Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

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VOLUME 71

NUMBER 5

MAY 2012

CONTENTS

Review

309

Effect of process parameters on tire pyrolysis: a review




S Karthikeyan, C Sathiskumar &
R Srinivasa moorthy

This review presents pyrolysis of scrap tires with a focus on effect of process parameters (reactor temperature, gas flow rate and catalyst-tire ratio) on yield. Three commercially important pyrolysis by-products from scrap tires are carbon residue, pyrolitic oil and pyro-gas. Pyrolysis of scrap tire starts at 250C and gets completed at 550C. Presence of catalysts produces lighter oil with a drastic increase in the concentration of single ring aromatics.

Management & Information Technology

316

Modeling and optimization of a natural convection-based agricultural dryer





























Rajesh Kumar & R V Ravikrishna

This study presents development of a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model to predict unsteady, two-dimensional temperature, moisture and velocity distributions inside a novel, biomass-fired, natural convection-type agricultural dryer. Results show that in initial stages of drying, when material surface is wet and moisture is easily available, moisture removal rate from surface depends upon the condition of drying air. Subsequently, material surface becomes dry and moisture removal rate is driven by diffusion of moisture from inside to the material surface. An optimum 9-tray configuration is found to be more efficient for the same mass of material and volume of dryer. A new configuration of dryer, mainly to explore its potential to increasing uniformity in drying across all trays, is also analyzed.

Management & Information Technology

324

A robust blind image watermarking based on Double Haar Wavelet Transform (DHWT)











S Maheswari & K Rameshwaran

This study proposes a blind watermarking algorithm based on Double Haar Wavelet Transform (DHWT) for copyright protection of digital images. Proposed algorithm achieved very high imperceptibility, evidenced by high PSNR value for gray scale images, and produced very high robustness against image processing attacks.

330

A comparison of lifted lead defect inspection system for surface mount technology













Rizauddin Ramli
, Dzuraidah Abd Wahab, Jaharah Abd Ghani & Raime M Zain

This study presents development of an automated lead defect inspection system by using Visual Mechanical Inspection Scanner (VMIS) in semiconductor industry. In any device seated out of cavity, VMIS detects misplacement error (ME), a quality defect in surface mount technology (SMT). The system was successfully tested on devices with 90% accuracy of inspection. Thus VMIS can inspect device seated out of cavity and hence prevents lifted lead from occurring.

334

Wireless sensor system for monitoring of compressed air filters


















Ivana Ignjatović, Dragan elija,
Laslo Tarjan & Slobodan Dudić

This study presents a wireless filter monitoring system (WFMS) for compressed air filters based on a very low power consumption microcontroller. Proposed system consists of two separate units (sensor and base), which constantly monitor filters. It is very easy to install in existing manufacturing systems, simple and efficient for production and use, inexpensive, non-invasive, and continuous system with almost real-time update possibilities. It can be easily extended for monitoring other components that cause pressure drop.

Management & Information Technology

341

A heuristic model for optimizing fuzzy knowledge base in a pattern recognition system



















Amir Jamshidnezhad & Jan Md Nordin

This study presents a genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize performance of fuzzy system to recognize facial expression from images. In proposed model, a Mamdani-type fuzzy rule based system recognizes emotions, and a GA is used to improve accuracy and robustness of the system. To evaluate system performance, images from FG-Net (FEED) and Cohn-Kanade database were used to obtain the best functions parameters. Proposed model under training process not only increased accuracy rate of emotion recognition but also increased validity of the model in adverse conditions.

S & T and Industrial Research

348

Encapsulation of neem and karanja oil mixture for synergistic as well as larvicidal activity for mosquito control

























Megha Pant, Saurabh Dubey, S K Raza &
P K Patanjali

This study presents larvicidal effect of neem (Azadirachta indica) and karanja (Pongamia glabra) oil encapsulated calcium alginate beads (individuals and combination) against mosquito species (Aedes aegypti). Studies were conducted by combining these two oils with and without converting into alginate based encapsulation formulation. Combination (30% neem oil and 70% karanja oil) was found to be more effective then any other combination. The combination of neem and karanja oil recorded an LC50 of 3.1 g/l against A. aegypti. Mortality also increases in terms of concentration of active ingredients (20-77%) after 48 h. FTIR studies indicate that there is no chemical interaction between oils or oil and polymer.

Energy and Environment

353

Optimization of cellulase synthesis by RSM and evaluation of ethanol production from enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse using Saccharomyces cerevisiae













S Anuradha Jabasingh & C Valli Nachiyar

This study presents ethanol production from enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize conditions for the production of endo β-1, 4 glucanase component of cellulase using Aspergillus nidulans MTCC344 under solid state condition, employing pretreated bagasse as chief substrate. Cellulase thus produced was utilized for hydrolyses of pretreated bagasse resulting in soluble sugars. FTIR and XRD of bagasse showed structural changes through pretreatment, in favor of enzymatic hydrolysis during cellulase production. Ethanol produced was found to be strongly dependent on pretreatment given, hydrolysis and fermentation conditions.

360

Measurement of NH3, NO, NO2 and related particulates at urban sites of Indo Gangetic Plain (IGP) of India














S K Sharma, M Saxena, T Saud, S Korpole & T K Mandal

In the present study the concentration of ambient NH3, NO and NO2 were measured along with particulate matter (PM10) at urban sites of Chandigarh and Delhi of IGP of India during December 2010 to March 2011 to study their variability and concentration. The concentration of NH3 was ranges from 0.72 22.81 g m-3 with an average value of 5.17 0.92 g m-3 over Chandigarh whereas the average concentration of NH3 was recorded as 8.54 0.72 g m-3 over Delhi. The average concentration of ambient NO and NO2 were recorded as 13.13 1.50 g m-3 and 5.92 0.38 g m-3 respectively over Chandigarh. The NH4+ concentration ranged from 2.60 4.39 g m-3, with an average value of 3.41 0.78 g m-3 at Chandigarh whereas at the average NH4+ concentrations was estimated as 9.91 3.77 g m-3 with a range of 6.61 14.6 g m-3 at Delhi. During the study, NH3 concentration was significantly correlated with NH4+ concentration at both of the locations (r2= 0.87 and r2 = 0.96). The NH3/ NH4+ ratios varied from 0.59 1.75 with an average value of 0.86 over Delhi whereas, NH3/ NH4+ ratios varied from 0.28 5.19 over Chandigarh. A good correlation of SO42- and NO3- with NH4+ (NH4+ vs. SO42-, r2 = 0.91; NH4+ vs. NO3-, r2 = 0.96) and NH3 (NH3 vs. SO42-, r2 = 0.90; NH3 vs. NO3-, r2 = 0.91) over Delhi indicates the formation of aerosol. More or less similar, correlations were also recorded over Chandigarh during the study.

Waste Treatment and Utilization

363

Decomposition of aromatic sulphonic acid syntan in aqueous solution using ozone










Rema Thankappan &
Ramamoorthy Alwar Ramanujam

This study examines degradation of syntan (synthetic tannin) using ozonation process. Ozonation of syntan (initial conc. 100 mg/l; ozone dose, 1 g/h) showed removal of COD (91%), tannin (98%) and UV absorbance (99%) at pH 7. A significant BOD5/COD ratio variation (0.21-0.29) at pH 7 confirmed that ozonation is an effective methodology for syntan degradation.

Book Reviews

367

Quality standards of Indian medicinal plants, Vol 10 & Phytochemical reference standards of selected Indian medicinal plants, Vol 2 reviewed by Dr H B Singh &Kumar Avinash Bharati

Author-Reader Platform

369

Instructions to contributors

 

 


Author Index


Dubey S

348

Dudić S

334

 

 

Ghani J A

330

 

 

Ignjatović I

334

 

 

Jabasingh S A

353

Jamshidnezhad A

341

 

 

Karthikeyan S

309

Korpole S

360

Kumar R

316

 

 

Maheswari S

324

Mandal T K

360

Moorthy R S

309

 

 

Nachiyar C V

353

Nordin J M

341

 

 

Pant M

348

Patanjali P K

348

 

 

Ramanujam R A

363

Rameshwaran K

324

Ramli R

330

Ravikrishna R V

316

Raza S K

348

 

 

Sathiskumar C

309

Saud T

360

Saxena M

360

elija D

334

Sharma S K

360

 

 

Tarjan L

334

Thankappan R

363

 

 

Wahab D A

330

 

 

Zain R M

330


Keyword Index


Agricultural dryer

316

Air pollution

334

Ambient NH3

360

Aspergillus nidulans MTCC344

353

 

 

Catalytic pyrolysis

309

Char

309

Chemiluminescence method

360

Classifier

341

COD

363

Computational fluid dynamic (CFD)

316

 

 

Data acquisition

334

Digital watermarking

324

Double Haar Wavelet Transform (DHWT)

324

 

 

Energy efficiency

334

Ethanol

353

 

 

Facial expression recognition

341

Filters

334

Formulations

348

Fuzzy system

341

 

 

Gas

309

Genetic algorithm (GA)

341

 

 

Human Computer Interaction (HCI) System

341

 

 

Karanja oil

348

 

 

LC50

348

Lifted lead defect

330

 

 

M-channel filter bank

324

Meteorological parameters

360

Mosquito larvae

348

 

 

Natural convection

316

Neem oil

348

NO

360

NO2

360

 

 

Oil

309

Ozone

363

 

 

PM10

360

Predictive maintenance

334

Pretreated bagasse

353

 

 

RSM

353

 

 

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

353

Singular value decomposition (SVD)

324

Surface mount technology (SMT)

330

Synergistic

348

Syntan

363

 

 

Tannin

363

 

 

Vision camera

330

 

 

Waste tires

309

Wireless sensor networks

334