Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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VOLUME 70

NUMBER 2

FEBRUARY 2011

CONTENTS

Reviews

91

Nanomaterials based decontaminants against chemical warfare agents























G K Prasad, P V R K Ramacharyulu &
Beer Singh

This review deals with history and recent technological advancements in the area of nanomaterials (NMs) and their application in decontamination of chemical warfare agents, which on contact create adverse health symptoms in humans. NMs based decontamination systems are an alternative approach to liquid decontamination media with promising decontamination properties against chemical warfare agents. High surface area and adequate reactivity towards chemical warfare detoxification are key assets of NMs intended for such applications.

105

Controlled release agrochemicals formulations: A review




Saurabh Dubey, Vishal Jhelum &
P K Patanjali

This study reviews controlled release formulation (CRF) of agrochemicals (fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, plant growth regulators etc.). Synthetic as well as naturally occurring polymers have been used for preparation of these formulations. Dual applications of polymer supported herbicides have also been attempted. This strategy would open new areas for prevailing registered pesticides in India. Scope of CRF in controlling other pests like mosquito is also visualised.

113

A survey on mutation testing methods for automatic test cases generation



R Jeevarathinam &
Antony Selvadoss Thanamani

Mutation testing is a fault based testing strategy to measure quality of testing. It measures how good the tests are by inserting faults into the program under test. This review presents a survey on various mutation testing tools available. Basic concepts and notations of mutation testing are described along with working mechanisms.

Management & Information Technology

118

Sub-Nyquist sampling of high-speed repetitive waveforms using compressed sensing















Yijiu Zhao, Xiaoyan Zhuang,
Houjun Wang & Zhijian Dai

This study presents a sub-Nyquist sampling model using compressed sensing (CS) as a new signal processing framework to acquire and reconstruct sparse signals. High-speed periodic signals were sampled using low frequency sampling circuit and reconstructed via CS recovery algorithm, resulting in a high equivalent sampling frequency. This prototype system is able to capture repetitive waveforms at an equivalent sampling rate of 2.5 GHz while sampling at no more than 50 MHz physically.

123

Performance analysis of brain image registration techniques using fast walsh hadamard transform and modified adaptive polar transform


















D Sasikala & R Neelaveni

This study proposes a medical image registration method using two algorithms [Fast Walsh Hadamard transform (FWHT) and Modified Adaptive Polar transform (MAPT)], which register images of same or different modalities using CT or / and MRI brain images. FWHT gave better results than MAPT. In medical image registration of brain images, FWHT is more reliable for translation and rotation invariant, whereas MAPT is more reliable for scaling and rotation invariant. Hence for registration of brain images using translation and rotation, FWHT can be used, and for registration of brain images using rotation and scaling, MAPT can be used.

S & T and Industrial Research

129

Effect of geometry on flow structure and pressure drop in pneumatic conveying of solids along horizontal ducts





S Laín & M Sommerfeld

This study presents further developments in Euler/Lagrange approach to calculate confined particle-laden flows in pneumatic conveying lines. Special emphasis is placed on influence of particle-wall collisions and wall roughness as well as inter-particle collisions on developing two-phase flow structure and resulting process parameters. In a horizontal pipe flow, due to wall roughness-induced focussing of particle trajectories towards the core of pipe, a secondary flow in pipe cross-section develops. Additional pressure drop due to particles in pipe flow was higher than that in channel due to different wall collision behaviour.

135

Biological characterization of marine fish pathogen, Acinetobacter sp. strain An 2 producing antibacterial metabolites








Anju Pandey, Milind Mohan Naik &
Santosh Kumar Dubey

This study presents antibacterial activity of several organic metabolites produced by a fish pathogen, Acinetobacter sp. strain An 2, from marine ecosystem of Goa. Cell extract demonstrated stronger inhibitory effects on Gram negative bacteria as compared to common antibiotics. GC-MS analysis of crude cell extract revealed presence of potential antimicrobials (butylated hydroxytoluene, phenol, pyrrolo-phenol, benzo-quinone, pyrrolo-pyrazine, phthalic acid butyl octyl ester and penta-fluoro- propionic acid hepta-decyl ester). FTIR analysis of its exopolysaccharide (EPS) revealed presence of amine, amide, carboxylic and phenyl groups. Therefore, this strain can be exploited as a potential candidate for several antibacterial drugs to combat bacterial pathogens causing serious fish and human diseases.

142

Effect of nutritional and environmental factors on cellulases activity by thermophilic bacteria isolated from hot spring






Somen Acharya & Anita Chaudhary

This study presents effects of some nutritional and environmental factors on cellulases production by isolates, Bacillus licheniformis WBS1 and Bacillus sp. WBS3, which have been isolated from an Indian hot spring. Activity of both CMCase and FPase were higher in case of wheat straw. Maximum enzymatic activity was found at following optimum parameters: pH (8.0 when grown on rice, 9.0 when grown on wheat); temperature, 60°C; and incubation period, 60 h. In addition, combination of inorganic and organic nitrogen source was found to be most suitable for cellulases production.

149

Tablet disintegrant activities of new starch from immature pepino fruits





























Saleemulla Khan, G Ramu,
G Krishna Mohan, K N Jayaveera &
Chetan Bhalgat

A new starch powder isolated by steeping process from pepino fruits (Solanum muricatum Aiton) as tablet disintegrant was compared with maize starch BP (MS) in paracetamol tablets prepared via wet granulation method. PS formulations showed longer disintegration time than MS. However disintegration time was comparable at 10% w/w concentration: PS, 4.7; and MS, 5.0 min. PS is likely to initiate disintegration by swelling and capillary action. Drug dissolution (70%) was within 30 min. Thus PS powder appears to be a suitable substitute for MS as internal disintegrant in paracetamol tablet formulations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Energy and Environment

156

Bioethanol production from acid pretreated water hyacinth by separate hydrolysis and fermentation















Karri Satyanagalakshmi, Raveendran Sindhu, Parameswaran Binod,
Kanakambaran Usha Janu,
Rajeev K Sukumaran & Ashok Pandey

This study evaluated water hyacinth as feedstock for bioethanol production. Among different organic and mineral acids tested on pretreatment of water hyacinth, H2SO4 was found to be effective. Structural changes before and after pretreatment were evaluated by SEM, FTIR and XRD analysis. Various process parameters on hydrolysis of H2SO4 pretreated water hyacinth were optimized. Under optimized conditions, bioethanol (0.292% w/v) was obtained with an actual efficiency of 59.3%.

162

Ethanol production with natural carbon sources in batch and continuous fermentation using free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae



























Hoda Shafaghat, Ghasem D Najafpour,
Pouya Sirous Rezaei &
Mazyar Sharifzadeh-Baei

This study presents ethanol production from molasses, dates and sugarcane syrup with sugar concentration of 35 g/l in batch culture. Molasses (retention time, 24 h; initial sugar concentration, 100 g/l) gave highest yield of ethanol [conc., 45.5 g/l (theoretical yield 89%)] in a packed bed reactor loaded with immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae beads (mean diam, 3 mm). Entrapment method was used to encapsulate free cells using 2.5% sodium alginate solution, solidified in calcium chloride bath. Growth kinetic model for S. cerevisiae in batch culture and rate model for performance of immobilized cell reactor were determined.

6

170

Cost effectiveness of restoring energy in execution part of pneumatic system















Vladislav Blagojevi
ć, Dragan Šešlija & Miodrag Stojiljković

This study presents a structure of pneumatic systems with a special emphasis on energy saving in execution by a method of restoring energy via by-pass valve. Realized average energy savings are: conventional systems, 38.8; and servo systems, 28.6%. Cost effectiveness of proposed method is also presented.

fig 2

Book Reviews

177

‘Grand unified Theory: Part I’ & ‘Quality Control for Value Addition in Food Processing’ reviewed by Dr P D Tyagi

Author-Reader Platform

179

Instructions to contributors

 
 

Author Index


Acharya S

142

 

 

Bhalgat C

149

Blagojević V

170

 

 

Chaudhary A

142

 

 

Dai Z

118

Dubey S

105

Dubey S K

135

 

 

Janu K U

156

Jayaveera K N

149

Jeevarathinam R

113

Jhelum V

105

 

 

Khan S

149

 

 

Laín S

129

 

 

Mohan G K

149

 

 

Naik M M

135

Najafpour G D

162

Neelaveni R

123

 

 

Pandey Anju

135

Pandey Ashok

156

Parameswaran B

156

Patanjali P K

105

Prasad G K

91

 

 

Ramacharyulu P V R K

91

Ramu G

149

Rezaei P S

162

 

 

Sasikala D

123

Satyanagalakshmi K

156

Šešlija D

170

Shafaghat H

162

Sharifzadeh-Baei M

162

Sindhu R

156

Singh B

91

Sommerfeld M

129

Stojiljković M

170

Sukumaran R K

156

 

 

Thanamani A S

113

 

 

Wang H

118

 

 

Zhao Y

118

Zhuang X

118


Keyword Index


Acinetobacter sp.

135

Agrochemicals

105

Antibacterial activity

135

Automatic test cases

113

 

 

Bioethanol

156

 

 

Cellulases

142

Compressed sensing (CS)

118

Controlled release formulation (CRF)

105

Crude cell extract

135

Chemical warfare agents

91

 

 

Decontamination

91

 

 

Energy efficiency

170

EPS

135

Equivalent sampling frequency

118

Ethanol production

162

 

 

Fast Walsh Hadamard Transform (FWHT)

123

Fermentation

156

Fruits

149

 

 

Gas-solid flow

129

 

 

Hot spring

142

 

 

Immobilized cells

162

Indicator

135

Interleaved sampling

118

Inter-particle collisions

129

Isolation

142

 

 

Kinetic parameters

162

 

 

Lignocellulosic biomass

156

 

 

Maize starch

149

Management

170

Medical image registration

123

Modified Adaptive Polar Transform (MAPT)

123

Molasses

162

Mutation testing

113

 

 

Nanomaterials

91

Normalization

123

Nutritional factors

142

 

 

Paracetamol

149

Pepino

149

Pesticides

105

Pneumatic conveying

129

Pneumatic system

170

Polymers

105

Pretreatment

156

 

 

Restoring energy

170

 

 

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

162

Signal reconstruction

118

Software testing

113

Solanum muricatum

149

Starch and disintegrant

149

Sulphuric acid

156

 

 

Thermophiles

142

Turbulence

129

 

 

Wall roughness

129

Water hyacinth

156