Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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VOLUME 69

NUMBER 8

AUGUST 2010

CONTENTS

Review

575

Effect of impurities on performance of biodiesel: A review


Sangita Banga & Pradeep K Varshney

This paper reviews effect of impurities formed during transesterification process and how biodiesel can be made free from impurities. It also highlights effect on performance of long term storage of biodiesel.

Management & Information Technology

580

Solutions for improving reliabilities of DVB-T/H transmitters, systems and networks






















A Kosi & M Solar

This study presents improving reliability of transmission equipment and digital television network. Solutions for exciter and power amplifiers are presented at transmitter level. Complex solutions (dual drive, N+1, N+M, etc.) are demonstrated at system level. Reliability and coverage aspects in both multi- and single frequency networks are presented at network level. Also, solutions presented to failures of individual parts and transmitter architecture for improving transmitter reliability.

586

Methodology for estimation of CO2 reduction from mass rapid transit system (MRTS) projects






N Sharma, S Gangopadhyay & R Dhyani

Mass rapid transit system (MRTS) have been provided in major cities in developed countries to improve public transportation system. There is a huge potential of reducing CO2 emissions from transportation sector, particularly from projects like MRTS. Further, there are growing opportunities for various public transportation projects to earn carbon credits under CDM (Clean development mechanism) as per provisions of Kyoto Protocol. Using proposed methodology, reduction in CO2 due to MRTS and other public transportation projects can be estimated conveniently, and also estimate other emissions (CO, HC, SPM/PM10 and NOX) from other similar public transportation related projects.

S & T and Industrial Research

594

Radial force reduction for switched reluctance motor with skewed slot structure based on FEM













Haijun Zhang
, Jingjun Zhang &
Ruizhen Gao

This study presents designing of rotor with skewed slot structure and reduction of radial force and vibration of switched reluctance motor (SRM). Finite element method (FEM) analyzed static structural and electromagnetic problems. Simulated results showed that electromagnetic radial force was reduced (23.3%).

600

Active marker based kinematic and spatio-temporal gait measurement system using LabVIEW vision






















Neelesh Kumar, Nissan Kunju,
Amod Kumar & B S Sohi

This study presents an automated, easy to use, cost-effective, patient-friendly, active marker based gait measurement (GM) system for 2-D tracking and extraction of spatio-temporal parameters of human gait. Active markers, consisting of visible light-emitting diodes (LEDs), were positioned at anatomical landmarks to measure coordinated kinematics of human joints. Acquired image data were processed and analyzed using LabVIEW vision for determination of spatio-temporal parameters.

606

Optimization of multiple-machining characteristics in wire electrical discharge machining of punching die using Grey relational analysis




Kamal Jangra, Ajai Jain &
Sandeep Grover

This study presents optimization of performance characteristics in wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) using Taguchi method and Grey relational analysis. Performance characteristics (cutting speed, surface roughness and dimensional lag) were investigated during rough cutting operation. Process parameters (peak current, pulse-on, pulse-off, wire speed and wire tension) were investigated using mixed L18 orthogonal array.

S & T and Industrial Research

613

Stabilization of DEAE cellulose adsorbed and glutaraldehyde crosslinked white radish (Raphanus sativus) peroxidase
























Humaira Ashraf & Qayyum Husain

Present work demonstrates adsorption of ammonium sulphate fractionated proteins of white radish (Raphanus sativus) on DEAE cellulose and its crosslinking by glutaraldehyde. Adsorbed enzyme exhibited an immobilization yield of 88% and its activity decreased to 81% after crosslinking. Soluble enzyme lost 27% activity after its exposure to 4.0 M urea for 1 h, whereas activity of adsorbed crosslinked and uncrosslinked enzyme was enhanced to 153% and 142%, respectively. Adsorbed and crosslinked peroxidase retained 63% activity after 1 h exposure to 1.0 M sodium sulphite, whereas only adsorbed and soluble enzyme lost 74% and 97% of their initial activity. Adsorbed and crosslinked enzyme retained 61% of activity after 7th repeated use as compared to adsorbed enzyme, which retained a marginal activity of 21%.

621

Pristine, purified and polyaniline-coated tamarind seed (Tamarindus indica) biomaterial powders for defluoridation: Synergism and enhancement in fluoride-adsorption by polyaniline coating






















E Subramanian & R Dhana Ramalakshmi

This study reports defluoridation performed with tamarind seed (TS) (Tamarindus indica) powders. From three types [pristine (PriTS), purified (PurTS) and polyaniline (Pani)] coated (50 and 90% w/w) TS, PriTS and PurTS powders were used in batch mode for adsorption of fluoride ion (F-) (1-10 mg/l solutions). Adsorption capacities (Q) of PriTS 75, 150 and 300 m particles were 10.6, 7.1 and 4.8 mg/g respectively. Thus, with highest Q (10.7 mg/g) and avoidance of leaching, Pani-coated PriTS 50% is most efficient and employable adsorbent for domestic defluoridation.

S & T and Industrial Research

629

In-vitro dissolution rate enhancement of poorly water soluble non-steroidal antiandrogen agent, bicalutamide, with hydrophilic carriers



M V Srikanth, G V Murali Mohan Babu,
S A Sunil, N Sreenivasa Rao &
K V Ramana Murthy

This study presents dissolution rate enhancement of poorly water soluble antiandrogen agent, bicalutamide, using different solubilizing enhancers (Povidone K 30 and Poloxamer 407). Poloxamer 407 based dispersions exhibited higher dissolution rate than Povidone K 30. FTIR studies showed that drug used was compatible with carriers. Solid dispersions prepared with povidone K30 changed crystalline form of drug to amorphous form.

Energy and Environment

635

Experimental investigation on a solar tunnel drier for copra drying

















S Ayyappan & K Mayilsamy

A natural convection solar tunnel drier (STD) was developed for copra drying under meteorological conditions of Pollachi, India. STD reduced moisture content from 52.2% to 8% in 57 h under full load and 52 h under half load conditions. Average efficiency of STD was estimated as 20%. Quality of copra obtained was good (84.66% Milling copra Grade 1) as compared to open sun drying (53%).

639

Wear and tear analysis of a single cylinder diesel engine using karanja biodiesel (B20) after 512 hours

















Dilip Kumar Bora, L M Das & M K G Babu

This study presents effects of biodiesel blends namely B20K fuel (80% diesel + 20% Karanja biodiesel) on single cylinder diesel engine performance and lubricating oil under two long duration endurance tests of 512 h. SAE grade 15W 40 engine oil was used for both the tests. Experimental results indicated that engine can be safely operated with B20 fuel, without significant changes in engine power, fuel economy and lubricating oil properties.

 

Waste Treatment and Utilization

643

Microbiological investigation of activated sludge in sequencing batch bioreactor for urban wastewater treatment






Nurtac Ogleni, Duygu Topaloglu,
Turgay Dere & Recep Ileri

This study presents measurement of containment parameters of wastewater obtained from influent and effluent of sequencing batch bioreactor (SBR). Arcella Sp. dominantly encountered in Sample I from Karaman-Adapazari-Sakarya Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant in Turkey. Amount of cells belonging to Difflugia Sp., however, had increased for Sample II. In Sample III, Arcella Sp., and Difflugia Sp. lost their dominance, whereas Didinium Sp., Aspidisca Sp., Targidrade Sp., and Peranema Sp., were encountered. This finding indicates that protozoa and metazoan population in activated sludge enable daily control of wastewater treatment efficiency.

Author-Reader Platform

647

Instructions to contributors

 
 

Author Index


Ashraf H

613

Ayyappan S

635

 

 

Babu G V M M

629

Babu M K G

639

Banga S

575

Bora D K

639

 

 

Das L M

639

Dere T

643

Dhyani R

586

 

 

Gangopadhyay S

586

Gao R

594

Grover S

606

 

 

Husain Q

613

 

 

Ileri R

643

 

 

Jain A

606

Jangra K

606

 

 

Kosi A

580

Kumar A

600

Kumar N

600

Kunju N

600

 

 

Mayilsamy K

635

Murthy K V R

629

 

 

Ogleni N

643

 

 

Ramalakshmi R D

621

Rao N S

629

 

 

Sharma N

586

Sohi B S

600

Solar M

580

Srikanth M V

629

Subramanian E

621

Sunil S A

629

 

 

Topaloglu D

643

 

 

Varshney P K

575

 

 

Zhang H

594

Zhang J

594


Keyword Index


Activated sludge

643

Active markers

600

 

 

B20K

639

Bicalutamide

629

Biodiesel

575

 

 

Carbon credits

586

Clean development mechanism (CDM)

586

CO2 emissions

586

Copra

635

Crosslinking

613

 

 

DEAE cellulose

613

Deflouridation

621

Digital terrestrial television

580

Dissolution rate

629

Drier efficiency

635

DVB-T/H

580

 

 

Emission factors

586

 

 

Finite element

594

 

 

GM system

600

Grey relational analysis

606

 

 

Immobilization

613

Ion exchangers

575

 

 

Kinematics

600

 

 

Long term endurance test

639

Lubricating oil

639

Mass rapid transit system (MRTS)

586

Metazoa

643

Moisture content

635

Multiple performance characteristics

606

 

 

Peroxidase

613

Poloxamer 407

629

Polyaniline-coating

621

Povidone K 30

629

Protozoa

643

Purification

575

 

 

Radial force

594

Redundancy

580

Reliability

580

 

 

Sensitivity analysis

586

Sequencing batch bioreactor (SBR)

643

Skewed slot structure

594

Solar tunnel drier

635

Solid dispersion

629

Spatio-temporal parameters

600

Switched reluctance motor

594

 

 

Taguchi method

606

Tamarind seed

621

Transesterification

575

TV broadcasting

580

 

 

Vegetable oil

575

Vehicle shift

586

 

 

WEDM

606