Eng; 9 ref).

Since reactive oxygen radicals play an important role in carcinogenesis and other human diseases including neurodegeneraive states, antioxidants present in natural products have received considerable attention for alleviation of these disease states. Therefore, in order to identify antioxidants in plant extracts, fifty-seven methanolic extracts derived from indigenous Korean plants were primarily assessed for potential to scavenge stable 1,1,-diphenyl-2-picylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals. As a result, nine plant extracts were found to exhibit the DPPG free radical scavenging activity in the criteria of IC50 less than 40 microg/ml. In particular, the extracts of Melioma oldhami (IC50=0.1 microg/ml) Myrica rubra (IC50=16.2 microg/ml), Symplocos paniculata (IC50=23.0 microg/ml) Carpinus laxiflora (IC50=25.1 microg/ml), and Cleyera japonica (IC50=26.2 microg/ml) showed a potent radical scavenging activity.

2003-06-3382 Kim, D.H.; Jung, J.S.; Moon, Y.S.; Sung, J.H.; Suh, H.W.; Kim, Y.H.; Song, D.K.* (Departments of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Institute of Natural Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon-Do, 200-702, Korea) Inhibition of intracerebroventricular injection stress-induced plasma corticosterone levels by intracerebroventricularly administered compound K, a ginseng saponin metabolite, in mice. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 26(7): p.1035-1038, 2003 (Eng; 18 ref).

Effects of major intestinal metabolites of ginsenosides, saponins of Panax ginseng, compounds K and Y on acute stress-induced plasma corticosterone levels were studied in mice. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered compound K (1 microg) attenuated the i.c.v. injection stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone level, and this inhibitory effect was not affected by co-administered NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Compound K administered intraperitoneally affected neither the i.c.v. injection stress- nor the immobilization stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone levels. Compound K and ginsenoside Mc did not affect plasma corticosterone levels induced by the two stress modalities used.

2003-06-3383 Kim, J.K.; Bae, H.S.; Kim, Y.S.; Cho, K.H.; Lee, K.S.; Lee, H.U.; Kim, D.H. (College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, 1, Hoegi, Dongdaemun-ku, Seoul 130-701, Korea) Hepatoprotective activity of Chungpesagan-tang is related to the inhibition of beta-glucuronidase. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(2): p. 63-67, 2001 (Eng; 13 ref ).

beta-Glucuronidase-inhibitory and hepatoprotective effects of Chungpesagan-tang, which has been used for liver diseases and stroke, on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity of rats was investigated. Chungpesagan-tang potently inhibited beta-glucuronidases. Serum AST, ALT and LDH levels of the CCl4-treated group, respectively. Among the ingredients of Chungpesagan-tang, Puerariae Radix, Scutellariae Radix and Rhei Rhizoma potently inhibited the beta-glucuronidases and protected CCl4-induced liver injury. The hepatoprotective activity of Puerariae Radix was affected by ingredients of Chungpesagan-tang: Scutellariae Radix had the synergistic activity, but Angelicae Tenstigmae Radix exhibited the antagonistic activity.

2003-06-3384 Kim, D.H. (College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Korea) Herbal medicines ar activated by intestinal microflora. Natural Product Sciences, v. 8(2): p. 35-43, 2002 (Eng; 71 ref ).

Glycosides of herbal meicines, such as glycyrrhizin, ginsenosides, kalopanaxsaponins, rutin and ponicirin, were studied regarding their metabolic fates and pharmacological actions in relation to intestinal bacteria using germ-free, gnotobiotic and conventional animals. When glycyrrhizin (GL) was orally administered, 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), not GL, was detected in plasma and intestinal contents of gnotobiotic and conventional rats. However, GA could not be detected in germ-free rats. When GL was incubatd with human intestinal bacteria, it was directly metabolized to Ga (less than 95 percent) or via 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid-3-beta-D-glucuronide (less than 5 percent). Orally administered GL was effective in gnotobiotic and conventional rats for liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride, but was not effective in germ-free rats. When ginseng saponins were orally administered to human beings, compound K in the plasma was detected, but the other protopanxadiol saponins were not detected. When kalopanaxsaponins were not. When flavonoid glycosides were orally administered to animals, aglycones and/or phenolic acids were detected in the urine. The metabolic pathways proceeded by intestinal bacteria rather than by liver or blood enzymes. These metabolites, aglycones and phenolic acids, showed antitumour, antiinflammatory and antiplatelet aggregation activities. These findings suggest that glycosides of herbal medicines are prodrugs.

2003-06-3385 Kim, B.H.; Chung, E.Y.; Ryu, J.C.; Jung, S.H.; Min, K.R.; Kim, Y.* (College of Pharmacy and Research Center for Bioresource and Health, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, Korea) Anti-inflammatory mode of isoflavone glycoside sophoricoside by inhibition of interleukin-6 and cyclooxygenase-2 in inflammatory response. Archives of Pharmacal Research, v. 26(4): p. 306-311, 2003 ( Eng; 24 ref).

Soy, high dietary intake for the oriental population, is a main source of isoflavonoids, Sophoricoside (SOP) an isoflavone glycoside was isolated from immature fruits of Sophora japonica (Leguminosae) and its inhibitory effect on chemical mediators involved in inflammatory response was investigated. SOP inhibited the interleukin (IL)-6 bioactivity, whereas it had no effects on IL-1beta and TNF-alpha bioactivities. SOP was identified as a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 activity, but did not show inhibitory effect on the synthesis of COX-2. However, SOP had no effect on the production of reactive oxygen species including superoxide anions and nitric oxide. In vitro antiinflammatory action of SOP was found to be significantly different from that of genistein known as a phytoestrogen of soy products. An importance of dietary soy isoflavonoids as multifunctional agents beneficial to human health has been suggested that will help to clarify protective mechanisms of SOP against inflammatory conditions.

2003-06-3386 Kobayashi, Y. (Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences 265-1, Higashijima, Niitsu-shi, Niigata 956-8603, Japan) The nociceptive and anti-nociceptive effects of evodiamine from fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa in mice. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 425-428, 2003 (Eng; 9 ref).

The nociceptive action (paw licking behaviour) was dose dependently induced by intradermal injection (i.d.) of evodiamine from fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa to the hind paw and was suppressed by the co-treatment with capsazepine, a vanilloid receptor specific agonist, in a dose-dependent manner. The treatment with higher dosages of evodiamine showed sustained antinociceptive effects. The acetic acid-induced writhing was significantly suppressed by the intraperitoneal evodiamine administration 3 days before, without any observable effects on spontanoeus motor activity. The response of the isolated ileum from the mice with or without high dosages of evodiamine administration indicated the sensory neuron specific desensitizing effect of evodiamine. The isolated ileum from vehicle-treated mice contracted in response to both the sensory nerve stimulation by 10 microM capsaicin and the mimicked vagal stimulation by 2 microM carbachol. However, the isolated ileum from evodiamine-treated mice lost its response to sensory nerve stimuli but retained its response to vagus nerve stimuli. The suppression of acetic acid-induced writhing and the desensitization of visceral sensory neurons strongly correlated {regression coefficient (r)=0.955}. Thus, it is demonstrated that evodiamine showed the analgesic action by desensitizing sensory nerves.

2003-06-3387 Kobayashi, K.; Baba, E.; Fushiya, S.; Takano, F.; Batkhuu, J.; Dash, T.; Sanchir, C.; Yoshizaki, F.* (Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, 4-4-1 Komatsushima, Aoba-ku, Sendai 981-8558, Japan) Screening of Mongolian plants for influence on amylase activity in mouse plasma and gastrointestinal tube. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 26(7): p.1045-1048, 2003 (Eng; 16 ref).

Mongolian plants were screened for their influence on alpha-amylase activity in mouse plasma. Methanolic extracts of Geranium pratense, Rhodiola rosea, Ribes pullchelum and Vaccinium uliginosum inhibited the enzyme activity in isolated mouse plasma by greater than 40 percent and the effect was concentration dependent. Vaccinium uliginosum also showed a depressive effect on elevation of postprandial blood glucose to some extent.

2003-06-3388 Kohri, T.; Suzuki, M.; Nanjo, F.* (Food Research Laboratories, Mitsui Norin Co. Ltd., 223-1 Miyabara, Fujieda-shi, Shizuoka 426-0133, Japan) Identification of metabolites of (-)-epicatechin gallate and their metabolic fate in the rat. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p. 5561-5566, 2003 (Eng; 18 ref).

After intravenous administration of (-)-epicatechin gallate to Wistar male rats, its biliary metabolites were examined. Deconjugated forms of (-)-epicatechin gallate metabolites were prepared. These metabolites were shown to be (-)-epicatechin gallate, 3’-O-methyl-(-epicatechin gallate, 4’-O-methyl-(-epicatechin gallate, 4"-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin gallate, and 3’,4"-di-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin gallate. After oral administration, five major metabolites excreted in rat urine were purified in their deconjugated forms and their chemical structures identified. They were degradation products from (-)-epicatechin gallate, pyrogallol, 5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-gamma-valerolactone, 4-hydroxy-5-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)valeric acid, 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, and m-coumaric acid. Time course analysis of the identified (-)-epicatechin gallate metabolites showed that (-)-epicatechin gallate and its conjugate appeared in the plasma with their highest levels 0.5 h after oral administration, their levels rapidly decreased, and then they disappeared by 6 h. The degradation products, mainly in their conjugated forms, emerged at 6 h, peaked at 24 h, and disappeared by 48 h.

2003-06-3389 Koo, B.S.; Park, K.S.; Ha, J.H.; Park, J.H.; Lim, J.C.; Lee, D.U. (Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Science, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 780-714, Korea) Inhibitory effects of the fragrance inhalation of essential oil from Acorus gramineus on central nervous system. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 26(7): p.978-982, 2003 (Eng; 21 ref).

Preinhalation of the essential oil of Acorus gramineus rhizomes (AGK) markedly delayed the appearance of pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion and inhibited the activity of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transamines. The GABA level was significantly increased and glutamate content was significantly decreased in mouse brain by preinhalalation of the essential oil. The above results suggest that the anticonvulsive effect of this AGR oil is originated by the enhancement of GABA level in the mouse brain, because convulsion depends partially on GABA concentration which can be properly preserved by inhibiting GABA transaminase. Moreover, fragrance inhalation progressively prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time as inhalation time was lenghtened. Ten hour inhalation corresponded almost to the effect (145 percent increase) of oral administration (60 mg/kg). This sedative effect after inhalation or oral administration of AGR essential oil suggestes that this oil may act on the CNS via the GABAergic system. The inhibitory activity of preinhalation of the essential oil on lipid peroxidation, to which the anticonvulsive action is attributed, also supported the above results confirming the CNS inhibitory effects of AGR.

2003-06-3390 Koochek, M.H.; Pipelzadeh, M.H.; Mardani, H. ( Department of Pharmacology, Medical School, Ahwaz University of Medical Sciences, Ahwaz, I.R., Iran) The effectiveness of Viola odorata in the prevention and treatment of formalin-induced lung damage. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, v. 10(2): p. 95-103, 2002 (Eng; 15 ref).

An aqueous extract of Viola odorata was tested for antiinflammatory properties as compared with hydrocortisone. Rats, treated with extract before and after induction of lung injury by the administration of formalin via nebulization, was microscopically quantified the area of hemorrhage, thickness of the alveolar wall, rupture of the alveolar septa, and alteration of the epithelial lining of the bronchioles. Viola odorta extract given prophylactically was partially effecive in preventing lung damage, equal to the efect of hydrocortisone in aiding the resolution of formalin-induced lung damage. Viola odorata as an extract could possibly be used as an alternative and safer medicinal agent than corticosteroids in treatment of inflammatory condittions of the lung.

2003-06-3391 Kumazawa, S.; Yoneda, M.; Shibata, I.; Kanaeda, J. ; Hamasaka, T.; Nakayama, T. (Laboratory of Functional Food Science and COE Program in the 21st Century, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan) Direct evidence for the plant origin of Brazilian propolis by the observation of honeybee behavior and phytochemical analysis. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(6): p. 740-742, 2003 (Eng; 10 ref).

To identify the plant origin of Brazilian propolis directly, the behavior of honeybees in Minas Gerais State of Brazil was examined. Honeybee workers bit and chewed leaves of the plant, Baccharis dracunculifolia, packed the material into their pollen basket, brought it back to their nest, and used it as propolis. The leaves of B.dracunculifolia and propolis were collected and compared their constituents by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis. There was no differences between the chemical constituents of the ethanol extracts of B.dracunculifolia and those of propolis. This indicates the plant origin of Brazilian propolis is B.dracunculifolia.

2003-06-3392 Kumar, N.V.R.; Kuttan, R.* (Amla Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar, P.O. Thrissur, Kerala, India) Inhibition of hepato-carcinogenesis by medicinal plants. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 259-265, 2004 (Eng; 34 ref).

Extracts of Emblica officinalis (E.O.), Picrorrhiza kurroa (P.kurroa) and Phyllanthus amarus (P.amarus) effectively inhibited the hepato-carcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) in Wistar rats. The anticarcinogenic activity of the plant extracts was evaluated by their effect on tumour incidence, levels of carcinogen metabolizing enzymes, turnover markers and liver injury markers. Animals administered with NDEA had 100 percent tumour incidence and the liver weight was raised to 7.80 +- 1.10 g/100 g b.wt. Administration of the plant extracts significantly inhibited the elevation of liver weight induced by NDEA. Drug metabolizing enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and aniline hydroxylase (AH) were significantly elevated by NDEA administration. Simultaneous administration of the plant extracts reduced the elevated levels of AH to normal gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT), a marker of liver neoplasm was found to be elevated in tissue and serum of tumour bearing animals were significantly reduced by the administration of these plant extracts.

2003-06-3393 Kuttan, G. (Amla Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar, P.O., Thrissur, Kerala, India) Inhibition of metastasis by plant derived products. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p. 267-273, 2004 (Eng; 16 ref).

Naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds and sulphur-containing compounds were found to inhibit experimental metastasis in animals. Among the polyphenolic compounds studied, curcumin and catechin administration (P.O.) could maximally inhibit the lung tumour nodule formation (82.8 percent and 82 percent, respectively) with significant increase in life span (143 percent and 82 percent, respectively). Lung collagen hydroxyproline content was found to be significantly lower in catechin (2.91 microg/mg protein) and curcumin (1.41 microg/mg protein) treated animals compared to untreated control animals (9.68 microg/mg protein) Serum sialic acid, an indicator of metastatis was also lower in these animals compared to the untreated control animals. Among the sulphur-containing compounds diallyl disulphide (i.p.) produced maximum inhibition (90 percent) of lung metastasis induced with B16F-10 melanoma cells. The life span of the tumour bearing animals was increased to 158 percent when DADS was administered. Lung collagen hydroxyproline content (4.64 microg/mg protein) and serum sialic acid (k(22.8 microg/mg serum) levels were also significantly lowered by DADS administration when compared to untreated controls.

2003-06-3394 Lalitha, K.G.; Sethuraman, M.G.; Rajkapoor, B. ( Annai J.K.K. Sampoorani Ammal College of Pharmacy, J.K.K. Munirajah Medical Research Foundation, Komarapalayam 638 183, TN, India) Antiinflammatory activity of Sarcostemma brevistigma in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, v. 65(2): p. 210-212, 2003 (Eng; 10 ref).

The effect of ethyl acetate extract of Sarcostemma brevistigma was investigated in rat to evaluate the antiinflammatory activity. Carrageenin-induced rat paw edema model and cotton pellet granuloma methods were employed to test antiinflammatory activity. The ethyl acetate extract (650 mg/kg) produced the inhibition of carrageenin-induced rat paw edema and was also found to be effective in cotton pellet granuloma studies. The ethyl acetate extract produced significant (P less than 0.001) antiinflammatory activity when compared to control.

2003-06-3395 Lee, K.T.; Kim, R.K.; Ji, S.Y.; Shin, K.M.; Choi, J.W.; Jung, H.J.; Park, H.J.* (Division of Applied Plant Sciences, Sangji University, Wonju 220-702, Korea) In vitro antiinflammatory activity of the essential oil extracted from Chrysanthemum sibircum in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Natural Product Sciences, v. 9(2): p. 93-96, 2003 (Eng; 15 ref ).

The in vitro inflammatory action of the essential oil (CS-oil) extracted from Chrysanthemum sibiricum (Compositae) herbs was investigated on the formation NO, PGE2, and TNF-alpha and on inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The data obtained were consistent with the modulation of iNOS enzyme expression. A similar fashion was also observed when LPS-induced PGE2 release and CGX-2 expression were tested. The significant inhibitory effects were shown in concentration-dependent manners. In addition, CS-oil also mildly but significantly reduced the formation of TNF-a.

2003-06-3396 Lee, S.; Lee, Y.S.; Jung, S.H.; Shin, K.H.; Kim, B.K.; Kang, S.S. (Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-460, Korea) Antitumour and immunostimulating activities of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus fruits. Natural Product Sciences, v. 9(2): p. 112-116, 2003 (Eng; 20 ref).

The antitumour and immunostimulating activities of Acanthopanax sessiliforus fruits were investigated. Polysaccharide isolated from this plant, when administered consecutively for 9 days at 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p. in mice, caused a significant increase in the life span and a significant decrease in the tumour weight and volume in mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 tumour cell. Polysaccharide was also demonstratd to exhibit phagocytosis-enhancing activity as measured by the carbon clearance in mice. Polysaccharide also caused a significant increase in the acid phosphatase activity representing lysosoma enzymes in macrophages at 1-100 ig/ml in vitro in compliance with in vivo results. These results suggest that the antitumour activity of polysaccharide might be related to the immunostimulating function.

2003-06-3397 Lee, K.H.; Lee, J.H.; Cho, C.H.; Noh, M.J.; Kim, Y.B. (Kolon Central Research Park, Yongin, 449-797, Korea) Radiosensitizing and topoisomeraseI inhibitory effects of Aloe vera, Formitella fraxinea, andUlmus davidiana extracts. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(2): p. 60-62, 2001 (Eng; 7 ref).

Ulmus davidiana, Formitella fraxinea, and Aloe vera extracts were detected to have inhibitory effects against topoisomerase I at treatment of 5 micrg. Ulmus davidiana and Aloe vera extracts were found to show inhibitory effect similar to camptothecin, Formitella fraxinea extract was found to have weak activity. Radiosensitizing effect at combination treatment was increased more than 2 times at single treatment of raliation, Ulmus davidiana or Formitella fraxinea extracs. Ulmus davidiana and Formitella fraxinea extracts were found to have significant radiosensitizing effect on test tumour cell line. But, Aloe vera extract was not detected to have activity as a radiosensilizer. Ulmus davidiana and Formitella fraxinea extracts are potent radiosensitizers on tumour cell and should be considered for further study of active compounds.

2003-06-3398 Lee, E.B.; Hyun, J.E.; Li, D.W.; Jeong, C.S.; Shin, S.W.; Cho, S.I.; Jhon, G.J.; Lee, E.H. (Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 10-460, Korea) Gastroprotective activity of the unripe fruit extract of Juglans mandshurica in rats. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(2): p. 87-89, 2001 (Eng; 12 ref ).

The unripe fruit MeOH extract of Juglans mandshurica showed significant inhibition on HCL-aspirin and indomethacin induced gastric lesion at an oral dose of 1000 mg/kg. The extract did not show inhibition of aspirin induced ulcer and Shay ulcer at the doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg. The reults indicate that the extract had a gastroprotective activity.

2003-06-3399 Lee, E.B.; Hyun, J.E.; Li, D.W.; Moon, Y.I. ( Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-460, Korea) The effect of Opuntia ficus-indica var.saboten fruit on gastric lesion and ulcer in rats. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(2): p. 90-93, 2001 (Eng; 16 ref ).

The effects of the dried fruit powder of Opuntia ficus-india var.saboten (OF-f) were investigated on gastric lesion and ulcer models in rats. It showed significant inhibition in HCl-ethanol and HCl-aspirin induced gastric lesion at a dose of 600 mg/kg, p.o. OF-f also showed significant inhibition in indomethacin induced gastric lesion at the doses of 200 and 600 mg/kg, p.o. However, it did not affect aspirin and Shay ulcer in rats. It also did not affect the gastric juice secretion, acid output and pH. These data suggest that OF-f possesses pronounced inhibitory action on gastric lesion of rats.

2003-06-3400 Lee, J.K.; Kim, S.Y.; Shin, T.Y. (College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University, Chonju, Chonbuk 565-701, Korea) Effect of Terminalia chebula on immediate hypersensitivity reaction in mice and rats. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(2): p. 95-101, 2001 (Eng; 31 ref).

The aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae) (TCAE)(0.01 ot 1 g/kg) dose-dependently inhibited compound 48/80 induced systemic anaphylaxis in mice. When TCAE was pretreated at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1 g/kg, the plasma histamine levels were reduced in a dose dependent manner. TCAE (0.1 and 1g/kg) significantly inhbibited local immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction. TCAE (0.001 to 1 mg/ml) also dose-dependently inhibited the histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) activated by compound 48/80 or antidinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE. TCAE (0.01 to mg/ml) had a singificant inhibitory effect on anti-DNP IgE-induced tumour necrosis factor-alpha production from RPMC. These results indicates that TCAE inhibits immediate hypersensitivity reaction in vivo and in vitro.

2003-06-3401 Lee, M.W.; Kim, J.S.; Cho, S.M.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, J.S. (College of Pharmacy, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756, Korea) Anti-diabetic constituent from the node of lotus rhizome (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn). Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(2): p. 107-109, 2001 (Eng; 8 ref).

To investigate anti-diabetic component from the node of lotus rhizome (Nelumbo nucifera) activity guided isolation was conducted. One amino acid was isolated from active fraction of the aqueousmethanolic extract. The structure of this compound was identified as tryptophan by the analysis of spectroscopic evidences and comparisons with the data of authentic samples. Tryptophan reduced the blood glucose level significantly in glucose-fed hyperglycemic mice compared with glucose-treated group and exhibited 44.3 percentof activity compared with tolbutanide.

2003-06-3402 Lee, S.; Lee, C.H.; Moon, S.S.; Kim, E.; Kim, C.T. ; Kim, B.H.; Bok, S.H.; Jeong, T.S. (Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 52-oun, Yusong, Daejon 305-333, Republic of Korea) Naringenin derivatives as antiatherogenic agents. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, v. 13(22): p. 3901-3903, 2003 (Eng; 12 ref (Science Direct)).

Two classes of naringenin derivatives were evaluated for antiatherogenic activity. Naringenin 7-O-oleic ester, and naringenin 7-O-acetyl ether inhibited the formation of aortic atherosclerotic lesions in high cholesterol fed rabbits.

2003-06-3403 Lee, I.S.; Huong, D.T.L.; Lee, M.S.; Kim, J.W.; Na, D.S.; Kim, Y.H. (College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Korea) NFAT transcription factor inhibitory constituents from Cnidium officinale. Natural Product Sciences, v. 8(2): p. 94-96, 2002 (Eng; 14 ref ).

Four hundred varieties of plant extracts were screened for inhibitory activity against the Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription factor which plays an important role in inducing immune response. Among them, the MeOH extract of Cnidium officinale showed potent activity, and the activity-guided separation yielded butylidenephthalide, senkyunolide A and falcarindiol as the active constituents. The IC50 value of butylidenephthalide was 1.3x10 minus 4M and was similar to that of senkyunolide A (2.1x10 minus 4M). Interestingly falcrindiol showed higher activity (IC50, 2.6x10 minus 5M) than the two phthalides.

2003-06-3404 Lee, S.M.; Baek, S.H.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, H.B.; Kho, Y.H.* (Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejon 305-600, Korea) Cytotoxicity of lignans from Lindera erytherocarpa Makino. Natural Product Sciences, v. 8(2): p. 100-102, 2002 (Eng; 4 ref).

Three lignans isolated from a methanol extract of stem bark of Lindera erytherocarpa are evaluated in vitro cytotoxicity using three cancer cell line assay. The compounds were identified as methyllinderone, linderone, and kanakugiol by spectroscopic methods. Amongst the compounds, methyllinderone showed significant cytotoxicity against mouse melanoma (B16-F10), human acetabulum fibrosacroma (HT1080), and chronic myelogenous leukemia (K562) cancer cell lines with ED50 values of 2.2,2.5,8.3 microg/ml, respectively.

2003-06-3405 Legault, J.; Dahl, W.; Debiton, E.; Pichette, A.; Madelmont, J.C. (Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555 boulevard de l’Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, Canada, G7H, 2B1) Antitumor activity of balsam fir oil: Production of reactive oxygen species induced by alpha-humulene as possible mechanism of action. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 402-407, 2003 (Eng; 20 ref).

The essential oil of Abies balsamea (balsam fir oil) was found to be active against all the solid tumor cell lines tested, with Gl50 values ranging between 0.76 and 1.7 mg/mL. The oil was analyzed by GC-MS and the cytotoxicity of each oil constituent was determined. Balsam fir oil is essentially constituted of monoterpenes (96 percent) and some sesquiterpenes. All the compounds tested were inactive (250 microM) except for alpha-humulene (Gl50 = 55 to 73 microM) which thus seems responsible for the cytotoxicity of the oil. gamma-Caryophyllene was also found to be active against all solid tumor cell lines tested. Effects of balsam fir oil and alpha-humulene were examined on the cellular glutathione (GSH) content and on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Balsam fir oil and alpha-humulene induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in cellular GSH content and an increase in ROS production. These results suggest that GSH depletion and ROS production may be implicated in the cytotoxicity of alpha-humulene and balsam fir oil.

2003-06-3406 Li, G.; Ju, H.K.; Chang, H.W.; Jahng, Y.; Lee, S.H.*; Son, J.K. (College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan 712-749, Korea) Melanin biosynthesis inhibitors from the bark of Machilus thunbergii. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 26(7): p.1039-1041, 2003 (Eng; 31 ref).

The bioassay-guided fractionation of the methylene chloride soluble portion of a methanol extract of Machilus thunbergii bark led to the isolation of four known lignans, machilin A, meso-monomethyl dihydroguaiaretic acid, nectandrin A and nectandrin B, which exhibited potent inhibitory activity on melanin biosynthesis in cultured B-16 mouse melanoma cells (IC50: 39.9, 15.1, 19.4 and 37.8 microM, respectively.

2003-06-3407 Li, Y.; Ishibashi, M.; Chen, X.; Ohizumi, Y. ( Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578, Japan) Littorachalcone, a new enhancer of NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth, from Verbena littoralis. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(7): p. 872-874, 2003 (Eng; 12 ref).

A new dihydrochalcone dimer, 2’,4’,3’’,2’’’,4’’’-pentahydroxy-4-O-4’’-tetrahydrobichalcone, given the name littorachalcone, was isolated from the aerial parts of Verbena littoralis along with two known flavonoids 4’-hydroxywogonin and 8,3’-dimethoxy-5,7,4’-trihydroxyflavone. Littorachalcone caused a significant enhancement of nerve growth factor-mediated neurite outgrowth from PC12D cells.

2003-06-3408 Mary, N.K.; Babu, B.H.; Padikkala, J. (Amala Cancer Research Centre, Thrissur, Kerala, India) Antiatherogenic effect of Caps HT2, a herbal Ayurvedic medicine formulation. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 474-482, 2003 (Eng; 56 ref).

The formulation contained the methanolic extracts of selected parts of plants, Commiphora mukul, Allium sativum, Plumbago indica, Semecarpus anacardium, Hemidesmus indicus, Terminalia arjuna, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum. The formulation, Caps HT2 was found to scavenge superoxide and hydroxyl radicals; the IC50 required being 55.0 and 610.0 microg/ml respectively. The lipid peroxidation was found inhibited (50 percent) by 48.5 microg/ml of Caps HT2. The intravenous administration of the formulation (5 mg/kg) delayed the plasma recalcification time in rabbits and enhanced the release of lipoprotein lipase enzyme significantly (p less than 0.001). The formulation also inhibited ADP induced platelet aggregation in vitro, which was comparable to commercial heparin. The anti-inflammatory action of the formulation was significant (p less than 0.001) with acute and chronic inflammations induced by carrageenan and formalin respectively in rats. The hypolipidaemic effect of Caps HT2 was significant (p less than 0.001) with the administration of the formulation, in diet-induced hyperlipidaemia of rats for a period of 30 days. Oral administration of the formulation, Caps HT2 (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg) significantly raised HDL cholesterol levels. The atherogenic index and the reduction in body weight were significant indicating the effectiveness against hyperlipidaemia and obesity. All these results revealed the therapeutic potential of Caps HT2 against vascular intimal damage and atherogenesis leading to various types of cardiovascular problems.

2003-06-3409 Melzig, M.F.; Janka, M. (Institut fur Pharmazie, Freie Universitat Berlin, Germany) Enhancement of neutral endopeptidase activity in SK-N-SH cells by green tea extract. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 494-498, 2003 (Eng; 17 ref).

Green tea extract (EFLA 85942) is able to induce specifically the neutral endopeptidase (NEO) activity and to inhibit the proliferation of SK-N-SH cells; the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity is not influenced under the same conditions. The treatment of the cells with arabinosylcytosine and green tea extract results in a strong enhancement of cellular NEP activity whereas cellular ACE activity was not changed significantly, indicating a green tea extract-specific regulation of NEP expression. Because of its role in the degradation of amyloid beta peptides this enzyme induction of NEP by long term treatment with green tea extract may have a beneficial effect regarding the prevention of forming amyloid plaques.

2003-06-3410 Min, B.S.; Lee, S.Y.; Kim, J.H.; Lee, J.K.; Kim, T.J.; KIm, D.H.; Kim, Y.H.; Joung, H.; Lee, H.K.*; Nakamura, N.; Miyashiro, H.; Hattori, M. (Laboratory of Immunomodulator, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-333, Korea) Anti-complement activity of constituents from the stem-bark of Juglans mandshurica. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 26(7): p.1042-1044, 2003 (Eng; 16 ref).

Four known flavonoids and two galloyl glucoses isolated from the stem-bark of Juglans mandshurica, namely taxifolin, afzelin, quercitrin, myricitrin, 1,2,6-trigalloylglucose, and 1,2,3,6-tetragalloylglucose, were evaluated for their anti-complement activity against complement system. Afzelin and quercitrin showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50 percent inhibitory concentrations (IC50) values of 258 and 440 microM. 1,2,6-Trigalloylglucose and 1,2,3,6-tetragalloylglucose exhibited anti-complement activity with IC50 values of 136 and 34 microM. Among the compounds tested, 1,2,3,6-tetragalloylglucose (6) showed the most potent anticomplement activity (IC50, 34 microM).

2003-06-3411 Mohideen, S.; Havarasan, R.; Hemalatha, S.; Anitha, N.; Sasikala, E. (Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmacology, Adhiparasakthi College of Pharmacy, Melmaruvathur 603 319, TN, India) Wound healing and diuretic activities of Canthium parviflorum Lam. Natural Product Sciences, v. 9(2): p. 102-104, 2003 (Eng; 9 ref).

Aqueous and ethanolic extract of leaves of Canthium parviflorum were evaluated for wound healing and diuretic activities. Extract in the form of ointment is applied topically on excison wound in rats showed significant healing process as evidenced by increased rate of wound contraction as compared to control. The aqueous extract of 10 percent w/w ointment exhibited equivalent wound healing activity as Nitrofurazone oinment. Significant diuretic activity was exhibited by extracts. Graded dose response for both activities were observed for the extracts.

2003-06-3412 Montilla, M.P.; Agil, A.; Navarro, M.C.; Jimenez, M.I.; Garcia-Granados, A.; Parra, A.; Cabo, M.M. (Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain) Antioxidant activity of maslinic acid, a triterpene derivative obtained from Olea europaea. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 472-474, 2003 (Eng; 12 ref).

The effect of maslinic acid (a triterpene derivative obtained from olive pomace), on the susceptibility of plasma or hepatocyte membranes to lipid peroxidation (LPO), induced by the hydroxyl radical (OH) generated by Fe2+/H2O2 ex vivo and by the system F23+/ascorbate in vitro; moreover, three groups of animals used in the plasma study were pretreated with CCl4 (to generate CCl3). Endogenous plasma levels and susceptibility to LPO were decreased in rats treated with maslinic acid, after exposure to OH by Fe2+/H2O2 (Fenton reaction). Co-incubation with maslinic acid prevented hepatocyte membrane LPO as shown by reduction of TBARS. In conclusion, maslinic acid may offer some advantages in the resistance of oxidative stress in the animals.

2003-06-3413 Moon, H.I.; Zee, O.P. (Pharmacognosy Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Sung Kyun Kwan University, Suwon 440-746, Korea) Anticancer compound of Paulownia tomentosa. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(1): p. 21-22, 2001 (Eng; 6 ref).

A cytotoxic compound was purified from the flowers (46 g) of Paulownia tomentosa by normal column chromatography. As a result of the structure analysis by spectroscopic methods, the compound was identified as isoatriplicolide tiglate, which shows in vitro cytotoxicity. Isoatriplicolide tiglate was evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity in five human cancer cell lines.

2003-06-3414 Moriyama, H.; Iizuka, T.; Nagai, M.; Hoshi, K.; Murata, Y.; Taniguchi, A. (Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hoshi University, 2-4-41 Ebara, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8501, Japan) Platelet aggregatory effects of Nasturtium officinale and Solanum torvum extracts. Natural Medicines, v. 57(4): p. 133-138, 2003 (Eng; 13 ref).

Two Indonesian medicinal plants (Nasturtium officinale and Solanum torvum) extracted with hot 50 percent ethanol, exhibited a more potent platelet aggregating effect than their aqueous extracts. The extent of formation of platelet aggregates was estimated according to size distribution with the use of a platelet aggregometer employing a laser-scattering method, which is more sensitive to the detection of small-sized platelet aggregate formations than the conventional OD or impedance methods. The results suggested that platelet aggregation activating constituents in both plants may be more ethanol soluble than water soluble.

2003-06-3415 Mukherjee, P.K. (Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, WB, India) Pharmacovigilance in herbal drugs. Proceedings of WHO Training-cum-Workshop on Quality, Safety and Efficacy of Drugs of Indian System of Medicine, . 69-91, 10-12, April 2002 (Eng; 56 ref).

Pharmacovigilance of phyto-medicinal agents should be initiated prior to, or in parallel with clinical research in herbal drugs beside their pharmacognostical and phytochemical identity. Indian as well as Asian herbal medicines are currently used by large sections of the population as they are not regulated as medicines and are freely available to everyone; serious safety concerns might be associated with these herbal medicines. Problems might arise as a result of the lack of adequate regulations, the pharmacological complexity of herbal products, and the paucity of information on the pharmacology and toxicity of these compounds. For the evaluation of herbals with therapeutic importance, phytopharmacovigilance plays a very important role to confirm the potency of the herb in one hand and to anticipate the toxic side effects, adverse drug reaction, drug interaction in the other hand and by that way to explore the bioactive natural products for the treatment of varied diseases.

2003-06-3416 Na, M.K.; An, R.B.; Lee, S.M.; Min, B.S.; Kim, Y.H.; Bae, K.H.; Kang, S.S. (College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Taejon 305-764, Korea) Antioxidant compounds from the stem bark of Sorbus commixta. Natural Product Sciences, v. 8(1): p. 26-29, 2002 (Eng; 10 ref ).

The MeOH extract of Sorbus commixta (Rosaceae) exhibited strong DPPH radical scavenging activity, and through activity-guided fractionation two antioxidant compounds were isolated and identified as catechin-7-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside and catechin-7-O-beta-D-apiofuranoside by physicochemical and spectrometric methods. To evaluate the antioxidant effect of these compounds, some in vitro tests, such as the DPPH radical scavenging activity test, the superoxide activity test and the lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity test, were performed. Compounds showed stronger activities than both alpha-tocopherol and butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) in each assay.

2003-06-3417 Nanauri, S.; Rao, S.S.T.; Nyavanandi, V.K.; Kasu, S.; Kumar, P.M.; Ram, P.S.; Rajagopal, S.; Kumar, R.A.; Dhanvanthri, D.S.; Rajagopalan, R.; Venkateshwarulu, A. (Discovery Chemistry, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd., Discovery Research, Bollaram Road, Miyapur, Hyerabad 500 050, AP, India) Biological investigation and structure-activity relationship studies on azadirone from Azadirachta indica A.Juss. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, v. 13(22): p. 4111-4115, 2003 (Eng; 32 ref (Science Direct)).

Azadirone 1, a limonoidal constituent of Azadirachta indica is found to possess potent cytotoxic activity against a panel of human cancer cell lines in in vitro studies. In vitro screening to a number of semi-synthetic analogues of 1 revealed that the alpha,beta-unsaturated  enone moiety or its equivalent conjugated system in A-ring, C-7 acetyloxy/chloroacetyloxy or keto group in B-ring and the furan moiety are responsible for the activity of 1 and its analogues. Compound 1 and two of the semi-synthetic analogues were found to possess good in vivo antitumor activity in modified hollow fiber animal models.

2003-06-3418 Nishida, M.; Yoshimitsu, H.*; Okawa, M.; Nohara, T. (Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Kyoritsu University, 1-8, Jiyugaoka Yahata-nishi-ku, Kitakyushu 807-8585, Japan) Four new cycloartane glycosides from Aquilegia vulgaris and their immunosuppressive activities in mouse allogenic mixed lymphocyte. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(6): p. 683-687, 2003 (Eng; 5 ref).

Four new cycloartane glycosides, named aquilegiosides C-F, were isolated from the dried aerial parts of Aquilegia vulgaris. Their structures were determined by two dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. Aquilegiosides C-F suppressed the proliferation of lymphocytes in mouse allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction with IC50, ranging from 3.7x10 to the power-5 to 2.2x10 to the power-4M.

2003-06-3419 Nosalova, G.; Mokry, J.; Tareq Hassan, K.M. ( Department of Pharmacology, Jessenius Medical School, Comenius University, Martin, Slovakia) Antitussive activity of the fruit extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae). Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 583-589, 2003 (Eng; 39 ref).

The antitussive activity of Emblica officinalis (E.officinalis Fam. Euphorbiaceae) was tested in conscious cats by mechanical stimulation of the laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial mucous areas of airways. The results showed that at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt. perorally, the cough suppressive effect of E.officinalis is not unambiguous. A higher dose (200 mg/kg body wt.) of this substance perorally was more effective, especially in decreasing the number of cough efforts (NE), frequency of cough (NE/min-1) and the intensity of cough attacks in inspirium (IA+) and expirium (IA-) was more pronounced. These results showed that the cough suppressive activity of E.officinalis is dose-dependent. The antitussive activity of E.officinalis is less effective than shown by the classical narcotic antitussive drug codeine, but more effective than the non-narcotic antitussive agent dropropizine.

2003-06-3420 O’Prey, J.; Brown, J.; Fleming, J.; Harrison, P.R. (The Beatson Institute for Cancer Research, Cancer Research UK Beatson Laboratories, Garscube Estate, Switchback Road, Bearsden, Glasgow G61 1BD, Scotland, UK) Effects of dietary flavonoids on major signal transduction pathways in human epithelial cells. Biochemical Pharmacology, v. 66(11): p. 2075-2088, 2003 (Eng; 103 ref (Science Direct)).

The report has investigated the effects of the most common dietary FVs on several major signalling pathways in biopsies of human epithelial cells using primary cultures freshly isolated from biopsies and has obtained evidence for the previously unrecognised importance of stress kinase responses induced by kaempferol (KF), apigenin (AP) and luteolin (LU). KF, AP and LU all activated ATM/ATR (mutated in ataxia-telangiectasia and related) kinases and the p38 stress kinase and this was associated with induction of GADD45 and cell cycle arrest in G2, but not induction of apoptosis. These effects were not due to general toxicity since they were reversible on removal of FV. The inductions of ATM/ATR ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and p38 were functionally important since caffeine, an inhibitor of ATM/ATR, and the p38-specific inhibitor, SB203580, prevented induction of GADD45 and growth arrest by these three flavonoids. In contrast, although quercetin (QU) activated ATM (but not ATR), it did not activate p38 kinase, GADD45 or p53. QU may interfere with one of the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways since the growth inhibitory effects of QU (but not the other three flavonoids) could be reversed by addition of LOX metabolites, particularly 12- and 15-hydroxyeicostetraenic acids.

2003-06-3421 Oku, H.; Ueda, Y.; Ishiguro, K.* (Mukogawa Women’s University, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Koshien Kyuban-cho, Nishinomiya, 663-8179, Japan) Antipruritic effects of the fruits of Chaenomeles sinensis. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 26(7): p.1031-1034, 2003 (Eng; 37 ref).

Activity-guided fractionation and purification of 35 percent EtOH extract of the fruits of Chaenomeles sinensis yielded active quercetin, apigenin, and catechin derivatives, which exhibited significant inhibitory effects on compound 48/80 (COM)-induced scratching behavior. Apigenin, apigenin 7-glucronide and apigenin 4’-methoxy-7-glucronide (acacetin 7-glucronide) were isolated from the fruits of C.sinensis for the first time. The active fraction and these compounds also inhibited serotonin-, platelet activating factor-, and prostaglandin E2-induced scratching behaviour, but did not inhibit histamine-induced scratching behaviour or locomotive behaviour.

2003-06-3422 Ono, M. (School of Agriculture, Kyushu Tokai University, Choyo 5435, Aso, Kumamoto 869-1404, Japan) Studies on biologically functional compounds from some crude drugs, including Viticis fructus. Natural Medicines, v. 57(4): p. 127-132, 2003 (Eng; 33 ref).

Recently, it has been recognized that natural antioxidants from crude drugs and edible plants are safer for human consumption than synthetic antioxidants which may reduce the incidence of the human diseases associated with reactive oxygen species and free radicals. Present review summarizes the isolation and structure elucidation of the constituents from the antioxidative extract of five medical plants, (Vitex rotundifolia, V.trifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Tessaria integrifolia and Dendrobium species.

2003-06-3423 Ozen, T.; Korkmaz, H. (Ondokuz Mayis University, The Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Kurupelit, Samsun-Turkey) Modulatory effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) leaf extract on biotransformation enzyme systems, antioxidant enzymes, lactate dehydrogranse and lipid peroxidation in mice. Phytomedicine, v. 10(5): p. 405-415, 2003 (Eng; 48 ref).

A modulatory effect of two doses 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight and BHA was observed for the activities of glutathione S-transferase, DT-diaphorase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in the kidney, lung and forestomach, as compared with the control group. The activities of cytochrome b5 (cyt b5), NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase (cyt b5 R), glutathione S-transferase (GST), DT-diaphorase (DTD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutatione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) showed a significant increase in the liver at both dose levels of extract. Both extract-treated showed significantly lower activity of cytochrome P450 (cyt P450), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (cyt P450, total sulfhydryl group (T-SH), nonprotein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH) and protein bound sulfhydryl groups (PB-SH). BHA-treated Swiss albino mice showed a notable increase in levels of cyt b5, DTD, T-SH, PB-SH, GPx, GR, and SOD in the liver while, LDH, cyt P450, cyt P450 R, Cyt b5 GST, NP-SH, and CAT levels were reduced significantly as compared to control values. The extract was effective in inducing GST, DTD, SOD and CAT activity in the forestomach and SOD and CAT activity in the lung at both dose levels. BHA-treated Swiss albino mice induced DTD, GST and all antioxidative parameters in the kidney, lung and forestomach.

2003-06-3424 Palep, H.S. (Palep’s Medical Research Foundation, Manmoj C.H.S. Shankar Ghanekar Marg, Prabhadevi, Mumbai 400 025, Maharashtra, India) Evaluation of Ayurvedic therapy through modern clinical pharmacological approach. Proceedings of WHO Training-cum-Workshop on Quality, Safety and Efficacy of Drugs of Indian System of Medicine, . 29-35, 10-12, April 2002 (Eng).

Clinical evaluation of cap. Sujat and cap Torchnil, herbal based materials, known to exhibit immunomodulatory activity has been made. The results showed that they have no side effects and exhibited antioxidant activity. Also, toxicological evaluation of the cap ‘Panchvalkal’ established as an efficacious drug for the treatment of genital tract infections and can be used safely for a long duration without side effects.

2003-06-3425 Pan, G.Y.; Huang, Z.J.; Wang, G.J.; Fawcett, J.P.; Liu, X.O.; Zhao, S.C.; Sun, J.G.; Xie, Y.Y. (Center for Pharmacokinetics 210#, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, People’s Republic of China) The antihyperglycaemic activity of berberine arises from a decrease of glucose absorption. Planta Medica, v. 69(7): p. 632-636, 2003 (Eng; 21 ref).

Berberine was found to effectively inhibit the activity of disaccharidases in Caco-2-cells. It also decreased sucrase activity after preincubation with Caco-2 cells for 72 hours. However gluconeogenesis and glucose consumption of Caco-2 cells were not influenced. 2-Deoxyglucose transporting through Caco-2 cell monolayers was decreased by berberine but the effect was not statistically significant. These results suggest that the antihyperglycaemic activity of berberine is at least partly due to its ability to inbibit alpha-glucosidase and decrease glucose trnasport through the interstinal epithelium.

2003-06-3426 Park, J.C.; Ito, H.; Yoshida, T. (Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, Sunchon National University, Suncheon, Jeonnam, 540-742, Republic of Korea) H-NMR assignment of HIV protease inhibitor, procyanidin B3 isolated from Rosa rugosa. Natural Product Sciences, v. 9(2): p. 49-51, 2003 (Eng; 22 ref ).

The underground part of Rosa rugosa has been used in Korean folk medicine for treating diabetes. The 1H-NMR signal of procyanidin B3 isolated from Rosa rugosa was fully assigned by utilizing 1H-1HCOSY. Procyanidin B3 showed a moderate inhibitory activity against HIV-1 protease.

2003-06-3427 Park, W.S.; Son, E.D.; Nam, F.W.; Kim, S.H.; Noh, M.S.; Lee, B.G.; Jang, I.S.; Kim, S.E.; Lee, J.J.; Lee, C.H.* (Skin Research Institute, Pacific R&D Center, 314-1 Bora-ri, Kiheung-eup, Yongin-si, Kyoungg-do, Korea) Torilin from Torilis japonica, as new inhibitor of testosterone 5alpha-reductase. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 459-461, 2003 (Eng; 17 ref).

The methanolic extract of the fruits of Torilis japonica showed a potent inhibition against 5alpha-reductase activity in vitro. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of the fruits led to the isolation of active principle, identified as torilin on the basis of spectroscopic data. Torilin showed a stronger inhibition of 5alpha-reductase than alpha-linolenic acid but was weaker than finasteride. Simple guaiane-type compounds, such as (-)-guaiol and guaiazulene showed weak inhibitory effects on the 5alpha-reductase activity with IC50 values of f 81.6 microM and 100.8 microM, respectively, while azulene was not active. These results suggest that both degrees of unsaturation and the side-chain in the guaiane skeleton are important for the manifestation of 5alpha-reductase inhibition.

2003-06-3428 Park, E.K.; Yoon, H.K.; Kim, D.H. (College of Pharmacy, and East-West Research Institute, Kyung Hee University, 1, Hoegi, Dongdaemun-ku, Seoul 130-701, Korea) Antithrombotic activity of Sunghyangjunggisan. Natural Product Sciences, v. 8(2): p. 71-75, 2002 (Eng; 15 ref ).

As apart of our continuing search for antistroke agents from the herbal medicinal resources, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo the possibility of Sunghyangjunggisan and its ingradients as a novel antithrombotic agent were examined. In vitro ADP- and collagen-induced rat platelet aggregations were potently inhibited by Arisaematis Rhizoma, Cinnamomi Cortex and Zingiberis Rhizoma in a dose-dependent manner, but bot by Sunghyangjunggisan. However, Sunghyangjunggisan significantly inhibited ex vivo rat platelet aggregation. Arisaematis Rhizoma, Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba, and Pinelliae Rhizoma also significantly inhibited ex vivo rat platelet aggregation. Sunghyangjunggisan,Alpiniae Fructus and Zingiberis Rhizoma showed significant protection from death due to pulmonary thrombosis in mice. Therefore, Sunghyangjunggisan can express the antithrombotic action, when it is orally administered.

2003-06-3429 Park, S.H.; Lee, K.H.; Park, E.K.; Kim, D.H.* ( College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University 1, Hoegi, Dongdaemun-ku, Seoul, 130-701, Korea) Purgative activities of Seunggitangs. Natural Product Sciences, v. 8(2): p. 90-93, 2002 (Eng; 10 ref ).

The purgative activity of Seunggitang prescriptions (Deseunggitang, Soseunggitang and Joweseunggitang) was measured to compare the laxative potency of these herbal prescriptions. Daeseunggitang and Jowiseunggitang more potently stimulated the transportation of small and large intestine than Rhei Rhizoma alone. However, the small and large intestine transportation activity of Soeseunggitang were similar to those of Rhei Rhizoma alone. Soseunggitang inhibited nitrite production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells and trypsin than the other Seunggitang. The inhibitory activity of Jowiseunggitang was more potent on nitrite production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells than those of Daeseunggitang. These results suggest that Daeseunggitang can be used as a emergent purgative for patients with severe fever and constipation. Soseunggitang can be as a mild purgative for chronic constipation with inflammation and Jowiseunggitang can be as a potent purgative for patients with severe constipation and weak colitis.

2003-06-3430 Peer, F.; Fazili, M.R.; Makhdoomi, A.A.* ( Veterinary Clinical Complex, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and A.H. Shuhama Alusteng, Srinagar, JK, India) Clover poisoning of dairy cattle - A clinical study. Indian Veterinary Journal, v. 80(8): p. 804-805, 2003 (Eng; 3 ref).

Pasture bloat in dairy cattle specific to clovers (Medicago species) in the spring season was recorded. Animals were treated with atropine sulphate (i.m.) followed by an oral dose of Timpol (herbal medicine) along with tincture asafoetida (Ferula asafoetida)(20 ml) and tincture ginger (Zingiber officinale) (50 ml). All animals including cows responded to the treatment within 3-4 hours.

2003-06-3431 Penna, S.C.; Medeiros, M.V.; Aimbire, F.S.C.; Faria-Neto, H.C.C.; Sertie, J.A.A.; Lopes-Martins, R.A.B. ( Departamento de Farmaeologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo,Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil) Antiinflammatory effect of the hydralocholic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizomes on rat paw and skin edema. Phytomedicine, v. 10(5): p. 381-385, 2003 (Eng; 19 ref).

The effects of the crude hydralcoholic extract of ginger rhizomes on the classical models of rat paw and skin edema were investigated. The carrageenan-, compound 48/80- or serotonin-induced rat paw edema were inhibited significantly by the intraperitoneal administrtion of alcoholic ginger extract. Ginger extract was also effective in inhibiting 48/80-induced rat skin edema at doses of 0.6 and 1.8 mg/site. Rat skin edema induced by substance P or bradikinin was not affected by treatment with Z.officinalle extract. The intraperitoneal administration of ginger extract (186 mg/kg body wt.) 1 h prior to serotonin injections, reduced significantly the serotonin-induced rat skin edema. Results demonstrated that crude extract of Zingiber officinale was able to reduce rat paw and skin edema induced by carrageenan, 48/80 compound and serotonin. The antiedematogenic activity seems to be related, at least partially, to an antagonism of the serotonin receptor.

2003-06-3432 Ram, A.; Das, M.; Ghosh, B.* (Molecular Immunology and Immunogenetics Laboratory, Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Mall Road, Delhi University Campus, Delhi 110 007, India) Curcumin attenuates allergin-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in sensitized guinea pigs. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 26(7): p.1021-1024, 2003 (Eng; 22 ref).

Anti-asthmatic property of curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a natural product from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa has been tested in a guinea pig model of airway hyperresponsiveness. Guinea pigs were treated with curcumin during sensitization (to examine its preventive effect) or after developing imparied airways features (to examine its therapeutic effect). Status of airway constriction and airway hyperreactivity were determined by measuring specific conductance (SGaw) using a non-invasive technique, constant-volume body plethysmography. Curcumin (20 mg/kg body weight) (treatment significantly inhibited OVA-induced airway constriction (p less than 0.0399) and airway hyperreactivity (p less than 0.0043). The results demonstrate that curcumin is effective in improving the impaired airways features in the OVA-sensitized guinea pigs.

2003-06-3433 Rao, C.V.; Ojha, S.K.; Govindarajan, R.; Rawat, A.K.S.; Mehrotra, S.; Pushpangadan, P. (Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow 226 001, UP, India) Quercetin, a bioflavonoid, protects against oxidative stress-related gastric mucosal damage in rats. Natural Product Sciences, v. 9(2): p. 68-72, 2003 (Eng; 35 ref ).

Administration of quercetin in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg twice daily for 5 days, showed dose dependent significant protection against ethanol (EtOH), aspirin (ASP), cold-restraint stress (CRS) and pylorus ligation (PL)-induced gastric ulcer models in rats and the results were comparable with those elicited by sucralfate. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the stomach mucosa, an index of lipid peroxidation and regulation of plasma corticosterone were significantly increased in CRS-induced gastric ulceration. The quercetin (100 mg/kg) and reduced glutathione effectively inhibited gastric lesions induced by CRS with a significant decrease in the lipid peroxidation and plasma corticosterone. These results indicate that quercetin a bioflavonoid exerts its antiulcer effect in light of free radical scavenging and plasma corticosterone in cold restraint stress ulcers.

2003-06-3434 Raphael, T.J.; Kuttan, G. (Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amalanagar, Thrissur, Kerala, India) Effect of naturally occurring triterpenoids glycyrrhizic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and nomilin on the immune system. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 483-489, 2003 (Eng; 17 ref).

Intraperitoneal treatments with 5 doses of the terpenoid compounds were found to enhance the total white blood cells (WBC) count. In ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and nomilin treated animals the maximum total WBC count was observed on the 6th day, while in glycyrrhizic acid treated animals it was observed only on the 9th day after the drug treatment. In ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and nomilin treated animals the percentage of increase in the total WBC count was to 91.48+-4.6 percent, 135.75+-6.4 percent and 117.33+-17.9 percent respectively. In the glycyrrhizic acid treated animals the total WBC count was increased to 114.9+-18 percent. Bone marrow cellularity and alpha-esterase positive cells were also enhanced by the treatment with these terpenoids. Treatment with various triterpenoids along with antigen produced an enhancement in the specific antibody titre and the number of plaque forming cells (PFC) in the spleen. Triterpenoids remarkably inhibited delayed type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH). These results indicate the immunomodulatory activity of naturally occurring triterpenoids such as glycyrrhizic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and nomilin.

2003-06-3435 Ribeior, R.A.; Leite, J.R. (Departamento de Farmacologia, Jose Leal Prado, Sao Paulo, Brazil) Nantenine alkaloid presents anticonvulsant effect on two classical animal models. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 563-568, 2003 (Eng; 33 ref).

At lower doses (20-50 mg/kg, i.p.) the nantenine proved to be effective in inhibiting pentylenotetrazol- (PTZ 100 mg/kg, s.c.) and maximal electroshock-induced seizures (80 mA, 50 pulses/s, 0.2s), suggesting its potential as an antiocnvulsant drug. However, at higher doses (minus less than 75 mg/kg, i.p) a convulsant activity was observed. Comparing the present in vivo nantenine effecs on seizures with previous in vitro biphasic action on Na+,K+-ATPase activity, the convulsant effect appears to be related to inhibition of these phosphatases at high doses whereas anticonvulsant effect, observed at low doses, seems attributable to its stimulation and the resultant decrease of Ca2+-influx into the cell.

2003-06-3436 Rodriguez-Paez, L.; Juarez-Sanchez, M.; Antunez-Solis, J.; Baeza, I.; Wong, C. (Departamento de Bioquimica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City, Mexico) alpha-Asarone inhibits HMG-CoA reductase, lowers serum LDL-cholesterol levels and reduces biliary CSl in hypercholesterolemic rats. Phytomedicine, v. 10(5): p. 397-404, 2003 (Eng; 34 ref).

Results showed that alpha-asarone was an inhibitor of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase and that the administration of alpha-asarone at 80 mg/kg body wt. for 8 days decreased serum cholesterol by 38 percent (p less than 0.001) in hypercholesterolemic rats. This alpha-asarone treatment affected mainly the serum LDL-cholesterol levels, leaving serum HDL-cholesterol lipoproteins unaffected, with a consequent decrease of 74 percent in the LDL/HDL ratio. In addition, alpha-asarone especially stimulated bile flow in hypercholesterolemic rats (60 percent), increasing the secretion of bile salts, phospholipids and bile cholesterol. The drug also reduced the cholesterol levels of gallbladder bile, whereas the concentration of phospholipids and bile salts increased only slightly, leading to a decrease in the cholesterol saturation index (CSI) of bile in the hypercholesterolemic rats. CSI decrease and the increase in bile flow induced by alpha-asarone may account for the cholelitholytic effect of alpha-asarone.

2003-06-3437 Rojas, A.; Mendoza, S.; Moreno, J.; Arellano, R.O. (Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Centro Universitario, Queretaro, Mexico) Extracts from plants used in Mexican traditional medicine activate Ca2+-dependent chloride channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Phytomedicine, v. 9(5): p. 416-421, 2002 (Eng; 14 ref).

The two-electrode voltage-clamp technique was employed to investigate the effects of chloroform-methanol (1:1) extracts derived from five medicinal plants on Xenopus laevis oocytes. When evaluated at concentrations of 1 to 500 microg/ml, the extracts prepared from the aerial parts of Baccharis heterophylla (Asteraceae), Chenopodium murale (Chenopodiaceae), Descmodium grahani (Leguminosae) and Solanum rostratum (Solanaceae) produced concentration-dependent oscillatory inward currents in the oocytes, while the extract of Gentiana spathacea did not induce any response. The reversal potential of the currents elicited by the active extracts was-17+-2 mV and was similar to the chloride equilibrium potential in oocytes. These ionic responses were independent of extracellular calcium. However, they were eliminated by overnight incubation with BAPTA-AM (10 microM), suggesting that the currents were dependent on intracellular Ca2+ increase. Thus the plant extracts activate the typical oscillatory Ca2+-dependent Cl-currents generated in the Xenopus oocyte membrane more probably via a mechanism that involves release of Ca2+ from intracellular reservoirs. These observations suggest that Xenopus oocyte electrophysiological recording constitutes a suitable assay for the study of the mechanisms of action of herbal medicines.

2003-06-3438 Sakthisekaran, D. (Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Madras, Taramani, Chennai 600 113, TN, India) Chemotherapeutic efficacies of certain natural compounds against anti-cancer drugs induced cytotoxicity. Proceedings of WHO Training-cum-Workshop on Quality, Safety and Efficacy of Drugs of Indian System of Medicine, . 137, 10-12, April 2002 (Eng).

The chemotherapeutic drugs such as Cisplatin and adriamycin are known to induce unwanted side effects like nephrotoxicity, cardio toxicity and neurotoxicity etc. These side effects limit the usage of the potential anticancer drugs. In order to overcome the deleterious side effects, some antioxidants (curcumin, crocetin and apigenin), which are occurring naturally, are being used. These antioxidants decrease the levels of lipid peroxidation and increase the antioxidant status in cancer bearing animals. Antioxidants, the free radical scavengers function as the inhibitors at both initiation and promotion/transformation stage of carcinogenesis and protect cells against oxidative stress. Combination therapy not only promotes the anticancer effect of the drugs but also protects the cells from free radical attack. Altered antioxidant enzymes were also observed during carcinogenesis. The anticancer and antitumor effects of the natural compounds curcumin, crocetin and apigenin have been presented.

2003-06-3439 Seth, P.K.; Kakkar, P. (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, P.O. Box 80, M.G. Marg, Lucknow 226 001, UP, India) Toxicity bench marks for safe drug development. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 29-41, 2003 (Eng).

Reported adverse health effects, toxicity evaluation, safety requirements, specific problems related to herbal safety evaluation, requirement of toxicity testing, and efforts by western country in this area have been reviewed. Some plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids, some commonly used poisonous drugs of Indian Systems of Medicine, samples of herb-drug interactions, and some plants recommended for non-target toxicity testing using National Toxicity Programme have been presented in tabular form .

2003-06-3440 Shen, Z.; Dong, Z.; Cheng, P.; Li, L.; Chen, Z.; Liu, J. (Kunming Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Junming 650204, People’s Republic of China) Effects of plumbagin on platelet aggregation and platelet-neutrophil interactions. Planta Medica, v. 69(7): p. 605-609, 2003 (Eng; 17 ref).

The effcts of plumbagin, a component found in many plants of Plumbaginaceae in in vitro significantly inhibited adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-, arachidonic acid (AA)-, or platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced platelet aggregation, in a concentration-dependent manner. The medium inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were 39.4, 82.7 and 38.1 microM, respectively. Intragastric plumbagin at 10 mg/kg markedly suppressed platelet aggregation induced by ADP, AA, or PAF. Plumbagin decreased the binding between thrombin-stimulated platelets and neutrophils with an IC50 of 62.9 microM. Plumbagin significantly inbibited washed platelet aggregation stimulated by fMLP-or PAF-activated neutrophils. The IC50 values were 54.3 and 47.6 microM, respectively.

2003-06-3441 Shirwaikar, A.; Somashekar, A.P.; Udupa, A.L.; Udupa, S.L.; Somashekar, S. (Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal, India) Wound healing studies of Aristolochia bracteolata Lam. with supportive action of antioxidant enzymes. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 558-562, 2003 (Eng; 18 ref).

Aristolochia bracteolata is a perennial herb, the leaves are used by the native tribals and villagers of the Chittor District of Andhra Pradesh in india for the rapid healing of cuts and wounds. The ethanol extract of the shade-dried leaves of A.bracteolata was studied for its effect on wound healing in rats, using incision, excision and dead-space wound models, at two different dose levels of 400 and 800 mg/kg/body wt/day. The plant showed a definite, positive effect on wound healing, with a significant increase of the level of two powerful antioxidant enzymes, super oxide dismutase and catalase, in the granuloma tissue.

2003-06-3442 Singh, B.; Sharma, M.K.; Meghwal, P.R.; Sahu, P.M. ; Singh, S. (Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India) Anti-inflammatory activity of shikonin derivatives from Arnebia hispidissima. Phytomedicine, v. 10(5): p. 375-380, 2003 (Eng; 23 ref).

Arnebia hispidissima (trade name Ratanjot), ethanolic extract, after chromatography, yielded a number of shikonin derivatives, which were identified as arnebin-5, arnebin-6, teracryl shikonin, arnebinone and acetyl shikonin. All these compounds were firstly reported from this plants species and evaluated to the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract and isolated shikonin derivatives, models with carrageenan-induced paw edema and complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic arthritic in rats were conducted. The observed results indicated that pre-treatment with arnebinone significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw edema and also suppressed the development of chronic arthritis induced by CFA.

2003-06-3443 Sivaraman, R.; Shah, Z.A.; Vohora, S.B.* ( Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Faculty of Science, Hamdard University, New Delhi 110 062, India) Investigations on Dimagheen: A polyherbal formulation used in Unani medicine for effects of learning and memory. Indian Drugs, v. 40(3): p. 160-165, 2003 (Eng; 18 ref).

Dimagheen, a polyherbal medicine containing Emblica officinalis, Canscora decussata, Centella asiatica, Delphinium denudatum, Paeonia emodi, Rosa damascena and Pandanus odoratissimus used for memory enhancing activity in Unani medicine was investigated on experimental models for cognitive function in rats and mice. It revealed significant effects on active avoidance learning in aged rats, passive avoidance learning in normal and scopolamine-amnesic mice, thirst motivational behaviour and non-significant cognition fascillatory action on food motivational behaviour in rats and transfer latency in mice. A decreased Ache activity observed, suggests the involvement of chlinergic mechanisms in the observed nootropic action of the drug.

2003-06-3444 Soejarto, D.D.; Pezzuto, J.M.; Fong, H.H.S.; Tan, G.T.; Zhang, H.J.; Tamez, P.; Aydogmus, Z.; Chien, N.Q.; Franzblau, S.G.; Gyllenhaal, C. etal. (Program for Collaborative Research in the Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), USA) An international collaborative program to discover new drugs from tropical biodiversity of Vietnam and Laos. Natural Product Sciences, v. 8(1): p. 1-15, 2002 (Eng; 32 ref).

An International Cooperative Biodiversity Group (ICBG) program based at the University of Illinois at Chicago initiated its activities in 1998. The drug discovery effort is targeted to the search for agents for therapies against malaria, AIDS, cancer, tuberculosis and CNS related diseases. Source plants were selected based on two approaches: biodiversity-based (plants of Cuc Phuong National Park) and ethnobotany-based (medicinal plants of Cuc Phuong National Park in Vietnam and medicinal plants of Laos). At UIC, as of July, 2001, active leads had been identified in the anti-HIV, anticancer, antimalarial, and anti-TB assay, after the screening of more than 800 extracts. At least 25 biologically active compounds have been isolated, 13 of which are new with anti-HIV activity, and 3 also new with antimalarial activity. At Glaxo Smith Kline (UK) of 21 plant samples with a history of use to treat CNS-related diseases tested to date, a number showed activity against one or more of the CNS assay targets used, but no new compounds have been isolated.

2003-06-3445 Spessoto, M.A.; Ferreira, D.S.; Crotti, A.E.M.; Silva, M.L.A.; Cunha, W.R. (Nucleo de Pesquisa em Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas da Universidade de France, Pq. Universitario, Franca- SP, Brazil) Evaluation of the analgesic activity of extracts of Miconia rubiginosa (Melastomataceae). Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 606-609, 2003 (Eng; 22 ref).

The analgesic effects of the hexane, methylene chloride and ethanol extracts of Miconia rubiginosa were evaluated in mice and rats using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate tests. The extracts (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body wt.) and indomethacin (5 mg/kg body wt.) produced a significant (p less than 0.05 and p less than 0.01) inhibition of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing. These same extracts (200 mg/kg body wt.) showed a significant (p less than 0.05) antinociceptive effect, lower than that produced by morphine (4 mg/kg body wt.). The fractionation of the methylene chloride extract yielded ursolic and oleanoic acids as the major compounds. Using only gas chromatography, it was possible to identify the following triterpenes in the hexane extract: alpha-amyrin, beta-amyrin, lupeol and beta-sitosterol.

2003-06-3446 Suleyman, H.; Mshvildadze, V.; Gepdiremen, A.; Elias, R. (Ataturk University, Medical Faculty, Department of Pharmacology, Erzurum, Turkey) Acute and chronic antiinflammatory profile of the ivy plant, Hedera helix, in rats. Phytomedicine, v. 10(5): p. 370-374, 2003 (Eng; 27 ref).

Hedera helix is a plant well-known as ivy or English ivy, and a member of the Araliaceae family. In the possible antiinflammatory effects of a crude saponin extract (CSE) and a saponin’s purified extracts (SPE) of Hedera helix in carrageenan- and cotton-pellet-induced acute and chronic inflammation models in rats has been investigated. Both the CSE and SPE of Hedera helix were found to have antiinflammatory effect. The most potent drug screened was indomethacin (89.2 percent acute antiinflammatory effect), while the most potent extract screened was the CSE of Hedera helix at 100 and 200 mg/kg body wt. doses with 77 percent acute antiinflammatory effects. For testing chronic antiinflammatory (antiproliferative) effects, the cotton-pellet-granuloma test was conducted. Indomethacin was found to be the most potent drug in the chronic phase of inflammation, with 66 percent effect. The SPE of Hedera helix was more potent than the CSE in its chronic antiinflammatory effect (60 percent and 49 percent, respectively).

2003-06-3447 Tachikawa, E.; Kudo, K.; Hasegawa, H.; Kashimoto, T.; Sasaki, K.; Miyazaki, M.; Taira, H.; Lindstrom, J.M. (Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University, Uchimaru 19-1, Morioka 020-8505, Japan) In vitro inhibition of adrenal catecholamine secretion by steroidal metabolites of ginseng saponins. Biochemical Pharmacology, v. 66(11): p. 2213-2221, 2003 (Eng; 25 ref (Science Direct)).

Recent studies have demonstrated that oligosaccharides connected to the hydroxyl groups of aglycone in ginseng saponins (ginsenosides) are in turn hydrolyzed in the digestive tract and absorbed into the circulation following oral administration of ginseng. Therefore, study was performed to investigate the effects of the major ginsenoside metabolites (M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, M11 and M12) on catecholamine secretion. All of these metabolites were shown to be potent inhibitors of ACh-evoked secretion, and M4 was the most effective. M4 blocked not only the ACh-induced Na+ influx into the chromaffin cells but also the ACh- Na+ influx into the chromaffin cells but also the A-Ch induced inward current into Xenopus oocytes expressing human alpha3beta4 neuronal incolinic A-Ch receptors. M4 reduced the secretion induced by high K+, an activator of voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels, to a much lesser extent than that evoked by Ach. M1, M2, M3, M5, and M12 are protopanaxadiol saponin-derived metabolites. Therefore, these results imply that the protopanaxadiol saponins are prodrugs, and they show more potent inhibitory activity following metabolism in the digestive tract. The results further suggest that the metabolites act on nicotinic ACh receptors, blocking Na+ influx through the receptors, and consequently reduce the catecholamine secretion from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells. The inhibitory effect of ginsenoside metabolites is probably one of the mechanims of action responsible for the pharmacological effects of ginseng.

2003-06-3448 Tan, Y.Y.; Li, G.Q.; Wang, J.H.; Li, Q.; Hong, Z.I.; Gao, J.X.; Guo, Q.H. (Wuhan Institute of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430-073, China) Toxicity of alkaloids isolated from glacial crazy weed (Oxytropis glacialis Benth ex bye) in mice. Acta Veterinaria Et Zootechnica Sinica, v. 33(5): p. 463-467, 2002 (Chi; Eng; 17 ref).

Mice were individually fed with 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone (TMPD) isolated from Oxytropis glacialis at doses of 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg once a day, respectively. After approximately 30-35 days of feeding, the mice developed mild to severe clinical signs of locoweed intoxication. Histological observations were made after 35 days. Cytoplasm vacuolation was observed in all tissues together with some other pathologic changes in the liver. The Purkinje cells of cerebellum swelled, dissolved incompletely or completely. The pathologic changes of cerebrum were similar to these of cerebellum, with pyhnosis and hemorrhage.

2003-06-3449 Tao, J.; Morikawa, T.; Ando, S.; Matsuda, H.; Yoshikawa, M.* (Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8412, Japan) Bioactive constituents from Chinese natural medicines. XI. Inhibitors on NO production and degranulation in RBL-2H3 from Rubia yunnanensis: Structures of rubianosides II, III, and IV, rubianol-g, and rubianthraquinone. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(6): p. 654-662, 2003 (Eng; 44 ref).

Three new arborinane-type triterpene glycosides, rubianosides II, III, and IV, a new arborinane-type triterpene, rubianol-g, and a new anthraquinone, rubianthraquinone, were isolated from a Chinese natural medicine, the roots of Rubia yunnanensis. The structures of the new constituents including their absolute configurations were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The inhibitory effects of the isolated constituents on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macophages were examined. Among them, a cyclic peptide constituent, RA-XII and its aglycon, RA-V (deoxybouvadin), potently inhibited overproduction of nitric oxide and induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase. In addition, an anthraquinone constituent, 2-methyl-1,3,6-trihydroxy-9, 10-anthraquinone, was found to show inhibitory affects on the release of beta-hexosaminidase in RBL-2H3 cells.

2003-06-3450 Terada, S.; Haruta, K. (Research Laboratory of Zenyaku Kogyo Co. Ltd. 2-33-7, Ohizumi-machi, Nerima-ku, Tokyo, 178-0065, Japan) Anti-inflammatory effects of gamma-oryzanol. Natural Medicines, v. 57(3): p. 95-99, 2003 (Eng; 15 ref).

Since ferulic acid esters from Notopterygii rhizome (Notopterygium incisum) and Atractylodis lancaeae rhizome (Atractylodes lancea) inhibited the activities of lipoxygenase (LPO) and cyclooxygenase (COX), the effects of ferulic acid esters from gamma-oryzanol were examined on LPO and COX activities. All ferulic acid esters inhibited the activity of LPO (IC50: 15-34 microM). Moreover, cycloartenyl ferulate and stigmasteryl ferulate also inhibited the activities of both COX-1 and COX-2. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of gamma-oryzanol in vivo, the effects of gamma-oryzanol were examined on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. It was revealed that gamma-oryzanol inhibited the increase in swelling of the hind paw in a dose dependent manner (1-100 mg/kg). These results suggested that gamma-oryzanol had therapeutic potential for inflammatory disease.

2003-06-3451 Terada, S.; Ito, K.; Taka, M.; Ogose, N.; Noguchi, N.; Koide, Y. (Research Laboratory, Zenyaku Kogyo Co. Ltd, 33-7, Ohizumi-Machi 2, Nerima-Ku, Tokyo 178-0062, Japan) alpha-Glucosidase inhibitory active components and glucose level lowering effect of Yacon aerial part extract. Natural Medicines, v. 57(3): p. 89-94, 2003 (Eng; 18 ref).

Hot water extract of the aerial parts of Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolia suppressed the elevation of glucose levels after loading starch in normal rats. Activity guided fractionation of the extract for maltase inhibition resulted in the isolation of three known dicaffeoylquinic acids. The structure of the compound showing the most potent activity (IC50: 26 micro g/mL) was determined as 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (3,4-DCQA) by spectroscopic evidence. These dicaffeoylquinic acids showed alpha-amylase inhibitory activities. 3,4-DCQA and 3,5-DCQA dose-dependently exhibited hypoglycemic activities after loading starch indicating that dicaffeoylquinic acids in the Yacon extract are the main active components related to the reduction in blood glucose levels.

2003-06-3452 Topcu, G.; Altiner, E.; Gozcu, S.; Halfon, B.; Aydogmus, Z.; Pezzuto, J.M.; Zhou, B.N.; Kingston, D.G.I. (Istanbul University, Faculty of Pharmacy, 34452 Beyazit-Istanbul, Turkey) Studies on Di- and triterpenoids from Salvia staminea with cytotoxic activity. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 464-467, 2003 (Eng; 17 ref).

A new ursane-type triterpenoid, 3beta,11alpha,21alpha-trihydroxyurs-12-ene, named salvistamineol, has been isolated from the methanol extract of Salvia staminea. In addition, the methanol extract yielded four known compounds and the acetone extract yielded twelve known compounds consisting of two sesquiterpenes, six diterpenoids, a triterpenoid, two steroids and one flavone, DNA damaging properties of the extracts and some isolated diterpenes were investigated against three yeasts and only taxodione gave a positive response and also showed the highest cytotoxic activity against a panel of cell lines tested.

2003-06-3453 TU, L.J.; Dai, Y.; Wang, Z.T.; Zhang, M. (Department of Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica, China Pharmaceutical University, 1 Shennong Road, Nanjing 210 038, China) Inhibition of experimental allergic rhinitis by the b-butanol fraction from the anomalous fruits of Gleditsia sinensis. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 26(7): p. 974-977, 2003 (Eng; 17 ref).

Butanol fraction from the anomalous fruits of Gleditsia sinensis (NBGS) 100, 200, 400 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited nasal symptoms (sneezing and nasal rubbing) and dye leakage induced by antigen challenge into the nasal cavity of actively senstized rats. Significant effects were observed at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. NBGS (200, 400 mg/kg) also showed a clear inhibition of sneezing and an inhibitory tendency on nasal rubbing induced by histamine in normal rats. At 400 mg/kg, it significantly reduced dye leakage induced by histamine into the nasal cavity of rats. Furthermore, NBGS significantly reduced in vitro histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells triggered by compound 48/80 at concentrations of 30 and 100 microg/ml. These results suggest that NBGS may be clinically effective in alleviating the nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis, probably by inhibiting both histamine release from mast cells and nasal vascular permeability.

2003-06-3454 Valentao, P.; Fernandes, E.; Carvalho, F.; Andrade, P.B.; Seabra, R.M.; Bastos, M.L. (CEQUP/Servico de Farmacognosia, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal) Hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid scavenging activity of small centaury (Centaurium erythraea) infusion. A comparative study with green tea (Camellia sinensis). Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 517-522, 2003 (Eng; 38 ref).

The species is reported to contain considerable amounts of polyphenolic compounds, namely xanthones and phenolic acids as the main constituents. Although the antiradicalar activity of some pure polyphenolic compounds is already known, it remains unclear how a complex mixutre obtained from plant extracts functions against reacive oxygen species hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid was studied and compared with that of green tea (Camellia sinensis). Hydroxyl radical was generated in the presence of Fe3+-EDTa, ascorbate and H2O2 (Fenton system) and monitored by evaluating hydroxyl radical-induced deoxyribose degradation. The reactivity towards hypochlorous acid was determined by measuring the inhibition of hypochlorous acid-induced 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid oxidation to 5,5’-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid). The obtained results demonstrate that small centaury infusion exhibits antioxidant properties, expressed both by its capacity to effectively scavenge hydroxyl radical and hypochlorous acid, although with a lower activity against the second than that observed for gree tea. Grean tea exhibited a dual effect at the hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, stimulating deoxyribose degradtion at lower dosages.

2003-06-3455 Vasconcelos, S.M.M.; Oliveira, G.R.; de Carvalho, M.M.; Rodrigues, A.C.P.; Silveira, E.R.; Fonteles, M.M.F.; Sousa, F.C.F.; Viana, G.S.B.* (Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Federal University of Ceara, Rua Cel. Nunes de Melo 1127, 60431-270 Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil) Antinociceptive activities of the hydroalcoholic extracts from Erythrina velutina and Erythrina mulungu in mice. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 26(7): p. 946-949, 2003 (Eng; 23 ref).

Effects of hydroalcoholic extracts (HAEs) from Erythrina velutina (EV) and E.mulungu (Em) were examined in three experimental models of nociception in mice. The extract were administered intraperitoneally to female mice at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Inhibition of abdominal contractions was observed with the doses of 200 (88.6 percent; 86.8 percent) and 400 (95.5 percent; 83.5 percent) mg/kg of (E.velutina and E.mulungu, respectively, as compared to controls. E.velutina and E.mulungu, at both doses, reduced the nociception produced by tormalin in the 1st and 2nd phases and this effect was not reversed by the pretreatment with naloxone. In the hot plate test an increase of the reaction time was observed only at 60 (Ev=18.0+2.2, Em=20.8+-2.52) and 90 min (Ev=20.4 +-1.71; Em=23.7+-2.32) after the treatment with E.velutina and E.mulungu at the dose of 400 mg/kg as compared to controls (T60=11.1+-0.74; T90=11.9+-0.86). This effect was not reversed by naloxone. It is concluded that E.velutina and E.mulungu presents antinociceptive effects, which are independent of the opiod system.

2003-06-3456 Wang, F.; Cao, Y.; Liu, H.Y.; Xu, S.F.; Han, R. ( Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China) Anti-invasion and anti-angiogenesis effect of taxol and camptothecin on melanoma cells. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, v. 5(3): p. 235-236, 2003 (Eng; 1 ref).

The wrong version of Fig 1 and 2 regarding antiadhesive effects of taxol and CPT, was published on pp.122 and 123 in Journal of Natural Products Research 5(2): p. 121-129, 2003. The correct version of the same is published in this corrigendum.

2003-06-3457 Yang, C.; Wang, C.M.; Jia, Z.J.* (Department of Chemistry, National Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China) Sesquiterpenes and other constituents from the aerial parts of Inula japonica. Planta Medica, v. 69(7): p. 662-666, 2003 (Eng; 22 ref).

Three new sesquiterpenes, 1beta-hydroxy-8beta-acetoxycostic acid methyl ester, 1beta-hydroxy-8beta-acetoxyisocostic acid methyl ester and 1beta-hydroxy-4alpha,11alpha-eudesma-5-en-12,8beta-olide, along with fourteen known compounds were isoalted from the aerial parts of Inula japonica. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, EIMS, HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR) 1,6alpha-dihydroxy-4alphaH-1,10-secoeudesma-5(10),11(13)-dien-12,8beta -olide exhibited appreciable cytotoxic activity against cultured SMMC-7221 (human hepatoma cell) and HO-8910 (human ovarian carcinoma cell) with IC50 values of 52.22 and 21.32 microg/ml, while 5xH-eudesma-4(15),11(13)-dien-12,8beta-olide showed remarkable cytotoxic activity against cultured SMMC-7221 and HO-8910 with IC50 values of 6.21 and 5.28 microg/ml, respectively.

2003-06-3458 Yang, Y.; Marczak, E.D.; Yokoo, M.; Usui, H.; Yoshikawa, M.* (Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan) Isolation and antihypertensive effect of angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from spinach rubisco. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 4897-4902, 2003 (Eng; 29 ref).

Four new inhibitory peptides for angiotensin 1-converting enzyme (ACE), that is, MRWRD, MRW, LRIPVA, and IAYKPAG, were isolated from the pepsin-pancreatin digest of spinach Rubisco with the use of HPLC. IC50 values of individual peptides were 2.1, 0.6, 0.38 and 4.2 microM, respectively. MRW and MRWRD had an antihypertensive effect after oral administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats. Maximal reduction occurred 2 h after oral administration of MRW, whereas MRWRD showed maximal decrease 4 h after oral administration at doses of 20 and 30 mg/kg, respectively. IAYKPAG also exerted antihypertensive activity after oral administration at the dose of 100 mg/kg, giving a maximum decrease 4 h after oral administration. IAYKP, IAY and KP, the fragment peptides of IAYKPAG, also exerted antihypertensive activity. LRPVIA did not show any antihypertensive effect at a dose of 100 mg/kg despite its potent ACE-inhibitory activity.

2003-06-3459 Yanpallewar, S.U.; Sen, S.; Tapas, S.; Mohan Kumar ; Raju, S.S.; Acharya, S.B. (Department of Pharmacology and Department of Pathology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India) Effect of Azadirachta indica on paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in albino rats. Phytomedicine, v. 9(5): p. 391-396, 2002 (Eng; 20 ref).

Fresh juice of tender leaves of Azadirachta indica (200 mg/kg body wt. p.o.) inhibited paracetamol (2 g/kg body wt. p.o.)-induced lipid peroxidation and prevented depletion of sulfhydryl groups in liver cells. There was an increase in serum marker enzymes of hepatic damage (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phsophatase) after paracetamol administration. Azadirachta indica pretreatment stabilized the serum levels of these enzymes. Histopathological observations of liver tissues corroborated these findings.

2003-06-3460 Yoshimura, H.; Sugawara, K.; Saito, M.; Saito, S.; Murakami, S.; Miyata, N.; Kawashima, A.; Morimoto, S.; Gao, N.; Zhang, X. et.al. (Molecular Biology Laboratory, Medicinal Research Laboratories, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Saitama, Japan) In vitro TGF-beta1 antagonistic activity of ursolic and oleanolic acids isolated from Clerodendranthus spicatus. Planta Medica, v. 69(7): p. 673-675, 2003 (Eng; 13 ref).

The mechanism of action of the aerial parts of Clerodendranthus spicatus (syn.Orthosiphon aristatus, was investigated. The aqueous and methanol crude extracts exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory activity on 125I-TGF-beta1 binding to its receptor in Balb/c 3T3 cells. Subsequent bioassay-guided fractionation led to identification of two known triterpenoidal constituents, ursolic and oleanolic acids. Ursolic and oleanolic acids inhibited the binding of 125I-TGF-beta1 to its receptor with IC50 values of 6.9+-0.8 and 21.0+-2.3 microM, respectively. The results suggest that TGF-beta1 antagonistic activity is responsible, at least in part, for the therapeutic efficacy of this plant to treat humans with renal disease.

2003-06-3461 Zhu, H.; Wang, Z.; Ma, C.; Tian, J.; Fu, F.; Li, C.; Guo, D.; Roeder, E.; Liu, K.* (School of Pharmacy of Yantai University, No. 32, Qingquan Road, Laishan District, Yantai, Shangdong 264 003, People’s Republic of China) Neuroprotective effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A: In vivo and in vitro studies. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 429-433, 2003 (Eng; 15 ref).

Study was conducted to demonstrate the hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), extracted from Carthamus tinctorius on cerebral ischemic injury of in vivo male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) were evaluated for neurological deficit scores followed by the treatment with a single dose of HSYA. In vitro, the effect of HSYA was tested in cultured fetal cortical cells exposed to glutamate and sodium cyanide (NaCN). The results in vivo showed that sublingular vein injection of HSYA at doses of 3.0 mg/kg and 6.0 mg/kg exerted significant neuroprotective effects on rats with focal cerebral ischemic injury by significantly decreasing neurological deficit scores and reducing the infarct area compared with the saline group. HSYA at a dose of 6.0 mg/kg showed a similar potency as nimodipine at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg. Sublingular vein injection of HSYA at the dose of 1.5 mg/kg showed a neuroprotective effect, however, with no significant difference when compared with the saline group. Results in vitro showed that HSYA significantly inhibited neuron damage induced by exposure to glutamate and sodium cyanide (NaCN) in cultured fetal cortical cells. Noticeably, the neuroprotective action of HSYA on glutamate-mediated neuron injury was much better than that of HSYA on NaCN-induced neuron damage.

 

 

Antimicrobial Activity

 

2003-06-3462 Aage, V.E.; Gaikwad, S.J.; Behere, G.T.; Tajane, V.S. (College of Agriculture, Nagpur 440 010, Maharashtra, India) Efficacy of extracts of certain indigenous medicinal plants against Cercospora leaf spot of groundnut. Journal of Soils and Crops, v. 13(1): p. 140-144, 2003 (Eng; 11 ref).

Ten plant extracts were selected for their efficacy against tikka disease of groundnut. In vivo experiments revealed that aqueous leaf extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) and kaner (Nerium odorum) were found superior over other extracts on the basis of inhibition of spore germination and infectivity leaf test.

2003-06-3463 Adhav, M.; Solanki, C.M.; Patel, B.; Gharia, A. ( Department of Botany, P.M.B. Gujarati Science College, Indore 452 005, MP, India) Evaluation of isoflavanone as an antimicrobial agent from leaves of Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. Veg.. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, v. 18(3): p.479-486, 2002 (Eng; 12 ref).

Discovery and development of new therapeutic agent is a continuing process in spite of the availability of formidable array of modern drugs, the need to discover and invent new agents is genuine and urgent. A flavonoid was isolated from the benzene fraction of ethanolic leaves extract of Bridelia retusa (Euphorbiaceae) which was identified as isoflavone by various chemical testing and spectral analysis. The fraction tested has been found to show strong antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacteria viz., S.aureus, B.subtilis, E.coli, S.typhi, S.dysenerae and P.aeruginosa. The result correlates the claims of Ayurveda and that of tribals.

2003-06-3464 Agnol, R.D.; Ferraz, A.; Bernardi, A.P.; Albring, D.; Nor, C.; Sarmento, L.; Lamb, L.; Hass, M.; von Poser, G.; Schapoval, E.E.S. (Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, UFRGS, Porto Alergre, RS, Brazil) Antimicrobial activity of some Hypericum species. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 511-516, 2003 (Eng; 34 ref).

The crude methanolic extracts of six species of Hypericum caprifoliatum, H.carinatum, H.connatum, H.ternum, H.myrianthum and H.polyanthemum growing in southern Brazil were analyzed for antimicrobial activity against several microorganisms (bacteria and fungi). The most active plant was H.caprifoliatum, which showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Only H.polyanthemum and H.ternum extracts were active against Bacillus subtilis. None of the crude methanolic extracts showed activity against S.epidermidis, Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Extracts from these species were evaluated chemically and tannin, flavonoid and phenolic acids were the prominent compounds. The plants contained quercitrin, hyperoside (except H.connatum) and, less frequently, isoquercitrin and chlorogenic acid. In contrast to H.perforatum, which has high concentrations of rutin, these species do not produce this flavonoid or it appears as traces. The tannin concentration varied between 5.1 and 16.7 percent in H.myrianthum and H.ternum, respectively.

2003-06-3465 Alali, F.; Al-Lafi, T. (Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 3030, Irbid, Jordan) GC-MS analysis and bioactivity testing of the volatile oil from the leaves of the toothbrush tree Salvadora persica L.. Natural Product Research, v. 17(3): p.189-194, 2003 (Eng; 22 ref).

GC-MS analysis of the volatile oil extracted from Salvadora persica (known as Siwak or Miswak in Arabic) leaves, was carried out to identify benzyl nitrile, eugenol, thymol, isothymol, eucalyptol, isoterpinolene, and beta-caryophyllene. Toxicity of the aroma was evaluated using brine shrimp lethality test which gave an LC50 more than 10000 ppm. Using Disc Diffusion Test, it was found that the extract of the leaves has a considerable antibacterial effect on several different oral aerobic bacteria with comparable results to known antibiotics. The extract can be used effectively as a natural tool for teeth cleaning and as a natural analgesic for the disturbing toothache.

2003-06-3466 Bakshu, L.M.; Venkata Raju, R.R.* (Department of Botany, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur 515 003, AP, India) Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of tuberous roots of Pimpinella tirupatiensis Bal. & Subr., an endemic taxon from eastern ghats, India. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, v. 17: p. 413-415, 2002 (Eng; 12 ref).

The tuerous roots of Pimpinella tirupatiensis (Apiaceae) were subjected to sequential extraction with different polar solvents and the extracts were tested against eight bacterial and three fungal pathogenic strain for antimicrobial activity. The hexane and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The active extracts contained significant amounts of alkaloids, flavonols, flavones and volatile oils. The hexane extract yielded an essential oil when subjected to GC with FID. The compounds were identified based on their retention indices and yielded 24 known compounds and one unknown compound. The major compounds are beta-bisabolene (9.2 percent), delta-3-carene (8.9 percent), cis-carveol (6.7 percent), elemol (5.8 percent), delta-cadinol (4.4 percent), methyl geranate (4.3 percent) and gamma-nonalactone (3.4 percent).

2003-06-3467 Balakrishnan, B.R.; Sangameswaran, B.; Arul, B.; Bhaskar, V.H. (Vinayaka Mission’s College of Pharmacy, Salem 636 008, TN, India) Antibacterial activity of aerial part extracts of Achyranthes bidentata Blume. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, v. 65(2): p. 186-188, 2003 (Eng; 5 ref).

Achyranthes bidentata (Amaranthaceae) was investigated for antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli organisms, using agar diffusion method. The petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts showed significant antibacterial activity.

2003-06-3468 Bhoraniya, M.F.; Khandar, R.R.; Khunti, J.P. ( Department of Plant Pathology College of Agriculture, Gujarat Agricultural University, Junagarh 362 001, Gujarat, India) Integrated management of stem rot of chilli with fungicides, oil cakes and biocontrol agent Trichoderma harzianum. Advances in Plant Sciences, v. 16(1): p. 59-61, 2003 (Eng; 7 ref).

A field study was conducted to control the stem rot of chilli. Soil dreching of different fungicides, spore suspension of Trichoderma harzianum and oil cakes were applied around the stem of inoculated plants. Among these, thiophanate methyl was found superior to control the stem rot of chilli followed by carboxin and castor oil cake. Application of T.harzianum was also found effective in controlling the disease, but that of neem oil cake, mustard oil cake and copper oxychloride was found less effective.

2003-06-3469 Cunha, W.R.; Martins, C.; da Silva Ferreira, D.; Crotti, A.E.M.; Lopes, N.P.; Albuquerque, S. (Nucleo de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas da Universidade de Franca, Av. Dr. Armando Salles de Oliveira 201, Parque Universitario 14404-600 Franca-SP, Brazil) In vitro trypanocidal activity of triterpenes from Miconia species. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 470-472, 2003 (Eng; 18 ref).

The bioassay-guided fractionation of methylene chloride extracts of Miconia fallax and Miconia stenostachya led to the isolation of five triterpene acids. The triterpenes ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and gypsogenic acid were active against blood trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. In contrast, the acetyl and methyl ester derivatives were not found to potentiate the trypanocidal activity. These results suggest the importance of the polar groups for activity.

2003-06-3470 Darah, I.; Jain, I.K. (School of Biological Sciences, UniversitiSains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia) Efficacy of the Rhinacanthus nasutus Nees leaf extract on dermatophytes with special refernce to Trichophyton mentagrophytes var.mentagrophyutes and Microsporum canis. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(2): p. 114-119, 2001 (Eng; 13 ref).

The effect of Rhinacanthusnasutus leaf extract on the growth of dermatophytes had been investigated. In vitro the extract exhibited high activity against various species of dermatophtes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes var.mentagrophytes, T.mentagrophytes var.interdigitale, T.rubrum, Microsporum canis and M.gypseum). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the extract revealed that all the dermatophytes tested had MIC values of 13.6 mg/ml. The extract exhibited fungistatic activity at lower concentrations (minus less than 13.6 mg/ml or below the MIC value) and fungicidal activity at higher concentrations (minus greater than 13.6 mg/ml or above the MIC value). The reults suggested that the extract actedon the cell wall of the dermatophtes which subsequently leading to the formation of cytopathological and membrane structural degeneration and finally leading to cell-lysis and death.

2003-06-3471 Daswani, L.; Bohra, A. (Microbiology Laboratory, Botany Department, J.N.V. University, Jodhpur 342 001, Rajasthan, India) Toxic effect of Elettaria cardamomum (choti elaichi) on the growth of Salmonella typhi. Advances in Plant Sciences, v. 16(1): p. 87-89, 2003 (Eng; 5 ref).

Attempt has been made to test in vitro antibacterial activity of Elettaria cardamomum against human pathogenic strain of Salmonella typhi. Alcoholic extracts of various plant parts have been found more effective than aqueous extracts against the bacteria. Combinations of plant parts in equal proportion were also tested against the bacteria and found highly inhibitory.

2003-06-3472 Dhembare, A.J.; Sangle, S. (Department of Zoology, P.V.P. College, Pravaranagar 413 713, Gujarat, India) Effect of plant extracts on some important pathogenic bacteria. Journal of Experimental Zoology India, v. 6(2): p. 299-300, 2003 (Eng; 3 ref).

Alcoholic extract of various plant has been tested for their anti microbial activity against human pathogenic bacterial strains as Proteus, Pseudomonas, Klebisella, E.coli and Staphylococcus annum is susceptible to E.coli, S.auries. Also Piper nigrum and Ipomoea festilosa are susceptible to E.coli and Aauries respectively.

2003-06-3473 Gertsch, J.; Tobler, R.T.; Brun, R.; Sticher, O.; Heilmann, J. (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Winterthurestr. 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland) Antifungal, antiprotozoal, cytotoxic and piscicidal properties of justicidin B and a new arylnaphthalide lignan from Phyllanthus piscatorum. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 420-424, 2003 (Eng; 21 ref).

Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract of the Phyllanthus piscatorum led to the isolation of the arylnaphthalide lignan justicidin B and a new C-11 hydroxylated derivative , named piscatorin. Justicidin B inhibited the growth of the pathogenic fungi Aspergillus fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus (MIC more or equal to 1 micro/mL), A.flavus (MIC more or equal to 12 microg/mL), and Candida albicans (MIC more or equal to 4 microg/mL), but was not effective against Cryptococcus neoformans and Blastoschizomyces capitatus. Justicidin B also exhibited strong activity against the trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC50=0.2 microg/mL) and moderate activity against T.cruzi (IC50=2.6 microg/mL.). Testing against Plasmodium falciparum showed only weak activity. In addition, both compounds exhibited a non-specific cytotoxicity in neoplastic and primary cell cultures. No antibacterial effects were detected. Both compounds were piscicidal against zebra fish and it is shown for the first time that piscatorin and justicidin B are the piscicidal principles of P.piscatorum, exhibiting a potency that is comparable to rotenone.

2003-06-3474 Graham, J.G.; Pendland, S.L.; Prause, J.L.; Danzinger, L.H.; Schunke Vigo, J.; Cabieses, F.; Farnsworth, N.R. ( Program for Collaborative Research in the Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago Illinosis, USA) Antimycobacterial evaluation of Peruvian plants. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 528-535, 2003 (Eng; 29 ref).

Results of an antimycobacterial screening of 270 Peruvian plant samples representing 216 species from 171 genera in 63 families are presented. Dichloromethane extracts were tested at a concentration of 50 microg/ml for inhibtion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in radiometric culture. Slightly more than half of the samples tested showed inhibition of M.tuberculosis.

2003-06-3475 Han, Y. (College of Pharmacy, Dongduk Women’s University, Wolgok-Dong 23-1, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul, 136-714, Korea) Grape seed extract protects mice against disseminated candidiasis. Natural Product Sciences, v. 9(2): p. 60-63, 2003 (Eng; 13 ref ).

Effect of grape seed extract (GSE) against Candida albicans was examined under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In vitro results from an agar diffusion susceptibility assay showed the GSE inhibited C.albicans growth. This anticandidal effect was at dose-dependency. In experiments with animals, mice that received the GSE(0.5 mg per mice), intravenously (i.v.), before i.v.-infection with viable C.albicans yeast cells survived longer than diluent (buffer)-received control mice. In contrast, when GSE was given to mice after the mice were treatment with the GSE. Taken together, these data indicate that GSE has prophylactic effect but not therapeutic effect against disseminated candidiasis.

2003-06-3476 Hwang, B.Y.; Robert, S.; Chadwick, L.R.; Wu, C.D.; Kinghorn, A.D. (Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinosis at Chicago, Chicago IL 60612, USA) Antimicrobial constituents from goldenseal (the rhizomes of Hydratis canadensis) against selected oral pathogens. Planta Medica, v. 69(7): p. 623-627, 2003 (Eng; 10 ref).

Two new C-methyl flavonoids, 6,8-di-C-methylluteomin 7-methyl ether and 6-C-methylluteolin 7-methyl ether, were isolated from the roots of Hydrastis canadensis along with seven known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the bais of their spectral data including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Of these isolates, berberine and, to a lesser extent, two new compounds showed antimicrobial activity when evaluated against the oral pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Fusobacteriumnucleatum. Berberine exhibited an additive antimcrobial effect when tested against S.mutans.

2003-06-3477 Jayasinghe, U.L.B.; Kumarihamy, B.M.M.; Bandara, A.G.D.; Waiblinger, J.; Kraus, W. (Institute of Fundamental Studies, Hantana Road, Kandy, Sri Lanka) Antifeedant activity of some Sri Lankan plants. Natural Product research, v. 17(1): p. 5-8, 2003 (Eng; 3 ref).

Twenty nine solvent extracts from twenty Sri Lankan plants were examined for antifeedant activity against the fourth instar larvae of Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis, Coccinellidae. Extracts of Sarcococca brevifolia (Buxaceae), Strychnus nux vomica (Loganiaceae), Diploclisia glaucescens, Coscinium fenestratum (Menispermaceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Pittosporium zeylanicum (Pittosporaceae), Lasianthus gardneri (Rubiaceae), Ferronia limonia (Rutaceae) and Allophylus cobbe (Sapindaceae) have shown strong antifeedant activity.

2003-06-3478 Khan, M.R.; Kihara, M.; Omoloso, A.D. (Department of Applied Sciences, Papua New Guinea University of Technology, P.M.B. Lae, Papua New Guinea) Broad spectrum anti-bacterial activity of the leaves, stem and root barks of Myristica subabulata. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(1): p. 9-12, 2001 (Eng; 20 ref).

A number of Myristica species are used in herbal medicine for a variety of ailments. The methanol extracts of the leaves and the stem and root barks of Myristica subabulata were fractionated into petrol, dichloromethane and finally ethyl acetate. These were then screened against a total of 31 micro-organisms comprising of 13 G+ve, 12 G-ve, one protozoa and 5 moulds. A broad-spectrum antibacterial activity was observed. As compared to fractionated the un-fractionated extracts exhibited much better level of activity.

2003-06-3479 Kim, S.W.; Chang, I.M.; Oh, K.B. (Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University, 28 Yungun, Jongro, Seoul 110 460, Korea) Inhibition of the bacterial surface protein anchoring transpeptidase sortase by medicinal plants. Bioscience, Biotechnology & Biochemistry, v. 66(12): p. 2751-2754, 2002 (Eng; 18 ref).

Inhibition by medicinal plant extracts of a recombinant sortase was evaluated for antibacterial drug discovery. The coding region of sortase, a transpeptidase that cleaves surface proteins of Gram-positive bacteria, was amplified by PCR from the chromosome of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538p with the exception of an N-terminal membrane anchor sequence, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography. The purified sortase had maximum activity at pH 7.5 and was stable at 20-45 degree C for the cleavage of a synthetic fluorophore substrate. The enzyme inhibitory activity in medicinal plants was also evaluated for antibacterial drug discovery. Among 80 medicinal plants tested, Cocculus trilobus, Fritillaria verticillata, Liriope platyphylla, Rhus verniciflua had strong inhibitory activity. The extract with the greatest activity was the ethyl acetate fraction derived from the rhizome of Cocculus trilobus (IC50=1.52 microg/ml).

2003-06-3480 Mazumder, A.; Saha, B.P.; Basu, S.P.; Mazumder, R. ; Prasad, S.M. (Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, BIT, Mesra, Ranchi 835 215, Jharkhand, India) Effect of Lagerstroemia parviflora extract against urdbean leaf crinkle virus. Journal of Science and Pharmacy, v. 4(3): p. 106-108, 2003 ( Eng; 5 ref).

Methanolic extract of Lagerstroemia parviflora leaves at different concentrations (500, 1000, 1500, 2000 microg/ml) were tested for antiviral potential against urdbean leaf crinkle virus (ULCV). The extract showed maximum viral inhibition at optimum concentration of 1000 microg/ml.

2003-06-3481 Mazzuca, M.; Kraus, W.; Balzaretti, V. (Department of Chemistry, University of Patagonia San Juan Bosco (UNPSJB), Km 4, 9000 Comodoro Rivadavia, Chubut, Argentina) Evaluation of the biological activities of crude extracts from Patagonian Prosopis seeds and some of their active principles. Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, v. 3(2): p. 31-37, 2003 ( Eng; 29 ref).

Extracts of different polarities from three species and three varieties of the genera Prosopis: P.alpataco, P.denudans var. Denudans, P.denudans var.patagonica, and P.denudans var.stenocarpa were screened in order to evaluate their antibacterial, antifungal, antifeedant, antihelminthic, molluscicidal and toxic activities. The extractions of the plant materials were carried out successively with petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. All petroleum ether extracts showed antibacterial activity. The dichloromethane extract of P.alpataco showed antibacterial and antifungal activities. Methanol and aqueous extracts of P.denudans var.denudans and P.denudans var.patagonica showed antifungal activities. Fatty acids and a group of pentacyclic triterpenes were identified as responsible for antibacterial activities.

2003-06-3482 Mimica-Dukic, N.; Bozin, B.; Sokovic, M.; Mihajlovic, B.; Matavulj, M. (University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Department of Chemistry, Trg D, Obradovica 3, 21000, Novi Sad, FR, Yugoslavia) Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of three Mentha species essential oils. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 413-419, 2003 (Eng; 20 ref).

The chemical profile of essential oils from Mentha aquatica, M.longifolia and M.piperita was determined by GC-MS and TLC. All essential oils exhibited very strong antibacterial activity, in particularly against Esherichia coli strains. The most powerful was M.piperita essential oil, especially towards multiresistant strain of Shigella sonei and Micrococcus flavus ATTC 10240. All tested oils showed significant fungistatic and fungicidal activity. The essential oils of M.piperita and M.longifolia were found to be more active than the essential oil of M.aquatica. Especially low MIC (4 microL/mL) and MFC (4 microL/mL) were found with M.piperita oil against Trichophyton tonsurans and Candida albicans (both 8 microL/mL). The radical scavenging capacity was evaluated by measuring the scavenging activity of the essential oils on the DPPH and OH radicals. All examined essential oils were able to reduce DPPH radicals into the neutral DPPH-H form, and this activity was dose-dependent. However, only the M.piperita oil reduced DPPH to 50 percent (IC50=2.53 microg/mL). The M.piperita essential oil also exhibited the highest OH radical scavenging activity, reducing OH radical generation in the Fenton reaction by 24 percent (pure oil). According to GC-MS and TLC (dot-blot techniques), the most powerful scavenging compounds were monoterpene ketones (menthone and isomenthone) in the essential oils of M.longifolia and M.piperita and 1,8-cineole in the oil of M.aquatica.

2003-06-3483 Montenegro, H.; Gutierrez, M.; Romero, L.; Ortega-Barria, E.; Capson, T.L.; Rios, L.C. (Departamento de Quimica Organica, Apdo 0824-10835, Universidad de Panama, panama City, Republic of Panama) Aporphine alkaloids from Guatteria spp. with leishmanicidal activity. Planta Medica, v. 69(7): p. 677-679, 2003 (Eng; 15 ref).

Fractionation of Guatteria amplifolia yielded the alkaloids xylopine nornuciferine, lysicamine, and laudanosine. Fractionation of Guatteria dumetorum yielded the alkaloids cryptodorine and nornantenine. All the compounds except laudanosine demonstrated significant activity against Leishmania mexicana and L.panamensis. Xylopine was among the most active compounds (LD50=3 microM) and showed a 37-fold higher toxicity towards L.mexicana than macrophages, the regular host cells of Leishmania spp..

2003-06-3484 Nunez Montoya, S.C.; Agnese, A.M.; Perez, C.; Tiraboschi, I.N.; Cabrera, J.L. (Farmacognosia, Departamento de Farmacia, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, UNC, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV-CONICET), Cordoba, Argentina) Pharmacological and toxicological activity of Heterophyllaea pustulata anthraquinone extracts. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 569-574, 2003 (Eng; 23 ref).

Benzenic extracts from both stems and leaves of Heterophyllaea pustulata showed the most significant activity in vivo in the Brine Shrimp Lethally Test (BST), relative to others of different polarity. They were therefore selected for in vitro antimicrobial activity studies. Bacteriostatic activity against Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 was detected, selectively inhibiting both oxacillin-sensitive and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus, among several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species tested. Antifungal activity against important opportunist microorganisms and against those involved in superficial mycosis, all from nosocomial origin was also detected. A chemical screening revealed the presence of anthraquinones as major compounds. Among them, we identified damnacanthal, rubiadin, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl anthraquinone, soranjidiol, rubiadin-1-methyl ether, and damnacanthol in the benzenic stem extract. The benzenic leaf extract shows a similar chemical composition, except for damnacanthal, damnacanthol, soranjidiol-1-methyl ether, and 3 anthraquinones whose structures have not yet been elucidated. Acute toxicity studies revealed a low toxicity in mice for the anthraquinonic extracts, as measured in the LD50 value (123 mg/kg body wt.i.v.), and death was not observed at doses of upto 4000 mg/kg body wt.s.c..

2003-06-3485 Oger, J.M.; Morel, C.; Helesbeux, J.J.; Litaudon, M.; Seraphin, D.; Dartiguelongue, C.; Larcher, G.; Richomme, P.; Duval, O.* (SONAS, UFR des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Ingenierie de la Sante, 16 Bd Daviers, F-49100 Angers, France) First 2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-enyl substituted xanthones isolated from plants: Structure elucidation, synthesis and antifungal activity. Natural Product Research, v. 17(3): p.195-199, 2003 (Eng; 12 ref).

Two new 2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-enyl substituted xanthones, (+)-caledol 1 and (+)-dicaledol 2 were isolated from a dichloromethane extract of the leaves of Calophyllum caledonicum (Clusiaceae). Compounds 1 and 2 are the first 2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-enyl substituted xanthones isolated from natural source. Their structures were elucidated by means of combined analytical methods including HRFABMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopies and also confirmed by total synthesis using biomimetic ortho-prenylphenols photooxygenation (O2) as a key step. The antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus is reported.

2003-06-3486 Omoloso, A.D.; Vagi, J.K. (Department of Applied Sciences, Papua New Guinea University of Technology, P.M.B. Lae, Papua New Guinea) Broad spectrum antibacterial activitiy of Allium cepa, Allium roseum, Trigonella fornum graecum and Curcuma domestica. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(1): p. 13-16, 2001 (Eng; 13 ref ).

Allium cepa, Allium roseum, Trigonella foenum graecum and Curcuma domestica were screened against 26 pathogens and all exhibited broad-spectrum anti-bacterial activity. The aqueous as well as fractionated methanol extract of Allium cepa and A.roseum demonstrated broader level of activity against most of the organisms. On the other hand the unfractionated methanol extracts as well as the fractions of both Trigonella foenum graecum and Curcuma domestica showed broad spectrum of activity. In both cases the ethyl acetate fractions exhibited higher level of activity. All the materials tested were inactive against any of the four moulds. Allium cepa, Allium roseum, Trigonella foenum graecum and Curcuma domestica are proposed as non toxic, safe, broad spectrum antibacterial agents.

2003-06-3487 Pandey, K.P.; Shahi, S.K.*; Singh, R.; Dutta, S.; Dikshit, A. (Biological Product Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211 002, India) Antifungal efficacy of Taxodium and Mentha oils against some human pathogenic fungi. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, v. 17: p. 443-444, 2002 (Eng; 14 ref).

Oils of Mentha spicata and Taxodium distichum exhibited significant activity against the test pathogens Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum nanum. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the oil of M.spicata were found to be 1.8 microl/ml for E.floccosum, M.gypseum and M.nanum. In the case of T.distichum the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were found to be 2.0 microl/ml for M.gypseum and 2.5 microl/ml for E.floccosum and M.nanum. The oils also exhibited potency against heavy doses of inoculum (30 mycelial disc, each 5 mm in diameter) at these MICs concentrations. On comparison with the synthetic antifungal drugs myconazole and ketaconazole, these oils were found to be more effective.

2003-06-3488 Phukan, S.N.; Phukan, R. (Department of Botany, North Lakhimpur College, N. Lakhimpur 787 001, Assam, India) Efficacy of essential oil on the incidence of (Phytophthora infestans) seed tubers of potato during storage. Bio-Science Research Bulletin, v. 19(1): p. 61-64, 2003 (Eng; 5 ref).

Efficacy of essential oils such as clove and eucalyptus, almond oil and sunflower oil was tested against Phytophthora infestans. Highest pathogen inhibition was recorded with clove oil treatment followed by eucalyptus oil in plants grown from treated seed tubers. All the plants showed increased percentage of seedling emergence, greater biomass and higher number of tubers. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3489 Pizzolatti, M.G.; Koga, A.H.; Grisard, E.C.; Steindel, M. (Departamento de Quimica, Laboratorio de Quimica de Produtos Naturais, Santa Catarina, Brazil) Trypanocidal activity of extracts from Brazilian Atlantic rain forest plant species. Phytomedicine, v. 9(5): p. 422-426, 2002 (Eng; 24 ref).

The trypanocidal activity of crude hydro alcoholic extracts and several fractions of 13 plants from Brazilian Atlantic rain forest were tested in vitro against epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. Crude ethanol extracts with promising in vitro activity (DL50 between 5-10 microg/ml) against epimastigotes were fractionated by solvent partition and further tested against bloodstream form of the parasite. Activity against blood-stream parasites was observed in both dichloromethane and hexane fractions of Polygala sabulosa and P.paniculata.

2003-06-3490 Politi, M.; Braca, A.; De Tommasi, N.; Morelli, I. ; Manunta, A.; Battinelli, L.; Mazzanti, G.* (Dipartimento di Farmacologia delle Sostanze Naturali e Fisiologia Generale, Universita di Roma “La Sapienza”, Pizzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy) Antimicrobial diterpenes from the seeds of Cephalotaxus harringtonia var. drupacea. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 468-470, 2003 (Eng; 13 ref).

Six diterpenes, including two new natural products, were isolated from the seeds of Cephalotaxus harringtonia. The new metabolites were characterised as 8beta-hydroxy-9(11),13-abietadien-12-one and 5,6-didehydroferruginol, while the known compounds were identified as ferruginol, 6,12-dihydroxyabieta-5,8,11,13-tetraen-7-one, and abieta-8,11,13-trien-7beta-ol. These compounds were studied in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against clinically isolated bacteria and Candida strain. Ferruginol and 6,12-dihydroxyabieta-5,8,11,13-tetraen-7-one showed antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria. None of the six diterpenes was active against the gram-negative organisms and yeasts tested.

2003-06-3491 Pradeep, A.G.; Lokesh, S.; Ravishankar Rai, V. ( Department of Studies in Applied Botany, Seed Pathology & Biotechnology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006, Karnataka, India) Efficacy of some essential oils on seed mycoflora and seedling quality of some crop species saved by farmers. Advances in Plant Sciences, v. 16(1): p. 53-58, 2003 (Eng; 15 ref).

Fiv different essential oils such as Clove oil, Cardamom oil, Almond oil, Cinnamon oil and Eucalyptus oil were used to treat the farmers saved seeds of Italian millet, wheat, cowpea, coriander and spinach. Observations were made on the occurrence of various fungal pathogens, phytostimulation property and seed health following the treatment of seeds with essential oils. It was found that all the treatments were effective in suppressing the occurrence of as many as 29 species of fungi. Apart from this, the treatment also led to an appreciable increase in seedling emergence, number of leaves, leaf size, root-shoot length, vigour and biomass. It was noteworthy to record that, these essential oils were effective in safeguarding the seeding health against various pathogenic fungi in all the selected crops.

2003-06-3492 Saleem, M.; Afza, N.*; Anwar, M.A.; Hai, S.M.A.; Ali, M.S.; Shujaat, S.; Atta-ur-Rahman (Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratories Complex, Karachi 75280, Pakistan) Chemistry and biological significance of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus from Pakistan. Natural Product Research, v. 17(3): p.159-163, 2003 (Eng; 19 ref).

Steam distilled oil of Cymbopogon citratus was analyzed by gas chromatographi-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and citral was found a major constitutent. The oil exhibited significant inhibition of beta-glucuronidase activity and also showed activities against some tested human, plant and animal pathogen. The minimum inhibitory concentrations could not be determined to the lack of some chemicals.

2003-06-3493 Sato, M.; Tanaka, H.; Fujiwara, S.; Hirata, M.; Yamaguchi, R.; Etoh, H.; Tokuda, C. (Department of Oral Pathology, Asahi University School of Dentistry, Gifu, Japan) Antibacterial property of isoflavonoids isolated from Erythrina variegata against cariogenic oral bacteria. Phytomedicine, v. 9(5): p. 427-433, 2002 (Eng; 27 ref).

Among the isoflavonoids 3,9-dihydroxy-2,10-di(gamma,gamma-dimethylallyl)-6a,11a-dehydropteroca rpan (erycristagallin) showed the highest antibacterial activity against mutans streptococci, other oral streptococci, Actinomyces and Lactobacillus species with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of 1.56-6.25 microg/ml, followed by 3,6a-dihydroxy-9-methoxy-2, 10-di(gamma,gamma-dimethylallyl)pterocarpan (erystagallin A) and 9-hydroxy-3-methoxy-2- gamma,gamma- dimethylallylpterocarpan (orientanol B) (MIC range: 3.13-12.5 microg/ml). The antibacterial effect of erycristagallin to mutans streptococci was based on a bacterial action. Erycristagallin (6.25 microg/ml: MIC) completely inhibited incorporation of radio-labelled thymidine into Streptococcus mutans cells. Incorporation of radio-labelled glucose into bacterial cells was also strongly inhibited at MIC, and 1/2 MIC of the compound reduced the incorporation approximately by half. The findings indicate that erycristagallin has a potential as potent phytochemical agent for prevention of dental caries by inhibiting the growth of cariogenic bacteria and by interfering with incorporation of glucose responsible for production of organic acids.

2003-06-3494 Schuhmacher, A.; Reichling, J.; Schnitzler, P. ( Department of Virology, Hygiene Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany) Virucidal effect of peppermint oil on the enveloped viruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 504-510, 2003 (Eng; 28 ref).

The 50 percent inhibitory concentation (IC50) of peppermint oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at 0.002 percent and 0.0008 percent for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. Peppermint oil exhibited high levels of virucidal activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 in viral suspension tests. At noncytotoxic concentrations of the oil, plaque formation was significantly reduced by 82 percent and 92 percent for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. Higher concentrations of peppermint oil reduced viral titer of both herpes viruses by more than 90 percent. A clearly time-dependent activity could be demonstrated, after 3 h of incubation of herpes simplex virus with peppermint oil an antiviral activity of about 99 percent could be demonstrated. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of the essential oil, peppermint oil was added at different times to the cells or viruses during infection. Both herpes viruses were significantly inhibited when herpes simplex virus was pretreated with the essential oil prior to adsorption. These results indicate that peppermint oil affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetation into the host cell. Essential oil is capable to exert a direct virucidal efect on HSV. Peppermint oil is also active against an acyclovir resistant strain of HSV-1 (HSV-1-ACV res), plaque formation was significantly reduced by 99 percent. Considering the lipophilic nature of the oil which enables it to penetrate the skin, peppermint oil might be suitable for topical thereapeutic use as virucidal agent in recurrent herpes infection.

2003-06-3495 Seetharam, Y.N.; Jyothishwaran, G.; Sujeeth, H.; Barad, A.; Sharanabasappa, G.; Shivkumar, D. (Biosystematics and Medicinal Plants Laboratory, Department of Botany, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585 106, Karnataka, India) Antimicrobial activity of Dioscorea bulbifera bulbils. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, v. 65(2): p. 195-196, 2003 (Eng; 8 ref).

The successive extracts of Dioscorea bulbifera (bulbils) has been investigated for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Bacillus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus nigricans. The petroleum ether and chloroform extracts showed significant activity against A.fumigatus and R.nigricans. The petroleum ether and distilled water extract showed good activity against K.pneumoniae. The chloroform extract showed feeble activity against S.aureus.

2003-06-3496 Shah, S.; Sen Ray, K.* (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Department of P.G.S.R. in Home Science, SNDT Women’s University, Mumbai 400 049, Maharashtra, India) Study on antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of black cumin (Nigella sativa Linn.). Journal of Food Science & Technology, v. 40(1): p. 70-73, 2003 (Eng; 11 ref).

The chemical composition of black cumin seeds was found to be (g percent) moisture, 7, ash, 4.34, protein, 23, total fat, 39, free fat, 17.88, bound fat, 21.12 starch, 14.99, curde fibre, 5.44 total dietary fibre, 16.01 and tocopherol, 9.52 mg/100 g. To assess the antioxidant activity, peroxide value was estimated at elevated temperatures (37 and 55 degree C) for 77 days using different concentrations of black cumin powder (166.66 mg/100 g of oil and 333.33 mg/100 g of oil) in sunflower oil. It was found that peroxide value decreased with loer concentration of the seed. The microbial analysis showed that Gram-positive organisms (S.aureus, S.aureus (ATCC), B.cereus, S.faecalis) were more sensitive to black cumin raw seed powder as compared to Gram-negative organisms (E.coli, E.coli (ATCC), P.aeruginosa, S.typhi). Moisture free black cumin sed powder was more effective in its antimicrobial activity than original seed powder. The probable active principles present in different extracts of black cumin, seeds responsible for antimicrobial and antioxidant activity have been identified using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GCMS).

2003-06-3497 Shukla, Y.N.; Dubey, S.; Srivastava, A.; ain, S.P. ; Kumar, S. (Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, P.O. CIMAP, Lucknow 226 015, UP, India) Antibacterial activity and some chemical constituents of Adansonia digitata Linn. Indian Drugs, v. 40(3): p. 186-187, 2003 (Eng; 5 ref).

The methanol extract of the pericarp and combined pulp and seed portion of Adansonia digitata fruit was fractionated into ethyl and n-butanol fractions, respectively. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of pericarp were found to be active against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ethyl acetate fraction of pericarp yielded beta-sitosterol-beta-D-glucopyranoside and quercetin. Although the ethyl acetate fraction of combined pulp and seed was also active against these organisms, n-butanol fraction did not show activity.

2003-06-3498 Springfield, E.P.; Amabeoku, G.; Weitz, F.; Mabusela, W.; Johnson, Q. (South African Traditional Medicines Research Group; School of Pharmacy, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa) An assessment of two Carpobrotus species extracts as potential antimicrobial agents. Phytomedicine, v. 10(5): p. 434-439, 2003 (Eng; 12 ref).

Extracts of varying polarities of the plants were prepared and tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Mycobacterium smegmatis. For the disc diffusion method, Ciprofloxacin (40 microg/disc) served as positive control for S.aureus, P.aeruginosa and M.smegmatis, whereas amphotericin B (25 microg/disc) was the control for C.albicans. A sample concentration of 10 mg/ml was used. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined by two-fold serial dilution. Phytochemical analysis was completed to test for the presence of flavonoids, hydrolysable tannins, phytosterols and aromatic acids. The ethyl acetate extracts (21 microl of 95 mg/ml) were used for bio-autography, together with TLC analyses. Carpobrotus muirii and Carpobrotus quadrifidus showed antimicrobial activity against S.aureus and M.smegmatis in the disc diffusion method and inhibition against S.aureus and M.smegmatis was observed by clear zones on the TLC plate. This investigation confirms that extracts of these Carpobrotus species that are used as indigenous medicines, exhibit anti-bacterial activity.

2003-06-3499 Sukari, M.A.; Abd.Azziz, S.S.S.; Rahmani, M.; Ali, A.M.; Aimi, N.; Kitajima, M. (Department of Chemistry, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor DArul Ehsan, Malaysia) Polysubstituted flavonoids from the leaves of Murraya paniculata (Rutaceae). Natural Product Sciences, v. 9(2): p. 56-59, 2003 (Eng; 7 ref).

Chemical studies on the constituents of the leaves of Murraya paniculata have furnished three-highly-oxygenated flavonoids; gardenin E, gardenin A, and gardenin C. Structures of the compounds were elucidated based on NMR, MS, UV, IR data and also by comparison with the previous works. The antimicrobial activities of these compounds and the crude chloroform extracts leaves exhibitted antimicrobial activity.

2003-06-3500 Suksamrarn, S.; Suwannapoch, N.; Phakhodee, W.; Thandhiranlert, J.; Ratananukul, P.; Chimnoi, N.; Suksamrarn, A. ( Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Sukhumvit 23, Bangkok 10110, Thailand) Antimycobacterial activity of prenylated xanthones from the fruits of Garcinia mangostana. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(7): p. 857-859, 2003 (Eng; 22 ref).

Prenylated xanthones, isolated from the fruit hulls and the edible arils and seeds of Garcinia mangostana, were tested for their antituberculosis potential. alpha- and beta-Mangostins and garcinone B exhibited strong inhibitory effect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 6.25 microg/ml. Tri- and tetra-oxygenated xanthones with di-C5 units or with a C5 and a modified C5 groups are essential for high activities. Substitution in the A and C rings has been shown to modify the bioactivity of the compounds.

2003-06-3501 Takeara, R.; Albuquerque, S.; Lopes, N.P.; Lopes, J.L.C. (Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto- USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil) Trypanocidal activity of Lychnophora staavioides Mart. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae). Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 490-493, 2003 (Eng; 24 ref).

In the continuing search for new compounds with trypanocidal activity for use in blood banks to prevent the transmission of Chagas’ disease, a trypanocidal extract of Lychnophora staavioides (Vernonieae, Asteraceae) was fractionated using several chromatographic techniqes and afforded the following flavonoids: tectochrysin, pinostrobin, pinobanksin, pinobanskin 3-acetate, pinocembrin, chrysin, galangin 3-methyl ether, quercetin 3-methyl ether, chrysoeriol and vicenin-2. The most active compound was quercetin 3-methyl ether, which showed no blood lysis activity and which represents a promosing compound for use against T.cruzi in blood banks.

2003-06-3502 Thippeswamy, G.; Lokesh, S.; Ravishankar Rai, V. ( Department of Studies in Applied Botany and Seed Pathology, University of Mysore, Manasa Ganotri, Mysore 570 006, Karnataka, India) Influence of some indigenous medicinal plants extracts on seed mycoflora and seedling growth of some oil seed crop species. Advances in Plant Sciences, v. 16(1): p. 67-74, 2003 (Eng; 12 ref).

Ten plant extracs were used to treat the seeds of some oil seed crop species like Sesame, Groundnut, Castor and Niger. In all the cases of treatment, the incidence of fungi was very much reduced over control. In case of Sesame, Wrightia tinctoria, Solanum torvum, Adhatoda vasica and Vitex trifolia extracts proved better over the other treatment. in case of Groundnut, Canthium parviflorum and Adhatoda vasica proved better in inhibiting the expression of fungi. In case of Castor and Niger, Wrightia tinctoria showed better inhibitory activity against fungi. Majority of plant extracts used showed phytostimulatory property resulted in the enhanced emergence and germination. Alangium salvifolium in Sesame, Solanum nigrum in Groundnut, Solanum torvum in Castor and Niger slightly reduced the seed germination. Parallely the seeding vigour and biomass were also enhanced over control. The seedling symptoms such browning, wilt leaf-rot and damping off were also reduced due to plant extract treatment .

2003-06-3503 Woldemichael, C.M.; Franzblau, S.G.; Zhang, F.; Wang, Y.; Timmermann, B.N.* (Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, college of Pharmacy, University of Arizona, P.O.Box 210207, 1703E, Mabel Street, Tucson AZ85721-0207, USA) Inhibitory effect of sterols from Ruprechtia triflora and diterpenes from Calceolaria pinnifolia on the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Planta Medica, v. 69(7): p. 628-631, 2003 (Eng; 15 ref).

Bioactivity guided fractionation of the CH2Cl2/MeOH extract of the aerial part of Ruprechtia triflora led to the identification of several sterols and a triterpene as the active components against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The novel acylated sterol, 5alpha,8alpha-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3beta-yl stearate, was isolated and its structure determined on the basis of spectral evidence including NMR and MS. Several terpenes obtained from Calceolaria pinnifolia were also evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity. Sterols from R.triflora were found to beactive with MIC values ranging from 2-128 microg/ml, with 5alpha,8alpha-epidioxyergost-6,22-dien-3beta-ol, 5alpha,8alpha-epidioxystigmasta-6.22-dien-3beta-ol and stigmast-4-en-6beta-ol-3-one being the most active each with an MIC value of 2 microg/mL. Among the diterpenes from C.pinnifolia 19-malonyloxydehydroabietinol and 19-methylmalonyloxy-ent-isopimara-8(9), 15-diene were most active each with an MIC value of 4 microg/ml. MIC values for the triterpenes 3-epi-ursolic acid and 3-epi-oleanolic acid  from C.pinnifolia were determined to be 8 and 16 microg/ml, respectively.

2003-06-3504 Yadava, R.N.; Verma, V. (Natural Products Laboratory, Dr. H.S. Gour University, Sagar 470 003, MP, India) Antimicrobial activity of a novel flavonol glycoside isolated from the roots of Clitoria ternatea Linn.. Asian Journal of Chemistry, v. 15(2): p. 842-846, 2003 (Eng; 10 ref).

A novel biologically active flavonol glycoside, m.p. 260-261 degree C, m.f. C33H40O20, {M}+ 756 (ElMS) was isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the defatted seeds of Clitoria ternatea. It was characterized as a novel biologically active flavonol glycoside 3,5,4’-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavonol-3-O-alpha-L-xylopyranosyl-(1 to 3)-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1 to 6)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside by several colour reactions, spectral analysis and chemical degradations. The compound 1 showed antimicrobial activity against various bacteria and fungi. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3505 Yenesew, A.; Derese, S.; Irungu, B.; Midiwo, J.O.; Waters, N.C.; Liyala, P.; Akala, H.; Heydenreich, M.; Peter, M.G. ( Department of Chemistry, University of Nairobi, P.O.Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya) Flavonoids and isoflavonoids with antiplasmodial activities from the root bark of Erythrina abyssinica. Planta Medica, v. 69(7): p. 658-661, 2003 (Eng; 20 ref).

From the root bark of Erythrina abyssinica a new pterocarpene {3-hydroxy-9-methoxy-10-(3,3-dimethylally) pterocarpene} and a new isoflav-3-ene {7,4-dihydroxy-2’,5’-dimethoxyisoflav-3-ene} were isoalted. In addition, the known compounds erycristagallia, licoagrochalcone A, octacosyl ferulate and triacontlyl 4-hydroxycinnamate were identified. The structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The crude extract and the flavonoids and isoflavonoids obtained from the roots of this plant showed antiplasmodial activities.

 

 

Insecticidal & Piscicidal Activity

 

2003-06-3506 Adekunle, O.K.; Fawole, B. (Department of Plant Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria) Comparison of effects of extracts of saim weed, neem and carbofuran on generation time and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 on tomato. Environment & Ecology, v. 21(3): p. 720-726, 2003 (Eng; 17 ref ).

The effects of carbofuran and water extrac of leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica) as compared to water extract of leaves and roots of Siam weed (Chromolaena odorta) on the development and generation time of tomato nematodes examined were under greenhouse conditions. Adult females (AF) of Meloidogyne incognita were first seen in control plants on day 30 after inoculation, and in plants treated with water extract of neem leaves at 20,000 mg/kg and 40,000 mg/kg, water extract of Siam weed leaves at 20,000 mg/kg and 40,000 mg/kg on day 32; while they were first seen in plants treated with carbofuran at 1.5 kg ai/hectare and 2.5 kg ai/hectare on day 36 after inoculation. Generation time of M.incognita in tomato plants treated with water extract of neem leaves at 40,000 mg/kg, water extract of Siam weed leaves at 40,000 mg/kg and carbofuran was 48 days for each treatment as compared to 44 days in control plants at a temperture range of 28 to 34 degree C.

2003-06-3507 Ahmad, I.; Ali, R.R.; Tabassum, R.; Azmi, M.A. ( Department of Zoology, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan) Cholinesterase activity and protein contents after treatment with some insecticides in red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Parc strain. Journal of Experimental Zoology India, v. 6(2): p. 307-312, 2003 (Eng; 24 ref).

The cholinesterase activity and protein contents of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum were estimated after cyhalothrin and deltamethrin treatment. These results are compared with the effect on cholinesterase activity and protein contents after the treatment with cypermethrin, methyl parathion and neem extract (NA) in the same strain of red flour beetle. After the treatment with LC50 concentrations of cyhalothrin (1.7 microg/cm2), cholinesterase activity increased (102.63 percent) and with LC50 concentrations of deltamethrin (3.8 microg/cm2) it decreased (2.090 percent) as compared to treatment with LC50 of neem extract (NA) (1300 microg/cm2) and with that of methyl parathion (0.19 microg/cm2) the cholinesterase decreased 3.95 percent and 2.7 percent respectively. The total protein contents after cyhalothrin treatment decreased 22.55 percent and decreased 14.69 percent deltamethrin treatment as compared to 28.43 percent in the neem extracts (NA) treated and 29.79 percent decreased in the methyl parathion treated beetles.

2003-06-3508 Al-Doghairi, M.A.; Elhag, E.A. (Department of Crop Protection, College of Agriculture, King Saud University, P.O.Box 1482, Buriedah, Saudi Arabia) Effect of Rhazya stricta, Calotropis procera, and Francoeuria crispa on larvae and Eggs of Culex pipiens. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, v. 10(2): p. 25-33, 2002 (Eng; 25 ref).

Toxicity of the aqueous extracts of Rhazya stricta, Calotropis procera and Francoeuria crispa leaves against larvae of Culex pipiens mosquitoes was investigated by incorporating the extracts into egg and larval rearing media. Acute LC50 were 270 and 322 ppm for R.stricta and C.procera, respectively. The chronic toxicities for R.stricta at concentrations 0.02 and 0.04 percent, reached 70 and 100 percent larval mortality, respectively, and 91.1 and 100 percent at concentrations of 0.05 and 0.075 percent, respectively, for C.procera. Both materials conferred significantly reduced larval development and thus, consequently reducing pupation and adult emergence. Only 10 and 33.3 percent of the larvae reared in media containing 0.02 percent of R.stricta water extract and 0.025 percent of C.procera completed development to the pupa stage. None of the larvae in R.stricta extract reached adulthood and only 20 percent of the larvae did in the C.procera extract. The highest concentation of F.crispa tested (0.25 percent) caused only 55.3 percent mortality after 10 days, leading to 34.3 and 21.2 percent successful pupation and adult emergence, respectively. No mosquito eggs were laid in media containing at concentrations equal to or more than 0.05 percent aqueous extract from any of the three plants.

2003-06-3509 Bhandari, P.; Varshney, I.; Azizur-Rahman, S.K.M. (Department of Entomology, GB Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar 263 145, UA, India) Feeding deterrence of three neem based insecticides against Diacrisia obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae). Pestology, v. 27(3): p. 22-23, 2003 (Eng; 10 ref).

Three neem based pesticides namely, margoeconeem 0.3 EC, nimbecidine 0.03 EC and neemarin 0.15 EC, were tested against 6 days old larvae of Diacrisia obliqua following choice or choice methods. The mean leaf area consumed indicated neemarin as a stronger feeding deterrent in comparison to margoeconeem and nimbecidine at a comparable concentration. At lower concentration however a phagostimulatory effect was observed in neemarin. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3510 Devi, M.N.; Singh, T.K.; Devi, L.C. (Aphil Research Laboratory, Department of Life Sciences, Manipur University, Imphal 795 003, Manipur, India) Efficacy of certain botanical insecticides against cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glorer on brinjal. Pestology, v. 27(3): p. 6-10, 2003 (Eng; 16 ref).

Efficacy of five plant extracts viz., Artemisia vulgaris, Ageratum conyzoides, Vitex trifolia, Crocus calamus and neemal, a neem product was tested in four different concentrations viz., 0.0645, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 percent. From overall effiacy of selected concentrations of each treatment, A.vulgaris showed highest mortality rate (70.65 percent) and was followed by neemall (69.85 percent), C.calamus (67.95 percent), V.trifolia (67.75 percent) and A.conyzoides (67.74 percent), respectively. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3511 Franco, O.L.; dos Santos, R.C.; Batista, J.A.N.; Mendes, A.C.M.; de Araujo, M.A.M.; Monnerat, R.G.; Fatima Grossi-de-Sa, M.; de Freitas, S.M. (EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasilia-DF 70770 900, Brazil) Effects of black-eyed pea trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor on proteolytic activity and on development of Anthonomus grandis. Phytochemistry, v. 63(3): p. 343-349, 2003 (Eng; 44 ref).

The cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis is one of the major pests of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the New World. This feeds on cotton floral fruits and buds causing severe crop losses. Digestion in the boll weevil is facilitated by high levels of serine proteinases, which are responsible for almost all proteolytic activity. Aiming to reduce the proteolytic activity, the inhibitory effects of black-eyed pea trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI), towards trypsin and chymotrypsin from bovine pancreas and from midguts of A.grandis larvae and adult insects were analyzed. BTCI, purified from Vigna unguiculata seeds, was highly active against different trypsin-like proteinases studied and moderately active against the digestive chymotrypsin of adult insects. Nevertheless, no inhibitory activity was observed against chymotrypsin from A.grandis larval guts. To test the BTCI efficiency in vivo, neonate larvae were reared on artificial diet containing BTCI at 10, 50 and 100 microM. A reduction of larval weight of up to approximately 54 percent at the highest BTCI concentration was observed. At this concentration, the insect mortality was 65 percent. This work constitutes the first observation of a Bowman-Birk type inhibitor active in vitro and in vivo toward the cotton boll weevil A.grandis. The results of bioassays strongly suggest that BTCI may have potential as a transgene protein for use in engineered crop plants modified for heightened resistance to the cotton boll weevil.

2003-06-3512 Hameed, S.V.S.; Shah, D.S. (Post Graduate Department of Zoology, Khadir Mohideen College, Adirampattinam 614 701, TN, India) Effects of aqueous extracts of Sphaeranthus indicus against Culex fatigans, Weid (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Experimental Zoology India, v. 6(2): p. 279-284, 2003 (Eng; 29 ref).

The effect of acetone extracts of leaves and roots of Sphaeranthus indicus at five different concentrations was studied in a predominant Indian mosquito species which acts as the vector of filarial worm Culex fatigans. (Diptera: Culicidae). Early larvae were more susceptible than the successive larval instars. The two higher concentations viz 750 and 1000 ppm of root extract resulted more than 50 percent mortality in all early instars exhibiting the toxic potential over the leaf extract of the same plant, S.indicus. Therefore this plant species S.indicus could be used as a potential larvicide of C.fatigans.

2003-06-3513 Huang, H.C.; Liao, S.C.; Chang, F.R.; Kuo, Y.H.; Wu, Y.C.* (Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shi-Chuan first Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China) Molluscicidal saponins from Sapindus mukorossi, inhibitory agents of golden apple snails, Pomacea canaliculata. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 4916-4919, 2003 (Eng; 20 ref).

Extracts of soapnut, (Sapindus mukorossi (Sapindaceae) showed molluscicidal effects against the golden apple snail, (Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae) with LC50 values of 85, 22, and 17 ppm after treating 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. Bioassay-directed fractionation of S.mukorossi resulted in the isolation of one new hederagenin-based acetylated saponin, hederagenin 3-O-(2,4-O-di-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside)-1 to 3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 to 2)-alpha-L- arabinopyranoside (1), along with six known hederagenin saponins, hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-di-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside)-(1 to 3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyra- nosyl-(1 to 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (2), hederagenin 3-O-(3-O-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1 to 3)-alpha-L- rhamnopyranosyl-(1 to 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (3), hederagenin 3-O-(4O-acetyl-beta- D-xylopyranosyl-(1 to 3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 to 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (4), hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-di-caetyl-beta- D-xylopyranosyl)-(1 to 3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 to 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (5)-hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 to 3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 to 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (6), and heeragenin 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (7). The bioassay data revealed that 1-7 were molluscicidal , causing 70-100 percent mortality at 10 ppm against the golden apple snail.

2003-06-3514 Kaltenegger, E.; Brem, B.; Mereiter, K.; Kalchhauser, H.; Kahlig, H.; Hofer, O.; Vajrodaya, S.; Greger, H. ( Department of Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/164SC, A-1060 Vienna, Austria) Insecticidal pyrido{1,2-alpha}azepine alkaloids and related derivatives from Stemona species. Phytochemistry, v. 63(7): p. 803-816, 2003 (Eng; 25 ref).

Eight new alkaloids, thepyridol{1,2-alpha}azepines stemokerrin, methoxystemokerrin-N-oxide, oxystemokerrin, oxystemokerrin-N-oxide, and pyridostemin, along with the pyrrolo{1,2alpha}azepines dehydroprotostemonine, exyprotostemonine, and stemocochipin were isolated from four Stemona species together with the known compounds protostemonine, stemofoline, 2’hydroxystemofoline, and parvistemonine. Their structures were elucidated by 1H and 13C NMR including 2D methods and two key compounds additionally by X-ray diffraction. Besides the formation of a six membered piperidine ring, additional oxygen bridges and N-oxides contributed to structural diversity. The copoccarrence of pyrrolo- and pyridoazepines suggested biosynthetic connections staring from more widespread protostemonine type precurors. Bioassays with lipophilic crude extracts against Spodoptera littoralis cis-played very strong insecticidal activity for the roots of S.currissii and S.cochinchinensis, moderate activity for S.kerrii, but only weak effects for the unidentified species HG915. The insect toxicity was mainly caused by the accumulation of stemofolire oxystemokerrin, and dehydroprotostemonine displaying two different modes of action. Based on the various insecticidal activities of 13 derivatives structure-activity relationships became apparent.

2003-06-3515 Kler, T.K. (Department of Zoology & Fisheries, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India) Efficacy of neem based BBR against the bird pest rose ringed parakeet Psittacula krameri. Pestology, v. 27(3): p. 31-33, 2003 (Eng; 6 ref).

Neem (Azadirachta indica) based biobird repellent (BBR) @ 0.25 and 0.5 percent concentrations was tested against pest species rose ringed Parakeet. The results showed that bird avoid feeding on the treated food types and avian repellency values of 70.42 percent in 0.25 percent treated sorghum, 77.33 and 70.36 percent in maize and sunflower treated with 0.5 percent BBR concentration were found. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3516 Sabitha Rani, A.; Murty, U.S. (Bioinformatics (Biology Division), Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500 007, AP, India) Antifeedant activity of Acrous calamus Linn. rhizome extract against Spodoptera litura (Fabricius). Bio-Science Research Bulletin, v. 19(1): p. 13-18, 2003 (Eng; 18 ref).

Rhizome extracts of Acorus calamus was effective with varying degree of efficacy at all the concentration (0.125-1 percent). Of all the concentrations used 1 percent extract was most active as it showed (100 percent) feed deterrence. It was followed by 0.95 percent (92.86 percent), 0.85 percent (89.59 percent), and 0.75 percent (84.98 percent), respectively. A negative correlation is as observed between increased concentration and reduced rate of feeding corresponding to increased leaf area protection. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3517 Shanumgapriyan, R.; Kingsly, S. (Department of Zoology, Sri Vasavi College, Erode 638 316, TN, India) Ovicidal effect of neem extracts on the eggs of Epilachna vigintioctopunctata (Coccinellidae: Coleoptera). Journal of Experimental Zoology India, v. 6(2): p. 403-407, 2003 (Eng; 18 ref).

The ovicidal effect of 0.5 percent, 2.5 percent and 5.5 percent of neem oil, neem cake extract and neem seed kernel extract on the eggs of 24 hours and 48 hours are evaluated along with some chemical pesticides. Compared with all other treatment, neem oil 5.5 percent has the maximum ovicidal effect than the 5.5 percent neem cake extract and neem seed kernel extract have the maximum ovicidal effect on the eggs of 24 hours and 48 hours age. Chemical pesticides such as endosulfan, monocrotophos and malathion recorded less than 50 percent egg mortality. Quinalphos recorded 74.33 percent egg mortality when treated the eggs of 24 hours age.

2003-06-3518 Singh, G.; Singh, O.P.; Prasad, Y.R.; de Lampasona, M.P.; Catalan, C. (Chemistry Department, D.D.U. Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273 009, UP, India) Studies on essential oils, Part 33: Chemical and insecticidal investigations on leaf oil of Coleus amboinicus Lour. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, v. 17: p. 440-442, 2002 (Eng; 23 ref).

Chemical investigations of the leaf essential oil of Coleus amboinicus by GC and GC-MS techniques indicated the presence of six components, accounting for 97 percent of the total oil. The major component was thymol (94.3 percent), followed by carvacrol (1.2 percent), 1,8-cineole (0.8 percent), p-cymene (0.3 percent), spathulenol (0.2 percent), terpinen-4-ol (0.2 percent) and an unidentified component (1.4 percent). The oil was insecticidal to white termites (Odontotermes obesus with 100 percent mortality at a dose of 2.5x10-2 mg/cm3 for 5 h exposure. This oil was also more active than the synthetic insecticides. Thiodan and Primoban-20, against termites, although it was ineffective against Tribolium castaneum, a stored product pest.

2003-06-3519 Verma, A.; Yadava, G.K. (Department of Zoology, Govt. P.G. College, Sant Ravidas Nagar, Bhadohi, Gyanpur 221 304, UP, India) Ovicidal effect of Cassia fistula and Eucalyptus globulus extract on Dysdercus koenigii (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae). Journal of Experimental Zoology India, v. 6(2): p. 251-256, 2003 (Eng; 56 ref).

Ovicidal effect of C.fistula and E.globulus leaves extract was evaluated on the viability and hatching of eggs of red cotton bugs Dysdercus koenigii. It was found that topical application of leaf extract of above referred plants inhibited hatching of the eggs and increasing concentation of the extract resulted in increased non viability of three day old eggs.

2003-06-3520 Verma, A.; Yadava, G.K. (Department of Zoology, Govt. P.G.College, Sant Ravidas Nagar, Bhadohi, Gyanpur 221 304, UP, India) Feeding deterrent activity of Cassia fistula (Caesalpinaceae) and Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae)_ extracts against Dysdercus koenigii (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae). Journal of Experimental Zoology India, v. 6(2): p. 265-277, 2003 (Eng; 91 ref).

The effects of extracts of different parts of Cassia fistula and Eucalyptus globulus plants were assessed on the host selection and feeding activity of red cotton bugs Dysdercus koenigii. It was observed that when water soaked seeds of Gossypium hirsutum and unripe fruits of Hibiscus esculentus were treated with the extracts of leaves of C.fistula and E.globulus, the host selection and feeding activity of the bugs decreased significantly, suggesting that the test plants contain some strong feeding deterrent which modify the behavioural response of the bugs.

2003-06-3521 Yang, Y.C.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, W.J.; Choi, D.H.; Ahn, Y.J.* (Department of Advanced Organic Materials Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Chonju 561-756, Republic of Korea) Ovicidal and adulticidal effects of Eugenia caryophyllata bud and leaf oil compounds on Pediculus capitis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 4884-4888, 2003 (Eng; 30 ref).

The toxicity of Eugenia caryophyllata bud and leaf oil-derived compounds (acetyleugenol, beta-caryophyllene, eugenol, alpha-humulene, and methyl salicylate) and congeners of eugenol (isoeugenol and methyleugenol) against eggs and females of Pediculus capitis was examined using direct contact application and fumigation methods and compared with those of the widely used gamma-phenothrin and pyrethrum. In a filter paper diffusion bioassay with female P.capitis, the pediculicidal activity of the Eugenia bud and leaf oils was comparable to those of gamma-phenothrin and pyrethrum on the basis of LT50 values at 0.25 mg/cm2. At 0.25 mg/cm2, the compound most toxic to female P.capitis was eugenol followed by methyl salicylate. Acetyleugenol, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, isoeugenol, and methyleugenol were not effective. Eugenol at 0.25 mg/cm2 was as potent as gamma-phenothrin and pyrethrum but was slightly less effective than the pyrethroids at 0.125 mg/cm2. Against P.capitis eggs, methyl, salicylate and eugenol were highly effective at 0.25 and 1.0 mg/cm2, respectively, whereas little or no activity at 5 mg/cm2 was observed with the other test compounds as well as with gamma-phenothrin and pyrethrum. In fumigation tests with female P.capitis at 0.25 mg/cm2, eugenol and methyl salicylate were more effective in closed cups than in open ones, indicating that the effect of the compounds was largely due to action in the vapor phase. Neither gamma-phenothrin nor pyrethrum exhibited fumigant toxicity. The Eugenia bud and leaf essential oils, particularly eugenol and methyl salicylate, merit further study as potential P.capitis control agents or lead compounds.

 

 

Phytochemistry

 

2003-06-3522 Abdel-Kader, M.S.; Kassem, F.F.; Abdallah, R.M. ( Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Alexandira, Alexandria, Egypt) Two alkaloids from Ephedra aphylla growing in Egypt. Natural Product Sciences, v. 9(2): p. 52-55, 2003 (Eng; 18 ref ).

The EtOH extract of the aerial parts of Ephedra aphylla afforded two alkaloids belonging to two different classes. The first alkaloid, ephedradine C, belonging to the spermine alkaloid, a group characterized by its hypotensive effect. The other alkaloid, hordenine is a phenylalkylamine alkaloid isolated for the first time from Ephedra species. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and the assignment of some carbons in ephedradine C was achieved based on 2-D-NMR experiments.

2003-06-3523 Abe, M.; Ozawa, Y.; Uda, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Morimitsu, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Osawa, T. (Department of Health and Nutrition, Takasaki University of Health and Welfare, Takasaki 370 0033, Japan) Labdane-type diterpene dialdehyde, pungent principle of Myoga, Zingiber mioga Roscoe. Bioscience, Biotechnology & Biochemistry, v. 66(12): p. 2698-2700, 2002 (Eng; 13 ref).

The pungent principle of myoga (Zingiber mioga) was identified as (E)-8beta(17)-epoxylabd-12-ene-15,16-dial (miogadial) on the basis of its physical and spectroscopic properties (MS, NMR, IR, and UV). Galanal A and B, isolated as well as miogadial, had no hot taste. Reduced miogadial also was tasteless. The pungency of miogadial depended on the presence of alphabeta-unsaturated-1,4-dialdehyde group.

2003-06-3524 Ahmad, V.U.; Hussain, H.; Jassbi, A.R.; Zahid, M.; Hussain, J.; Bukhari, I.A.; Yasin, A.; Choudhary, M.I. (H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center of Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan) Three new diterpenoids from Euphorbia decipiens. Polish Journal of Chemistry, v. 76(12): p. 1699-1706, 2002 ( Eng; 16 ref).

Three new diterpene esters with a tricyclic myrsinol-type skeleton have been isolated from Euphorbia decipiens.The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was based primarily on 1D and 2D-NMR analysis, including COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY correlations. The compound 1 showed inhibitory activity against prolyl endopeptidase and compound 2 showed analgesic activity.

2003-06-3525 Ahmad, V.U.; Hussain, J.; Hussain, H.; Jassbi, A.R.; Ullah, F.; Lodhi, M.A.; Yasin, A.; Choudhary, M.I. (H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan) First natural urease inhibitor from Euphorbia decipiens. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(6): p. 719-723, 2003 (Eng; 13 ref).

Three new diterpene esters (1-3) with a myrsinol-type skeleton were isolated from Euphorbia decipiens. The structures elucidation of the isolated compounds was based primarily on two-dimensional (2D)-NMR techniques including correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy experiments. Compounds 1 and 3 are active against prolyl endopeptidase and compound 2 showed inhibitory activity against urease enzyme from jackbean.

2003-06-3526 Ahmed, A.; Asim, M.; Zahid, M.; Ali, A.; Ahmad, V.U. (H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan) New triterpenoids from Corchorus trilocularis. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(7): p. 851-853, 2003 (Eng; 17 ref).

Two new tetracyclic triterpenoid trilocularol A and trilocularol A 3-glucoside and one pentacyclic triterpenoid tirlocularoside A were isolated from Corchorus trilocularis. Their structure were elucidated as 3beta,6alpha,16alpha,20(S), 27-pentahydroxydammar-24(Z)-ene, 3beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-6alpha,16alpha,20(S), 27-tetrahydroxy-dammar-24(Z)-ene and 2alpha,3beta, 19alpha,30-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-24, 28-dioic acid 28-O-beta-glucopyranosyl ester, respectively, on the basis of detailed spectroscopic studies.

2003-06-3527 Alasalvar, C.; Shahidi, F.; Cadwallader, K.R. ( Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Food Research Center, University of Lincoln, Brayfor Pool, Lincoln, LN6 7TS, United Kingdom) Comparison of natural and roasted turkish tombul hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) volatiles and flavor by DHA/GC/MS and descriptive sensory analysis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 5067-5072, 2003 (Eng; 46 ref).

Natural (raw) and roasted hazelnuts were compared for their differences in volatile components and sensory responses. A total of 79 compounds were detected in both hazelnuts, of which 39 (27 postive, 5 tentative, and 7 unknown) were detected in natural hazelnut and 71 (40 positive, 14 tentative, and 17 unknown) were detected in roasted hazelnut. These included ketones, aldehydes, pyrazines, alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, furans, pyrroles, terpenes, and acids. Pyrazines, pyrroles, terpenes, and acids were detected in roasted hazelnut only. Concentrations of several compounds increased as a result of roasting and these may play significant roles in the flavor of roasted hazelnut. Pyrazines together with ketones, aldehydes, furans, and pyrroles may contribute to the characteristic roasted aroma of hazelnut. Descriptive sensory analysis (DSA) showed that some flavor attributes such as “aftertaste”, “burnt”, “coffee/chocolate-like”, “roasty”, and “sweet” were rated significantly higher in roasted hazelnut compared to its natural counterpart.

2003-06-3528 Ali, M.S.; Jahangir, M.; Saleem, M. (H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan) Structural distinction between sabandins A and B from Artemisia scoparia Waldst.(Asteraceae). Natural Product Research, v. 17(1): p. 1-4, 2003 (Eng; 12 ref).

The three possible isomeric structures of the sabandin coumarin were published by Reyes and Gonzalez in 1970. Two of these isomers sabandins A and B were isolated from Artemisia scoparia(Asteraceae) and distinguished by NOE difference NMR measurements.

2003-06-3529 Ali, A.; Abdullah, S.A.; Hamid, H.; Ali, M.*; Alam, S. (Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hamdard University, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110 062, India) Phytochemical investigation of pseudobulbs of Desmotrichum fimbriatum Blume. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, v. 65(2): p. 207-210, 2003 (Eng; 9 ref).

The ethanolic extract of the pseudobulbs of Desmotrichum fimbriatum yielded four new hydrocarbons along with stearic acid. The structures of the phytoconstituents have been established as 18-cyclohexyl- n-octadecane, 24-cyclohexyl-n-tetracosane, n-heneicosayl-1-propionate, and 23-cyclohexyl n-tricosanyl-1-propionate.

2003-06-3530 Andrea, V.; Nadia, N.; Teresa, R.M.; Andrea, A. ( Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti, Universita di Bologna, via Ravennate 1020, Cesena (FC) 47023, Italy) Analysis of some Italian lemon liquors (limoncello). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 4978-4983, 2003 (Eng; 25 ref).

The chemical composition of several commercial Italian Limoncellos, lemon-peel-based alcoholic beverages, was studied by chromatographic techniques. These methods allowed a rapid monitoring of Limoncello, giving information on quality markers and possible adulteration of the product. Quantitative data for more than 60 compounds are reported. Limoncellos were characterized by the presence of selected volatile (terpenes, aldehydes, alcohols) and nonvolatile compounds (psoralens, coumarins, phenolics, carbohydrates and acids). On the basis of their composition, the samples were grouped by PCA analysis in two sets; the first group showed a composition similar to lemon essential oils, with a high content of b-pinene, mycrene, trans-a-bergamottene, and b-bisabolene, and a low content in neral and geranial. The composition of the second group suggested the occurrence of oxidative phenomena and/or the addition of flavors. The presence of ethyl acetate, acetaldehyde, 2-methyl-1-propanol and glycerol showed that a fermentation probably occurred in the sugar syrup used to dilute the Limoncello after the extraction process.

2003-06-3531 Anjaneyulu, A.S.R.; Rao, V.L.; Sreedhar, K. ( School of Chemistry, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003, AP, India) Agallochins J-L, new isopimarane diterpenoids from Excoecaria agallocha L.. Natural Product Research, v. 17(1): p. 27-32, 2003 (Eng; 14 ref).

The ethyl acetate extract of Excoecaria agallocha furnished three more new isopimarane diterpenoids, 11alpha,14alpha-dihydroxy-7,15-isopimaradien-3-one, agallochin J, 3alpha,11alpha,14alpha-trihydroxyisopimara-7,15-diene, agallochin K, and 6alpha,14alpha, 17-trihydroxy-7,15-isopimaradien-3-one, agallochin L.

2003-06-3532 Athikomkulchai, S.; Ruangrungsi, N.; Sekine, T.; Sumino, M.; Igarashi, K.; Ikegami, F. (Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand) Chemical constituents of Bauhinia sirindhorniae. Natural Medicines, v. 57(4): p. 150-153, 2003 (Eng; 26 ref).

Two cyanogenic glucosides, one flavan, two flavanones, one flavanol, one flavone, two chalcones, two chromones, two lignan glycosides, two triterpenoids, one steroid glucoside and other phenolic compounds were isolated from stems and roots of Bauhinia sirindhorniae. The lignan glycosides displayed promising scavenging activities towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical.

2003-06-3533 Banerji, R.; Verma, S.C.; Pushpangadan (National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow 226 001, UP, India) Oil potential of Moringa. Natural Product Radiance, v. 2(2): p. 68-69, 2003 (Eng; 6 ref).

Oil potential of Moringa oleifera from Vietnam was studied and the composition of the oil was compared with some Indian colons of Moringa and with that of olive and avocado oils. Of the specimen studied oil of M.concanensis showed the highest oil yield. The iodine and saponification values of all the oils were found in the range of 80.3-86.7 and 195.8-197.2, respectively. Among the fatty acids oleic acid was the major component of all the oils, ranging from 79.4 to 85.0 percent, highest in M.concanensis.

2003-06-3534 Barik, A.; Priyadarsini, K.I.; Mohan, H.* (Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085, Maharashtra, India) Excited state photophysical properties of curcumin and its methoxy derivative in benzene. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, v. 18(3): p.427-432, 2002 (Eng; 17 ref).

Absorption and fluorescence spectra of curcumin (C), a major pigment from turmeric (Curcuma longa) and its methoxy derivative (TMC) were recorded in benzene. The fluorescence quantum yields were determined using coumarin-153 as standard. On 355 nm picosecond (35 ps) laser excitation, the singlet-singlet absorption spectra of curcumin and TMC showed absorption band at 555 and 550 nm respectively. The triplet excited states were populated by intersystem crossing from the singlet excited states in benzene. The triplets exhibit a broad absorption band in 500-700 nm region. The triplet-triplet absorption spectra in benzene were also recorded by energy transfer from pulse radiolytically generated biphenyl triplet. The rates of intersystem crossing, non-radiative decay, extinction coefficients of the triplet excited states, their half-lives have been reported. The studies suggest that both curcumin and its methoxy derivative show similar photophysical properties in the excited state.

2003-06-3535 Boukamcha, H.; Jannet, H.B.; Bouazizi, Y.; Mighri, Z. (Laboratoire de Chimie des Substances Naturelles et de Synthese Organique, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, 5000 Monastir, Tunisia) Isolation and structure determination of a novel furanic ester from the aerial part of Prasium majus. Natural Product Research, v. 17(1): p. 63-66, 2003 (Eng; 9 ref ).

The aerial part of Prasium majus provided a new furanic ester, 2-2{(5-formyl-6{5-formylfuran-2-yl) methoxy} succinic acid dimethyl ester, (+-)-hiziprafuran. Its structure was principally established by one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopy.

2003-06-3536 Bryson, J.M.J.M.; Vonderheide, A.P.; Montes-Bayon, M.; Caruso, J.A. (Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0172, USA) Studies of selenium-containing voaltiles in roasted coffee. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 5116-5122, 2003 (Eng; 19 ref).

Although sulfur species have been found to be abundant constituents, no work to date has explored the presence of selenium analogues. Investigation of volatile selenium species from green coffee beans, roasted beans, and brewed coffee drink was performed using solid phase microextraction (SPME) sample preconcentration in conjunction with GC/ICP-MS. Several volatile selenium species at trace levels were detected from roasted coffee beans as well as in the steam from brewed coffee drinks. No detectable selenium (and sulfur) species, however, were found in the headspace of green beans, indicating that selenium-containing volatiles are formed during roasting, astis the case for the sulfur volatiles. Matching standards were prepared and used to identify the compounds found in coffee. Artificial supplementation of the green coffee beans with selenium before roasting was performed to further characterize the selenium-containing volatiles formed during the coffee-roasting process.

2003-06-3537 Chang, C.C.; Lien, Y.C.; Chen Liu, K.C.S.; Lee, S.S.* (School of Pharmacy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan, Republic of China) Lignans from Phyllanthus urinaria. Phytochemistry, v. 63(7): p. 825-833, 2003 (Eng; 22 ref).

Chemical investigation on the aerial and the root of Phyllanthus urinaria culminated in the isolation of four lignans, namely 5-demethoxyniranthin, urinatetralin, dextrobursehernin, urinalignan, together with nine known lignans. Their structures, including the absolute stereochemistry, were elucidated by spectral analysis (NMR and CD) and chemical correlation.

2003-06-3538 Chen, D.L.; Lin, L.Y.; Chen, Q.H.; Jian, X.X.; Wang, F.P.* (Department of Chemistry of Medicinal Natural Products, West China College of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China) New C19-diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum hemsleyanum ar leueanthus and Delphinium potaninii. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, v. 5(3): p. 209-213, 2003 (Eng; 13 ref).

A new franchetine-type (leueandine) and two new lycocotonine-type potanisines F and G C-19-diterpenoid alkaloids have been isolated from the roots of Aconitum hemsleyanum var.leueanthus and Delphinium potaninii, respectively, and their structures were established on the basis of spectral data.

2003-06-3539 Chen, B.; Li, B.G.; Zhang, G.L. (Chengdu Institute of Biology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China) A new sesquiterpene glucoside from Erigeron breviscapus. Natural Product Research, v. 17(1): p. 37-40, 2003 (Eng; 5 ref ).

A new sesquiterpene glucoside, erigeside E, was isolated from the ethanol extracts of the whole plants of Erigeron breviscapus. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis.

2003-06-3540 Cos, P.; De Bruyne, T.; Apers, S.; Berghe, D.V.; Pieters, L.; Vlietinck, A.J. (Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, 2610 Antwerp, Belgium) Phytoestrogens: Recent developments. Planta Medica, v. 69(7): p. 589-599, 2003 (Eng; 120 ref).

Phytoestrogens are polyphenolic non-steroidal plant compounds with estrogen-like biological activity. Based on their chemical structure, phytoestrogens can be classified into four main groups, i.e. isoflavonoids, flavonoids, stilbenes, and lignans. Recent literature on phytoestrogens focusing on their biological effects and biotransformation, as well as on their epidemiological and experimetnal studies in animals and humans has been reviewed. Special attention has been given to the hormonal effects of various isoflavonolds each as genistein, daidzein, coumestrol and equal etc.

2003-06-3541 Dat, N.T.; Cai, X.F.; Bae, K.H.; Kim, Y.H.* ( College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Deajon 305-764, Korea) Terpenoid constituents from Youngia koidzumiana. Natural Product Sciences, v. 8(2): p. 55-57, 2002 (Eng; 11 ref ).

The chemical constituents from the MeOH extract of an endemic plant growing in Mt.Chiri Youngia koidzumiana, partitioned with hexane, ethyl acetate and BuOH, successively, four known compounds were isolated from ethyl acetate fraction by repeated column chromatography. Their structures were elucidated by the physicochemical and spectral data as germanicol acetate, oleanolic acid, brachynereolide and ixerin Y.

2003-06-3542 Dellagreca, M.; Fiorentino, A.; Monaco, P.; Previtera, L.; Temussi, F.; Zarrelli, A. (Dipartimento di Chimica Organica e Biochimica, Universita Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cinthia, I-80134 Napoli, Italy) Synthesis of degraded cyanogenic glycosides from Sambucus nigra. Natural Product Research, v. 17(3): p.177-181, 2003 (Eng; 12 ref).

Two natural cyanohydrins, isolated from Sambucus nigra, have been synthesised from mandelonitrile and penta-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranose. The synthesis confirmed the stereochemistry of the compounds, which had been assigned on biogenetic grounds.

2003-06-3543 Doreswamy, R.; Sharma, D. (National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources, CSIR, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110 012, India) Patented phytoconstituents on cosmeticology and skin care: An analysis. Proceedings of WHO Training-cum-Workshop on Quality, Safety and Efficacy of Drugs of Indian System of Medicine, . 165-179, 10-12, April 2002 (Eng; 10 ref).

A study was undertaken based on literature survey (1978-2002) from various patent-disseminating services and from medicinal and aromatic plants abstracts publications. The total number of sixty-four patents secured in the fields of cosmeticology and skin diseases, emanating from various plant parts such as flowers, buds, seeds and seed oils and roots have accounted for active constituents used in skin creams, hair conditioners, photo-sensitizers, and other cosmetic preparations. Skin diseases covered in the patents include ACNE, pimples, burns, eczema, psoriasis and other skin infections. The review describes patents available on skin care and cosmetic constitutents.

2003-06-3544 Duarte-Vazquez, M.A.; Whitaker, J.R. (Departamento de Investigacion y Posgrado en Alimentos, PROPAC, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, C.U. Cerro de Las Campanas s/n, Queretaro, Qro.76010, Mexico) Isolation and thermal characterization of an acidic isoperoxidase from Turnip roots. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 5096-5102, 2003 (Eng; 49 ref).

An acidic peroxidase (pl approximately 2.5)f ws purified from turnip roots (TAP), and its thermal properties were evaluated. TAP is a monomeric protein having a molecular weight (MW) of 49 kDa and a carbohydrate content accounting for 18 percent of the MW. The yield of pure TAP was relatively high (approximately 2 mg/kg of fresh roots), with a specific activity of 18102,2’-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)(ABTS) units/mg at pH 6. The activity increased 4-fold at the optimum pH (4.0) to 7250 ABTS units/mg, higher than that of most peroxidases. TAP was heat stable; heat treatment of 25 min at 60 degree C resulted in 90 percent initial activity retention, whereas an activity of 20 percent was retained after 25 min of heating at 80 degree C. TAP regained 85 percent of its original activity within 90 min of incubation at 25 degree C, following heat treatment at 70 degree C for 25 min. Thermal inactivation caused noticeable changes in the heme environment as evaluated bycircular dichroism dichroism and visible spectrophotometry.

2003-06-3545 El-Toumy, S.A.A.; Rauwald, H.W. (Institut fur Pharmazie, Pharmazeutische Biologie, Universitat Leipzig, Johannisallee 21-23, 04103 Lepzig, Germany) Two new ellagic acid rhamnosides from Punica granatum heartwood. Planta Medica, v. 69(7): p. 682-684, 2003 (Eng; 13 ref).

Punica granatum heartwood two new ellagic acid rhamnosides, 3-O-methylellagic acid 4-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside and 3,4’-O-dimethylellagic acid 4-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside were isolated together with brevifolincarboxylic acid, 3-O-methylellagic acid and 4,4-O-dimethylellagic acid.

2003-06-3546 Fossen, T.; Ovstedal, D.O. (Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, Allegi, 41, N-5007 Bergen, Norway) Anthocyanins from flowers of the orchids Dracula chimaera and D.cordobae. Phytochemistry, v. 63(7): p. 783-787, 2003 (Eng; 16 ref).

The main anthocyanins from flowers of the orchids Dracula chimaera and D.cordobae were isolated from a purified methanolic extract by preparative HPLC. Their stractures were determined to be evanidin 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside), cyanidin 3-O-(6"-O- alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-beta-glucopyranoside), cyanidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, peonidin 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-beta-glucopyranoside) and peonidin 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside). The structure determinations were mainly based on extensive use of 2D and 1D NMR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and MS. The anthocyanin contents of species belonging to the subtribe Pleurothallidinae including genus Dracula Luer (Orchidaceae) have previously not been determined. The high content of anthocyanin rutinosides found in D.chimaera and D.cordobae (78 and 28 percent of the total anthocyanin content, respectively) differs from previously analysed orchid species, in which glucose is found as the only anthocyania sugar moiety.

2003-06-3547 Fraszczak, P.; Kazmierczak, K.; Stawikowski, M.; Jaskiewicz, A.; Kupryszewski, G.; Rolka, K. (Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, 80-952 Gdansk, Sobieskiego 18, Poland) Analogues of Ecballium elaterium trypsin inhibitor II (EETI-II) with L-cysteine residues substituted by L-penicillamine (Pen) and L-homocysteine (Hcy) in positions 19, 21 and 27. Polish Journal of Chemistry, v. 76(10): p. 1441-1446, 2002 ( Eng; 15 ref).

Two analogues of peptidic trypsin inhibitor isolated from seeds of Ecballium elaterium (EETI-II): {Pen19,21,27} EETI-II and {Hcy19,21,27}EETI-II were synthesized by the solid-phase method using the Fmoc/Bu procedure. Their inhibitory activity was determined by the calculation of association equilibrium constants (Ka) with bovine beta-trypsin. In comparison with the parent compound, both analogues showed reduced trypsin inhibitory activity more than 7 and 18 times, respectively. The observed differences may reflect the role of disulfide bridges in the interaction of inhibitors with trypsin or the introduced modifications change the conformational equilibrium of the analogues synthesized towards conformation(s) less favorable for the interaction with the enzyme.

2003-06-3548 Gancel, A.L.; Olle, D.; Ollitrault, P.; Luro, F.; Brillouet, J.M.* (Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement (CIRAD), Departement FLHOR, TA 50/16, Avenue Agropolis, F-34398 Montpellier cedex 5, France) Leaf and peel volatile compounds of an interspecific citrus somatic hybrid (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swing + Citrus paradisi Macfayden). Flavour and Fragrance Journal, v. 17: p. 416-424, 2002 (Eng; 19 ref).

The volatile compounds from leaves and peels of an interspecific citrus somatic hybrid, (Citrus aurantifolia + Citrus paradisi) obtained by fusion of protoplasts from lime, (Citrus aurantifolia (cv Mexican Lime) and grapefruit, (Citrus paradisi (cv. Star Ruby), were extracted by pentane:ether (1:1) from liquid nitrogen ball-milled leaves and flavedo and examined by GC-MS in comparison to those of its parents. The hybrid quantitatively retained the ability of the lime parent to synthesize in its leaves the major monoterpene aldehydes (neral, geranial) the monoterpene alcohols (nerol, geraniol), and their acetates, and also the capacity of the grapefruit parent to produce a sesquiterpene aldehyde (beta-sinensal) in its leaves and nootkatone in its peel. Conversely, synthesis of most sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and long chain aliphatic aldehydes, which are present in the lime parent leaves and peel, was strongly inhibited in the hybrid, as in the grapefruit parent. In comparison to its parents, the hybrid overproduced citronellal in its leaves and alpha-sinensal and beta-sinensal in its peel. The future prospects for a better understanding of the inheritance mechanisms with regards to aroma biosynthesis in citrus leaves and peels have been discussed.

2003-06-3549 Girase, Y.P.; Chavan, Y.P.; Chavan, J.K. (Department of Biochemistry, Mahatma Phule Agricultural University, Rahuri 413 722, Maharashtra, India) Mucilage from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Cortex - Extraction and cultivar evaluation. Journal of Food Science & Technology, v. 40(1): p. 118-119, 2003 (Eng; 8 ref).

A process is standardized for extraction of mucilage from okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) cortex. It involves homogenization of fresh cortex pieces with water (1:50 w/v), healing the homogenate to 70 degree C for 15 min followed by centrifugation. The mucilage from the supernatant is flocculated either by ethanol or acetone (1:1), and air dried. The fresh cortex tissue contained more mucilage (1.49 percent) than either green mature fruits (0.57 percent) or the green leaves (0.05 percent). A marked genetic variation was observed for cortex mucilage contents (1.02 to 1.51 percent) in 15 okra cultivars including 4 wild species. Results indicate that okra cortex can be used as one of the potential sources of mucilage.

2003-06-3550 Gohar, A.A. (Department of Pharmacognsoy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University,Mansoura 35516, Egypt) Heptatriacontranol and phenolic compounds from Halochris hispida. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(2): p. 68-71, 2001 (Eng; 17 ref ).

The phytochemical investigation of Halocharis hispida revealed the presence of 1-heptatriacontanol, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol, vitexin and isorhamnetin-3-O-galactoside in addition to vanillic, ferulic, isoferulic, syringic and caffeic acids. The different isolated compounds were identified by different physical, chemical, chromatographic and/or spectral methods.

2003-06-3551 Gora, J.; Lis, A.; Kula, J.*; Staniszewska, M.; Woloszyn, A. (Institute of General Food Chemistry, Technical University of Lodz, Poland) Chemical composition variability of essential oils in the ontogenesis of some plants. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, v. 17: p. 445-451, 2002 (Eng; 12 ref).

The ontogenetic variability of chemical composition of the essential oils of Erigeron canadensis, Daucus carota ssp. carota and Anethum graveolens was studied. A distinct dependence between the ontogenetic stage and the contents as well as the chemical composition of essential oils was observed. The results obtained were found to be of significance for determining the most favourable time limit for picking plant raw material.

2003-06-3552 Guo, Y.Q.; Li, X.*; Wang, J.H.; Li, W.; Sha, Y. ( Research Department of Natural Medicine, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 110016, China) A new sesquiterpene ester from the fruits of Celastrus orbiculatus. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, v. 5(3): p. 205-208, 2003 (Eng; 6 ref).

From the ethanol extract of the fruits of Celastrus orbiculatus, a new dihydroagarofuran sesquiterpene ester named 6alpha, 13beta-diacetoxy-1beta,8beta,9beta-tribenzoyloxy-beta-dihydroagarofura n has been isolated, along with three known compounds: 1beta,6alpha,8beta-triacetoxy-9alpha-benzoylozy-beta-agarofuran; 1beta,6alpha-diacetoxy-9alpha-benzoyloxy-beta-dihydroagarofuran; and beta-sitostrol. The structure of new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods.

2003-06-3553 Hao, X.Z.; Xie, P.*; Zu, L.S.; Liang, X.T. ( Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China) Study of stereo selective synthesis of (+-)-neocnidilide. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, v. 5(3): p. 165-169, 2003 (Eng; 7 ref).

Neocnidilide isolated from Apium gravelens, has shown activity to inhibit the growth of mycotoxin-producing fungi. An efficient method for the synthesis of the racemic neocnidilide by the stereo selective reaction of hemiacetal with n-BuMgBr has been developed.

2003-06-3554 Hossain, R.; Sultana, R.; Islam, A. (Department of Chemistry, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, 6205, Bangladesh) Synthesis of Euchrenone-a, a naturally occuring pyranoflavanone. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, v. 18(3): p.457-460, 2002 (Eng; 4 ref).

The pyranoflavanone isolated from the roots of Euchresta japonica (Leguminosae) has been synthesised by an unambigous route starting from phloroacetophenone to provide a synthetic proof of its structure. The products have been characterised on the basis of several spectral data which are similar to natural euchrenone-a.

2003-06-3555 Huang, J.; Zhang, H.; Shimizu, N.; Takeda, T. ( Kvoritsu College of Pharmacy, 1-5-30 Shibakoen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512, Japan) Ardisimamillosides G and H, two new triterpenoid saponins from Ardisia mamillata. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(7): p. 875-877, 2003 (Eng; 12 ref).

Two new triterpenoid saponins, ardisimamilloside G(1), 3-O-{alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 to 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 to 4)-{beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 to 2)}-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl}- 13beta,28-epoxy-16-oxo-oleanan-3beta,30- diol and ardisimamilloside H (2), 3-O-{alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 to2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 to 4)- alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl}-3beta-hydroxy-13bdta, 28-epoxy-16-oxo- oleanan-30-al, were isolated from the roots of Ardisia mamillata. Structure assignments were established on the basis of spectral data and chemical evidence.

2003-06-3556 Hur, J.M.; Park, J.C.*; Hwang, Y.H. (Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, Sunchon National University, Sunchon 540-742, Korea) Aromatic acid and flavonoids from the leaves of Zanthoxylum piperitum. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(1): p. 23-26, 2001 (Eng; 10 ref ).

Five flavonoids and one aromatic acid were isolated from the MeOH extract of the leaves of Zanthoxylum piperitum. The structures of compounds were elucidated as quercetin, afzelin, quercitrin, hyperoside, hesperidin and protocatechuic acid on the basis of spectral evidence.

2003-06-3557 Iijima, T.; Yaoita, Y.; Kikuchi, M.* (Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, 4-4-1 Komatsushima, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 981-8558, Japan) Two new cyclopentenone derivatives and a new cyclooctadienone derivative from Erigeron annuus (L.) PERS., Erigeron philadelphicus L., and Erigeron sumatrensis RETZ. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(7): p. 894-896, 2003 (Eng; 14 ref).

Two new cyclopentenone derivatives, erigerenones A and B, and a new cyclooctadienone derivative, erigerenone C, were isolated from the aerial parts of Erigeron philadelphicus. Compound B was also isolated from the aerial parts of E.annuus and E.sumatrensis. The structures of A-C were elucidated on the basis of their spectral data.

2003-06-3558 Javidnia, K.; Miri, R.; Kamalinejad, M.; Nasiri, A. (Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, The Medical Sciences University of Shiraz, Shiraz, Iran) Composition of the essential oil of Salvia mirzayanii Rech. f. & Esfand from Iran. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, v. 17: p. 465-467, 2002 (Eng; 15 ref).

Hydrodistilled essential oil from the aerial parts of Salvia mirzayanii, endemic in Iran, was analyzed by GLC and GC-MS. The oil yield was 2.2 percent (v/w); 82 compounds, representing 90.5 percent of the essential oil have been identified. The main constituents of the oil were spathulenol (10.4 percent), delta-cadinene (5.8 percent), linalool (5.2 percent), alpha-terpinyl acetate (5.2 percent), alpha-cadinol (4.7 percent), beta-eudesmol (4.5 percent), cubenol (4.4 percent) and linalyl acetate (4.1 percent).

2003-06-3559 Kabganian, R.; Carrier, D.J.; Rose, P.A.; Abrams, S.R.; Sokhansanj, S. (Department of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5A9) Localization of alkamides, echinacoside and cynarin with Echinacea angustifolia. Journal of Herbs, Spices & Medicinal Plants, v. 10(2): p. 73-81, 2002 (Eng; 10 ref).

The alkamides, echinacoside, and cynarin in parts of three year old Echinacea angustifolia plants were quantified. A chloroform extract of the plant root yielded two alkalmides: undeca-2E/Z-en 8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide (alkamide 1) and dodeca-2E, 4E, 8Z, 10E/Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide (alkamide 2). A relative distribution study indicated that the bark and secondary roots contained highest concentrations of echinacoside, cynarin and alkamides 1 & 2.

2003-06-3560 Kakuda, R.; Machida, K.; Yaoita, Y.; Kikuchi, M.; Kikuchi, M.* (Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, 4-4-1 Komatsushima, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 981-8558, Japan) Studies on the constituents of Gentiana species.II. A new triterpenoid, and (S)-(+)-and (R)-(-)-gentiolactones from Gentiana lutea. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(7): p. 885-887, 2003 (Eng; 10 ref).

A new triterpenoid, 12-ursene-3beta,11alpha-diol-3-O-palmitate, was isolated from the rhizome and roots of Gentiana lutea, together with the artificial diene derivative, 9(11), 12-ursadien-3beta-ol 3-O-palmitate and five known compounds. Their structures were established on the basis of spectral analysis. In addition, (+-) gentiolactone {(+-)-2}, isolated from this plant, was successfully separated into its enantiomers {(+)-2,(-)-2} for the first time, and the absolute configurations at C-9 of (+)-2, (-)-2 were assigned as S and R, respectively, from the optical rotations and the circular dichroism spectral data.

2003-06-3561 Kasali, A.A.; Adio, A.M.; Oyedeji, A.O.; Eshilokun, A.O.; Adefenwa, M. (Institut fur Organische Chemie, Universitat Hamburg, Martin Luther King Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany) Volatile constituents of Boswellia serrata Roxb. (Burseraceae) bark. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, v. 17: p. 462-464, 2002 (Eng; 16 ref).

The composition of the essential oil of Boswellia serrata obtained by hydrodistillation of the bark of B.serrata was determined by the use of GC and GC-MS. Thirty-five constituents were identified by their retention (Kovats) indices on Cpsil 5 and by their mass spectra. The essential oil of B.serrata predominantly comprised monoterpenoids, of which alpha-pinene (73.3 percent) was the major constituent. Other monoterpenoids identified included beta-pinene (2.05 percent), cis-verbenol (1.97 percent), trans-pinocarveol (1.80 percent), borneol (1.78 percent), myrcene (1.71 percent), verbenone (1.71 percent), limonene (1.42 percent), thuja-2,4(10)-diene (1.18 percent) and p-cymene (1.0 percent), while alpha-copaene (0.13 percent) was the only sesquiterpene identified in the oil.

2003-06-3562 Kawazoe, K.; Morishita, N.; Nagao, A.; Takaishi, Y.; Honda, G.; Ito, M.; Takeda, Y.; Kodzhimatov, O.K.; Ashurmetov, O. (Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokushima, Shomachi 1-78, Tokushima 770-8505, Japan) Sesquiterpenoids from Artemisia tenuisecta. Natural Medicines, v. 57(3): p. 114-116, 2003 (Eng; 9 ref).

From the aerial part of Artemisia tenuisecta (Asteraceae) a new sesquiterpene along with 16 known sesquiterpenoids were isolated. Its relative structure was elucidated as 1alpha-acetoxyeudesm-4,5-expoxy-6beta,11betaH-12,6-olide from the 2D NMR and other spectral evidence.

2003-06-3563 Kawamura, T.; Osada, Y.; Okuda, K.; Hisata, Y.; Sakai, E.; Tanaka, T.; Tatematsu, I. (Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Yagotoyama 150, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8503, Japan) Contents variation of aristolochic acid in the the plants of Aristolochiaceae; about the related plants of Chinese herb Xixin. Natural Medicines, v. 57(3): p. 105-109, 2003 (Eng; 18 ref).

The amount of aristolochic acid (AA) was determined by HPLC in the plants of Asarum (48 species), Aristolochia (3 species) and Saruma species. Quantitative analysis of AA-I and AA-II was carried out in each part of plant. The petiole samples of the Asarum plants contained the greatest amount of AA-I, and some of their undergound parts contained a small amount of AA-I. Variable AA contents were shown in the allied plants of Asarum, even in the same genus. High values of AA-I and AA-II were detected in whole plants of Aristolochia. The younger aerial parts of Aristolochia debilis contained the highest value of AA, and those underground parts collected at different times were found to scarcely vary in AA contents.

2003-06-3564 Khanfar, M.A.; Sabri, S.S.; Abu Zarga, M.H.; Zeller, K.P. (Chemistry Department, University of Jordan, Amman, 11943, Jordan) The chemical constituents of Capparis spinosa of Jordanian origin. Natural Product research, v. 17(1): p. 9-14, 2003 (Eng; 12 ref ).

Investigation of Capparis spinosa of Jordanian origin lead to isolation of two new compounds beta-sitosterylglucoside-6’-octadecanoate and 3-methyl-2-butenyl-beta- glucoside. Linked Scan MS measurements were used to propose a mass fragmentation pattern for the alkaloid Cadabicine isolated here for the second time from nature.

2003-06-3565 Kim, J.S.; Byun, J.H.; Kang, S.S. (Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-460, Korea) Isolation of soya-cerebroside I from the roots of Trichosanthes kirilowii. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(2): p. 27-32, 2001 (Eng; 32 ref ).

In addition to known cucurbitacins, a glucosphingosine type cerebroside and amino acids were isolated from the roots of Trichosanthes kirilowii. The structure of cerebroside was determined as soya-cerebroside I by means of spectroscopic methods. Fifteen amino acid were identified as aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, glycine, histidine, citrulline, threonine, alanine, proline, tyrosine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine and tryptophan, among which the major components such as citrulline, phenylalanine, leucine/isoleucine and valine were isolated.

2003-06-3566 Kim, J.S.; Han, S.J.; Byun, J.H.; Xu, Y.N.; Yoo, S.W.; Kang, S.S.; Son, K.H.; Chang, H.W.; Kim, H.P. (Natural Products Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-460, Korea) Minor constituents from the roots of Sophora flavescens. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(1): p. 5-8, 2001 (Eng; 27 ref).

Lupenone, hexadecyl ferulate, (-)-sophocarpine and three isoflavonoids such as genistein, 3’-methoxydaidzein and calycosin were isolated from the roots of Sophora flavescens.

2003-06-3567 Kishore, P.H.; Reddy, M.V.B.; Gunasekar, D*; Caux, C.; Bodo, B. (Natural products Division, Department of Chemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502, TN, India) A new naphthoquinone from Ceiba pentandra. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, v. 5(3): p. 227-230, 2003 (Eng; 8 ref).

A new naphthoquibnone, 2,7-dihydroxy-8-formyl-5-isopropyl-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone together with a known naphthoquinone, 8-formyl-7-hydroxy-5-isopropyl-2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, has been isolated from the heartwood of Ceiba pentandra. The structures have been elucidate by extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

2003-06-3568 Kisiel, W.; Michalska, K.; Szneler, E. (Department of Phytochemistry, Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smetna 12, 31-343 Krakow, Poland) Sesquiterpene lactones from Crepis zacintha. Polish Journal of Chemistry, v. 76(11): p. 1571-1576, 2002 ( Eng; 8 ref).

A series of guaianolide-type sesquiterpene lactones, including two new natural products, was isolated from the roots of Crepis zacintha. The presence in the plant material of three pairs of guaianolide epimers at C-4 was proved by 1D and 2D NMR spectral methods.

2003-06-3569 Kitajima, J.; Ishikawa, T. (Showa Pharmaceutical University, 3 Higashi-Tamagawagakuen, Machida, Tokyo 194-8543, Japan) Water-soluble constitutents of Amomum seed. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(7): p. 890-893, 2003 (Eng; 12 ref).

From the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of the amomum seed (seed of Amomum xanthioides, which has been used as a medicine for stomachic and digestive disorders, ten compounds, including two new and three newly isolated monoterpenoid glucosides and a newly isolated octane-tetrol, were isolated. Their structures were determined by spectral investigation.

2003-06-3570 Kizu, H.; Tomimori, T. (Department of Pharmacognosy, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokuriku University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1181, Japan) Phenolic constituents from the flowers of Nymphaea stellata. Natural Medicines, v. 57(3): p. 118, 2003 (Eng; 10 ref).

Ether soluble fraction of methanol extract of flowers of Nymphaea stellata afforded the isolation of 3-O-methyl kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-O-methy quercetin, quercetin, methyl gallate, gallic acid and an equilibrated mixture of methyl m- and p-galloylgallate. Ethyl acetate-soluble fraction yielded corilagin, astragalin, 3-O-methyl quercetin 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside, quercetin 3’-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside and 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl D-glucose. These compounds were identified by direct comparison with authentic specimens or by 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra including two-dimensional NMR and diffence NOE spectra.

2003-06-3571 Kjeldsen, F.; Christensen, L.P.*; Edelenbos, M. ( Department of Food Science, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Research Centre, Aarslev, Kirstinebjergvej 10, DK-5792 Aarslev, Denmark) Changes in volatile compounds of carrots (Daucus carota L.) during refrigerated and frozen storage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p. 5400-5407, 2003 (Eng; 39 ref).

Volatiles from the carrot shreds were collected by dynamic headspace technique and analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, GC-MS/MS, and GC-O to determine the volatile composition and aroma active components of carrots stored under different temperature conditions. A total of 52 compounds were quantified, of which mono- and sesquiterpenes accounted for approximately 99 percent of the total volatile mass. Major volatile compounds were (-)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, (-)-limonene, (+)-limonene, (+)-sabinene, gamma-terpinene, p-cymene, terpinolene, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, and (E)- and (Z)-gamma-bisabolene. A considerable increase in the concentration of mono- and sesquiterpenes was observed during refrigerated storage, whereas the concentration of terpenoids was around the same level during frozen storage. GC-O revealed that the major volatiles together with (+)-alpha-pinene, (-)-beta-pinene, (+)-beta-pinene, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, (-)-beta-bisabolene, beta-ionone, and myristicin had an odor sensation, which included notes of “carrot top”, “terpene-like”, “green”, “earthy”, “fruity”, “citrus-like”, “spicy”, “woody”, and “sweet”.

2003-06-3572 Kong, L.Y.; Zhi, F. (Department of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China) Coumarins from Peucedanum wulongense. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, v. 5(3): p. 183-187, 2003 (Eng; 10 ref).

A new angular dihydropyrancoumarin named wulongensin A, along with five known coumarins, (-)-anomalin, umbelliferone, (-)-smyrinol, 3’(S),4’(S)-disenecioyloxy-3’,4’-dihydroseselin, (+)-trans-khellactone, was isolated from the root of Peucedanum wulongense. The structure of wulongensin A was established as 3’(R)-angeloyloxy-4’(R)-isovaleryloxy-3’,4’-dihydroseselin by spectroscopic methods and the absolute configurations were deduced by chemical correlations with known compounds.

2003-06-3573 Kumar, J.K.; Sinha, A.K. (Natural Plant Products Division, Institute of Himalayan bioresource Technology, Palampur, HP, India) A new disubstituted acetylacetone from the leaves of Bidens pilosa Linn.. Natural Product Research, v. 17(1): p. 71-74, 2003 (Eng; 17 ref).

Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Bidens pilosa (Locally known as lumb) lead to the isolation and characterization of a new disubstituted acetylacetone named as 3-Propyl-3-(2,4,5-trimethoxy) benzylozy-pentan-2,4-dione.

2003-06-3574 Kuskoski, E.M.; Vega, J.M.; Rios, J.J.; Fett, R.; Troncoso, A.M.; Asuero, A.G. (Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Seville, 41012, Seville, Spain) Characterization of anthocyanins from the fruits of Baguacu (Eugenia umbelliflora Berg). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p. 5450-5454, 2003 (Eng; 28 ref).

Anthocyanin pigments in the berries of baguacu (Eugenia umbelliflora), a tropical fruit from Brazil, were extracted with 0.1 percent HCl in ethanol, and the crude anthocyanin extract was purified by Amberlite XAD-7 open-column chromatography. Six major anthocyanins were isolated by preparative HPLC, and their chemical structures were identified by spectroscopic methods (TLC, UV-vis, MS, and 1H NMR). Delphinidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, cyanidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, petunidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, pelargonidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, peonidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside, and malvidin 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside were identified. On the basis of chromatographic data the total anthocyanin content was 342 mg/100 g of fresh baguacu berries.

2003-06-3575 Kwon, H.C.; Min, Y.D.; Kim, K.R.; Bang, E.J.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, K.R.* (Natural Products Laboratory, College of Pharmacy, Sung Kyun Kwan University, Suwon, 440-746, Korea) A new acylglycosyl sterol from Quisqualis Fructus. Archives of Pharmacal Research, v. 26(4): p. 275-278, 2003 ( Eng; 10 ref).

A new acylglycosyl sterol (4) was isolated from the MeOH extract of Quisqualis Fructus (Quisqualis indica) together with four known compounds. On the basis of spectroscopic data, their structures were elucidated as clerosterol, betulinic acid, methylursolate, 3-O-{6’-O-(8Z-octadecenoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl}-clerosterol and alpha-xylofuranosyluracil.

2003-06-3576 Laskar, S.; Banerjee, G.; Mukherjee, A. ( Department of Chemistry, University of Burdwan, Burdwan 713 104, WB, India) Surface hydrocarbons from the leaves of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. Asian Journal of Chemistry, v. 15(2): p. 1164-1166, 2003 (Eng; 18 ref).

Hydrocarbons from the surface wax of the fresh leaves of Trianthema portulacastrum have been isolated and characterized and their relative distribution determined through GLC studies. The considerable occurrence of branched chain hydrocarbons may be an indication of the characteristics of lower plants based on taxonomy. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3577 Lee, S.; Kang, S.S.; Shin, K.H.* (Natural Products Research Institue, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-460, Korea) Coumarins and a pyrimidine from Angelica gigas roots. Natural Product Sciences, v. 8(2): p. 58-61, 2002 (Eng; 19 ref ).

Five coumarins and a pyrimidine were isolated from the MeOH extract of air dried powdered roots of Angelica gigas. Theirstructures were elucidated as bergapten, decursinol angelate, decursin, nodakenetin, uracil and nodakenin by spectral analysis. Among them, bergapten and uracil were isolated for the first time from this plant part.

2003-06-3578 Ling, T.J.; Ma, W.Z.; Wei, X.Y. (South China Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China) Ecdysteroids from the roots of Serratula chinensis. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, v. 11(2): p. 143-147, 2003 (Chi; Eng; 9 ref).

Seven ecdysteroids, 20-hydroxyecdysone, podecdysone C, 3-O-acetyl-20-hydroxyecdysone, 20-hydroxyecdysone-20,22-butylidene acetal, shidasterone, atrotosterone C and carthamosterone, were isolated from the ethanol extracts of roots of Serratula chinensis. All compounds except 20-hydroxyecdysone were isolated from this plant for the first time, and 20-hydroxyecdysone-20,22-butylidene acetal was found to be a new ecdysteroid.

2003-06-3579 Liu, W.Y.; Zhang, W.D.*; Chen, H.S.; Gu, Z.B.; Li, T.Z.; Yun-Zhou (College of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, 325 GUO HE Road, Shanghai 200433, China) Pyrrole alkaloids from Bolbostemma paniculatum. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, v. 5(3): p. 159-163, 2003 (Eng; 3 ref).

Three pyrrole alkaloids were isolated from MeOH extract of the dried powdered bulb of Bolbostemma paniculatum. Their structures were elucidated as 4-(2-formyl-5-methoxymethylpyrrol-1-yl) butyric acid methyl ester (1), 2-(2-formyl-5-methoxymethylpyrrol-1-yl)-3-phenylpropionic acid methyl ester (2) and alpha-methyl pyrrole ketone (3) by spectroscopic techniques. Among them, 1 and 2 are new compounds.

2003-06-3580 Liu, X.Q.; Chang, S.Y.; Park, S.Y.; Nohara, T.; Yook, C.S.* (College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, 1 Hoeki-Dong, Dongdaemoon-ku, Seoul 130-701, Korea) Studies on the constituents of the stem barks of Acanthopanax gracilistylus W.W. Smith. Natural Product Sciences, v. 8(1): p. 23-25, 2002 (Eng; 18 ref ).

Ten compounds were isolated from the stem barks of Acanthopanax gracilistylus (AGS) by steam distillation, they were p-menta-1,5,8-triene, n-butyl isobutylphthalate, p-mentha-1,5-diene-8-ol, 8-hydroxy-p-cymene, myrtenol, trans-(+)-carveol, 1,3-di-tert-butylbenzene, 4-methyl-2,6-di-butylphenol, valencene and verbenone, respectively, characterized by GC-Mass spectra. Syringin and beta-sitosterol were also isolated from the MeOH extracts of the stem bark of AGS.

2003-06-3581 Machida, K.; Unagami, E.; Ojima, H.; Kikuchi, M.* (Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, 4-4-1 Komatsushima, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Mivagi 981 8558, Japan) Studies on the constituents of Syringa species.XII. New glycosides from the leaves of Syringa reticulata (Blume) Hara. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(7): p. 883-884, 2003 (Eng; 12 ref).

Three new glycosides, 6’-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosylsyringopicroside (1), secologanoside 7-methyl ester (2) and (+)-lariciresinol 4’-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 to 3)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), were isoalted from the leaves of Syringa reticulata. Their structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectral data. Compound 1 is the first naturally occuring iridoid di-glycoside having melibiose. Comparison of the spectral data of 2 and that previously recognized as secologanoside 7-methyl ester led to the conclusion that the recognized structure should be revised to the sodium salt of secoxyloganin (2).

2003-06-3582 Manguro, L.O.A.; Lemmen, P.; Ugi, I.; Kraus, W. ( Chemistry Department, Nairobi University, P.O.Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya) Flavonol glycosides of Maesa lanceolata leaves. Natural Product Sciences, v. 8(2): p. 77-82, 2002 (Eng; 13 ref ).

An investigation of the methanolic extract of powdered leaves of Maesa lanceolata leaves has led to the isolation of four novel flavonol glycosides characterised as myricetin 3-O-2’’,3’’,4’’-triacetylxylopyranoside; quercetin 3-O-3’’’,6’’’-diacetylglucopyranosyl-(1 to 4)-2’’,3’’-diacetylrhamnopyranoside; myricetin 3-O-xylopyranosyl-(1 to 3)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside; and quercetin 3-O-beta-galactopyranosyl-(1 to 4)-rhamnopyranosid-7-O-beta-galactopyranoside. Also isolated from the same extract were known flavonols; quercetin; myricetin; quercetin 3-O-xylopyranoside; quercetin 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside; myricetin 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside; myricetin 3-O-beta-galactopyranoside and quercetin 3-O-rutinoside.

2003-06-3583 Matich, A.J.; Young, H.; Allen, J.M.; Wang, M.Y.; Fielder, S.; McNeilage, M.A.; MacRae, E.A. (The Horticultural and Food Research Institute of New Zealand Ltd., Private Bag 11030 Palmerston North, New Zealand) Actinidia arguta: Volatile compounds in fruit and flowers. Phytochemsitry, v. 63(3): p. 285-301, 2003 (Eng; 57 ref).

More than 240 compounds were detected when the volatile components of the flowers and the fruit from several Actinidia arguta genotypes were investigated. Around 60-70 different compounds were extracted from individual tissues of each genotype. Two different methods of volatile sampling (headspace and solvent) favoured different classes of compounds, dependent upon their volatilities and solubilities in the flower or fruit matrices. The compounds extracted from flowers largely comprised linalool derivatives including the lilac aldehydes and alcohols, 2,6-dimethyl-6-hydroxyocta-2,7-dienal, 8-hydroxylinalool, sesquiterpenes, and benzene compounds that are presumed metabolites of phenylalanine and tyrosine. Extracts of fruit samples contained some monoterpenes, but were dominated by esters such as ethyl butanoate, hexanoate, 2-methylbutanoate and 2-methylpropanoate, and by the aldehydes hexanal and hex-E2 enal. A number of unidentified compounds were also detected, including eight from flowers that are so closely related that they are either isomers of one compound or two or more closely related compounds.

2003-06-3584 Menut, C.; Bessiere, J.M.; Said Hassani, M.; Buchbauer, G.; Schopper, B. (ENSCM, 8, Rue de l’Ecole Normale, 34296 Montpellier Cedex 5, France) Chemical and biological studies of Ocotea comoriensis bark essential oil. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, v. 17: p. 459-461, 2002 (Eng; 18 ref).

The essential oil of Ocotea comoriensis (Lauraceae) was obtained from bark by hydrodistillation of plant material collected in the Comoros Islands. Analysis by GC and GC-MS indicates a terpenic chemical composition, with camphene, alpha-pinene and bornyl acetate as the major components. The volatile extract did not reveal important antioxidant, larvicide or antimalarial properties.

2003-06-3585 Morteza-Semnani, K.; Saeedi, M.; Vahedi, M. ( Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 48175-861, Sari, Iran) Volatile constituents of Iranian Hypericum perforatum L.. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, v. 18(3): p.443-444, 2002 (Eng; 12 ref).

The essential oil of Hypericum perforatum was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The thirty nine components of the oils were identified by their retention indices relative to C9-C28 n-alkanes, and by comparison of their mass spectra with those of authentic samples or with data already available in the literature. The most abundant compounds were hexadeconoic acid, caryophyllene oxide, n-tetradecanol, spathulenol, thymol and 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, respectively.

2003-06-3586 Na, M.K.; An, R.B.; Min, B.S.; Lee, S.M.; Kim, Y.H.; Bae, K.H.* (College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea) Chemical constituents from Sorbus commixta. Natural Product Sciences, v. 8(2): p. 62-65, 2002 (Eng; 12 ref ).

Two lupane-type triterpenes, lupenone and lupeol, a phytosterol, beta-sitosterol, two ursane-type triterpenes, 3beta-acetoxy ursolic acid and ursolic acid, a lignan, (-)-lyoniresinol 3a-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside, and two flavanol glycosides, catechin-7-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside and catechin-7-O-beta-D-apiofuranoside were isolated from the MeOH extract of the stem bark of Sorbus commixta (Rosaceae).

2003-06-3587 Nieto-Alvarez, D.A.; Calderon, J.S.; Mancilla, T. (Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N. Mexico D.F., A.P. 14-740, C.P. 07000, Mexico) Synthesis of (1R,2R,7R,7aS)-1-hydroxymethyl-2,3,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-pyrrolizidine-1, 2,7-triol from rosmarinine degradation. Natural Product Research, v. 17(1): p. 33-36, 2003 (Eng; 17 ref).

A novel tetrahydroxypyrrolizidine alkaloid was obtained from rosmarinine degradation in 23 percent yield. The alkaloids has been isolated from Senecio callosus.

2003-06-3588 Novello, C.R.; Ferreira, A.G.; Marques, L.C.; Cortez, D.A.G.* (Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Departmento de Farmacia e Farmacologia, Av, Colombo n 5790, POB 331, Zip Code 87020-900, Maringa, PR, Brazil) Quassinoids from Picrasma crenata. Natural Product Research, v. 17(3): p.145-148, 2003 (Eng; 7 ref).

From woods of Picrasma crenata, a new stereoisomer dihydronorneoquassin was obtained together with others well knowns dihydronorneoquassin, parain, alpha-neoquassin, beta-neoquassin and quassin. The structures were determined by spectroscopic data and chemical evidence.

2003-06-3589 Olszewska, M.; Wolbis, M. (Department of Pharmacognosy, Medical University of Lodz, Muszynskiego 1,90-151 Lodz, Poland) Flavonoids from the leaves of Prunus spinosa L.. Polish Journal of Chemistry, v. 76(7): p. 967-974, 2002 (Eng; 16 ref).

Two new flavonol glycosides, quercetin 3-O-(2"-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside and kaempferol 3-O-(2"-O-E-p-coumaroyl)-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnop yranoside, were isolated from the leaves of Prunus spinosa. The known compounds, kaempferol, quercetin, and their 3-arabinofuranosides, kaempferol 7-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 3,7-dirhamnopyranoside, and kaempferol 3-arabinofuranoside-7-rhamnopyranoside were also identified. Structural elucidation was performed by means of chemical methods and UV, IR, LSI MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy.

2003-06-3590 Ouyang, M.A. (Department of Chemistry, Huaqiao University, Quanzhou 362 011, Fujian, China) Glycosides from the leaves of Ilex hylonoma. Natural Product Research, v. 17(3): p.183-188, 2003 (Eng; 6 ref).

Two new triterpenoid saponins, hylonosides I-II were isolated along with one known flavonoid glycoside from the methanol extract of leaves of Ilex hylonoma. The structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR experiments, including 1H-1H COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HMQC, and HMBC methods.  Two new compounds were characterized as 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 to 4)-beta-D- glucurono- pyranosyl pomolic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 to 4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 to 2)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl pomolic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

2003-06-3591 Pandit, B.R.; Prajapati, S. (Department of Life Sciences, Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar 364 002, Gujarat, India) Assessment of trace elements in Victoria Park Reserved Forest near Bhavnagar. Plant Archives, v. 3(2): p. 175-180, 2003 (Eng; 9 ref).

The main aim of the study was to assess the nutrient cycling in the Victoria Park forest during different seasons. The ranges of trace elements observed in plant species were Fe:2.46-228.40 microg/ml, Cu:1.05-18.25 microg/ml and Zn: 1.02-28.50 microg/ml, while in soil and litter were, Fe: 270.0-3434.38 microg/ml, Cu: 2.40-6.45 microg/ml and Zn:2.38-16.39 microg/ml. All the nutrients vary during different seasons and also average concentration of the three seasons varies in the different profiles.

2003-06-3592 Pappas, C.S.; Tarantilis, P.A.; Polissiou, M.G.* ( Department of Science, Laboratory of Chemistry, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos, 118 55 Athens, Greece) Isolation and spectroscopic study of pectic substances from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). Natural Product Research, v. 17(3): p.171-176, 2003 (Eng; 19 ref).

Pectins were isolated from bark, wood and pith of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) variety Cuba 108. Imidazole was used as extractant. The isolated pectins were studied by 13C nuclear magentic resonance spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. From the spectroscopic investigation, the isolated pectic substances were found similar to commercial pectins.

2003-06-3593 Qi, S.H.; Wu, D.G.; Ma, Y.B.; Luo, X.D.* (State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 65024, Yunnan, China) The chemical constituents of Munronia henryi. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, v. 5(3): p. 215-221, 2003 (Eng; 16 ref).

Six compounds were isolated from the MeOH extract of the whole bodies of Munronia henryi. Their structures were elucidated as sitosterol-3-O-12’,13’-epoxy-9’oxo-(10’E)-octadecenoate (1), alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-6’ -O-hexadecanoate (2), 4alpha,7alpha-aromodendranediol (3), 2beta,3beta,4beta-trihydroxypregnan-16-one (4), 4-O-alpha-D-psicofuranos-alpha-D-glucopyranose (5), and glyceryl-1-tetracosanoicate (6) on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Among them 1 was a new sterol carrying an octadecenoyl; 2 and 6 were isolated for the first time from a natural source.

2003-06-3594 Rao, B.R.R.; Sastry, K.P. (CIMAP, Hyderabad (Field Station), CSIR, AP, India) Major essential oils of South India- A perspective. Fafai Journal, v. 5(2): p. 19-24, 2003 (Eng; 9 ref).

An attempt has been made in this paper to analyse the present scenario and future prospects in the southern parts of India. The major crops of this part of India comprises of cardamom, citronella, davana, Eucalypts species, geranium, linalool, palmarosa, patchouli and rosemary. Besides, aromatic and spice crops are also cultivated viz., lemongrass, sandalwood, ginger grass, menthol mint, basil, cinnamon, clove, ginger, turmeric, pepper. Analysis of the essential oils of the crops have shown that they contain new compounds. Results also shows that judicians use of both organics and inorganic results increasing crop yields. Some unexplored/wild aromatic spice plants, varieties released by the R&D establishments. Productivity and profitability of essential oil crops, prices of essential oils, export of essential oils from India have been tabulated. NSL, New Delhi .

2003-06-3595 Sandeep Kaur; Varshney, V.K.; Dayal, R.* ( Chemistry Division, Forest Research Instittue, P.O. New Forest, Dehra Dun 248 006, UP, India) GC-MS analysis of essential oil of Shorea robusta bast. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, v. 5(3): p. 231-234, 2003 (Eng; 28 ref).

GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of Shorea robusta bast (cambium + secondary phloem) has revealed the presence of twenty-eight compounds, of which nine compounds, constituting 48.79 percent of the oil, were identified as T-cadinol (16.75 percent), alpha-cadinol (16.45 percent), globulol (4.52 percent), alpha-copaene (3.79 percent), gamma-cadinene (2.34 percent), viridiflorene (1.62 percent), beta elemene (1.54 percent), alpha-terpineol (1.33 percent) and gamma-muurolene (0.45 percent). This is the first report on the volatile constituents of the bast (cambium + secondary phloem) which may be significant in influencing host location for Hoplocerambyx spinicornis, the most injurious heartwood borer of Shorea robusta.

2003-06-3596 Seal, T.; Patra, A.; Mukhipadhayay, G.; Mukherjee, B.* (S.N.Pradhan Centre for Neurosciences, B.C. Roy Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences 244B, Acharya J.C.Bose Road, Kolkata 700 020, WB, India) Tiliacosine and tiliasine, two new bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids from Tiliacora racemosa. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(2): p. 83-86, 2001 (Eng; 12 ref ).

Two new bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids tiliacosine and tiliasine were isolated from the leaves of Tiliacora racemosa. The structures of these alakoids were established on the basis of spectral evidence and by the correlation of their 1H-NMR spectral data with those of the congeners N-methyltiliamosine, tiliamosine and tiliacorine. Bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids are known for their antitumour, antimicrobial and hyptensive activity.

2003-06-3597 Shen, Y.C.; Hung, M.C.; Wang, L.T.; Chen, C.Y. ( Institute of Marine Resources, National Sun Yat-sen University, 70 Lien-Hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, Republic of China) Inocalophyllins A, B and their methyl esters from the seeds of Calophyllum inophyllum. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(7): p. 802-806, 2003 (Eng; 13 ref).

Fractionation of the ethanolic extract of the seeds of Calophyllum inophyllum has resulted in the isolation of four novel pyranocoumarin derivaives, designated as inocalophyllins A, B and their methyl esters in addition to the known calophyllolide. The structures of these compounds have been determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis including MS, heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC), heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC) and two dimensional incredible natural abundance double quantum transfer experiment (2D-INADEQUATE) Two new methylated products were also prepared by methylation of compounds A and B respectively.

2003-06-3598 Shen, Y.C.; Pan, Y.L.; Lo, K.L.; Wang, S.S.; Chang, Y.T.; Wang, L.T.; Lin, Y.C. (Institute of Marine Resources, National Sun Yat-sen University, 70 Lien-Hai Rd, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China) New taxane diterpenoids from Taiwanese Taxus sumatrana. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(7): p. 867-869, 2003 (Eng; 20 ref).

Two new taxane diterpenoids, tasumatrols A and B, were isolated from extracts of the leaves and twigs ofTaiwanese Taxus sumatrana. Tasumatrol A is a rare 5/6/6 taxene system, having a novel gamma-lactone at C-10 and C-19. The structures of compounds A and B were determined on the basis of two dimensional (2D)-NMR techniques, including correlation spectroscopy (COSY), 1H-detected heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (HMQC) and heteronuclear multiple bond connectivity (HMBC) experiments.

2003-06-3599 Sidiqui, B.S.; Ghani, U.; Ali, S.T.; Usmani, S.B.; Sabira Begum (HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan) Triterpenoidal constituents of the leaves of Carissa carandas. Natural Product Research, v. 17(3): p.153-158, 2003 (Eng; 13 ref).

Studies undertaken on the fresh leaves of Carissa carandas (known as karaunda in Hindi) have led to the isolation of four pentacyclic triterpenoids including one new constituent carissin (1) and two, hitherto unreported compounds 2 and 3. The structure of the new triterpenoid has been elucidated as 3beta-hydroxy-27-E-feruloyloxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid. Complete assignment of the protons of compound 2 has also been made based on 2D NMR studies.

2003-06-3600 Singh, A.K.; Tripathi, M.; Singh, V.P.; Pandey, V.B.* (Department of Medical Chemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, UP, India) Naturally occurring cyclopeptide alkaloids. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, v. 18(3): p.399-410, 2002 (Eng; 126 ref).

The cyclopeptide alkaloids are polyamide plant bases composed of amino acid residues in common and highly modified forms. Cyclopeptide alkaloids are particularly common in plant of family Rhamnaceae and occasionally they are found in the plants of Sterculiaceae, Pandaceae, Urticaceae, Rubiaceae, Hymenocardiaceae, Celastraceae, Compositae, Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Olecaceae. Cyclopeptide alkaloids, elaborated by members of different plant families, have attracted considerable interest because of the diverse biological activity. A review on cyclopeptide alkaloids has been presented upto year 2001.

2003-06-3601 Singh, R.B. (Department of Zoology, Institute of Basic Science, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, Khandhari Campus, Agra 282 002, UP, India) Chemical structure from Pongamia pinnata Linn. seeds polysaccharide by methylation studies. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, v. 18(3): p.509-512, 2002 (Eng; 16 ref).

Acid hydrolysis of fully methylated water soluble seeds polysaccharide of Pongamia pinnata produced certain medicinal chemicals or methyl sugars as 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-D-glucose; 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-D-mannose; 2,3,6-tri-O-methyl-D-mannose; 2,3-di-O-methyl-D-mannose and 4,6-di-O-methyl-D-glucose in 1:1:2:1:1 molar ratio. On the basis of above methylated results a chemical structure has been assigned to the seeds polysaccharide.

2003-06-3602 Singh, A.K.; Mishra, A.; Yadav, S.B.; Dubey, G.P. (Centre of Psychosomatic and Biofeedback Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, UP, India) 2-Methoxyl-4-N-methyle-5-carbomethoxy-imidazole from Hypericum perforatum. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, v. 18(3): p.598, 2002 (Eng; 4 ref).

An imidazole alkaloid, isolated from the alcoholic extract of the leaf of Hypericum perforatum was identified to be as 2-methoxyle-4-N-methyle-5-carbomethoxy-imidazole on the basis of spectral data.

2003-06-3603 Singh, V.P.; Pandey, R.; Yadav, B.; Pandey, V.B. ( Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, UP, India) Flavonoids of Cinnamomum tamala. Natural Product Sciences, v. 8(1): p. 16-17, 2002 (Eng; 5 ref).

The flavonoids kaempferol, quercetin, myrecetin, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside and quercetrin have been isolated for the first time from the leaves of Cinnamomum tamala and their structures were established by spectral analysis and direct comparison with authentic samples.

2003-06-3604 Srinivas, K.V.N.S.; Rao, Y.K.; Mahender, I.; Das, B.*; Rama Krishna, K.V.S.; Kishore, K.H.; Murty, U.S.N. (Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500 007, AP, India) Flavanoids from Caesalpinia pulcherrima. Phytochemistry, v. 63(7): p. 789-793, 2003 (Eng; 13 ref).

Two new flavanoids, 5,7-dimethoxy-3’,4’-methylenedioxyflavanone and isobonducellin along with 2’-hydroxy-2.3.4’,6’-tetramethoxychalcone, 5,7-dimethoxyflavone and bonducellia were isolated from the aerial parts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The structures of the compounds were settled mainly by interpretation of their 1D and 2D NMR spectra. Isobonducellin was found to be a homoisoflavanoid containing a cis (Z)-double bond. Antimicrobial activity of the new compounds was evaluated.

2003-06-3605 Su, B.N.; Park, E.J.; Vigo, J.S.; Graham, J.G.; Cabieses, F.; Fong, H.H.S.; Pezzuto, J.M.; Kinghorn, A.D.* (Program for Collaborative Research in the Pharmaceutical Sciences and Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA) Activity-guided isolation of the chemical constituents of Muntingia calabura using a quinone reductase induction assay. Phytochemistry, v. 63(3): p. 335-341, 2003 (Eng; 50 ref).

Activity-guided fractionation of an EtOAc-soluble extract of the leaves of Muntingia calabura collected in Peru, using an in vitro quinone reductase induction assay with cultured Hepa 1c1c7 (mouse hepatoma) cells, resulted in the isolation of a flavanone with an unsubstituted B-ring, (2R,3R)-7-methoxy-3,5,8-trihydroxyflavanone (5), as well as 24 known compounds, which were mainly flavanones and flavones. The structure including absolute stereochemistry of compound 5 was determined by spectroscopic (HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and CD spectra) methods. Of the isolates obtained, in addition to 5, (2S)-5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-flavanone, 2’,4’-dihydroxychalcone, 4,2’,4’-trihydroxychalcone, 7-hydroxyisoflavone and 7,3’,4’-trimethoxyisoflavone were found to induce quinone reductase activity.

2003-06-3606 Tchinda, A.T.; Tane, P.; Ayafor, J.F.; Connolly, J.D. (Department of Chemistry, University of Dschang, Box 67, Dschang, Cameroon) Stigmastane derivatives and isovaleryl sucrose esters from Vernonia guineensis (Asteraceae). Phytochemistry, v. 63(7): p. 841-846, 2003 (Eng; 15 ref).

Vernogunoside 16beta,22R,21,23S-diepoxy-3beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy-21S,24-dihy droxy-5alpha-stigmastane-8,14-dien-28-one (1), a new stignastane derivative, 16beta,22R;21,23-S-diepoxy-21S, 24-dihydroxy-5alpha-stigmasta-8,14-dien e-3,28-d(2) and two new sucrose esters 1’,3,3’,4’,6’-pentakis-O-(3-methylbutanoyl)-beta-D-fructofuranosyl alpha-D-glucopyranosie (3) and 1,2,3’,6,6’-pentakis-O-(beta-methylbutanoyl)-beta-fructofuranosyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside (4), have been isolated from the stem bark of Vernonia guineensis. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

2003-06-3607 Tomczyk, M.; Gudej, J. (Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical Academy of Bialystok, ul. Mickiewicza 2a, 15-230 Bialystok, Poland) Quercetin and kaempferol glycosides from Ficaria verna flowers and their structure studied by 2D NMR spectroscopy. Polish Journal of Chemistry, v. 76(11): p. 1601-1605, 2002 ( Eng; 12 ref).

From the flowers of Ficaria verna (Ranunculaceae), two flavonol triglycosides were isolated and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis (UV, NMR, MS) as 3-O-{alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 to 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl}-7-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-quercetin (1) and 3-O-{alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 to 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl}-7-O-)beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-kaempferol (2). In addition, the structure of 1 was determined using homo- and heteronuclear 2D NMR techniques.

2003-06-3608 Tosun, A.; Baba, M.; Ozkal, N.; Okuyama, T.* ( Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Department of Natural Medicine and Phytochemistry, 2-522-1 Noshio, Kiyose-shi, Tokyo, 204-8588, Japan) Coumarins from Seseli gummiferum Pall. ex Sm. subsp. corymbosum P.H. Davis. Natural Medicines, v. 57(3): p. 117, 2003 (Eng; 5 ref).

Dried aerial parts of Seseli gummiferum subsp. corymbosum on extraction with n-hexane, chromatography elution with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol, successively, yielded 6-coumarins (1-6). Each compound was identified as osthole, (3’S)-acetoxy-(4’S)-isovaleryloxy-3’,4’-dihydroseselin, (3’S)-acetoxy-(4’S)-angeloyloxy-3’ ,4’-dihydroseselin, (3’S)-hydroxy-(4’S)-angeloyloxy-3’,4’-dihydroseselin (peujaponisinol B) and (3’S)-angeloyloxy-(4’S)-hydroxy-3’,4’-dihydroseselin(peujaponisinol A) by analyses of their physical and spectral data and by comparison with literature values. The absolute configuration of (3’-acetoy-4’-isobutyloxy-3’, 4’cis-dihydroseselin was not determined because of the small amount of sample.

2003-06-3609 Urzua, A.; Torres, R.*; Mendoza, L.; Monache, F.D. (Deparment of Basic Chemistry, University of Santiago of Chile, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago of Chile, Chile) Antibacterial new clerodane diterpenes from the surface of Haplopappus foliosus. Planta Medica, v. 69(7): p. 675-677, 2003 (Eng; 13 ref).

A biologically monitored fractionation of the resinous exudate extract of Haplopappus foliosus is reported. Purification of the two active fractions yielded two new clerodane diterpenes viz; 2-alpha-hydroxy-cis-cleroda-3,13(Z),8(17)-trien-15-oic acid and 2-alpha-acetoxy-cis-cleroda-3, 13(Z),8(17)-trien-15-oic acid.

2003-06-3610 Velasco-Negueruela, A.; Perez-Alonso, M.J.; Perez de Paz, P.L.; Vallejo, C.G.; Pala-Paul, J.; Inigo, A. (Departamento de Biologia Vegetal 1, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid, Spain) Chemical composition of the essential oils from the roots, fruits, leaves and stems of Pimpinella cumbrae Link growing in the Canary Islands (Spain). Flavour and Fragrance Journal, v. 17: p. 468-471, 2002 (Eng; 29 ref).

The oil constituents from the roots, fruits, leaves and stems of Pimpinella cumbrae gathered in the Canary Islands, Spain were studied by GC and GC-MS in combination with retention indices. The major constituents in the root oil were found to be isokessane (17 percent), beta-dihydroagarofuran (15 percent), 2-methylbutyric acid (10 percent), geijerene (10 percent) and pregeijerene (7 percent). In the fruit oil the main components found were alpha-bisabolol (39 percent), delta-3-carene (16 percent) and limonene (8 percent). In the leaf oil, alpha-bisabolol (53 percent) and delta-3-carene (11 percent) were the predominant constituents. The most important compounds from the stem oil were alpha-bisabolol (39 percent), isokessane (10 percent) and beta-dihydroagarofuran (9 percent). Pseudoisoeugenol esters were also detected in the oils from the roots, fruits and stems. These components were partially hydrolysed in the course of prolonged hydrodistillation to 2-methyl-5-methoxybenzofuran.

2003-06-3611 Waheed, A.; Mahmud, S.; Javed, M.A.; Saleem, M. ( Applied Chemistry Research Centre, PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Lahore, Pakistan) Studies on the lipid classes of Nicotiana tabacum L. seed oil. Natural Product Sciences, v. 7(2): p. 110-113, 2001 (Eng; 18 ref).

The lipid classes constituents; hydrocarbons, was esters, sterol esters, triacylglycerols, free fatty acids, 1,3-diacylglycerols, 1,2-diacylglycerols, free sterols, 2-monoacylglycerols, 1-monoacylglycerols, phosphatidy- lethanolamines, phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylinositols of Nicotiana tabacum L. seeds oil were investigated by thin layer and gas chromatography. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were the major components in all lipid classes studied.

2003-06-3612 Wang, D.Y.; Xu, S.Y. (Center of Natural Product, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, People’s Republic of China) Two new xanthones from Premna microphylla. Natural Product Research, v. 17(1): p. 75-77, 2003 (Eng; 6 ref ).

Two new xanthones have been isolated from the EtOAc extract of the roots of Premna microphylla (Doufuchai in Chinese) based on spectral and chemical evidences, their structures were elucidated as 1-hydroxy-2,3-methylenedioxy-6-methoxycarbonyl-7-acetylxanthone and 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methoxycarbonyl-7-acetylxanthone.

2003-06-3613 Yadava, R.N.; Reddy, V.M.S. (Natural Products Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Dr. H.S. Gour University, Sagar, 470 003, MP, India) Anti-inflammatory activity of a novel flavonol glycoside from the Bauhinia variegata Linn.. Natural Product Research, v. 17(3): p.165-169, 2003 (Eng; 11 ref).

The article deals with the isolation and structural elucidation of a novel flavonol glycoside 5,7,3’,4’-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 to 3)-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside from the roots of Bauhinia variegata (Kachnar in Hindi) and its structure was identified by spectral analysis and chemical degradations. The novel compound showed anti-inflammatory activity.

2003-06-3614 Yang, S.D.; Li, Z.Y.; Mei, S.X.; Zhao, J.I.; Zhang, H.B.; Li, L.* (School of Pharmacy, Yunnan University, 2 North Cui Hu Road, Kunming 650091, China) Two new phenylpropanoid ester of rhamnose from Lagotis yunnanensis. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, v. 5(3): p. 223-226, 2003 (Eng; 7 ref).

Two new phenylpropanoid esters of rhamnose, lagotoside B (1) and lagotoside C (2), together with three known compounds (3-5), were isolated from EtOH extract of the dried whole plant Lagotis yunnanensis. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 3-5 have been obtained from this species for the first time.

2003-06-3615 Ye, Q.H.; Zhao, W.M.; Qin, G.W.* (Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Shanghai Institutes of Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200 031, China) New fluorenone and phenanthrene derivatives from Dendrobium chrysanthum. Natural Product Research, v. 17(3): p.201-205, 2003 (Eng; 6 ref).

Two new fluorenone derivatives denchrysans A and B and one new phenanthrenediglycoside denchryside A were isolated from the herbs of Dendrobium chrysanthum (Orchidaceae). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral evidence.

2003-06-3616 Yolka, S.; Dunach, E.; Loiseau, M.; Lizzani-Cuvelier, L.*; Fellous, R.; Rochard, S.; Schippa, C.; George, G. (Laboratoire Aromes, Syntheses et Interactions, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Faculte des Sciences, Parc Valrose, 06108, Nice Cedex 2, France) gamma-Sultines: a new class of flavour compounds. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, v. 17: p. 425-431, 2002 (Eng; 24 ref).

3-Propyl-gamma-sultine has been identified for the first time in extracts of yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. Flavicarpa. The chemical structure of this new molecule was confirmed by synthesis. Some other analogues were prepared using a general and efficient method. A biosynthetic pathway involving the presence of 3-sulphanylhexanol as a precursor is proposed. In addition, the chirality of the natural sultine has been evaluated by chiral gas chromatography.

2003-06-3617 Zhao, J.; Yang, X.W.* (State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Peking University, Beijing 100083, China) Four new triterpene saponins from the seeds of Aesculus chinensis. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, v. 5(3): p. 197-203, 2003 (Eng; 7 ref).

Two pairs of new geometrically isomeric triterpenoid saponins were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the seeds of Aesculus chinensis and characterized as 28-acetyl-21-tigloylprotoaescigenin 3-O-{beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 to 2)} {beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 to 4)} beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (isoescin IIa, and 28-acetyl-21- angeloylprotoaescigenin 3-O-{beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 to 2)} beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 to 4)} {beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (isoescin IIb); 28-acetyl-21- tigloylbarringtogenol C 3-O-{beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1 to 2)} {beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 to 4)} beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (isoescin IIIa) and 28-acetyl- 21-angeloylbarringtogenol C 3-O-{beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1 to 2)} {beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 to 4)} beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (isoescin IIIb). Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidence.

2003-06-3618 Zhao, A.H.; Han, Q.B.; Li, S.H.; Wang, F.S.; Zhao, Q.S.; Sun, H.D. (State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204, People’s Republic of China) Four new diterpenoids from Isodon melissoides. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(7): p. 845-847, 2003 (Eng; 8 ref).

Three new 11beta,16beta-epoxy-ent-kauranoids melissoidesins I-K and one new ent-abietanoid melissoidesin L were obtained from the aerial parts of Isodon melissoides. Their structures were established on the basis of the spectral methods, especially two dimensional (2D) NMR spectroscopy.

 

 

Chemotaxonomy

 

2003-06-3619 Bernath, J. (Szent Istvan University, Department of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 1118 Budapest, Villanyi str. 29/45, Budapest, Hungary) New approaches in the production and biological evaluation of Foeniculum. Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (Govil, J.N. et al eds.), Studium Press, LLC, USA, p.109-128, 2004 (Eng; 53 ref).

The genus Foeniculum vulgare shows a large diversity from both morphological and chemical points of view. The chemical distinction of Foeniculum vulgare ssp. Piperitum seems to be a relatively simple procedure because of the presence of piperitone and piperitone oxide, as well as the high accumulation level of limonene. Similarly, in the case of var. Azoricum the relatively low accumulation level of methyl chavicol helps the orientation. The intra-specific chemical classification of F.vulgare subsp. capillaceum var. Vulgare raise much more difficulties. Evaluating reaction of 13 different populations as well as literature references distinction of three chemovarieties (anethole, fenchone and methyl chavicol types) and chemoforms of a lower chemical rank are suggested. On the basis of more detailed biological analysis, the importance of internal (formation of tissues, organic differentiation, development) and external factors (locality, light, temperature, nutrition etc.) on accumulation of both primary and secondary compounds is reviewed. Relative stable and flexible chemical and production biological properties of F.vulgare subsp. Capillaceum var. Vulgare are distinguished and characterised.

2003-06-3620 Kitajima, J.; Kamoshita, A.; Ishikawa, T.; Takano, A.; Fukuda, T.; Isoda, S.; Ida, Y. (Showa Pharmaceutical University, 3 Higashi-Tamagawagakuen, Machida, Tokyo 194-8543, Japan) Glycosides of Atractylodes lancea. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(6): p. 673-678, 2003 (Eng; 20 ref).

Five sesquiterpenoid glycosides (two guaiane-type glycosides and three eudesmane-type glucosides) and a glucoside of an acetylene derivative were newly isolated from the water-soluble portion of the methanolic extract of Atractylodes lancea rhizome together with 26 known compounds. Their structures were characterized on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic investigation. The presence of six characteristic guaiane-type glucosides in rhizomes of A.lancea suggest its close chemotaxonomic relationship with A.japonica.

 

 

Ethnomedicine

 

2003-06-3621 Karthikeyani, T.P. (Ethnopharmacology Unit, Department of Botany, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, TN, India) Studies on ethnogynaecological plants used by the Irulars of Siruvani Hills, Western Ghats, India. Plant Archives, v. 3(2): p. 159-166, 2003 (Eng; 15 ref).

A survey of medicinal plant used for gynaecological diseases by Irulars, inhabiting Siruvani hills, yielded 33 important species belonging to 24 families. The ethnomedicinal inforamtion regarding vernacular name, family name, purpose of usage, mode of preparation, dosage and mixture of other herbs if any are provided. Different plant parts viz., leaf, stem, root, bark, fruits, flowers and even whole plants are administered either raw or in cooked form. The medicinal applications are discussed in the light of the known bioactive compounds.

2003-06-3622 Kotia, A.; Kumar, A. (Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004, Rajasthan, India) Ethnobotanical studies of some medicinal plants collected from semi-arid wasteland of Rajasthan. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 119-125, 2003 (Eng; 9 ref).

The communication deals with traditional medicinal plants grown on wasteland which are used by many tribals of Rajasthan in Jaipur district mostly Mina tribe. Collection of some interesting information on 50 plant species belonging to 26 families used to relieve various fuman ailments was carried out. The plant species are enumerated along with botanical name, vernacular name and ethnomedicinal use. Some of the important plants are Achyranthes aspera, Abutilon indicum, Abrus precatorius, Balanites aegyptiaca, Butea monosperma, Cassia tora, Calotropis procera, Citrullus colocynthis, Cocculus pendulus, Solanum surattensse, Tephrosia purpurea, Sida cordifolia, Withania somnifera, Martynia annua and Tridax procumbens etc..

2003-06-3623 Patel, N.B.; Jain, B.K. (Smt. S.M. Panchal Science College, Talod 383 215, North Gujarat, India) Ethnomedicinal values of some herbaceous species of Dholwani forest at Sabarkantha district in north Gujarat. Advances in Plant Sciences, v. 16(1): p. 29-31, 2003 (Eng; 17 ref).

Ethnobotanical data was collected on 14 species from the Vaidyas and Bhagats dwelling in the hamlets of the Dholwani forest. Data regarding medicinal values of some herbaceous species were collected from the tribals dwelling at the forest areas. Detailed information regarding methodology of the uses of different parts of plant species in curing various diseases of thet ribesman has been provided.

2003-06-3624 Sharma, U.K.; Boissya, C.L. (Department of Botany, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781 014, Assam, India) Menstrual problems: Ethnobotany practices among mising tribes in Dhemaji district of Assam. Advances in Plant Sciences, v. 16(1): p. 17-21, 2003 (Eng; 10 ref).

About 90 percent mising people live in remote areas depend on the natural medicines and have very good knowledge about the medicinal herbs and their uses. Sixteen important plant taxa which are very commonly used by the women in the treatment of menstrual problems are described along with their local names, scientific names and mode of usage.

2003-06-3625 Vishwakarma, V.; Tiwari, J.P. (Department of Plant Physiology, College of Agriculture, JNKVV, Jabalpur, MP, India) Comprehensive survey and documentation of medicinal and aromatic plants of Karondi village (Manohar gram) in central India. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 145-150, 2003 (Eng).

A comprehensive survey of the medico-ethnic flora of Karondi vilalge (Manohar gram), district Katni, (M.P.) situated in central part of the country revealed that the tribal population of this region living under poverty line use the local medicinal plants and their parts for curing their common diseases and ailments. The age old knowledge regarding sources and use of these local plants among these villagers and tribal was collected from more than 50 people through questionnaries and interviews which revealed the use of 57 medicinal plants from 36 families.

 

 

Analytical & Processing Techniques

 

2003-06-3626 Artes-Hernandez, F.; Artes, F.*; Tomas-Barberan, F.A. (Postharvest and Refrigeration Group, Technical University of Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII 48, 30203 Cartagena, Murcia, Spain) Quality and enhancement of bioactive phenolics in Cv. Napoleon table grapes exposed to different postharvest gaseous treatments. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p.5290-5295, 2003 (Eng; 36 ref).

Of the storage methods used best results were obtained with the use of MAP (Modified Atmosphere Packaging) with 5 kPa of O2 plus 15 kPa of CO2 plus 80 kPa of N2. The total anthocyanin content at harvest was 170 +- 19 microg/g of fresh weight (fw) of grapes (Vitis vinifera), which declined in most of the treatments applied and was reflected in the loss of red color. Peonidin 3-glucoside was detected at all sampling times as the major anthocyanin (always more than 50 percent from the total content). Treatments applied kept or decreased the total flavonol content from that measured at harvest (17 +- 1.4 microg/g fw of berries). However, an increase of upto 2-fold in total stilbenoid content after shelf life for CA abd O3 treatments was observed. At all sampling times for almost every treatment piceid concentration remained unaltered or slightly changed, whereas large increases were observed after shelf life for resveratrol (1.2 +- 0.6 microg/g of fw of grapes sampled at harvest), even upto 3- and 4-fold for O3-treated grapes and 2-fold for CA-treated ones. Therefore, improved techniques for the keeping quality of cv. Napoleon table grapes during long-term storage seem to maintain or enhance their antioxidant compound content.

2003-06-3627 Bahulikar, A.S.; Kashalkar, R.V.; Pundlik, M.D.* ( Bhide Foundation for Research and Education in Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, S.P. College, Tilak Road, Pune 411 030, Maharashtra, India) Infrared spectrophotometry in studies on herbal drug triphala churna. Asian Journal of Chemistry, v. 15(2): p. 851-854, 2003 (Eng; 13 ref).

Infrared spectrophotometry is a useful analytical technique for the identification of drugs and is recommended as one of the parameters for testing in various pharmacopoeias. Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia is not referring to sophisticated instrumental analytical techniques for the purpose of characterization and identification of Ayurvedic formulations. Work demonstrates the utility of the IR spectrophotometry in the identification and characterization of Triphala, based on typical characteristic IR frequencies for identifying the herbal drug. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3628 Boue, S.M.; Shih, B.Y.; Carter-Wientjes, C.H.; Cleveland, T.E. (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Southern Regional Research Center, P.O. Box 19687, New Orleans, Louisiana 70179-0687, USA) Identification of volatile compounds in soybean at various developmental stages using solid phase microextraction. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 4873-4876, 2003 (Eng; 13 ref).

Thirty volatile compounds already reported for soybean were recovered, and an additional 19 compounds not previously reported were identified or tentatively identified. The SPME method was utilized to compare the volatile profile of soybean seed at three distinct stages of development. Most of the newly reported compounds in soybean seed were aldehydes and ketones. During early periods of development at maturity stage R6, several volatiles were present at relatively high concentrations, including 3-hexanone, (E)-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, and 3-octanone. At maturity stage R7 and R8, decreased amounts of 3-hexanone, (E)-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, and 3-octanone were observed. At maturity stage R8 hexanal, (E)-2-hepatenal, (E)-2-octenal, ethanol, 1-hexanol, and 1-octen-3-ol were detected at relatively high concentrations. SPME offers the ability to differentiate between the three soybean developmental stages that yield both fundamental and practical information.

2003-06-3629 Careri, M.; Corradini, C.; Elviri, L.; Nicoletti, I.; Zagnoni, I. (Dipartimento di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica, Chimica Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze, 17/A, 43100 Parma, Italy) Direct HPLC analysis of quercetin and trans-resveratrol in red wine, grape, and winemaking byproducts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p. 5226-5231, 2003 (Eng; 30 ref).

A simple and fast reversed-phase HPLC method using diode array detection was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of trans-resveratrol and quercetin in Sicilian red wine from the Nero d’Avola red grape variety. Investigation was also extended to the quantitative determination of resveratrol and quercetin in grape skins and winemaking byproducts obtained from the same cultivar. Samples were eluted using a C18 narrow-bore column under isocratic conditions in less than 20 min. Quantification of trans-resveratrol and quercetin in red wine was performed without any sample pretreatment, whereas the determination of these phenolic compounds in grape skins and wine pomage required a solvent extraction procedure. Linearity was demonstrated over the 0.39-12.5 and 0.45-57.6 microg/mL range for trans-resveratrol and quercetin, respectively. Detection limits in real samples were in the low ppm level (0.07 mg/L for trans-resveratrol and 0.12 mg/L for quercetin). The HPLC-UV/DAD method was applied for the routine analyses of red wine and grape skin and winemaking byproduct extracts to evaluate their trans-resveratrol and quercetin content.

2003-06-3630 Catchpole, O.J.; Grey, J.B.; Perry, N.B.; Burgess, E.J.; Redmond, W.A.; Porter, N.G. (Industrial Research Limited, P.O. Box 31-310, Lower Hutt, New Zealand) Extraction of chili, black pepper, and ginger with near-critical CO2, propane, and dimethyl ether: Analysis of the extracts by quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 4853-4860, 2003 (Eng; 42 ref).

Ginger, black pepper and chilli powder were extracted using near-critical carbon dioxide, propane, and dimethyl, ether on a laboratory scale to determine the overall yield and extraction efficiency for selected pungent components. The temperature dependency of extraction yield and efficiency was also determined for black pepper and chili using propane and dimethyl ether. The pungency of the extracts was determined by using an NMR technique developed for this work. The volatiles contents of ginger and black pepper extracts were also determined. Extraction of all spice types was carried out with acetone to compare overall yields. Subcritical dimethyl ether was as effective at extracting the pungent principles from the spices as supercritical carbon dioxide, although a substantial amount of water was also extracted. Subcritical propane was the least effective solvent. All solvents quantitatively extracted the gingerols from ginger. The yields of capsaicins obtained by supercritical CO2 and dimethyl ether were similar and approximately double that extracted by propane. The yield of piperines obtained by propane extraction of black pepper was low at approximately 10 percent of that achieved with dimethyl ether and CO2, but improved with increasing extraction temperature.

2003-06-3631 Deota, P.T.; Upadhyay, P.R.; Valodkar, V.B. ( Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M.S.University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 001, Gujarat, India) Effect of ultraviolet light absorbers on photostabilization of azadirachtin-A in solution (Part:II). Natural Product Research, v. 17(1): p. 21-26, 2003 (Eng; 12 ref).

The effect of photostabilization of azadirachtin-A (Aza-A) was examined in solutions when exposed to UV radiation, in the presence of four structurally different UV absorbers namely, p-aminobenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 4,4’-dihydroxybenzophenone and phenyl salicylate. The percentages of Aza-A recovered from the solutions after 6 h exposed to UV radiation in the presence and absence of UV absorbers indicated that the order of stabilization of Aza-A by these absorbers was similar to that obtained in the solid phase experiments in accordance with the previous observations. It is observed that the addition of phenyl salicylate in Aza-A (in 1:1 mole ratio) provides the excellent photostabilization of Aza-A molecule in solid phase as well as in solution among the four absorbers studied.

2003-06-3632 Frazier, R.A.; Papadopoulou, A.; Mueller-Harvey, I.; Kissoon, D.; Green, R.J. (School of Food Biosciences, The University of Reading, P.O. Box 226, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AP, United Kingdom) Probing protein-tannin interactions by isothermal titration microcalorimetry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p. 5189-5195, 2003 (Eng; 37 ref).

Isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) has been applied to investigate protein-tannin interactions. Two hydrolyzable tannins were studied, namely myrabolan and tara tannins, for their interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA), a model globular protein, and gelatin, a model proline-rich random coil protein. Calorimetry data indicate that protein-tannin interaction mechanisms are dependent upon the nature of the protein involved. Tannins apparently interact nonspecifically with the globular BSA, leading to binding saturation at estimated tannin/BSA molar ratios of 48:1 for tara- and 178:1 for myrabolan tannins. Tannins bind to the random coil protein gelatin by a two-stage mechanism. The energetics of the first stage show evidence for cooperative binding of tannins to the protein, while the second stage indicates gradual saturagion of binding sites as observed for interaction with BSA. The structure and flexibility of the tannins themselves alters the stoichiometry of the interaction, but does not appear to have any significant affect on the overall binding mechanism observed. This study demonstrates the potential of ITC for providing an insight into the nature of protein-tannin interactions.

2003-06-3633 Gomez-Coronado, D.J.M.; Barbas, C.* (Facultad CC Experimetales y de la Salud, Universidad San Pablo, CEU 28668, Boadilla del Monte, Madrid, Spain) Optimized and validated HPLC method for alpha- and gamma-tocopherol measurement in Laurus nobilis leaves. New data on tocopherol content. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p. 5196-5201, 2003 (Eng; 17 ref).

Extraction and chromatographic conditions for measuring tocopherols from Laurus nobilis were optimized. Newly harvested leaves were dried in a microwave oven and crushed; then, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol and tocol, added as internal standard, were directly extracted from portions of ground material with acetone, by probe sonication. After centrifugation and filtration, the acetonic extract was directly analyzed by HPLC using a gradient elution with a Discovery C18 column (25x0.46 cm) at 35 degree C. UV and fluorescence detections were employed simultaneously. Validation parameters of the method for linearity, accuracy, and precision can be considered to be adequate for both detection modes. After validation, a number of samples selected from different geographical areas in the Iberian peninsula were measured, and results compared with those in the literature gave surprisingly high values.

2003-06-3634 Han, J.Y.; Tyler, R.T. (Department of Applied Microbiology and Food Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A8, Canada) Determination of folate concentrations in pulses by a microbiological method employing trienyme extraction. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p. 5315-5318, 2003 (Eng; 30 ref).

Since 1998, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has mandated that cereal products be fortified with 140 microg of folic acid/100 g. It is important, therefore, to be able to determine accurately the folate concentrations in cereals and other grains to ensure proper dietary intake of folate. A microbiological method employing a trienzyme extraction procedure was applied to the analysis of folate in several starchy grain legumes (pulses). Differences in the folate content of dry bean were observed among some market classes but not between cultivars in the same market class. Location had a significant effect on the folate content of lentil and dry pea; cultivar did not. The significant effect of market class, cultivar, and growth environment on the levels of folate in pulses is of particular importance to pulse processors and pulse breeders.

2003-06-3635 Ichikawa, M.; Udayama, M.; Imamura, K.; Shiraishi, S.; Matsuura, H. (Healthcare Research Institute, Wakunaga Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 1624, Shimokotachi, Koda-cho, Takata-gun, Hiroshima 739-1195, Japan) HPLC determination of (+)-pseudoephedrine and (-)-ephedrine in Japanese herbal medicines containing ephedra herb using solid-phase extraction. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, v. 51(6): p. 635-639, 2003 (Eng; 21 ref).

A HPLC method combined with solid-phase extraction (SPE) has been developed for quantitative analysis of (+)-pseudoephedrine (PEP) and (-)-ephedrine (EP) in Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicines. SPE was performed on TOYOPAK IC-SP M containing propylsulfonic groups. Determination of PEP and EP was carried out using ion-pair reversed-phase HPLC with sodium dodecyl sulfate. N-Benzyldiethylamine was used as an internal standard. The analytical procedure was validated with regard to specificity, linearity, accuracy, and precision. These data suggest that the analytical method developed in this study is useful for quantitative analysis of PEP and EP in various formulations containing Ephedra herb.

2003-06-3636 Ihara, S.; Shimoda(nee Takei), H.; Akiho, Y.; Yoshizaki, F.* (Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, 4-1 Komatsushima 4-chome, Aoba-ku, Sendai 981 8558, Japan) Application of capillary electrophoresis to estimate synephrine levels in Evodia fruit. Natural Medicines, v. 57(3): p. 110-113, 2003 (Eng; 12 ref).

Capillary electrophoresis was applied to the estimation of synephrine levels in Evodia fruit and Chinese medicinal prescriptions that contain this crude drug. An AccuSep capillary column (75 micro m.i.d.x60cm) was used with a solvent of 40mM sodium dihydrogenphosphate-acetonitrile (9:1, adjusted to pH4.5 with phosphoric acid) as the electrophoretic buffer, and 12.5kV as the electrophoretic voltage, to obtain synephrine from Evodia fruit within about 20min. The same analytical conditions were applicable to the separation of synephrine from decoctions of 8 Chinese medicinal prescriptions. The use of 4-dimethylaminopyridine as an internal standard allows the level of synephrine in these drugs to be estimated accurately.

2003-06-3637 Ju, Z.Y.; Howard, L.R.* (Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, 2650 North Young Avenue, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72704, USA) Effects of solvent and temperature on pressurized liquid extraction of anthocyanins and total phenolics from dried red grape skin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p. 5207-5213, 2003 (Eng; 41 ref).

Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was used to extract anthocyanins from the freeze-dried skin of a highly pigmented red wine grape with six solvents at 50 degree C, 10.1 MPa, and 3x5 min extraction cycles. temperature (from 20 to 140 degree C in 20 degree C increments) effects on anthocyanin recovery by acidified water and acidified 60 percent methanol were also studied. Acidified methanol extracted the highest levels of total monoglucosides and total anthocyanins, whereas the solvent mixture (40:40:20:0.1 methanol/acetone/water HCl) extracted the highest levels of total phenolics and total acylated anthocyanins. Acidified water extracts obtained by PLE at 80-100 degree C had the highest levels of total monoglucosides, total acylated anthocyanins, total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and ORAC values. Acidified methanol extracts obtained by PLE at 60 degree C had the highest levels of total monoglucosides and total anthocyanins, whereas extracts obtained at 120 degree C had the highest levels of total phenolics. High-temperature PLE (80-100 degree C) using acidified water, an environmentally friendly solvent, was as effective as acidified 60 percent methanol in extracting anthocyanins from grape skins.

2003-06-3638 Kang, J.S.; Linh, P.T.; Cai, X.F.; Lee, J.J.; Kim, Y.H.* (College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764, Korea) Determination of Chiisanoside in Acanthopanax species by high performance liquid chromatography. Natural Product Sciences, v. 9(2): p. 45-38, 2003 (Eng; 14 ref ).

Chiisanoside was separated from the other components in the plant extracts using Zorbax 300 SB C18 column with gradient elution of acetonitirle. Identification of chiisanoside was carried out by comparison in the LC/MS spectrum of separated peak from extract with that of standard. By HPLC analysis Acanthopanax species could be classified into two groups based upon the content of chiisanoside one with low concentration of chiisanoside, such as A.senticosus and A.koreanum and another with high concentration of chiisanoside such as A.senticosus f.inermis, A.divaricatus var.albeofructus and A.chiisanensis.

2003-06-3639 Li, S.L.; Chan, S.S.K.; Lin, G.*; Ling, L.; Yan, R.; Chung, H.S.; Tam, Y.K. (Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong SAR) Simultaneous analysis of seventeen chemical ingredients of Ligusticum chuanxiong by on-line high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-mass spectrometry. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 445-451, 2003 (Eng; 20 ref).

An on-line high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detector (DAD)-mass spectrometry (MS) analytical method has been developed to simultaneously separate and identify seventeen main constituents of Chaunxiong (Ligusticum chuanxiong, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb. In three Chuanxiong samples, nine compounds were unequivocally determined as vanillin, ferulic acid, senkyunolide, senkyunolide H, senkyunolide A, coniferyl ferulate, Z-ligustilide, neocnidilide and 3-butylidenephthalide by comparing their tr, UV, and MS data with those obtained for the authentic compounds. Furthermore, additional eight compounds were tentatively identified as senkyunolide J, senkyunolide F, 3-butylphthalide, cnidilide, riligustilide or Z,Z’-6,8’,7,3’-diligustilide, tokinolide B (17), levistolide A and senkyunolide P, based on their MS data and the comparison of their UV spectra with the published references. This is the first report to describe the development of an on-line HPLC-DAD-MS method.

2003-06-3640 Marchart, E.; Krenn, L.; Kopp, B.* (Institute of Pharmacognosy, Pharma Center Vienna, University of Vienna, Althanstr 14, 1090 Vienna, Austria) Quantification of the flavonoid glycosides in Passiflora incarnata by capillary electrophoresis. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 452-456, 2003 (Eng; 23 ref).

Capillary electrophoresis has been applied for the separation and quantification of the flavonoids in Passiflorae herba plants of Passiflora incarnata. Separations were performed using 25mM sodium borate with 20 percent methanol (pH 9.5). For the quantification quercetin 3-O-arabinoside was used as internal standard. The method was applied to the determination of the flavonoid glycosides in 10 different commercial samples of the drug and showed similar flavonoid patterns, but differences concerning the single and total amounts of flavonoids. The total flavonoid contents determined with the new method correlated satisfactorily with those achieved by the spectrophotometric assay according to the European Pharmacopoeia.

2003-06-3641 Oberthur, C.; Heinemann, C.; Elsner, P.; Benfeldt, E.; Hamburger, M.* (Institute of Pharmacy, University of Jena, Semmelweisstrasse 10-07743, Jena, Germany) A comparative study on the skin penetration of pure tryptanthrin and tryptanthrin in Isatis tinctoria extract by dermal microdialysis coupled with isotope dilution ESI-LC-MS. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 385-389, 2003 (Eng; 17 ref).

To investigate the skin penetration of tryptanthrin from solutions of pure compound and Isatis tinctoria extracts, a cutaneous microdialysis model using ex vivo pig foreleg has been developed and validated. Microdialysis was performed by placing linear probes in the dermis of the skin in situ and tryptanthrin concentrations in the dialysates were determined by isotope dilution electrospray ionization LC-MS in the selected ion mode. Measurable concentrations of tryptanthrin were detected 30 min after application. A dose-dependent increase in tryptanthrin concentrations in the dialysate was observed for the Isatis extracts, but not for pure tryptanthrin. Microscopic analysis showed that the pure compound crystallized from the solution but remained in an amorphous state in the extracts.

2003-06-3642 Pezet, R.; Perret, C.; Jean-Denis, J.B.; Tabacchi, R.; Gindro, K.; Viret, O. (Swiss Federal Agricultural Research Station for Plant Production of Changins (RAC-Changins), Route de Duillier, CH-1260 NYON, Switzerland) delta-Viniferin, a resveratrol dehydrodimer: One of the major stilbenes synthesized by stressed grapevine leaves. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p.5488-5492, 2003 (Eng; 27 ref).

delta-Viniferin is a resveratrol dehydrodimer, an isomer of theta-viniferin. This compound has been reported as a molecule produced in vitro by the oxidative dimerization of resveratrol by plant peroxidases or fungal laccases. It was also recently identified in wines and in grape cell cultures. This has been identified by NMR, high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), and HPLC-mass spectrometry in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) leaves infected by Plasmopara viticola (downy mildew) or UV-C irradiated. Its concentration was higher than that of theta-viniferin and constitutes one of the most important phytoalexins derived from resveratrol.

2003-06-3643 Pourmortazavi, S.M.; Sefidkon, F.; Hosseini, S.G. (Material and Chemical Engineering Excellency Center, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, P.O. Box 16765-3454, Tehran, Iran) Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oils from Perovskia atriplicifolia Benth. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p. 5414-5419, 2003 (Eng; 29 ref).

The effect of different parameters such as pressure, temperature, modifier identity, and modifier volume on the SFE of the plant was investigated. The extracts were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and compared with the essential oil obtained from Perovskia atriplicifolia by steam distillation. The supercritical extracts and the steam-distilled products had very different compositions. The main constituents of the oil obtained by steam distillation were 1,8-cineole, limonene, camphor, beta-caryophyllene, pinene, camphene, and alpha-humulene. On the other hand, the major components of SFE extracts were 1,8-cineole, limonene, camphor, beta-caryophyllene, gamma-cadinene, alpha-pinene, and alpha terpinyl acetate. The results showed that increasing the temperature from 35 to 65 degree C (at a constant pressure of 100 atm) drastically reduced the number of extracted components. Also, the number of extracted constituents and the percent of main analytes increased when lower pressures were used. Using different modifiers (e.g. methanol, ethanol, dichloromethane, and hexane) for the extraction of the plant at low pressure (100 atm) and temperature (35 degree C) showed that hexane was more selective than the other modifiers.

2003-06-3644 Schieber, A.; Berardini, N.; Carle, R. (Institute of Food Technology, Section Plant Foodstuff Technology, Hohenheim University, Garbenstrasse 25, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany) Identification of flavonol and xanthone glycoside from mango (Mangifera indica L. CV. “Tommy Atkins”) peels by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray lonization mass spectrometry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 5006-5011, 2003 (Eng; 39 ref).

Flavonol O- and xanthone C-glycosides were extracted from mango (Mangifera indica cv."Tommy") peels and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Among the fourteen compounds analyzed, seven quercetin O-glycosides, one kaempferol O-glycoside, and four xanthone C-glycosides were found. On the basis of their fragmentation pattern, the latter were identified as mangiferin and isomangiferin and their respective galloyl derivatives. A flavonol hexoside with m/z 477 was tentatively identified as a rhamnetin glycoside, which to the best of our knowledge, has not yet been reported in mango peels. The results obtained in the present study confirm that peels originating from mango fruit processing are a promising source of phenolic compounds that might be recovered and used as natural antioxidants or functional food ingredients.

2003-06-3645 Suzuki, Y.; Shioi, Y.* (Department of Biology and Geoscience, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka 422-8529, Japan) Identification of chlorophylls and carotenoids in major teas by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(18): p. 5307-5314, 2003 (Eng; 20 ref).

The separation and identification of pigments, chlorophylls, and carotenoids of seven teas and fresh leaf of tea (Camellia sinensis) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are described. HPLC was carried out using a Symmetry C8 column with a photodiode array detector. Pigments were eluted with a binary gradient of aqueous pyridine solution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at 25 degree C. HPLC analyses achieved the separation of more than 100 pigment peaks, and 79 pigment species, 41 chlorophylls, and 38 carotenoiods were detected. The presence of degraded chlorophylls was a common feature, and the number and the variety of pigments differed with tea species. Generally, the numbers of chlorophyll species tended to increase with processing steps, while carotenoid species were decreased, especially by heating. Particularly in green teas, a change of carotenoid structure, conversion of violaxanthin to auroxanthin, occurred. In hot water extracts of teas, both chlorophylls and carotenoids were also detected, but the concentration of chlorophylls was less than 2 percent as compared with acetone extracts.

2003-06-3646 Wang, S.F.; Ju, Y.; Chen, X.G.*; De Hu, Z. ( Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730 000, People’s Republic of China) Separation and determination of coumarins in the root bark of three Citrus plants by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Planta Medica, v. 69(5): p. 483-486, 2003 (Eng; 12 ref).

Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) method for the determination of xanthyletin and xanthoxyletin in the roots bark of three Citrus species viz., (Citrus maxima, C.reticulata and C.medica was developed for the first time. The electrophoresis buffer was 10 mmol/L sodium borate containing 50 mmol/L sodium dodecyl sulfate, 20 percent (v/v) acetonitrile and 10 percent (v/v) methanol (pH 9.8). The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves for xanthyletin and xanthoxyletin are 0.0003 and 0.99999, respectively, over the concentration ranges (16.0-800.0 mg/L; 8.0-400.0 mg/L).

 

 

Miscellaneous

 

2003-06-3647 Benda, W. (The Haworth Herbal Press, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580, USA) Good herb, bad herb: Editorial. Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, v. 3(2): p. 1-3, 2003 (Eng; 20 ref).

Seven percent of Americans use non-prescription weight-loss products, of which 14 percent of them are ingesting ephedra or ephedrine-containing formulations. The risk-benefit ratio is difficult to ascertain, as most trials have been equivocal or methodologically weak. FDA has adopted a policy that ephedra containing products must be labeled with all possible adverse effects including death, contain no more than 8 mg of ephedrine per serving and be used no more than seven days with a maximum daily dose of 24 mg and a ban on ephedra caffeine combination.

2003-06-3648 Chowdhury, A.; Ghosh, S.K.; Ghosh, B.C. (Central Sector Scheme on Development of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur 741 252, WB, Inia) Potentialities and constraints in business of medicinal and aromatic plants in West Bengal. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 59-67, 2003 (Eng).

Contribution of Central Sector Scheme on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants being run at Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya have been reviewed. List of plants to be taken up for cultivation, their market status and demand by Ayurvedic pharmacies have been presented.

2003-06-3649 Gonzalez, M.; Miglioranza, K.S.B.; Aizpun de Moreno, J.E.; Moreno, V.J. (Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata) Organochlorine pesticide residues in leek (Allium porrum) crops grown on untreated soils from an agricultural environment. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, v. 51(17): p. 5024-5029, 2003 (Eng; 33 ref).

Leek (Allium porrum) plants from organic farming were harvested at 15, 59, and 210 days after seed germination. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) levels were quantified by GC-ECD in vegetative tissues (roots and aerial), bulk soil and rhizosphere. Leek plant bioaccumulate OCPs efficiently in their aerial and root tissues and alter the concentration of the soil where they are grown. OCPs distribution pattern of bulk soil was endosulfans greater than DDTs greater than dieldrin, while it was endosulfans greater than HCHs greater than DDTs in leek tissues. There were statistically significant declines in DDTs, chlordane, dieldrin, and heptachlor in the rhizosphere, indicating that recalcitrant residues of OCPs may be removed from contaminated soil using leek crops under normal growin conditions. The DDE/DDT and alpha-/gamma-HCH ratios of less than would indicate recent inputs of DDT and lindane in the environment. The occurrence of OCPs in this farm could be the result of atmospheric deposition and/or surface runoff of these pesticides.

2003-06-3650 Hume, A.L. (Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, West Indies) Herbal medicinal education: University of Pittsburgh. Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, v. 3(2): p. 39-43, 2003 ( Eng).

The School of Pharmacy at the University of Pittsburgh provide Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students with a broad-based understanding of the past, present, and future use of botanicals and complementary medicine. Many prescription drugs in clinical practice are “natural products” and that the term should not be limited to the discussion of dietary supplements as now commonly occurs. “Natural products” including drugs and botanicals are integrated across the curriculum. University of Pittsburgh has maintained a strong level of expertise in pharmacognosy education focuses on the development, discovery, and production of new natural product based drugs spread across the first three years of professional degree program. Pharm D students from the University of Pittsburgh are provided with opportunities both to establish a solid understanding of natural products and skill in complementary medicine through elective didactic and experimental course offerings.

2003-06-3651 Jain, H.K. (40, Surya Niketen, Vikas Marg Extension, Delhi 110 092, India) Scientific transformation of India’s herbal industry: Some strategic considerations. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 8-11, 2003 (Eng).

Need for a scientific transformation of herbal system of medicine the importance of developing a national strategy and plan to achieve this objective has been highlighted. Some of the components for this strategy are: Mediculture - cultivation of genetically improved varieties of plants; integerated approach at national level; DNA finger printing of medicinal plants; documentation of indigenous resources; scientific collection of the plants and preservation of biodiversity; leasing culturable waste land to drug industry for cultivation of plants; chemical characterization of plants; organic cosmetics collaboration between public and private sector in this area; nutritional supplements and health foods and; R&D policy for the development of herbal resources.

2003-06-3652 Johnson, L.L.; Meacham, S.L.*; Kruskall, L.J. ( 4505 Maryland Parkway, Box 53026, Las Vegas, NV 89154-3026, USA) The antioxidants- vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Journal of Agromedicine, v. 9(1): p. 65-82, 2003 (Eng; 40 ref).

In April of 2000, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences released (Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium and Carotenoids). These recent revisions have been reviewed. Role of these nutrients in human health and their natural sources have also been discussed.

2003-06-3653 Kak, S.N. (R.R.L., Canal Road, Jammu Tawi 180 001, JK, India) Promising essential oil and aroma chemical bearing plants of future. Fafai Journal, v. 5(2): p. 39-42, 2003 (Eng).

Essential oils plants are natural sources of variety of aroma chemicals widely used by essential oil and allied industries across the world. About 1300 plant species in nature contain essential oils, aroma chemicals, but out of these only 65 essential oil bearing plants have been exploited for commercial use for wide application in the industry. This include: cedar wood oils, fir needle oil, cypress oil, juniper berry oil, artemisia oil, oak moss, angelica oil, tagetes oil, agarwood oil, costus root oil, patchouli oil, etc. Study was also undertaken to highlight some of the novel and newer essential oil which has potential world market. NSL, New Delhi.

2003-06-3654 Kasera, P.K.; Shukla, J.K.; Prakah, J.; Saharan, P.; Naruka, I.S. (Laboratory of Plant Ecology, Department of Botany, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur 342 001, Rajasthan, India) Yield potential and benefit-cost ratio of thre important medicinal plants of the Indian arid zone. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 165-168, 2003 (Eng; 9 ref).

In the present studies, yield potential and benefit-cost ratio has been worked out in Evolvulus alsinoides, Prosopis cincraria and Salvadora persica, three important medicinal plants growing in the Indian arid zone. Cultivation of E.alsinoides yields 4.51 times more monetary benefit from investment within one season. However, cultivation of P.cineraria and S.persica yields 1.65 and 1.35 times more benefits as compared to investments made, respectively after two years of growth period.

2003-06-3655 Kelkar, G.D. (Kelkar Industries, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India) Value addition in essential oils. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 12-16, 2003 (Eng).

Developments in essential oil production in India and their uses have been reviewed under 3 groups viz; Group I- Where production of essential oils is more than Rs.100 crores per year (cold pressed orange oil, lemon oil, Mentha arvensis oil, Mentha piperita oil, Mentha spicata oil and rose oil; Group II- production between Rs.50-100 crores for year (cedarwood oil, jasmine absolute and concrete, patchouli oil, citronella oil, lavandin oil, and vetiver oil); and Group III- production between Rs.25 crore to 50 crores per year (bergamot oil, clove leaf oil, ylang ylang oil, coriander oil, lavender oil, geranium oil and lime oil). Cooperation between industry and grovers has lead to successful cultivation of patchouli in coastal areas.

2003-06-3656 Kumar, S.; Pandey Rai, S.; Rai, S.K. (National Center for Plant Genome Research (NCPGR), Post Box 10531, JNU Campus, New Delhi 110 067, India) Research and development approaches for advancing the contribution of medicinal and aromatic plant commodities to increase profit of farmers, generate new jobs and improve availability of fragrance, flavour and therapeutic materials. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 20-23, 2003 (Eng).

R&D and extension strategies for improving the Indian contribution to the international market of fragrance, flavour and therapeutic materials derived from medicinal and aromatic plants have been discussed. Integeration of medi- and agriculture, summer cropping of mint in the Indo-Gangetic places, companion cropping of rose-scented geranium with vegetables, patchouli cultivation under fruit-trees, R&D work to develop essential oils and terpenes as agrichemicals and pharmaceuticals, breeding of medicinal plants as industrial crops, phytocellular production of high value compounds and genetic enginering to develop mint varieties for specific terpenes.

2003-06-3657 Pillai, K.S. (Fredrick Institute of Plant Protection and Toxicology (FIPPAT), Padappai, Kerala, India) Propagate Ayurveda by preserving it. Proceedings of WHO Training-cum-Workshop on Quality, Safety and Efficacy of Drugs of Indian System of Medicine, . 181-182, 10-12, April 2002 (Eng).

To preserve the terminology ‘Ayurveda’ and propagate the importance of the Ayurvedic medicines throughout the world, certain principles have to be followed. In the real sense, the terminology Ayurveda is dying. USFDA puts all herbal medicines under the category of botanicals. Though acupunture and homeopathy are frequently quoted by the USFDA, Ayurveda has not given due importance. It is not because USFDA is unaware of Ayurveda, but they find it as a difficult task to differentiate a plant-based medicine from a traditional Ayurvedic medicine. The reason being that this has been wrongly propagated that the medicines made of plants are Ayurvedic medicines. Also, all South Asian countries manufacture plant-based medicines. If the plant-based medicines manufactured in India can be named as Ayurvedic medicines, then the plant-based medicines manufactured in other countries can also be called as Ayurvedic medicines. The question is, whether an Ayurvedic medicine can be manufactured following the traditional methodology?. For most of the modern scientific, the system of preparation of Ayurvedic, an ayurvedic medicine can be prepared by following the classical ayurvedic method. Further the quality and batch-wise consistency of the medicines should be maintained by following all modern quality control devices. One should merchandize herbal medicines as an Ayurvedic medicines only remaining within the system of Ayurveda.

2003-06-3658 Rawat, R.B.S. (National Medicinal Plants Board, Govt. of India, New Delhi, India) Strategy to development of medicinal plants sector in India. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 24-28, 2003 (Eng).

Activities of Medicinal Plants Board, promotional and commercial schemes launched by the Board have been described. Thirty-one species which are in high demand both in domestic and international market are enlisted. These plants are to be brought into cultivation as they constitute a bulk of ingredients used in various formulations. Statewise distribution of Govt. projects and the number of NGOs project in 30 states have been tabulated.

2003-06-3659 Schuman, S.H.  Plant chemicals: poisons and cure (editorial). Journal of Agromedicine, v. 9(1): p. 17-21, 2003 (Eng; 8 ref).

History of use of plants as medicine and poisons has been briefly reviewed with examples of Digitalis purpurea, cinchona, ergot, St. Anthony’s fire and birch bark fungus (Piptosporous betulinus).

2003-06-3660 Sharma, J.R.; Lal, R.K.; Mishra, H.O. (Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow 226 015, UP, India) Scope and utility of the first non-narcotic seed poppy var.Sujata: commercial exploitation. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 77-86, 2003 (Eng; 13 ref).

A novel non-narcotic (opiumless and alkaloid-free) var.Sujata of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) was developed at CIMAP Lucknow for the first time in the world. This is a fine example of genetic conversion of narcotic ‘opium poppy’ into non-narcotic ‘seed poppy’. Social, scientific and industrial significance of the variety of poppy for India has been elaborated.

2003-06-3661 Sujatha, K.; Pranay Kumar, M.; Rao, A.P. (Department of Sericulture, Kakatiya University, Warangal 506 009, AP, India) Effect of certain plant extracts on cocoon characters of silkworm, Bombyx mori Linn. Journal of Experimental Zoology India, v. 6(2): p. 317-319, 2003 (Eng; 7 ref).

The effect of leaf extract Azadirachta indica and Vitex negunda at different concentrations viz. 0.1 percent, 1.0 percent, 2.5 percent and 5.0 percent on silkworm was studied. There was significant improvement in silk ratio percent and filament length at 2.5 percent concentration of neem extract and all the concentration of Vitex leaf extract. But the cocoon and shell weight decreased in comparison to control.

2003-06-3662 Sujatha, K.; Rao, A.P. (Department of Sericulture, Kakatiya University, Warangal 506 009, AP, India) Effect of fortification of mulberry elaf with phytochemicals on the commercial traits of silkworm, Bombyx mori Linn. Journal of Experimental Zoology India, v. 6(2): p. 321-323, 2003 (Eng; 7 ref).

The fifth instar larvae of Bombyx mori (Swarna Andhra) were fed on mulberry leaves fortified with 0.1 percent, 1.0 percent, 2.0 percent and 5.0 leaf extract of Eucalyptus globulus till the onset of spinning. The total rearing period was reduced in comparison to normal with all concentration of E.globulus. There was improvement in economical characters such as cocoon weight, shell weight, silk ratio percent and filament length at 1.0 percent concentration of Eucalyptus leaf extract.

2003-06-3663 Thakur, R.S. (Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants(CIMAP), Lucknow 226 001, UP, India) Some emerging codncepts in natural product chemistry for value addition of herbal preparations. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 17-19, 2003 (Eng).

Singificance of genetically modified plants, preservation of plants in situ and cultivation on cooperative basis, patenting and protection of intellectual property rights and, newer techniques of screening and processing have been briefly discussed.

2003-06-3664 Yermul, O.S.; Yermul, S. (F-4, Danraj Apartment, 1224, Apte Road, Deccan Gymkhana, Pune 411 004, Maharashtra, India) Indian perfumes (attars) 2. Types and manufacturing methods. Fafai Journal, v. 5(2): p. 35-37, 2003 (Eng).

The main types of attars are Floral attars, herbal and spicy attars, and others. florals attars are made from gulab (rose), kewda (Pandanus odoratissimus), motia (Jasminum sambac), chameli (Jasminum grandiflorum). Musk, hina and spicy materials are some of the materials used in herbal and spicy attars. Some of the manufacturing methods of attars such as traditional steam distillation, enfleurage, hydralanic expression etc. has been dealt with. NSL, New Delhi.

 

 

New Publications

 

2003-06-3665  (ICMR, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110 029, India) Quality Standard for Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol. 1, 2003, pp. xvi+262, colour plates 70, figures, 65, ISSN: 0972-7213, Price Rs. 600 and US dollar 40.0.  (Eng).

The volume under review deals with monographic profile of 32 plants starting from Abutilon indicum to Wedellia chinensis. Monograph on each plant provides information on: botanical name with authority, synonym, part(s) used as drug, geographical source; names of the drug in different languages; macroscopic and microscopic description of the drug, with special emphasis on diagnostic characters of the part(s) used along with colour photographs of the plant, part(s) used and illustrated diagrams of histological features. Information on chemical constituents and structure of important compounds; identity test based on different functional groups and TLC/GLC fingerprint profiles along with marker compound(s); assay/analytical methods for the analysis of marker compound along with detailed procedure and chromatograms; other quantitative standards such as foreign matter, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, ethanol-soluble fractions, water-soluble fractions and loss on drying; adulterants/substitutes if any; important pharmacological and clinical studies; therapeutic category; safety aspects; and dosage as mentioned in Ayurvedic texts or as reported in other scientific publications along with references is also provided. Methods of evaluation of crude drugs, phytochemical evaluation of raw material, isolation of markers, drying and storage of raw material, pesticides, residues and microbial contamination and plant allocated to various institutions are also given in appendices (I-VI) at the end along with indices on botanical names, chemical constituents and other names of plants.

2003-06-3666 Buslig, B.S.; Manthey, J.A.(Ed.) (Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, USA) Flavonoids in cell function. 2002 Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, ISBN 0-306-47254-6, US dollars 115.00/ pounds 81.50. Phytochemistry, v. 63(7): p. 847, 2003 (Eng).

At the disease end of the spectrum, the potential for flavonoids as useful dietary chemopreventive agents is given in chapter on the Inhibition of aberrani crypt formation by the dietary flavonoids (+)-catechin and hesperidin. In addition Folts’ exposition of the potential cadioprotective benefits of purple grape flavonoids in inhibiting atherosclerosis through a variety of potential mechanisms, including improvement of endothelial function, inhibition of platelet aggregation and reducing properties, includes an elegant background to the mechanism by which cells in the vessel wall contribute tothe disease process, as well as very convincing results involving 15 patients. The final chapter of the book is the major feature that is implied by the title, namely, Flavonoids and gene expression in mammalian cells. Although brief, very well-referenced survey of the way flavonoids appear to regulate gene expression through interactions with potein transcription factors.

2003-06-3667 Chrubasik, S.; Roufogalis, B.D. (eds). (Southern Cross University Press, Australia) Herbal Medicinal Products for the Treatment of Pain, 2000, 184 pp., price: Australian dollar 45.00, ISBN 1-875855-47-5. (SC). Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 625-626, 2003 (Eng).

The book is divided into the following 4 segments: i) general aspects of the mechanisms of action and pharmacology; ii) phyto-antiinflammatory drugs for oral and external use; iii) phyto-antimigraine drugs and iv) phyto-antidepressants. This is an especially important area of phytomedicine research as the diversity of pain management therapeutics is quite limited in the practice of modern medicine. In summary, this is an extremely useful collection of studies on the pharmacology, efficacy and current understanding of the mechanims of action of phytomedicines utilized to treat and manage pain. The reader may finish this volume hoping that the world of traditional medicine will also yield additional new oral treatments for pain that can provide alternatives to the opiate based drugs. Rudolf Bauer’s chapter contained a fascinating tribute to traditional medicine and anti-rheumatic plant medicines. He noted that the flora of China contains approximately 26.092 vascular plants and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) utilizes 4,941 (19 percent) of these plant species. The number of TCM plants utilized as anti-rheumatics is 1,318 species, that is 25 percent of the medicinal plants in China are used for anti-inflammatory purposes. As Bauer pointed out most of them have not been evaluated by the field of pharmaceutical biology. The volume represents research by some of the world’s leading pharmacologists trying to elucidate the effects and mechanism of action of plant phytomedicines that have been discovered based on the knowledge of local and indigenous peoples of the world. There is very little mention of the specific origins of these plant medicines in the text and that is, of course, not the focus of this volume. The five chapters on Harpagophytum procumbens do not mention that the San Bushman have been using devil’s claw for millennia. The San Bushman recently entered into a benefit sharing agreement with European and American Pharmaceutical companies for an anti-obesity drug candidate that was extracted from a species in the genus Hoodia, which the San Bushman utilize to stave off hunger during periods of famine.

2003-06-3668 Govil, J.N.; Ananda Kumar, P.; Singh, V.K. eds. ( Division of Genetics, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012, India) Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Vol. 4. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Studium Press, LLC, USA, 2004, 505 pp., Hard bound, ISBN: 0-9656038-9-X.  (Eng).

Volume fourth of the series “Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants” provides a comprehensive account of the advances made in the application of biotechnology and genetic engineering techniques for micropropagation and in vitro conservation of medicinal plants. Efficient procedures for the production of secondary metabolites, expression of recombinant antibodies and edible vaccines, production of anticancer drugs and application of biotechnolgy are the other interesting chapters included in the volume.

2003-06-3669 Itokawa, H.; Lee, K.H.(Ed.) (Taylor & Francis Inc., London and New York) Taxus: The Genus Taxus, 2003, 474 pages with extensive illustrations and tables, ISBN 0-415-29887-7, price: pounds 90.00 (US 145.00 dollars). Phytochemistry, v. 63(7): p. 848-849, 2003 (Eng).

Volume, number 32 of the series “Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles”, is intended to update the 1995 compendia “Taxol Science and Application”. Chapter 1 provides the standard historical overview with emphasis on taxoid isolation and analytics, and a discussion of the nomenclature problem. Chapter 2 on the biosynthesis of taxoids; much recent work is not covered. Chapter 3, Covers the naturally occurring taxoids well, Chapter 4 describes physical methods for taxoid identification, and the compilation of NMR spectra provided here is a useful resource. Chapter 5 provides a compact overview of Taxus tissue culture methods and approaches in readily accessible tabular form. Chapter 6 describes commercial cultivation of Taxus, a topic rarely reviewed, and Chapter 7 covers analytical aspects, including large-scale processing, with very thorough treatment. Chapter 8 reviews the chemistry of the taxoids. The organization and emphases differ from Kingston’s 2000 review in Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products. Chapter 9, provides a comprehensive retrospective overview to Taxol total syntheses. Chapter 10 on structure activity relationship is also notable. The coverage of this important topic is exceptionally thorough, and the summaries are useful. Chapter 11, on preclinical and clinical studies is also outstanding.

2003-06-3670 Roshchina, V.V. (Science Publishers, Enfield, New Hampshire) Neurotransmitters in plant life. Science Publishrs, Enfield, New Hampshire, 2000 pp., ISBN 1-57808-142-4, Price: US dollars 87.50. Phytochemistry, v. 63(3): p. 373, 2003 (Eng).

The book is very useful for those who would like to enter this rather forgotten field of plant biology. It provides any potential reader with an extensive and well organized source of information using almost all accessible sources.

2003-06-3671 Rotblatt, M.; Ziment, I.(eds) (Philadelphia, Hanley & Belfus, Inc, USA) Evidence-Based Herbal Medicine, 2002, (dollar 40, soft bound, available for purchase online at: http://www.hanleyandbelfus.com). Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy, v. 3(2): p. 53-59, 2003 (Eng).

The evidences that exist on the efficacy and safety of commonly used herbal agents have been described to enable the healthcare practitioners in selecting a rational herbal formulary. The text is organised into five chapters: Introduction to Herbal Medicine, Herb Evaluations, Special Topics, Essays and Commentaries and Appendices. It is based on an extensive literature search of MEDLINE, the Cochrane Collaboration, and bibliographies of herbal textbooks and articles published through July 2001 on clinical trials of herbal products. Individual evidence based up-to-date evaluation of 65 herbal medicinals are included and properly indexed.

2003-06-3672 Satyajit; Sarkar, D.; Maruyama, Y.(eds). (Taylor & Francis Inc., London) Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles. Vol. 28: Magnolia, 2002, 187 pp., Price: pound 65.00, dollar 110.00, ISBN 0-415-28494-5 (HC). Phytomedicine, v. 10(5): p. 447, 2003 (Eng).

Volume 28 of the well-established series Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Industrial Profiles comprises a treatment of the medicinally important genus Magnolia. Editors present a thorough compilation of research on Magnolia. The volume features botanical aspects, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Magnolia, as well as aspects of usage in traditional medicine, quality control and commercial cultivation of selected species. Due to the extraordinary importance of the genus in Asian medicinal systems, many contributions are made by Chinese and Japanese authors. The book begins with a brief botanical overview of the genus, and a chapter about the traditional medicinal uses of Magnolia, describing the various Kampo prescriptions containing bark of Asian Magnolia and their activities. The following comprehensive chapter on phytochemistry of the genus summarizes research results available to date of nearly 40 investigated Magnolia species. The authors effectively illustrate the reader the richness of Magnolia chemistry, providing also with a search by species or by compound name. All compounds thus far found in Magnolia are listed and discussed in a chemical, as well as a chemotaxonomic, context. A valuable list of approximately 100 relevant references is found in this chapter. Other chapters summarizes aspects of bioactivity and pharmacology of Magnolia, primarily focusing on the literature of the past 10-15 years. The many activities are categorized and subsequently discussed in such a way that the information is easy to access. Magnolia medicines in the complex field of anxiolytic activity are discussed.

2003-06-3673 van Wyk, B.; van Herden, F.; Oudtshoorn Briza ( Briza, Pretoria, South Africa) Poisonous Plants of South Africa. South Africa, 2002, 288 pp., ISBN 1-875093-30-3, US 45 dollars. Phytochemistry, v. 63(7): p. 847-848, 2003 (Eng).

The selection is pretty comprehensive, ranging from Quercus robur, which cannot be very dangerous in South Africa, to Hyaenanthus globosa, which is toxic. Each native plant has two pages, one with a description, account of the pharmacology and distribution, and the chemical formula of the main toxic constituent, where known, together with leading references. Occasionally, two or more related species are dealt with on the same page. On the facing page are photographs of the plant or plants. The exotics are dealt with more briefly, having one page each with similar information in a more condensed form. The language is English, but Afrikaans names of plants, and of specific illnesses caused by them are also given.

Patents

2003-06-3674  (Provexis Company Limited, Manchester, United Kingdom) Fruit extracts, European Patent, EP 1334728, 2003.  (Eng).

Many fruits and vegetables can help to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and some form of cancers. Apart from this, Provexis company of Manchester has reported that many fruits have heart saving function viz., it can inhibit platelet aggregation, helping to thin the blood and prevent heart attacks and strokes. The extracts are water soluble unlike lipid soluble carotenoids, appear to prevent the synthesis of thromboxane A2. The aggregation causing compound that is also blocked by aspirin. The extracts can be included in functional food or prepared as prescribed pharmaceuticals, and should the company claims, present less side effects than synthetic drugs.

2003-06-3675  (Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), P.O. CIMAP, CSIR, Lucknow, UP, India) Towards sustainability in menthol mint production- New mentha variety “Saksham”, US 13,279, 2002.  (Eng).

A superior second generation variety christened as ‘Saksham’(meaning capable) has been developed through improved genetic regulation of biosynthetic pathway. This new and distinct variety, (Mentha arvensis) in which higher accumulation of menthol coupled with improved essential oil and herbage yield has been credited. This variety, retains the characteristics of tolerance to leaf spot, rust and powdery mildew of parent ‘Himalaya’variety.

2003-06-3676 Farooqi; Abad, A.H.; Sharma, k; Kumar, Sushil ( Council of Scientific and Industrial Researchm New Delhi, India) Herbal skin care formulation and a process for the preparation thereof, US US 6,368,639, 2002.  (Eng).

The invention relates to a herbal skin care formulation comprising of beeswax, stearic acid, glycerol monostearate, olive oil, aloe gel, glycerine, triethanolamine, parabens, propylene glycol, essential oils, sandalwood oil, and the balance comprising rose water. The invention also relates to a process for the preparation of the formulation.

2003-06-3677 Ziegler, R.H. (1901 Avenue of the Stars, suite 700, Los Angeles, CA) Compositions and methods for treatment of diabetes, US. 0068704, 2001 (Eng).

Flavonoids, especially luteolin, are shown to be effective against insulin dependent (Type 1) and insulin independent (Type II) diabetes mellitus. It is demonstrated that luteolin works in mammals by binding and blocking the K, sub.vl.3 potassium channel of T-cell and Beta cells. Antidiabetes and antiautoimmune compounds can be selected by measuring their ability to bind to and block the L.sub.vl.3 channel.

 

 

Marketing and Trade

 

2003-06-3678 Chowdhury, A.R. (Department of Essential Oil Chemistry, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow 226 001, UP, India) Indigenous production of essential oils. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 71-76, 2003 (Eng; 6 ref).

Production of essentail oils in India has been reviewed under the following sub-heads: traditional essential oil industry, modern essential oil industry and aromatic plants used as drug and their properties, sedative, stomachic, cardiac, hypnotic diuretic, anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic, antigripe, bronchodilator, bio-stimulant, carminative, and stimulant properties have been tabulated. indian market prices of 55 essential oils produced in India have also been provided.

2003-06-3679 Loew, D.; Franz, G. (Clinical Pharmacology, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany) Quality aspects of traditional and industrial kava-extracts. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 610-612, 2003 (Eng; 10 ref).

An aqueous decoction of Piper methysticum has been used since centuries of Pacific Island at social religious-ceremonial and social events without hepatotoxic side effects in contrast to the speculation on industrial Kava preparations. It was assumed that the traditional non-alcoholic drink contains a spectrum of other constituents compared to the acetonic and ethanolic extracts. The TLC-analysis demonstrates, however, that under qualitative aspects there is no difference between aqueous and acetonic and ethanolic extracts respectively.

2003-06-3680 Prasad, B. (Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homoeopathy, Government of India, New Delhi, India) Emerging global market scenario: Opportunity and challenges for drug industries of Indian systems of medicine. Proceedings of WHO Training-cum-Workshop on Quality, Safety and Efficacy of Drugs of Indian System of Medicine, . 113-119, 10-12, April 2002 (Eng; 3 ref).

According to WHO estimate the global market for traditional therapies stands at US dollar 60 billion a year and it is steadily growing. Further, it has been estimated that the market will go upto US dollar 5 trillion a year by 2050 and US dollar 2 trillion by 2020. There are various other estimates for the global market of traditional medicines. As per ORG-MARG projctions in the year 2002 it was estimated 30 billion dollars. A comprehensive analysis of the situation reveals that this fast growing market is emerging fiercely competitive both at internal and international level. But there are some developments in USA and Europe which may restrict the exports of Indian products by different legislative measures, in the name of quality control. Some measures to improve the acceptable norms of ISM has been briefly described.

2003-06-3681 Shasany, A.K.; Saikia, D.; Khanuja, S.P.S. ( Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow 226 015, UP, India) Medicinal plant trade, value addition and bio-technology. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 68-70, 2003 (Eng; 1 ref).

The herb based pharma business is approximately 60 billion US dollars. Compared to the annual business of about US dollars 1.7 billion of the herbal medicine in Germany, US consumer market is worth US dollars 4 billion. Globally, sales of herbal medicines are growing by about 10 percent annually. From an estimated 250,000 flowering plants in the world the pharmaceutical industry produces only a few hundred medicines from plants. In the field of herbal medicine, prescription drugs that have plant compounds as at least one of the constituent come from just 95 species. Currently, the medicinal plant-based business is rising at a dramatic pace and many plant species are on the verge of extinction. The present scenario has been reviewed under the following sub-headings: trade versus plants, sustainability, issues and the biotechnological issues.

2003-06-3682 Singh, J.; Singh, A.K.; Pravesh, R. (Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow 226 015, UP, India) Production and trade potential of some important medicinal plants: An overview. Proceedings of First National Interactive Meet on Medicinal & Aromatic Plants(eds A K Mathur et al) CIMAP, Lucknow, UP, India, p. 50-58, 2003 (Eng).

Information on production and trade potential of medicinal plants in India has been reviewed under the following sub-heads: medicinal plants resource utilization, availability and distribution of major medicinal plants, medicinal plant resources under threat, availability of medicinal plants in different bio-geographical zones in India, regulation of trade of endangered medicinal plant species, cultivation of medicinal plants for production of quality materials, selection and prioritization of medicinal plants species for cultivation, trade potential of Indian medicinal plants, distribution channel, promising Indian medicinal plants, phytopharmaceuticals, plants used in cosmetic and aroma therapy, and export potential.

2003-06-3683 Steinhoff, B.  Traditional herbal medicinal products: An update. Phytomedicine, v. 10(6-7): p. 624, 2003 (Eng; 2 ref).

This Directive will amend the existing European Directive 2001/83/EC which provides the basic requirements for marketing authorization of a medicinal product including the proof of quality, safety and efficacy. In addition to the existing system, the new provisions, which will probably form Articles 16a to 16h of the existing Directive, will introduce a simplified registration procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products which are harmless and of proven quality and whose efficacy is based on tradition and experience instead of clinical trials or reference to bibliographies. European Commission in April 2003 has adopted several important modifications: The competence of the new Committee for Herbal Medicinal Product will be extended including in particular the arbitration procedure for these products in the European decentralised marketing authorization system; Apart from herbal substances, the scope of the Directive and the option to use the simplified registration procedure will also comprise combinations of herbals with non-herbal ingredients. Thus, these products might contain vitamins or minerals or other substances with a mode of action that must be “ancillary” to that of the herbal active ingredients; Regarding the period of tradition, as a rule 30 years of use must be documented in total and at least 15 years in the Community. However, in terms of products coming from outside the Community and not being able to demonstrate these 15 years, the new Committee shall be empowered to analyse whether the available information on the use is sufficient. The statement on the label and in the leaflet which indicates the traditional use of the product will be re-worded without a disclaimer and state that safety and efficacy of the product rely exclusively on information obtained from its long-term use and experience instead of saying that clinical data is lacking. The same applies for the requirements on advertising.