Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

VOLUME 68

NUMBER 7

JULY 2009

CONTENTS

Management & Information Technology

575

Extended finite element method (XFEM) for analysis of cohesive rock joint




Debasis Deb1* & Kamal Ch Das2



1Department of Mining Engineering,


2Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India

Recent developments in extended finite element method (XFEM) having strong discontinuity imbedded within a regular element provide an opportunity to analyze discrete discontinuities in rock mass without any numerical illposedness. This paper summarizes mathematical frameworks for implementation of strong discontinuities in 3 and 6 nodded triangular elements and also provides numerical examples of application of XFEM in one and two dimensional problems with single joint. Results obtained from XFEM are in good agreement to those of analytical as well as experimental results.

584

Ensuring information security through 123-bit recursive substitution of bits through prime-nonprime detection of sub-stream (RSBP)



Saurabh Dutta1* & Jyotsna Kumar Mandal2

1B C Roy Engineering College, Durgapur 713 206, India
2Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Technology & Management, Kalyani University, Kalyani 741 235, India

This paper presents a 123-bit private-key based block-cipher, RSBP, which is capable of encrypting files of up to 11 MB. It is formulated on the basis of base-10 value corresponding to a block of bits, which is to be checked if is prime or not. It results in an alteration of size for file being encrypted. Its executable performance is analyzed on the basis of execution time, graphical layout of frequency distribution of characters, and Chi square values for varying degrees of freedom. RSBP is found to be highly compatible with existing cryptosystems.

592

Mathematical modeling of process parameters on hard turning of AISI 316 SS by WC insert



S Ranganathan1*, T Senthilvelan2 & G Sriram3


1,3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Vishwa Maha Vidyalaya, Enathur, Kanchipuram 631 561, India

2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering college, Pondicherry 605 104, India

This paper presents a newly developed mathematical modeling for process parameters on hard turning of AISI 316 stainless steel by tungsten carbide inserts (WC). Regression analysis and ANOVA theory was used to predict surface roughness (Ra) and tool wear (VB). WC tool inserts performed machining of AISI 316 SS to study main and interaction effects of process parameters [cutting speed (Vs), feed rate (fs) and depth of cut (ap)]. Adequacies of developed model were verified by calculation of correlation coefficient (r). These models can be effectively used to predict Ra of work piece and VB of WC insert.

597

Microprocessor-based system for identification of phase sequence and detection of phase unbalance of three-phase ac supply






Palash Kundu & Arabinda Das*




Electrical Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, India

A prototype detection system based on 8085 microprocessor / 8751 microcontroller has been developed for identification of phase sequence and detection of phase unbalance. System principle compares self-generating code by hardware circuit with pre-defined specific codes corresponding to positive and negative sequences for successful match in each measuring cycle. System is also capable in detecting phase unbalance, if any. Rule based intricate software algorithm is developed and operates within a cycle. Processor generates signals for detecting phase sequence and phase unbalance up to a recommended value.

S & T and Industrial Research

605

FES supported sitting-standing-sitting of completely paraplegic patient




Neelesh Kumar1*, Dinesh Pankaj1, V K Sharma1, R C Agnihotri1 & Rohit Jindal2


1
Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIO), Chandigarh 160 030, India
2Government Medical College & Hospital (GMCH), Chandigarh 160 032, India

Paper describes successful achievement of sitting standing function for a completely paraplegic patient by using a newly developed four-channel FES stimulator. Microcontroller governs open loop control system for predefined and measured stimulation parameters. Surface electrodes are used to give stimulation.

608

Standardization of extraction methods and preservation techniques of hill lemon juice



Vishal S Barwal* & Sanjay K Shrera

Department of Post Harvest Technology, Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Nauni-Solan 173 230, India

Hill lemon (Citrus pseudolimon Tan.) fruits pressed through screw type extractor gave highest juice (44.28%) as compared to other methods. Freshly extracted juice was preserved by pasteurization, potassium metabisulphite (KMS) @ 700 ppm of SO2 and sodium benzoate (0.05%) to study keeping quality at room temperature. KMS showed lower losses in quality and was found effective in preservation of juice for 180 days with least browning. Physiochemical attributes remained almost stable during storage except ascorbic acid contents.

611

Effect of cation exchange resin treatment and addition of anti-caking agent on non-enzymatic browning of lemon juice powder during storage



S K Sharma1*, B B Lal Kaushal2 & P C Sharma2

1
Department of Horticulture, G B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Hill Campus Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal 249 199, India

2Department of Postharvest Technology, Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan 173 230, India

Enzymatically clarified lemon juice, with and without cation exchange resin (Dowex 50W) treatment, was concentrated to 60 Brix in a vacuum evaporator and converted into juice powders by foam mat drying technique. Powders were found better in quality with respect to colour, browning and nutritional quality as compared to those prepared from non-treated juice. During 9 months storage, powders suffered losses in total sugars, total amino acids and ascorbic acid, with corresponding increase in non-enzymatic browning, furfural and hydroxymethly furfural. Treatment of lemon juice with Dowex 50W was effective in reducing browning of powders (4 folds), furfural (2.6 folds) and HMF by (20 folds) during 9 months storage. Powders pulverized with cane sugar suffered overall lesser changes in most of the quality parameters during 9 months of storage.

Energy and Environment

617

Studies on ethanol production using immobilized cells of Kluyveromyces thermotolerans in a packed bed reactor




Nand Lal Singh1*, Pradeep Srivastava2 &
P K Mishra1


1
Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, 2School of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India

Optimization of a suitable process for whole cell immobilization of Kluyveromyces thermtolerans in calcium alginate, coconut coir, bagasse, and jute stick for ethanol production in a packed bed bioreactor is presented. Specific ethanol production of immobilized cells for jute stick was maximum. Cell to carrier ratio (9: 10) was optimum.

624

Kinetics of batch biomethanation process of jatropha and pongamia oil cakes and their co-digested substrates



Akhil Gupta1,*, Ram Chandra2,*, P M V Subbarao1 & V K Vijay2



1
Mechanical Engineering Department, 2Centre for Rural Development and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India 110 016

Batch anaerobic digestion of substrates of jatropha and pongamia oil cakes and mixtures with cattle dung (1:1, oil cake: fresh cattle dung) were carried in aspirator bottles (5 l each) for 60 day hydraulic retention time (HRT). Most productive biogas yield corresponds to mixture of jatropha cake and pongamia cake co-digested with 50% cattle dung, having dilution ratio of 3.5-4, with former mixture giving highest daily biogas yield. Kinetic rate constant of biomethanation process of jatropha and pongamia cake substrate are high in comparison to biodegradation of cattle dung, due to presence of more volatile solids in oil cake, leading to higher conversion efficiency of volatile solids into biogas.

630

CO2 Emission reduction opportunities for small and medium scale textile sector in India





R Velavan*, R Rudramoorthy & S Balachandran



PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641 004, India

Growth of Indian textile industry has resulted in increased CO2 emission and other related pollution. In this study, CO2 emission from Indian textile sector (SMI) has been estimated based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. CO2 reduction options proposed in this research work are operation and maintenance, technology and fuel replacement. Reduction potentials are estimated based on implementation of these strategies.

Waste Treatment and Utilization

634

Identification of effluent quality indicators for use in irrigation A factor analysis approach


Madhumita Das


Water Technology Centre for Eastern Region, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar 751 023, India

Present paper determines effluent quality indicators for periodical monitoring of effluent usage in irrigation. Using discriminant analysis, salt type (variance, 20%), salt stress (variance, 17.8%), heavy metal impact and potassium effect were identified as most critical factors. Further analysis of individual attributes within these factors evaluated discriminating attributes those best served as effluent quality indicators in the order of Pb > Cd >>TDS (total dissolved solids) > Mg @ Cl- @ EC @ Na > Fe @ SAR (sodium adsorption ratio) > Cr @ pH. Variance analysis identified Pb, Cd, Mg and Cr as first priority indicators followed by TDS, Na, SAR, Fe and pH as secondary indicators to assess effluent quality for use in irrigation.

640

Kinetic modeling: Chromium(III) removal from aqueous solution by microbial waste biomass


Indu Sharma & Dinesh Goyal*


Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Science, Thapar University, Patiala 147 004, India

This study presents removal of chromium (III) from aqueous solution by microbial waste biomass (MB2) obtained as a byproduct of pharmaceutical fermentation industry. Sorption kinetic behavior of Cr(III) was studied in a series of experiments in batch mode at different pH, adsorbent dosage and initial Cr concentration. Optimum Cr(III) removal (73.9%) from aqueous solution was at pH 4 by 1% biomass dosage. A comparison of kinetic models (Lagergren, Ho & McKay, Elovich & Morris-Weber) and correlation coefficient (R2) indicated that Ho & McKay kinetic model correlates well with experimental kinetic data.

Author-Reader Platform

647

Instructions to contributors

 

 

 

 

Author Index



Agnihotri R C

605

 

 

Balachandran S

630

Barwal V S

608

 

 

Chandra R

624

 

 

Das A

597

Das K C

575

Das M

634

Deb D

575

Dutta S

584

 

 

Goyal D

647

Gupta A

624

 

 

Jindal R

605

 

 

Kaushal B B L

611

Kumar N

605

Kundu P

597

Mandal J K

584

Mishra P K

617

 

 

Pankaj D

605

 

 

Ranganathan S

592

Rudramoorthy R

630

 

 

Senthilvelan T

592

Sharma I

647

Sharma P C

611

Sharma S K

611

Sharma V K

605

Shrera S K

608

Singh N L

617

Sriram G

592

Srivastava P

617

Subbarao P M V

624

 

 

Velavan R

630

Vijay V K

624

 

 


Keyword Index

 


Alcoholic fermentation

617

Amino acids

611

ANOVA

592

Anti-caking agent

611

Aqueous solution

647

 

 

Batch biomethanation

624

Biogas yield

624

Block-cipher

584

 

 

Cation exchange resins

611

Chromium (III)

647

CO2 Emission

630

Cryptography

584

Cryptosystem

584

 

 

Dowex 50W

611

 

 

Effluent quality

634

Energy efficiency

630

Extraction methods

608

 

 

Factor analysis

634

Factorial design

592

FES

605

FES stimulator

605

First order kinetics

624

Foam mat drying

611

Fuel switching

630

 

 

Hard turning

592

Heaviside function

575

Hill lemon juice

608

 

 

Immobilization

617

Indicator

634

Irrigation

634

 

 

Jatropha oil cake

624

Juice powder

611

 

 

Kinetic modeling

647

 

 

Lemon

611

 

 

Microbial waste biomass

647

Microprocessor-based system

597

Non-enzymatic browning

611

 

 

Packed bed reactor

617

Paraplegics

605

Partition of unity

575

Phase sequence

597

Phase unbalance

597

Pongamia oil cake

624

Predictive model

592

Preservation techniques

608

Prime

584

Private-key

584

 

 

Shear strength of rock joint

575

Standardization

608

Standing

605

Storage

611

Streptomyces sp.

647

Surface roughness

592

 

 

Tannery effluent

647

Thermotolerans yeast

617

Tool wear

592

 

 

XFEM

575