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Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

 

ISSN : 0301-1208

CODEN : IJBBBQ  

VOLUME 41

NUMBER 6

DECEMBER 2004

 

CONTENTS

Role of protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors in cancer therapeutics

273

S B Bhise*, Abhijit D Nalawade and Hitesh Wadhawa

 

 

 

Papers

 

Immunocontraceptive potential of recombinantly expressed minimized chicken riboflavin carrier protein (mini-RCP) in rodents


281

Sarada Subramanian*, Anjali A Karande and P Radhakantha Adiga

 

 

 

Partial purification, characterization and properties of two isoforms of glutamine synthetase from Pennisetum glaucum L. leaves


288

Shilpi Ghosh

 

 

 

cAMP-mediated upregulation of gelatinases in primary cultures of isolated rat hepatocytes


294

K Saja and P R Sudhakaran*

 

 

 

Physico-chemical and antigenic characterization of unconventional heavy chain antibodies of Indian desert camel (Camelus dromedarius L.)


299

Sharvan Sehrawat and Ajit Singh*

 

 

 

A theoretical study of the stability of DNA binding with cis/trans platin

305

Seema Srivastava, Irfan Ali Khan, Shinoo Srivastava and Vishwambhar Dayal Gupta*

 

 

 

Phonon dispersion in polyinosinic acid

311

Seema Srivastava, Shinoo Srivastava, Irfan Ali Khan, M K Pandey and V D Gupta*

 

 

 

Notes

 

Automated derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde for estimation of amino acids in
plasma using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography


322

 J V Gnanou*, S K Srinivas and A V Kurpad

 

 

 

Determination of serum triglycerides using lipase, glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase and peroxidase co-immobilized onto alkylamine glass beads


326

Vandana Kalia and Chandra S Pundir*

 

 

 

Inhibition of the hexokinase/hexose transporter region in the glycosomal membrane of bloodstream Trypanosoma brucei by oligomycin and digitonin


329

Muturi R Njogu* and Job K Kiaira

 

 

Meeting Report (TRendys)

333

 

 

Annual Author Index

336

 

 

Annual Subject Index

338

 

 

List of Referees

351

 

 

Instructions to Authors

354

 

 

 

                        *Author for correspondence

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 41, December 2004, pp. 273-280

 

 Minireview

 

Role of protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors in cancer therapeutics

S B Bhise*, Abhijit D Nalawade and Hitesh Wadhawa

 

Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are critical in regulating cell growth and differentiation and are deeply involved in several cancers. PTK-inhibitors are mainly ATP-site directed and are finding use in the treatment of several cancers, and more than 30 such agents are now in phase I-III clinical trials. The present review focuses mainly on the development of PTK inhibitors in clinical trials, with special emphasis on imatinib mesylate, a rationally designed, potent oral anticancer agent and selective inhibitor for Abl tyrosine kinase, including Bcr-Abl, C-kit and platelet-derived growth factor-receptor tyrosine kinases, which has been implicated in several malignancies, including chronic myeloid leukemia and gastro-intestinal stromal tumour.

 

Keywords: Protein tyrosine kinase, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, imatinib mesylate, chronic myeloid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, anticancer agent, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

 Vol. 41, December 2004, pp. 281-287

 

Papers

 

Immunocontraceptive potential of recombinantly expressed minimized chicken riboflavin carrier protein (mini-RCP) in rodents

Sarada Subramanian*,a, Anjali A Karandeb and P Radhakantha Adigac

 

Chicken riboflavin carrier protein (RCP; 219 AA) harbours four linear epitopes, constituted by the peptide residues 3-23, 64-83, 130-147 and 200-219. Antibodies to these sequences bioneutralize maternal RCP and provide protection from pregnancy in rodents. In order to overcome the major histocompatibility complex-dependent variability in immune response often encountered with use of single peptides for vaccination in genetically outbred populations, we have assembled a novel synthetic gene, incorporating in tandem the nucleotide sequences coding for all the four neutralizing epitopes of chicken RCP and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene product, mini-RCP has been characterized for its immunogenic properties and contraceptive potential in rodents. Immunization of rabbits and rats led to generation of antibodies against individual peptide components, as determined by enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, immunized rats carried pregnancy to term and delivered healthy offsprings. Antisera from these rats exhibited decreased affinity of binding to the native protein. These findings suggest that the prospects of covalently-linked epitope peptides need to be cautiously evaluated during the design and development of peptide-based vaccines.

 

Keywords: Immunocontraception, immunogenicity, chicken riboflavin carrier protein, major histocompatibility complex, minimized riboflavin carrier protein, synthetic gene, rat, rabbit

 

IPC Code: C12N 15/66, A61K 48/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

 Vol. 41, December 2004, pp. 288-293

 

Partial purification, characterization and properties of two isoforms of glutamine synthetase from Pennisetum glaucum L. leaves

Shilpi Ghosh

 

Two isozymes of glutamine synthetase GS1 and GS2 were partially purified from Pennisetum glaucum leaves by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography and their kinetic and regulatory properties were studied using semisynthetase assay of GS. Mg2+ was the most effective cation for activity of both the isozymes; however, it could be efficiently replaced by Co2+. The pH optima for GS1 and GS2 were 7.0 and 8.0, respectively. GS1 exhibited maximum activity at 42°C, with activation energy of 18 KJ mol-1 and a Q10 of 3.0, whereas GS2 showed maximum activity at 50°C, with activation energy of 40 KJ mol-1 and Q10 of 2.25. GS1 was more thermostable than GS2. The Km value for Mg2+ of GS1 was 2-fold higher than GS2; however, these isozymes did not differ much in their affinity for other substrates. Alanine, serine and glycine lowered GS1 and GS2 activities, whereas cysteine enhanced their activities with a more pronounced effect on GS2. Serine inhibited the activity of both the isoforms in a competitive-manner, whereas alanine was a non-competitive inhibitor, with respect to glutamate. AMP and ADP were competitive inhibitor with respect to ATP for both the isozymes.

 

Keywords: Pennisetum glaucum leaves, glutamine synthetase, chloroplastic, cytosolic, isozymes.

IPC Code: C12N 9/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 41, December 2004, pp. 294-298

 

 

cAMP-mediated upregulation of gelatinases in primary cultures of isolated rat hepatocytes

K Saja and P R Sudhakaran*

 

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a major role in tissue remodelling and repair in pathophysiological conditions, such as liver fibrosis and regeneration. Regulation of the MMPs produced by liver cells is important in maintaining cell-matrix ratio in liver, which is a major target site for hormones that mediate their intracellular effects through cAMP. The possibility of cAMP affecting the activity of MMPs and their endogenous inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMPs) was studied using isolated rat hepatocytes in culture. Zymographic analysis showed that treatment with hormones like epinephrine, thyroxine and dexamethasone and Bt2 cAMP increased 92 kDa MMP-9 activity. Bt2 cAMP caused upregulation of MMP-9 in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of hormones was less on MMP-2. ELISA using specific antibodies showed increase in levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 protein. Kinetic analysis of production of MMPs and TIMPs showed that the response to Bt2 cAMP was a delayed one, indicating its effect on de novo protein synthesis. These results suggest the possibility of cAMP dependent regulation of MMP-9 in the hepatocytes.

 

Keywords: Rat hepatocytes, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP), cAMP-mediated upregulation, extracellular matrix (ECM), horse radish peroxidase.

 

IPC Code: C 12 Q 1/37

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 41, December 2004, pp. 299-304

 

 

Physico-chemical and antigenic characterization of unconventional heavy chain antibodies of Indian desert camel (Camelus dromedarius L.)

Sharvan Sehrawat and Ajit Singh*

 

Heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs) of IgG2 and IgG3 subtypes were purified from the sera of Indian desert camel (Camelus dromedarius L.) by ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and affinity chromatography on protein A-sepharose and protein G-sepharose, and characterized by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID), counter-immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP), immunoelectrophoresis (IEP), ELISA and immunoblotting. IgG2 and IgG3 were found to have molecular mass 46.77 kDa and 43.65 kDa, respectively by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. They migrated in β-region in IEP and could be detected in CIEP, because of being more negatively charged and smaller size. Anti-camel IgG3 cross-reacted in AGID, ELISA and immunoblotting with IgGs of pig and ruminants (cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat), but not with immunoglobulins from horse, dog, guinea pigs, mice, fish, poultry and human. The present findings suggest close antigenic relationship of camels with pigs and ruminants.

 

Keywords: Indian camel, heavy chain antibodies, purification, electrophoresis, antigenic relationship, immunoblots, Camelus dromedarius L.

 

IPC Code: C 07 K 16/06

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

 Vol. 41, December 2004, pp. 305-310

 

A theoretical study of the stability of DNA binding with cis/trans platin

Seema Srivastava, Irfan Ali Khan, Shinoo Srivastava and Vishwambhar Dayal Gupta*

                             

Both cis- and trans-platins are known to form intra- and interstrand cross-linking with DNA. Since the nature and strength of binding is different, it makes their efficacy as anti-tumour drug different. In the present communication, we report theoretical analysis by using an amended Zimm and Bragg theory, to explain the melting behaviour and heat capacity of DNA with and without platin binding. The sharpness of transition has been examined in terms of half width and sensitivity parameter (DH/s). The experimental measurements of Pilch et al (J Mol Biol 2000, 296, 803) and Ctirad and Brabec (J Biol Chem 2001, 276, 9655) have been used.

 

Keywords: cis/trans Platin, nucleation parameter, co-operativity, l-point anomaly, transition profile, DNA binding, heat capacity

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 41, December 2004, pp. 311-321

 

Phonon dispersion in polyinosinic acid

Seema Srivastava, Shinoo Srivastava, Irfan Ali Khan, M K Pandey and V D Gupta*

 

A study of the normal modes of vibration and their dispersion in polyinosinic acid [poly (I)] along the helix axis based on Urey-Bradley force field is reported. It leads to a better interpretation of Raman and FTIR spectra. A comparison of dispersion curves of poly (I) with poly (G) has been made. Characteristic features of dispersion curves, such as regions of high density-of-states, repulsion and character mixing are discussed. Predictive value of heat capacity as a function of temperature is reported.

 

Keywords: Normal modes, dispersion curves, Fourier transform, density-of-states, polyinosinic acid

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 41, December 2004, pp. 322-325

                                                                       

 Notes

 

Automated derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde for the estimation of amino acids in plasma using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography

 J V Gnanou*, S K Srinivas and A V Kurpad 

 

A fully automated method for quantitative estimation of plasma amino acids using fluorescence detection of o-phthaladehyde/2-mercaptoethanol derivatives of the analytes and their separation by gradient elution reversed-phase HPLC has been described. The method is simple and the three-step gradient elution is suitable for routine analysis of a large number of biological samples due to clear resolution, high degree of precision, accuracy, cost-effectiveness and lack of interference from chemical contaminations. Using this method, 19 amino acids were completely resolved and the within-run coefficients of variation ranged from 2.53 to 10.7% with a mean variation of 5.68%.

 

Keywordso-Phthaladehyde derivatization, reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography, plasma amino acid analysis.

 

IPC Code: G01 N 33/88

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics Vol.

41, December 2004, pp. 326-328

 

Determination of serum triglycerides using lipase, glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase and peroxidase co-immobilized onto alkylamine glass beads

Vandana Kalia and Chandra S Pundir*

 

A method for determination of serum triglycerides (Tgs) using lipase, glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase and peroxidase co-immobilized onto alkylamine glass beads (pore diameter 55 nm) through glutaralde­hyde coupling was developed and evaluated. The minimum detection limit of the method was 0.54 mM. The analytical recovery of added triolein in the serum was 97.55±1.5% (mean ± S.D.). The mean value of serum Tgs, determined by the present method showed a good correlation (r=0.984) with the Bayer’s kit method, employing free enzymes. The within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV) were <2.25% and <1.35% respectively. No significant loss of activity was observed, when co-immobilized enzymes were reused for about 200 times and stored at 4°C in distilled water. The cost of Tg determination for 200 serum samples was less, as compared with Bayer’s kit method.

 

Keywords: Triglyceride, lipase, glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase, peroxidase, co-immobi­lization, alkylamine glass, serum.

 

IPC Code: C12 Q 1/28, C12Q 1/61

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 41, December 2004, pp. 329-332

 

Inhibition of the hexokinase/hexose transporter region in the glycosomal membrane of bloodstream Trypanosoma brucei by oligomycin and digitonin

 

Glycolysis in bloodstream T. brucei is the sole source of energy and remains a favourable chemotherapeutic target. In furtherance of this, an attempt has been made to understand better the contribution of glucose, fructose, mannose and glycerol to the energy charge of these parasites incubated in the presence of oligomycin, salicyhydroxamic acid (SHAM) and digitonin. Their cellular energy charge, when catabolizing glucose was 0.860, and under inhibition by oligomycin (10 mg), SHAM (2 mM) or oligomycin plus SHAM, 0.800, 0.444 and 0.405, respectively. Oligomycin inhibited the rate of catabolism of glucose, mannose and fructose up to 80%. The inhibition could not be alleviated by uncouplers, such as 2,4-dinitrophenol or permeabilization of the membranes by digitonin. Glucose-6-phosphate and other phosphorylated glycolytic intermediates, such as fructose-6-phosphate were catabolized by the permeabilized parasites in the presence of oligomycin, implying that except hexokinase, all the other glycolytic enzymes were active. Glucose oxidation was stimulated by low concentrations of digitonin (up to 4 mg), but at higher concentrations, it was significantly inhibited (up to 90% inhibition at 10 mg). Apparently, the inhibitory effects of oligomycin and digitonin were confined to glucose uptake and hexokinase catalysis. The above observations suggest that the hexose transporter and the enzyme hexokinase might be functionally-linked in the glycosomal membrane and oligomycin inhibits the linkage, by using a mechanism not linked to the energy charge of the cell. Digitonin at concentrations higher than 4 mg disrupted the membrane, rendering the complex in-operative. A hexokinase/hexose transporter complex in the glycosomal membrane is envisaged.

 

Keywords: Energy charge, glycosome, glycosomal membrane, hexokinase, hexose-transporter, oligomycin, salicyhydroxamic acid, digitonin, Trypanosoma brucei

 

 

 

 

 

 

Author Index

 

Adiga P R

281

Khan I A

305, 311

Saja K

294

 

 

Kiaira J K

329

Sehrawat S

299

Bhise S B

273

Kurpad A V

322

Singh A

299

 

 

 

 

Srinivas S K

322

Ghosh S

288

Nalawade A D

273

Srivastava Seema

305, 311

Gnanou J V

322

Njogu M R

329

Srivastava Shinoo

305, 311

Gupta V D

305, 311

Pandey M K

311

Subramanian S

281

 

 

Pundir C S

326

Sudhakaran P R

294

Kalia V

326

 

 

 

 

Karande A A

281

 

 

Wadhawa H

273

 

 
Annual Author Index

 

Adiga P R

281

Jang Moon-Sun

141

Pawar R

254

Ahmad R

148

Juneja M

53

Phale P S

227

Akdogan M

57

 

 

Ponnuswamy M N

184

Akgul C

120

Kalia V

326

Porwal V

34

Ali A M

167

Kamat B P

173

Prabhu Y

227

Altintas L

57

Kapoor H C

29

Prasanna S

179

An Sun-Young

141

Karande A A

281

Pundir C S

102, 326

Annamalai P T

40

Kaur K

116, 221

Punekar N S

205

Arif S H

148

Kaya I

120

 

 

Arunkumar N S

96

Khan I A

305, 311

Rajasekar P

188

 

 

Khan M M

148

Ranhotra H S

246

Bahadur A

107

Khar A

167

Rao J A

241

Bahadur P

107

Kiaira J K

329

Rath L S

258

Banerjee S

81

Kim Cheorl-Ho

141

Raval M K

258

Bansal D D

20

Kim Ji-Youn

141

Ray M

 7

Bansal M P

14

Kole P L

48

Ray S

 7

Basu A

162

Krishnan S

227

Reddy M

167

Bhalla S

116, 221

Kumari A L

167

 

 

Bhatt P N

123

Kumari M

102

Sahindokuyucu F

57

Bhattacharya I

89

Kurpad A V

322

Saja K

294

Bhattacharyya D

162

 

 

Saraboji K

184

Bhattacharyya Dhananjay

233

Lakshmi V P

205

Sawant M S

216

Bhise S B

273

Lee Young-Choon

141

Seetharamappa J

173

Bhowal J

81

Lodha M L

29

Sehrawat S

299

Bindu M P

40

 

 

Sen P C

162

Biswas S

89

Mahmood A

116, 221

Shalini S

14

 

 

Mahmood S

116, 221

Shanmukha I

48

Cetinkaya O

45

Majumdar R

233

Sharma A

154

Chandra A

191

Manivannan E

179

Sharma R

246

Chatterjee M

162

Manivasagam T

188

Sharma S

113

Chatterjee B P

81

Mehra R

53

Shi X

216

Chaturvedi S C

179

Mehta J P

123

Sikdar S

81

Cho Young-Su

141

Melwanki M B

173

Silig Y

45

Choi Yong-Lark

141

Mishra S

254

Singh A

299

 

 

Misra S N

123

Sonawane S

254

Das Hasi R

89

Misra R M

34

Sreedhar B

250

Das R H

89

Mitra A

81

Srinivas S K

322

Dasgupta A K

233

Mohankumar C

96

Srivastava Seema

305, 311

Demirezer L O

45

Murugan K

96

Srivastava Shinoo

305, 311

Dutt, S

23

Mwangi D W

20

Subramanian P

188

 

 

 

 

Subramanian S

281

Eraslan G

57

Nagappa A N

48

Sudhakaran P R

294

Essiz D

57

Nair K M

250

Sun Y

216

 

 

Nalawade A D

273

 

 

Ghosh P K

254

Nallini A

184

Tandon P

34

Ghosh S

7

Neekhra N

69

Tyagi A

191

Ghosh Shilpi

288

Njogu M R

329

 

 

Ghosh Subho

162

 

 

Varade D

107

Gnanou J V

322

Ok Min

141

Venkateswarlu K

241

Guha A K

81

 

 

Vethamuthu M S

107

Gupta M N

113

Padh H

69

 

 

Gupta V D

34, 305, 311

Pandey M K

311

Wadhawa H

273

 

 

Pandi P V

48

 

 

Hasnain A

148

Pang Q

216

Yadav O P

29

 

 

Pardhasaradhi B V V

167

Yarsan E

57

Jabeen M

148

Patel A

254

 

 

Jain S

113

Patel V

107

Zeeyauddin K

48

Janave M T

154

Pathak T V

123

Zhang S

216

 

 

Patil R T

48

 

 

 

 

Annual Subject Index

 

absorption, infrared

34

Dioxygenase

 

Operativity, Co-

305

acetaminophen

277

1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid

227

Orbitals, Pseudo p

184

Acetogenins

167

ring-cleaving

228

Oscillations, Circadian

188

acetone

328

dipole(s)

179

osteoblastic

57

acetosyringone

206

atomic

35

Over-expression

102, 141, 211

acid(s)

 

ion

255

oxalate oxidase

102

abscisic

191

Dipyridyl, α,α-

228

oxidants

294

amino

188

disease(s)

 

Oxidase, Glycerol-3-phosphate

326, 329

8-anilino-1-naphthalene sulphonic

173

Hodgkins

274

oxidative damage

14

arachidonic

246

Parkinson’s

123

oxygenase, pheophorbide a

154, 159

aromatic amino

184

inflammatory

20

oxyradicals

43

ascorbic

328

Dismutase, Superoxide

20, 40

oxysterol

14, 18

cis-4-(1-hydroxynaphth-2-yl)-2-oxobut-3-enoic

231

disorders

 

paclitaxel

167

colominic

81

gastro-intestinal

53

paracetamol

173

deoxyoctulosonic

89

respiratory

53

Parameter, Nucleation

305

diaminetetraacetic

143

Dispersion, Phonon

34, 311

parasites

329

5,5-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic

20

Distribution, Potential energy

37

pathway(s)

 

ethylene diamine tetraacetic

20, 162

5,5′-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic)

7

biosynthetic-secretory

70

ethylene glycol bis (b-amino

 

dithiothreitol

7

chlorophyll oxidase

160

ethyl ether) N, N, N’, N’-tetraacetic

162

DNA

 

chlorophyllase

158, 160

5-fluoroorotic

205, 207

k

305

clathrin-mediated

73

gallic

21

melting behaviour

305

1, 2-dihydroxynaphthalene

227

gallotannic

20

transition

305

endocytic

70, 74

1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic

227

Docking

76

endolysosomal

71

lyso bis-phosphatidic

69, 75

donor

 

endosomal

282

N-acetyl-neuraminic

20

electronegative

184

gentisate

227

nalidixic

48

proton

184, 258

hydrophobic

48

neuraminic

20, 81

drug(s)

 

lysosomal

282

N-glycolylneuraminic

20

anti-tumour

305

non-clathrin-mediated

73

nucleic

311

anti-inflammatory

179

o-phthalic acid

227

oleic

246

design

275

phagocytic

71

o-phthalic

227

quinone

45

signal transduction

274

palmitic

246

surface-active

48

stimulicaspase-3-related

167

perchloric

330

D-tagatose

81

Patients, Hypercholesterolemic

15

polycytidilic

311

D-talose

81

Pennisetum glaucum

288

polyinosinic

311

Dye, Quinoneimine

327

pepstatin A

143

polyunsaturated fatty

246

Dynamics, Vibrational

311

Peptide groups

233

salicyhydroxamic

329

Dysmorphology, Craniofacial

221

permeability

48

saturated fatty

246

Edema, Peripheral

277

permeabilization

329

sialic

81

eel

148, 219

permeants

48

tannic

26

Effect(s)

 

peroxidase

 

thiobarbituric

20

alcohol

40

glutathione

40

tricarboxylic

14

antiulcerogenic

45

horse radish

294, 326

trichloroacetic

89, 91, 162

circular dichroism cotton

148

phenylalanine ammonia

96

uric

57, 328

pro-atherogenic

14

peroxidation, lipid

40

uronic

89

Ehrlich ascites carcinoma

7, 81

Peroxides, Lipid

21

Acidogenesis

212

electroendosmosis

299

Phagocytosis

69

aconitase

 

Electrophoresis

 

phagosome

69

duodenal cytosolic

250

2-D polyacrylamide gel

192

Phase, Hexadecane

92

inhibition of duodenal cytosolic

250

polyacrylamide gel

29, 149, 216

phenanthrene

227

Acrophase

188

sodium dodecyl sulphate-poly

 

1,10-phenanthroline

227

actin

217

acrylamide gel

20, 81, 143, 299

Phenol, p-nitro

164

activation

 

electroporation

206

Phenyl, Methyl sulfonyl fluoride

14

hepatic GR

246

Elements, Trace/toxic

53

Phenylalanine, 3, 4-dihydroxy

123

in vitro heat

246

emodin

46

phenylisothiocyanate

322

inhibitors of GR heat

246

Endocytosis

69

phenylketonuria

322

receptor

246

Endoplasmic, Reticulum

26, 69

pheophorbide

154

activator, plasminogen

211

Endosomes

69

pheophytin

154

Activit(y)ies

 

tubular

74

Phosphatase(s)

288

antimicrobial

48,167

Endothapepsin

237

alkaline

221

alkaline phosphatase

45, 57, 190

Energy, Activation

255, 291

phosphate,

 

anti-angiogenic

276

Enterococcus faecalis

120

cytidine mono

20

antibacterial

120

enterocytes

119, 221

D-glyceraldehyde-3-

7

antigen-degrading

26

Enzyme

 

glucose-6-

329

anti-inflammatory

45

antioxidant

14, 20, 26, 40

orotidine-5’-mono

205

anti-metabolite

120

ATPase inhibitor of Na+, K+-

162

p-nitrophenyl

162

anti-microbial

167

chlorophyll degrading

154

Phosphokinase, tyrosine

276

anti-neoplastic

167

chloroplastic

288

phospholipid

49, 77

antipyretic

45

cyclooxygenase-2

179

phosphoprotein

288

anti-tumor

167, 275, 305

digestive

69

phosphorylase B

217

caspase-3

167

drug-metabolizing

45

phosphorylation

162, 329

catalase

22, 46

glycolytic

329

reversible

288

chlorophyll-A degrading

156

immobilized

327

Photo-oxidation

12

chlorophylloxidase

158

inhibition of intracellular

48

photorespiration

288

cinnamyl alcohol-NADPH-dehydrogenase

96

intestinal brush border

221

photosynthesis

159, 254, 292

cytosolic aconitase

251

marker

96

photosystem II

159, 254, 258

cytotoxic

167, 306

mycolytic

206

Phthaladehyde, o-

15, 168, 322

1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid dioxygenase

227

proteolytic

141

phycobilisomes

254

DNase

29

recombinant

141

Phycocyanin, C-

254

fucosyl transferase

119

recovery

102

phycoerythrin

254

gelatinase

295

ring-cleaving

227

Phytohaemagglutinin

283

glutathione peroxidase

41

epinephrine

296

Pinocytosis

69

glutathione reductase

22

erythrocytes

241

Plaques, Atherosclerotic

15

glutathione-S-transferase

45

Estimation

 

Plasmid (s)

142, 206, 282

glycosyl transferases

119

lipid peroxides

21

platin cis/trans

305

hemagglutinating

81

protein

8

Plot, Sctachard

85

hydroxylase

20, 26

reduced glutathione

22

pokeweed

29

intracellular serine protease

141

sialic acids

22

Polyethylene

37

lactase

221

total thiols

22

polyglycine I

34

Mg-dechelatase

157, 158

estrogen

216

polymer

312

microbicidal

14, 26

Ethanol, b-Mercapto

162

Polyporus squamosus

81

N-glycosidase

29

Ether, Octaethylene glycol mono-n-dodecyl

162

polythymidilic,

311

parasiticidal

167

ethylene diaminetetracetate

322

polyvinyl polypyrrolidone

29

pesticidal

167

exocytosis

70, 77

Porins

48

photosynthetic

292

exopolysaccharide

89

Position, Planar

233

p-nitrophenyl phosphatase

163

exposure

 

Powder, Acetone

155

protocatechate-3, 4-dioxygenase

231

cadmium

53

Precipitation, Ammonium sulphate

299

radical scavenging

254

electromagnetic field

57

pregnancy

221, 281

RNase

29

ethanol

116

primers

142

semisynthetase

293

lead

53

hexamer

169

sialyl transferase

119

prenatal ethanol

221

probe oxidation-sensitive fluorescent

168

SOD

22, 46

expression

 

Probe(s)

 

tumouricidal

14

anachronistic

209

hydrophobic

173

Adaptins

72

gene

170, 191

cDNA

169

adipocytes

246

high-level

141

Products, Phytylated

160

adjuvant, Freund’s

281

mini-RCP gene

282

profile, transition

305, 309

agent (s)

 

over-

209, 274

Profile, Protein

191

antibacterial

48, 120

Extract, Seed

167

Promoter(s)

 

anticancer

273

Factor(s)

 

enolase

211

antiseptic

122

ADP ribosylation

69

fungal

209

bacterostatic

48

epidermal growth

69

properties

 

reducing

50

guanine nucleotide-exchange

73

anti-bacterial

48

sulfhydryl

16

N-ethylmaleimide sensitive

69

anticancer

254

agglutinin (s)

81

sexual agglutination

85

anti-inflammatory

254

dermatophyte

86

steric

238

antioxidant

254

fungal

85

Failure, Renal

179

antitumour

171

peanut root

89

fermentation

211

micelle-forming

112

soybean

89

Ferritin

217

Protease(s)

 

Agrocybe cylindracea

81

mucosal

250

serine

141, 237

alanine

288

Fetuin

81

intracellular

141

albumin

57

fibronectin

294

microbial

141

bovine serum

21, 82, 97, 173, 217, 281

Fibrosis, Liver

294

Protein(s)

 

catfish serum

148

Field

 

adaptor

69

human serum

148

electromagnetic

57

ammoecoete serum

148

serum

173

velocity

241

antiviral

29

soybean trypsin

113

Fits, Chocking

53

calmodulin binding

217

Alcohol

40, 221

flexibility

233

chaperone

246

hydroxycinnamyl

96

flow

 

chicken riboflavin carrier

281

Aldehyde

14, 231

blood

244, 276

coatomer

69

hydroxycinnamyl

96

pulsatile

241

D1

258

Algae, Red

254

unsteady blood

241

damaged

15

alkalization

291

fluid

 

denatured

15

alkaloids

167

biological

324

DNA-

240

alkylamine glass

102

Casson’s

241

efflux

48

allophycocyanin

254

extra-cellular

72

folded

238

4-aminophenazone

326

Fluorescen(t)ce

107, 152, 173

green fluorescent

211

ammonia

 

intensity

175

heterologous

146

assimilation

288

quenching

173

intracellular

141

reassimilation

288

fluoride, phenyl methyl sulfonyl

141, 143, 162, 216

iron-regulatory

250

anaemia

53

fluorophore

173

lysosomal associated membrane

69

analgesiaphosphatemia

188

Fluoroquinolones

48

lysozyme

238

analysis

 

Foetoprotein, α-

148

matrix

294

absorption intensity

123

Force field, Urey Bradley

312

membrane

73

amino acid

84, 217, 322

Fraction, Duodenal cytosolic

251

metallothionein

53

carbohydrate

91

Fragmentation, DNA

169

minimized riboflavin carrier

281

DNA fragmentation

168

fragmentography

327

modulator

162

gene function

212

Frame, Open reading

144

phospholipoglyco-

216

mutant

69

Frequencies, Vibrational

312

phycobili-

254

promoter

211

fructose

329

rab

74

protein sequence

299

Fruits, Stay-green

154

ribosome inactivating

29

protein structure

233

fucose

116

SNARE

76

quantitative structure-activity relationship

179

Function, Frequency distribution

37

stress

193

Stern-Volmer

175

Fung(i)us

 

tetrapyrrole pigment

254

thermogravimetric

120

edible

81

proteinases

294

anamoly l-point

305

filamentous

205

proteolysis

283

anemia

277

keratinolytic

81

protocatechuate

227

angiogenesis

275

phytopathogenic

86

Protoplasts

205

angle

 

fusion

 

Pseudomonas sp. strain PP2,

227

helix

312

homotypic

74

pulmonary infarcts

53

improper’ torsion

233

membrane

75, 76

Pump(s)

 

phase

312

N-ethyl-maleimide-sensitive

75

ATP-driven calcium

162

Annexins

76

galactosidase

 

protein efflux

48

Annona squamosa

167

b-

211

Puntius conchonius

216

anthraquinone

45

isopropylthio-

281

Purification

 

antibiotic

48, 120

gastroenteritis

 

serine protease

141

antibodies

 

catarrhal

53

vitellogenin

216

heavy chain

299

ulcerative

53

Pyridine, oligo-3-amino

120

polyclonal

284

gelatin

277

pyrrolidone, polyvinyl poly-

154

Preparation of

217

gene

 

pyruvate

231, 328, 330

antigen

282

Bcl-2

167

2-carboxybenzal-

227

antioxidant

170

developmental

211

Radiation, Exposure to ionizing

40

antipain

141, 143

disruption

212

radical(s)

 

apoptosis

167, 276

function

205, 212

cytotoxic effect of free

26

mediators of

169

mini-RCP

282

free

20, 40, 43, 167

apple custard

167

regulation

211

hydroxyl

171

applications, fluorescence-based

254

replacement

212

semiquinone

45

approximation, Nernst-Lindemann

308, 313

reporter

211

superoxide

43

aprotinin

143, 146

stress responsive

194

Rate, volumetric flow

241

aquaporins

193

synthetic

281

ratio

 

Arginine specific

12

genome sequencing

212

cell-matrix

294

arthritis

179

gland

 

redox

14

Ascimicin

167

mammary

294

reaction(s)

 

ascites

171

mandibular

20

fusion

69

aspartame

188

globins

187

polymerase chain

89, 142, 205, 281

aspartate

188

globulin

57

pseudo-first order

7

Aspergilli

205

a-macro

85

transferase

292

Aspergillus fumigatus

81

thyro

85

reactive oxygen species

14, 20

Assay

 

glucocorticoids

246

reagent(s)

 

antiserum reactivity

217

glucose

328, 329

ammonium molybdate

50

bicinchoninic acid

113

glucuronidase b-

206, 211

biotinylation

89

broth macrodilution

121

glutathione

20, 40, 328

fluorescent

15, 168

chlorophyll degradation

155

depletion

18

Nessler’s

50

cross-reactivity

219

reduced

167

periodic acid Schiff’s

217

dephossphorylation

163

glycans

91

trizol

168

disk diffusion

121

glycerol

329

receptor

69, 89, 119

DNA-cellulose binding

247

glycine

311

epidermal growth factor

69

double-immunodiffusion

216

glycoconjugates

20, 81

glucocorticoid

246

enzyme

8

Glycol, Polyethylene

205, 299

growth factor

273, 276

enzyme-linked lectin binding

89, 91

glycolipids

116

mannose-6-phosphate

69

enzyme-linked-immunosorbent

15, 281, 295, 299

Glycolysis

13, 329

mobility

71

fluorescence immuno

254

Glycophorin

82

receptosomes

70

glutahione peroxidase

22

Glycoprotein(s)

26, 75, 81, 116, 158

Recognition

 

hemagglutination inhibition

82, 84, 94

a-1-acid

85, 277

cell-cell

20

hydrophobicity

92

bird’s nest

85

DNA-ligand

240

lymphocyte stimulation

282

inhibitory potency

86

Recycling, receptor

69

nuclear binding

247

glycosome

329

reductase

 

phosphorylation

163

Glycosylation

116

NADH-cytochrome b5

45

polarographic

228

goldfish

219

NADPH-cytochrome c

45

RFC reductase

156

Golgi network

78

red fluorescent catabolite

154

spectrophotometric

143, 228

Gradient

 

glutathione

20

succinylated gelatin

296

density

77

Refractivity, calculated molar

179

T-cell proliferation

282

pressure

243

Regeneration, Liver

294

assemblies, macromolecular

254

Group(s)

 

regulation

 

assimilation, nitrogen

292

high mobility

305

fertility

162

atherogenic

14

hydrophilic

49

transcriptional

294

atherosclerosis

14, 241, 327

grouper

219

cAMP dependent

294

Atlantic salmon

152

growth

 

Relation, Debey’s

36

atoms, Acceptor

184

cell

274

relationship

 

auxotrophic

207

tumour

169

quantitative structure-activity

179

Bacillus sp

141

Habitat, Saline

96

antigenic

299

banana

 

haematopoiesis

26

renal dysfunction

53

cavendish

154

haemocytometer

15, 21

Replicators, chromosomal

209

green-ripe

154

haemoglobin

250

reporter genes

209, 211

green-unripe

154

heat capacity

37, 305

Repression, nitrogen metabolite

211

yellow-ripe

154

heat shock genes

18

repulsion

311

bank, Protein data

233

heat shock protein

14

coulombic

255

Barb, Rosy

216

hemagglutination

81

Residue(s)

 

beads, Alkylamine glass

326

hematocrit

241

amino acid

179, 237, 259, 283

behaviour

 

hemifusion

76

aromatic

186

thermodynamical

34

Hemorrhages, Subdural

53

cysteine

152

DNA melting

305

hepatic biliary epithelia

58

cytosine

309

benzene, 1-Chloro-2, 4-dinitro

41

hepatocytes

119, 294

guanine

309, 311

bile salt

107

Hepatotoxicity

277

histidine

142

bilirubin

277, 328

heterokaryon

208

leucyl alanine

282

binding

 

hexoses

116

methionine

152

bilirubin

148

Histidine active site

7

peptide

281

DNA

305

homeostasis

295

phenylalanine

186

lectin

94

homopolypeptides

34

purine

305

bioamphiphiles

107

hybridization colony

142

serine

142

biocatalysis

299

hydraulic permeability

50

tryptophan

93, 173, 187

Biochemical characterization

148

Hydrocarbon, Aromatic

227

tryptophanyl

151

biomolecules

69, 123, 171

Hydrolase, Lactase-phlorizin

221

tyrosine

276

Biomonitoring

53

Hydrolases, Peptide

221

Resistance

208

Biophotometer

300

hydroperoxides

40

systemic

30

biosynthesis, Aflatoxin

211

hydrophobicity

51

Resorption, bone

294

biotin

89

Hydrophytes

100

Response

 

blockers, calcium channel

188

7b-hydroxycholesterol

14

cytogenic

277

blood

21

hypertriglyceridemia

40, 327

hematologic

277

density of

242

hypothalamus

188

Resvertrol

167

bodies

 

Hypothesis, Kesting’s liquid membrane

50

Retardation, Intrauterine growth

221

inclusion

146

hypoxanthine

18

rhizobia

89

multi vesicular

69, 75

hypoxia

252

rhythms

 

bond (s)

 

imatinib mesylate

273

calcium

188

peptide

233

Immobilization, Co-

326

circadian

188

hydrogen

255

immobilized

102

inorganic phosphorus

188

bonding, Hydrogen

184

immunoblotting

299

locomotor

190

bone healing

58

Immunocontraception

281

Riboflavin

173

breast cancer

47

immunodiffusion

216, 299

Ribonuclease

237

breath short

53

immuno-electrophoresis

299

ribosomes

26

bridges

 

immunogenicity

281, 286

rice

 

carboxylato-

260

immunogens

281

N22 (drought-tolerant)

191

mono-m-oxo-

260

immunoglobulins

299

Panidhan (drought-susceptible)

191

oxo-

261

Impairment, Growth

221

ring

 

bromides, alkyltrimethylammonium

107

inactivation

8

aromatic

184

brush border membrane

116

Indicators, Metal levels

53

chlorophyll tetrapyrrole

158, 160

budding vesicle

69

Infection

 

furanose

311

burden, Metal body

53

sunnhemp rosette virus

29, 32

tetrapyrrole

255

calcemia

190

tobacco mosaic virus

29, 32

RNA, anti-sense

210

calcium, intracellular free

162

inhibition

 

Rumex patientia

45

calmodulin

162

cell wall synthesis

120

salicylate

227, 231

camel

299

haeme synthesis

53

salmonids

148

Camelus dromedarius

299

hapten

86

Saporin

31

cancer

40, 45, 167, 273, 305

intracellular enzymes

48

saprophyte

81

breast

274

iron absorption

53

sarcoma

47, 276

head

275

nucleic acid synthesis

120

scattering, inelastic neutron

34

liver

21

protein synthesis

120

senescence

288

lung

275

virus

30

Sequence(s)

 

neck

275

zone

121

amino acid

141

thyroid

276

inhibitor

 

nucleotide

142, 281

capacity, Heat

305, 308, 311, 313

caspase

170

peptidyl

283

2-carboxybenzaldehyde

227

competitive

288

Sequencing

 

carcinogens

21

estimation protein

113

DNA

142

carcinoma

 

non-competitive

288

genome

212

ovarian

275

protease activity

143

serology

299

renal cell

276

serine protease

146

serotherapy

299

carp

219

tetrapeptide

170

Serum, Fetal calf

14

mirror

148

tyrosine kinase

273

Shifts, Phase

190

caspase

 

inositol

83

Shock

 

activation of

170

Insulin, Zn-

237

heat

191, 294

inhibitors

170

interaction

 

osmotic

191

catabolite

 

adhesive

294

sialic acid

116

blue and violet fluorescent

159

cell-pathogen

20

Signaling, Cell

246

red fluorescent

154

drug-protein

173

signals, intracellular

276

catalase

40, 217

hydrophobic

255

Signals, Glycosylation

211

catechol

231

ion-protein

26

sinapaldehyde

96

catecholamines

123

Nd (III)-DOPA

123

Sites, Active

141

Catharanthus roseus

167

non-covalent

255

Sites, T-cell recognition

284

cathepsins

282

parameter

107

skew

234

cathetometer

49

riboflavin

173

Smoke, Cigarette

40

Cell

 

Van der Waals

35, 255

sodium cholate

107

bacterial

120

interferon α-2

211

sonication

142

cancer

298

interleukin

211, 276

Sorghum

102

adhesion

274

Intermediates, Glycolytic

329

Sorting, Fluorescence-activated cell

254

cell-interactions

116

introns

211

Spacers, Leucyl alanine

283

cycle progression

274

Ions, Pyridinium

48

Species, Reactive oxygen

40, 167

cycle

26, 77

Iron

 

specificity,

 

death

167

absorption

251

substrate

100

differentiation

116, 274

deficiency

250

rhizobial

89

eukaryotic

70

dependence

250

spectra

 

growth

274

oxide, red

277

fluorescence

174

hematopoietic stem

275

oxide, yellow

277

inelastic neutron

34

hepatic

248

repletion

250

Raman

34, 314

hepatoma

252

status

250

UV-visible absorption

257

hydrophobic behaviour

93

Isomaltase, Sucrase-

221

Spectrofluorimeter

168, 174

leukemic

276

isomerization

230, 233

spectrophotometer

22

line, histiocytic tumour

167

isozymes

288

atomic absorption

53

mitotic

77

kinase

 

UV visible

50, 123

movement

274

glycerol

326

spectroscopy

 

popliteal lymph node

284

protein tyrosine

273

absorption

123

red blood

20, 82

protein

288