Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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VOLUME 71

NUMBER 2

FEBRUARY 2012

CONTENTS

Review

97

Impact of tropospheric ozone on crop growth and productivity – a review










A Bhatia, R Tomer, V Kumar, S D Singh &
H Pathak

This review presents tropospheric ozone (O3), an air pollutant affecting agriculture by reducing crop yield and deteriorating quality of produce. O3 enters leaves through stomata and diffuses within the apoplast, producing many oxidizing compounds and affecting various physiological and biochemical processes, crop growth and yield. O3 affects above and below ground carbon allocation and its dynamics, N cycling, microbial content and emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) from soil. This review focuses on the impact of O3 on crop growth with special emphasis on productivity in Asian region, methods for evaluating O3 responses in field, amelioration of O3-induced injury and providing dose-response functions for economic assessments.

S & T and Industrial Research

113

Synthesis and biological evaluation of some novel 2-mercaptobenzothiazoles carrying
2-pyrazoline






Md. Afzal Azam & Bhojraj Suresh

This study presents synthesis of several 2-mercaptobenzothiazole derivatives 6a-s bearing 2-pyrazoline at the second position. Compounds 6h, 6i, 6j and 6n exhibited significant antimicrobial activity (inhibition zone 30-35 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Compounds 6i, 6j and 6n showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Compounds 6i and 6n showed significant gastrointestinal protection compared to the standard drug diclofenac sodium.

120

Development and validation of HPLC method for the estimation of propranolol HCl in human plasma.









M V Srikanth, B Janaki Ram, S A Sunil,
N Sreenivasa Rao & K V Ramana Murthy

This study presents a rapid, sensitive and accurate high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for determination of propranolol HCl in human plasma. Human plasma samples were subjected to protein precipitation by methanol and protein free plasma samples were directly injected into HPLC C18 column. Mobile phase consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile: pH 4.5 phosphate buffer (35:65) was delivered at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. A good separation of propranolol HCl and diltiazem HCl as internal standard was achieved with retention times of 6.6 min and 9.9 min respectively. Linearity was obtained for propranolol (conc. range 20-280 ng/ml) and followed regression equation, Y= 0.0162 X – 0.0515. Peak areas were reproducible as indicated by low coefficient of variation (< 2.13%).

S & T and Industrial Research

124

A new α-toxin monitoring method to optimize production efficiency in industrial cultures of Clostridium novyi B




















Diana Pérez-Etcheverry,
Alberto Nieto-Cadenazzi &
Iris Miraballes-Martínez

This study presents fast and reliable immunoassays to provide appropriate toxin concentration data in 5 min to monitor industrial culture processes. A latex agglutination reagent for semi-quantification of Clostridium novyi B α-toxin was developed, characterized and validated in actual industrial conditions. This reagent represents a useful real-time assay, generating data during toxin preparation process and thus increasing efficiency of α-toxin industrial production from C. novyi B cultures.

Energy and Environment

131

Mg-Al hydrotalcite as solid base catalyst for biodiesel production from pongamia oil























A Obadiah, R Kannan, A Ramasubbu &
S Vasanth Kumar

This study presents preparation, characterization and use of Mg-Al hydrotalcite as a catalyst for transesterification of pongamia oil and optimization of transesterification conditions. Mg-Al hydrotalcite was characterized by powder X–ray diffraction (XRD), infra red spectroscopy (FT–IR), thermal studies (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microcopy (SEM) techniques. Methanol and catalyst (6:1) and 65°C temperature gave a maximum biodiesel conversion (90.8%). Transesterification of pongamia oil using Mg-Al hydrotalcite was compared with conventional base catalyst.

Energy and Environment

138

Design and construction of an oven for drying palm bunch using glycerin as fuel together with using closed-loop oscillating heat-pipe with check valves (CLOHP/CV) heat exchanger for waste heat recovery


















S Sangiamsuk, S Rittidech, A Pattiya &
N Pipatpaiboon

This research addresses design and construction of an oven (2 m x 3 m x 2 m) for effectively drying palm bunch using glycerin as a fuel and a closed-loop oscillating heat-pipe with check valves (CLOHP/CV) as a heat exchanger for waste heat recovery. Use of a CLOHP/CV also reduced moisture content of palm bunches to 1.2 wt% on dry basis. When using oven with CLOHP/CV as a heat exchanger with R134a as working fluid, the highest thermal efficiency of drying palm bunch was 42.4%, highest effectiveness of CLOHP/CV was 43.0% and highest efficiency of glycerin stove was 45.0%.

144

A new approach for predicting PAT-pumps operating point from direct pumping mode characteristics


























J C Páscoa, F J Silva, J S Pinheiro &
D J Martins

This study presents diverse correlations used to predict Pumps-as-Turbines (PAT)-pumps operating point, based on results from direct mode of pump operation. In order to ascertain accuracy of correlations, flow in the pump is computed for direct (pump) and reverse (turbine) operating modes. Accuracy of computations is checked by comparing RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) results with experiments for direct mode. A new approach is proposed for PAT power plant design based on a constant head, instead of traditional operation, in constant flow rate. A full PAT characteristic curve map can be obtained using numerical computation.

Energy and Environment

149

Optimized growth of Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001 using response surface methodology (RSM)


















Jacqueline Xiao Wen Hay, Ta Yeong Wu, Chee Yang Teh & Jamaliah Md. Jahim

This study presents optimization of growth parameters (temperature, pH, ammonium conc. and inoculum size) to achieve an economical viable biohydrogen production process by Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001 using response surface methodology (RSM) followed by analysis of light and agitation effects on bacterial growth using optimized conditions. Optimized growth conditions on third day of fermentation, when R. sphaeroides O.U.001 was cultured aerobically under the presence of light (510 lux), were found as follows: temperature30.3C; pH, 4.71; ammonium conc., 0.60 g/l; and inoculum size, 6.02% (v/v). Light did not give a significant effect on overall growth of R. sphaeroides O.U.001. Agitation greatly influenced bacterial growth as a result of higher dissolved oxygen and dispersion of macromolecules in shake culture.

155

Assessment of Emissions from Transport Sector in Delhi





























Richa Singh & Chhemendra Sharma

This study presents emissions of different pollutants from transport sector in Delhi. Results show that emissions of pollutants have increased during 2001-2009 as follows: CO2, 4395-6423; CH4, 1.03-3.32; N2O, 0.04-0.05; CO, 238-329; NOx, 44-64; and NMVOC, 44-60 Gg. However, CO2 emissions per unit of vehicle types for gasoline driven vehicles show a decrease as follows: two wheelers, 2.7; and cars, 4.3%; while in case of diesel driven vehicles, this reduction is 1.6%, indicating impact of better vehicle technologies introduced. However, CO2 emissions from per unit of CNG vehicles have been found to increase by 2.4% during this period due to increased consumption of CNG per unit of CNG vehicles.

Waste Treatment and Utilization

161

In vitro adsorption of drugs using modified sugarcane bagasse











































Mir Azam Khan, Khalid Saeed, Abdullah, Waqar Ahmad, Fazal Mabood &
Maqsood-ur-Rehman

Poisoning due to overdose of drugs may be treated by administration of an effective adsorbent. Activated carbon obtained from sugarcane bagasse treated with sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide and urea was investigated for the adsorption of Levofloxacin, Hydrochlorothiazide and Paracetamol from 0.1N HCl solution at 37 0C. The effect of different variables such as contact time, initial drug concentration and dose of adsorbent were studied at acidic pH. Sugarcane bagasse was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The morphological study showed that the chemical treatments resulted in pore formation within sugarcane bagasse sample while the surfaces of untreated sugarcane bagasse sample were without pores. Time for maximum adsorption (about 37 %) of drugs from the solution was in the range of 1-3 hours. The batch adsorption kinetic studies were carried out and the applicability of the Langmuir adsorption isotherm was studied where the data were found to follow Langmuir isotherm model

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Author-Reader Platform

168

Release of Special Issue of Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research (JSIR) at International Conference on New Horizons in Biotechnology (NHBT-11) & VIII Convention of the Biotech Research Society held at Trivandrum during November 21-24, 2011

169

Instructions to contributors

 


Author Index


Abdullah

161

Ahmad W

161

Azam Md. A

113

 

 

Bhatia A

97

Bhojraj S

113

 

 

Hay J X W

149

 

 

Jahim J Md.

149

 

 

Kannan R

131

Khan M A

161

Kumar S V

131

Kumar V

97

 

 

Mabood F

161

Martins D J

144

Miraballes-Martínez I

124

Murthy K V R

120

 

 

Nieto-Cadenazzi A

124

 

 

Obadiah A

131

 

 

Páscoa J C

144

Pathak H

97

Pattiya A

138

Pérez-Etcheverry D

124

Pinheiro J S

144

Pipatpaiboon N

138

 

 

Ram B J

120

Ramasubbu A

131

Rao N S

120

Rehman M

161

Rittidech S

138

 

 

Saeed K

161

Sangiamsuk S

138

Sharma C

155

Silva F J

144

Singh R

155

Singh S D

97

Srikanth M V

120

Sunil S A

120

 

 

Teh C Y

149

Tomer R

97

 

 

Wu T Y

149


Keyword Index


2-Mercaptobenzothiazoles

113

2-Pyrazolines

113

 

 

Accuracy

120

Activity data

155

Adsorption Isotherms

161

Anti-inflammatory activity

113

Antimicrobial activity

113

 

 

Biodiesel

131

Biohydrogen

149

 

 

Carbon allocation

97

Carbon dioxide

97

Closed-loop oscillating heat-pipe

138

Clostridial toxins

124

Clostridium novyi

124

Correlations

144

Crop productivity

97

 

 

Drugs

161

 

 

Emission factor

155

Emission inventory

155

 

 

Glycerin

138

Greenhouse gases

155

 

 

HPLC

120

Human plasma

120

Hydrotalcite

131

 

 

Latex agglutination tests

124

 

 

Morphological study

161

 

 

Ozone (O3)

97

 

 

Palm bunch oven

138

Photofermentation

149

Pongamia oil

131

Precision

120

Propranolol HCl

120

Pump-as-Turbine (PAT)

144

 

 

Response surface methodology (RSM)

149

Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001

149

 

 

Solid base catalyst

131

Sugarcane bagasse

161

 

 

Transesterification

131

Transport sector

155

Turbulence model

144

Turbulent flow

144

 

 

Ulcerogenic action

113

 

 

α-toxin

124