Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

VOLUME 68

NUMBER 2

FEBRUARY 2009

CONTENTS

Review

93

Energy-related applications of carbon materials—a review


Manoj Srivastava*, Manoj Kumar, Ranvir Singh, U C Agrawal & M O Garg


Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun 248 005, India

Carbon materials, which are inert and possess good electrical conductivity, high surface area and layered structure, offer applications as electrodes in re-chargeable batteries, storage media for fuel cell for on-board hydrogen supply, fuel cell components, nano-electronic devices for computer chips, superconductors etc. This paper reviews current research on carbon materials (fullerenes, nano-sized single and multi-walled carbon tubes, graphene, carbon foam etc.) focusing on producing, distributing and storing energy.

Management & Information Technology

97

Design and VLSI architecture of
non-polynomial based low probability of error (Pb) Viterbi decoder
















C Arun1* & V Rajamani2


1Department of Information Technology,
Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Chennai 602 105, India


2Centre for Research and Development, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, PSNA College of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul 624 622, India

This paper presents implementation of a new non-polynomial approach to design a high throughput with reduced bit error probability Viterbi decoder. Increase in dfree has been achieved by proposed non-polynomial convolutional coding method. A decoder system (code rate k/n=1/6, constrain length K=4) has been implemented on Xilinx VERTEX-E. Performance of Viterbi decoder with proposed method has been improved from 27% to 75%. High speed (60.299 Mbps) and low bit error rate (BER) are achieved for Viterbi decoder. Proposed Viterbi decoder provides satisfactory probability of error (Pb) performance and high operating speed under conditions including AWGN, co-channel interference and adjacent channel interference environments.

Management & Information Technology

107

Wireless information and safety system for mines




L K Bandyopadhyay1*, S K Chaulya1,
P K Mishra1, A Choure1 & B M Baveja2

1
Central Institute of Mining and Fuel
Research (CIMFR), Dhanbad 826 001, India

2Department of Information Technology, Ministry of Communication and Information Technology,
New Delhi 110 003, India

This study presents a wireless information and safety system for mines developed by CIMFR, Dhanbad. System consists of hardware devices and application software. Hardware module is ZigBee-compliant active radio frequency identification (RFID) devices/ transceivers, which can be programmed to act as end device (tag), router or coordinator that enables them to form an IEEE 802.15.4-based mesh network. It uses a unified wireless mesh-networking infrastructure to locate, trace and manage mobile assets and people as well as monitor different environmental conditions using sensors. Another core module is wireless sensor network (WSN) software, which is developed for tracking of underground miners and moveable equipment by wireless sensor networking in mines. Software is especially designed for tracking of miners and vehicles, route tracking in opencast mines, preventing fatal accidents and vehicle collisions, environmental monitoring, observing miners’ unsafe practice, sending alert message, and preparing computerized miners’ duty hours record.

S & T and Industrial Research

118

Characterizing surface roughness by speckle pattern analysis













M Nicklawy1, A F Hassan1, M Bahrawi,
Niveen Farid2 & Arif M Sanjid3


1
Helwan University, Science Faculty, Egypt

2National Institute for Standards (NIS), Egypt

3National Physical Laboratory, Dr K S Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110 012, India

Speckle photography is a non-destructive technique for making moderate sensitivity measurements for strain, rotation, vibration, plane displacements, and surface texture. This paper presents characterization of surface roughness by studying speckle patterns correlation and visibility during object displacement.

 

122

Numerical investigation for solidification around various cylinder geometries



Ertan Buyruk*, Ahmet Fertelli & Nesrin Sonmez


University of Cumhuriyet, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 58140, Sivas / Turkey

This study calculates effect of ice formation on different cylinder geometries placed in a rectangular ice storage tank filled with water. Fluent package program was used for numerical solution of flow domain to depict temperature distribution and ice formation. Water temperature in tank and cylinder surface temperature were assumed as 4°C and -10°C respectively. Temperature distribution, liquid fraction and ratio of Ai /Ac (formed ice area / cross sectional area of cylinder) were determined for various cylinder geometries.

S & T and Industrial Research

130

Activation of fluorogypsum for building materials


















M Singh* & M Garg


Central Building Research Institute,
Roorkee 247 667, India

Fluorogypsum, a waste product of hydrofluoric acid industry, has been blended with Ca(OH)2 and chemical additives followed by fine grinding to give plaster/binder of low consistency, high compressive strength and low water absorption. Addition of lime sludge waste (15-20%) makes suitable binder for building bricks and plastering works.

135

Application of rare earth salts for permanent stabilization of skin




K Dhayalan, R Aravindhan, K J Sreeram,
J Raghava Rao
*


Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600 020, India

This study presents utility of rare earth metal salts with and without separation for bringing about a permanent stabilization of skin tanning. Hydrolytic stability, physico-chemical characteristics etc. have been evaluated. Combination tanning systems have also been worked out. Study indicates a potential use of rare earths salts for tanning, even without separation.

140

Optimization of extrusion process for production of expanded product from green gram and rice by response surface methodology







Pratap Chakraborty & Soumitra Banerjee



Deptt of Food Technology and Biochemical Engineering, Jadavpur University,
Kolkata 700 032, India

Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to study effect of feed moisture and metering zone temperature on physical properties of green gram extrudate. Temperature and moisture had significant effect on expansion ratio, which decreased with increasing moisture content. Feed moisture and die head temperature had negative effect on water holding capacity. Specific mechanical energy (SME) for extrusion and pressure developed at die head increased with increasing proportion of green gram in rice-green gram blend. With increase in barrel screw speed, viscosity of rice-green gram dough decreased resulting lesser power consumption and developed pressure at die head. During extrusion cooking, two important reactions (protein denaturation and starch gelatinization) in dough can affect viscosity. Rapid rise in starch viscosity is also a function of temperature, so that higher range of extrusion temperature and extrudate slurry viscosity caused high-pressure drop, which caused greater expansion of green gram extrudates.

Energy and Environment

149

Storage stability of mahua oil methyl ester


Dilip Kumar Bora*, L M Das & M K G Babu


Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016, India

Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), used as biodiesel, degrade over time, mainly influenced by temperature, presence of light, metal, nature of the container and oxygen. Peroxide value and viscosity increases with increasing storage time of FAME samples. Use of antioxidants [3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA), 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl-phenol (BHT) and propyl gallate (PrG)] could significantly improve stability of FAME. Storage (1 y) period can be regarded as a more than realistic time span for commercial life of biodiesel.

153

Influence of internal heat exchanger on performance of window AC retrofitted with R407C









Vijayan R1* & Srinivasan P S S2


1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Government College of Engineering,
Salem 636 011 India

2Department of Mechanical Engineering,
KSR College of Technology,
Thiruchengode 637 215, India

This paper presents experimental performance analysis of a window air conditioner (capacity, 1 TR) with and without an internal heat exchanger (IHE), along with performance comparison of R22 and R407C in the same AC. Use of IHE has increased coefficient of performance (COP) when running on R22 (5.86%) and R407C (6.3%). When retrofitting R22 systems with R407C, COP is found to drop with (6.26%) and without (6.64%) IHE.

Waste Treatment and Utilization

157

Biodegradation of Orange II dye by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in simulated wastewater







Praveen Sharma1, Lakhvinder Singh1* &
Neeraj Dilbaghi2


1
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering

2Department of Bio and Nano Technology,
Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar 125 001, India

This study presents decolorization of textile azo dye, Orange II, by white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Orange II (85%) was removed in 7 days (optimum decolorization on 5th day at 28-30°C and pH 5.0) in liquid cultures under shaking aerobic conditions using P. chrysosporium. Higher dye concentration in simulated dye showed inhibitory effects on decolorization. Decolorization ability of fungus was correlated to lignolytic enzyme activity.

Waste Treatment and Utilization

162

Ultrasound assisted adsorption of basic dye onto organically modified bentonite (nanoclay)












Shirish Sonawane1*, Prashant Chaudhari2, Shailesh Ghodke2, Sachin Phadtare1 &
Satish Meshram1


1Department of Chemical Engineering, Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Bibwewadi, Pune 411 037, India


2University Department of Chemical Technology, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001, India

Sonochemical adsorption of basic methylene blue dye (CI 52015) into organophilic bentonite (nanoclay) is explored. Tetrabutyl ammonium chloride (TBAC) modified nanoclay has showed amorphous exfoliated nature, while N-cetyl-N,N,N trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) modified nanoclay has revealed intercalating crystalline nature, as supported by X-ray analysis. Presence of NH2, CH2 groups onto nanoclay platelet is confirmed from FTIR spectrum analysis. In presence of ultrasound, due to decrease in diffusion resistance, both modified nanoclays exhibit higher adsorption due to an easy insertion of dye into clay platelets. Calculated Langmuir adsorption isotherm, Q0 and Langmuir constant ‘b’ for TBAC modified nanoclay, respectively were 0.34 mg/mg 0.246. Intercalating agent has a significant contribution during overall process.

Author-Reader Platform

168

Instructions to contributors

 

 
Author Index


Agrawal U C

93

Aravindhan R

135

Arun C

97

Babu M K G

149

Bahrawi M

118

Bandyopadhyay L K

107

Banerjee S

140

Baveja B M

107

Bora D K

149

Buyruk E

122

Chakraborty P

140

Chaudhari P

162

Chaulya S K

107

Choure A

107

Das L M

149

Dhayalan K

135

Dilbaghi N

157

Farid N

118

Fertelli A

122

Garg M

130

Garg M O

93

Ghodke S

162

Hassan A F

118

Kumar M

93

Meshram S

162

Mishra P K

107

Nicklawy M

118

Phadtare S

162

Rajamani V

97

Rao J R

135

Sanjid A M

118

Sharma P

157

Singh L

157

Singh M

130

Singh R

93

Sonawane S

162

Sonmez N

122

Sreeram K J

135

Srinivasan P S S

153

Srivastava M

93

Vijayan R

153


 

Keyword Index


Add compare select (ACS)

97

Adsorption

162

Air conditioning

153

Antioxidants

149

Azo dye

157

Blue dye

162

Branch metric unit (BMU)

97

Building materials

130

Carbon foam

93

Carbon nanotubes

93

Cerium

135

Chemical additives

130

Compressive strength

130

Decolorization

157

Digital Fourier Transform

118

Energy source

93

Energy storage

93

Energy transmission

93

Environmental chamber

153

Extrusion technology

140

Fine displacement

118

Fluorogypsum

130

Free distance

97

Fullerenes

93

Graphene

93

Green gram extrudate

140

Ice formation

122

Internal heat exchanger

153

Leather

135

Low bit error rate

97

Mahua oil methyl esters

149

Methylene

162

Mining

107

Mn- peroxidase

157

Nanoclay

162

Non-polynomial approach

97

Numerical heat transfer

122

Organoleptic properties

135

Phanerochaete chrysosporium

157

Phase change

122

R407C

153

Rare earth

135

Response surface methodology

140

Solidification

122

Speckle correlation

118

Stabilization

135

Storage stability

149

Surface roughness

118

Tanning

135

Trace back unit (TBU)

97

Tracking and monitoring

107

Tube bank

122

Ultrasound effect

162

Viterbi algorithm

97

White rot fungi

157

Wireless sensor network

107

ZigBee devices

107