Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research

VOLUME 68

NUMBER 11

NOVEMBER 2009

CONTENTS

Review

915

Analysis of discrete wavelet based image compression technique: A review


N B Chopade1* & A A Ghatol2


1
Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, SSGM College of Engineering, Shegaon 444 203, India

In this paper, wavelet based coding algorithm, Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees (SPIHT), is considered for encoding and decoding image data. SPIHT uses recursive set partitioning procedure to sort subsets of wavelet coefficient by maximum magnitude with respect to threshold. SPIHT is simple, less complex and has very fast encoding and decoding, making it very efficient in multimedia communication. Numerical results obtained using MATLAB shows that output image has high value of peak signal to noise ratio with good compression ratio for low bit rate.

Management & Information Technology

920

Prediction of etching rate of alumino-silicate glass by RSM and ANN



H T Ting1*, K A Abou-El-Hossein2 &
H B Chua1

1
Mechanical Engineering Deparment, Curtin University of Technology (Sarawak Campus), 68006 Miri, Sarawak

2Department of Mechatronics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031, South Africa

In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) were applied to predict material removal rate in chemical etching process of alumino-silicate glass (SiO2 57/Al2O3 36/CaO/MgO/BaO). New models were able to predict etching rate of alumino-silicate glass, with a great confidence. Input parameters analyzed were temperature, etching period and type of setup with and without condensation.

925

Error modeling and analysis of light ray path for optical element with hyperbolic boundary surface




Te-Tan Liao* & Kuo-Hwa Tseng



Department of Mechanical Engineering, Far East University, No. 49, Chung Hua Road, Hsin-Shih Tainan 744, Taiwan

Present paper proposed error analysis methodology to quantify deviations of incident light position and errors of hyperbolic boundary surface frame. Skew ray tracing using Snell’s law and homogeneous coordinate transformation matrix determines direction of a reflected or refracted ray. Variation of refractive light tends to zero when light source approaches optical axis. Results confirmed importance of performing proposed error analysis before applying calibration effect while designing optical systems having hyperbolic boundary surfaces.

934

Centralized monitoring and control of air conditioning units


Nirmala Sanikommu* & A S Joshi


International Advanced Research Center for Powder Metallurgy & New Materials, ARCI, PO Balapur, Hyderabad 500 005, India

A virtual instrument has been developed using LabVIEW graphical programming language to monitor current drawn by air conditioning units (ACUs) at a central location. Minimal hardware changes are required for implementation of new design system in existing ACU installations. Substantial reduction in cabling cost is achieved by designing additional hardware to reduce number of cables, connecting data acquisition card to AC systems.

S & T and Industrial Research

940

Facile spectrophotometric determination of cerium using malachite green –iodide system in geological and environmental samples



Etesh K Janghel1* & Y Pervez2


1Department of Applied Chemistry, Ashoka Institute of Technology & Management, Rajnandgaon 499 441, India



2Department of Applied Chemistry, Chhatrapati Shivaji Institute of Technology, Durg 491 001, India

A simple and highly sensitive method is proposed for determination of trace amount of cerium. New method involves bleaching of greenish colour dye-malachite green, by the action of iodine, which is released by reaction between potassium iodide and cerium (IV) in acidic medium. Beer’s law is obeyed over concentration range of 0.6 to 4.6 µg cerium (IV) in final volume of 25 ml (0.024-0.184 ppm). Molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity were found to be 1.36 x 105 l mol-1 cm-1 and 0.002 µg cm-2, respectively. New method has been successf ully applied for determination of cerium in silicate rocks, high purity rare earth oxides, soil, plant tissue and natural water samples.

945

Voltammetric behaviour of an antibiotic drug and its enhancement determination in presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide




Rajeev Jain*, Ritesh Mishra & Ashish Dwivedi



School of Studies in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, India

Electrochemical behaviour of cefpodoxime proxetil (CP) at a dropping mercury electrode (DME) in presence of surfactants [cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium lauryl sulphate (SDS), Tween-20, Triton X-100] was studied by using different voltammetric techniques. Compared with DME without CTAB, reduction peak potential of CP shifts negatively and peak current is increased significantly, due to enhanced accumulation of CP with CTAB at hydrophobic electrode surface. In electrochemical determination of CP using differential pulse polarography, presence of CTAB in absence of surfactant enhanced detection limit from 0.71 x 10-5 mol l-1 to 1.6 x 10-7 mol l-1. Analysis of CP in pharmaceutical formulations exhibited mean recoveries of 99% and 98% for both reduction peaks.

951

Hydrodynamic studies of gas-solid fluidization in hexagonal bed for non-spherical particles


Saroj K Padhi* & R K Singh


Chemical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, India

This paper presents hydrodynamic properties (minimum fluidization velocity, pressure drop at minimum fluidization, minimum bubbling velocity, minimum slugging velocity, particulate fluidization, bubbling fluidization, expansion ratio, fluctuation ratio etc.) of gas solid fluidization in hexagonal bed. Experimental values of these properties in hexagonal bed have been compared with corresponding values in cylindrical bed.

955

Optimization of growth parameters of phytase producing fungus using RSM



Sonia Dahiya, Namita Singh* & J S Rana


*Department of Bio & Nano Technology, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125 001, India

This study presents optimum parameters for phytase enzyme secretion by fungus (NSF-7 & NSF-9) using RSM based on Box-Behnken model. Fisher’s statistical testing was performed for analysis of variance (ANOVA) for quadratic regression equations of both fungus. Optimum conditions for phytase secretion by NSF-7 and NSF-9, respectively, were: pH, 4.4-4.7, 4.0-4.5; temperature, 28-32°, 32-35°C; and substrate concentration, 0.29-0.32, 0.27-0.30 g/100 ml.

Energy and Environment

960

Performance of single cylinder diesel engine with karabi seed biodiesel



Dilip Kumar Bora*


Mechanical Engineering Department, Jorhat Engineering College, Jorhat 785 007, India

This paper presents performance of single cylinder diesel engine using blends of karabi seed biodiesel. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst to facilitate estarification process. It has been observed that karabi seed biodiesel can effectively be used as diesel fuel substitute in existing diesel engine without any engine modification.

964

Assessment of ground water quality of Bhavnagar region (Gujarat)


Deepti Mishra1*, Manish Mudgal1,
Mohd Akram Khan1, Prabha Padmakaran1 & B Chakradhar2



1
Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute (CSIR), Hoshangabad Road, Bhopal 462 026, India



2Ramky Enviro Engineers Ltd, Ramky House, Gulmohar Avenue, Rahbhavan Road, Somajiguda, Hyderabad 500 082, India

This paper assessed ground water quality of Bhavnagar region for determining its suitability for drinking purposes. Ground water samples, collected from 12 different locations of Bhavnagar region for winter, summer and post monsoon seasons, revealed that pH of all samples was neutral to slight alkaline. Turbidity of all samples was within permissible limit. Total dissolved solids, total hardness, fluoride, chloride and chromium were beyond permissible limit in some samples. In most samples, iron was beyond permissible limit. Zinc, copper and manganese were within permissible limit.

Waste Treatment and Utilization

967

Optimization of acid hydrolysis conditions of delimed tannery fleshings by response surface method



Amit Kumar Rai, C Nived, P Z Sakhare,
P V Suresh, N Bhaskar* and N S Mahendrakar


Department of Meat, Fish and Poultry Technology, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore 570 020, India

An ecofriendly method, involving mild organic acids to hydrolyse delimed tannery fleshings (TF), has been developed. Combination of formic acid and propionic acid (1:1) was employed to obtain hydrolysates with higher degree of hydrolysis (DH). Better antioxidant properties were obtained by response surface method (RSM) using a factorial design. Effect of pretreatment involving steam cooking (80°C for 15 min) indicated that cooked delimed TF on acid treatment had significantly (P<0.5) higher protein extractability than uncooked delimed TF. Optimized levels of factors for obtaining highest DH (>51%) at room temperature for cooked delimed TF were acid mixture (20%) and incubation time (9 days). Liquid hydrolysate from TFs exhibited antioxidant activity (125.56 mg ascorbic acid equivalents /ml extract) and diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavanging activity (46.42%). Chemical score of hydrolysate revealed an excess amount of essential amino acids (arginine, leucine and lysine) as compared to reference protein. This indicates its potential for use in livestock/aquaculture feeds.

975

Performance evaluation of waste plastic/polymer modified bituminous concrete mixes



Sabina1, Tabrez A Khan1*, Sangita2,
D K Sharma3 &  B M Sharma2



1Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110 025, India



2Central Road Research Institute, New Delhi 110 020, India



3Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi 110 016, India

This paper describes comparative performance of properties of bituminous concrete mixes containing plastic/polymer (PP) (8% and 15% by wt of bitumen) with conventional bituminous concrete mix (prepared with 60/70 penetration grade bitumen). Significant improvement in properties like marshall stability, retained stability, indirect tensile strength and rutting was observed in PP modified bituminous concrete mixes.

Research Report

980

Mystery of Bermuda Triangle: R P Sharma

Author-Reader Platform

982

Instructions to contributors

 

                                             Author Index



Abou-El-Hossein K A

920

 

 

Bhaskar N

967

Bora D K

960

 

 

Chakradhar B

964

Chopade N B

915

Chua H B

920

 

 

Dahiya S

955

Dwivedi A

945

 

 

Ghatol A A

915

 

 

Jain R

945

Janghel E K

940

Joshi A S

934

 

 

Khan M A

964

Khan T A

975

 

 

Liao T T

925

 

 

Mahendrakar N S

967

Mishra D

964

Mishra R

945

Mudgal M

964

 

 

Nived C

967

 

 

Padhi S K

951

Padmakaran P

964

Pervez Y

940

 

 

Rai A K

967

Rana J S

955

 

 

Sabina

975

Sakhare P Z

967

Sangita

975

Sanikommu N

934

Sharma B M

975

Sharma D K

975

Singh N

955

Singh R K

951

Suresh P V

967

 

 

Ting H T

920

Tseng K H

925


                                 Keyword Index


Air conditioning

934

Alumino-silicate glass

920

ANN

920

Antioxidant

967

 

 

Bhavnagar region

964

Bit rate

915

Bitumen

975

Box-Behnken design

955

Bubbling fluidization

951

 

 

Ce (IV)

940

Cefpodoxime proxetil

945

Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

945

 

 

Data acquisition

934

Diesel engine

960

Discrete wavelet transform (DWT)

915

Drinking water

964

 

 

Electrochemical study

945

Error analysis

925

Etching rate

920

 

 

Geological and environmental samples

         940

 

 

Heavy metals

964

Hexagonal bed

951

Homogeneous transformation matrix

925

HVAC

934

Hyperbolic boundary surface

925

Inorganic phosphate

955

 

 

Karabi seed biodiesel

960

 

 

LabVIEW

934

 

 

Malachite Green

940

Modified bituminous concrete mix

975

 

 

Optimization

955, 967

Organic acids

967

 

 

Particulate fluidization

951

Peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR)

915

Physico-chemical parameters

964

Phytase

955

Protein hydrolysate

967

 

 

RSM

920

 

 

Skew ray tracing

925

Spectrophotometry

940

SPIHT

915

 

 

Tannery fleshings

967

 

 

Virtual instrument

934

 

 

Waste plastic

975