Indian Journal of Biochemistry 
& Biophysics

 

Total visitors: 4,509  since 12-04-06


ISSN : 0301-1208

CODEN : IJBBBQ

VOLUME 43

NUMBER 2

APRIL 2006

 

 

 

 

                                                                                       CONTENTS

 

 

Minireview

 

Contribution of genomics and proteomics in understanding the role of modifying factors in Parkinson’s disease

69

M P Singh*, S Patel, M Dikshit and Y K Gupta

 

 

 

Papers

 

Isoproterenol ameliorates workstress-induced rat skeletal muscle degeneration

82

      Asha Garg and Sushma Sharma*

 

 

 

Induction, purification and characterization of an antibacterial peptide scolopendrin I from the venom of centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans

88

      Ren Wenhua, Zhang Shuangquan*, Song Daxiang, Zhou Kaiya and Yang Guang

 

 

 

Ficus cunia agglutinin for recognition of bacteria

94

      A M Adhya, B Singha and B P Chatterjee*

 

 

 

Discrete analysis of bile acid in serum and bile with 3a-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and diaphorase immobilized onto alkylamine glass beads

98

      Kirti Rani, P Garg and C S Pundir*

 

 

 

Exploring selectivity requirements for peripheral versus central benzodiazepine receptor binding affinity: QSAR modeling of 2-phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine acetamides using topological and physicochemical descriptors

105

      Manoj Kumar Dalai, J Thomas Leonard and Kunal Roy*

 

 

 

Notes

 

Rapid regulatory effect of tri-iodothyronine (T3) on antioxidant enzyme activities in a fish Anabas testudineus (Bloch): Short-term in vivo and in vitro study

119

      P Sreejith and O V Oommen*

 

 

 

Effect of endosulfan on growth, a-  amylase activity and plasmids amplification in Bacillus subtilis

123

      Veysel Tolan* and Yavuz Ensari

 

 

 

Instructions to Authors

127

 

 

——————

*Author for correspondence


 

 

 

 

 

AUTHOR INDEX

 

 

 

Adhya M

94

Chatterjee B P

94

Dalai M K

105

Dikshit M

69

Ensari Y

123

Garg A

82

Garg P

98

Gupta Y K

69

Leonard J T

105

Oommen O V

119

Patel S

69

Pundir C S

98

Rani K

98

Roy K

105

Sharma S

82

Singh M P

69

Singha B

94

Daxiang S

88

Sreejith P

119

Tolan V

123

Wenhua R

88

Yang G

88

Zhang S

88

Zhou K

88

 

 

 

 


 

Minireview

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 43, April 2006, pp. 69-81

 

Contribution of genomics and proteomics in understanding the role of modifying factors in Parkinson’s disease

 

M P Singh*, S Patel, M Dikshit# and Y K Gupta

Received 7 June 2005; revised 13 March 2006

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex neurological disorder, characterized by selective degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. It is a multi-factorial disease, contributed by a combination of age, genetic and environmental factors. Etiology of sporadic PD and mechanism underlying selective loss of dopaminergic neurons has not yet been clearly understood. Recent developments in genomics and proteomics have revolutionized the research on PD at genetic level. Differential gene expression patterns (DNA biochip technology), age-dependent complex genetic patterns (SNP genotyping), and protein expression profiles (proteomics) of PD patients have started providing the specific and rigorous molecular explanation and role of modifying factors in PD. Genomics and proteomics are further expected to help in developing biomarkers for diagnosis of early onset PD and also to develop valuable and potential therapeutic strategies for its treatment. In this review, we have discussed the progress made by genomics and proteomics, in understanding the role of modifying factors in PD.

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, genomics, microarray, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), proteomics

 

E-mail: singhmahendrapratap@rediffmail.com

 

Papers

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 43, April 2006, pp. 82-87

 

Isoproterenol ameliorates workstress-induced rat skeletal muscle degeneration

Asha Garg and Sushma Sharma*

Received 16 August 2005; revised 9 January 2006

b-Agonists though have been widely studied for their protein anabolic effects in skeletal muscles, but the lipid status under work stress and agonist treatment have not been understood well in the skeletal muscles and heart of rat. In the present study, adult male Wistar rats were subjected to work overload stress and b agonist isoproterenol treatment (2 mg kg-1 day-1 intraperitoneally) to examine, whether it attenuates work stress-induced changes or not. Simultaneously, b2 antagonist butoxamine (2 mg kg-1 day-1 intraperitoneally) was administered to another isoproterenol-treated group. Work stress led to myofibrillar degeneration as well as rapid utilization of lipid to meet increased energy demands and for muscle repair, which was reflected through histochemical localization of lipids and biochemical estimation of cholesterol and triglycerides. Significantly decreased cholesterol levels in skeletal muscles and heart muscles were noticed. As expected, isoproterenol reversed the conditions by raising cholesterol and triglyceride levels significantly in the skeletal muscles and also by ameliorating the degenerative changes in muscle fibres as induced by work overload. However, severe accumulation of lipids in heart infers towards deleterious effects of isoproterenol on heart and thus remains a limiting factor for its immediate clinical application. Further research is needed to separate desirable effects of β agonists on skeletal muscles from any undesirable effects on the heart, so as to optimize their therapeutic potential.

Keywords: Isoproterenol, butoxamine, lipids, work stress.

 

E-mail: sushma_bio_sci@rediffmail.com

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 43, April 2006, pp 88-93

 

 

Induction, purification and characterization of an antibacterial peptide scolopendrin I from the venom of centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans

Ren Wenhua1, Zhang Shuangquan1*, Song Daxiang2, Zhou Kaiya2 and Yang Guang2

Received 15 June 2005; revised 17 November 2005

The crude venom of the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, injected with Escherichia coli K12D31 for 3-4 days showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. It showed good antibacterial activity against E. coli K12D31 at different temperatures, pH, and ionic strengths. The crude venom was heated at 100°C for 30 min, centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 30 min at 4°C and the supernatants were obtained, from which an antibacterial fraction having a molecular mass of 3000-5000 Da, was further separated by ultrafiltration. A homogeneous antibacterial peptide named scolopendrin I, having a molecular mass of 4,498 Da, was isolated using cation-exchange chromatography and two steps of reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Scolopendrin I did not show any hemolytic and agglutination activities at the concentration below 30 μM.

Keywords:   Centipede, Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, antibacterial peptide, scolopendrin I, venom, E. coli K12D31, induction, hemolytic activity, agglutination activity

E-mail: spidervenom@163.com

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 43, April 2006, pp. 94-97

 

 

Ficus cunia agglutinin for recognition of bacteria

M Adhya, B Singha and B P Chatterjee*

Received 24 August 2005; revised 7 March 2006

Interaction of bacteria with lectin using anti-lectin antibody by ELISA is an established method. In the present study, we have devised a simple ELISA using a biotinylated lectin and antibiotin-HRP. Ficus cunia agglutinin (FCA), which has shown the specificity towards a/b anomers of GlcNAc and other –NAc containing sugars like LacNAc and GlcNAcb(1-4/6)GlcNAc, was used as a model lectin for the study of interaction with immobilized microorganisms on ELISA plate. The bacterial cells of E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus showed binding with FCA and the degree of binding was dependent on the bacterial surface antigen. This method is considered a simple technique to study the lectin-bacteria interaction.

Keywords: Ficus cunia, agglutinin, bacteria, ELISA

E-mail: bcbpc@mahendra.iacs.res.in

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 43, April 2006, pp. 98-104

Discrete analysis of bile acid in serum and bile with 3a-hydroxysteroid
dehydrogenase and diaphorase immobilized onto alkylamine glass beads

 

Kirti Rani, P Garg† and C S Pundir*

Received 18 July 2005; revised 31 January 2006

3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD) from Pseudomonas testosteronei and diaphorase (lipoyl dehydrogenase) from Clostridium spp were immobilized individually onto alkylamine glass beads through glutaraldehyde coupling. A cost-effective enzymic colorimetric method for determination of bile acid in the serum and bile was developed employing mixture of the immobilized enzymes. The method was based upon measurement of NADH generated from NAD+ during oxidation of bile acid by immobilized 3α-HSD with a color reagent consisting of nitrobluetetrazolium (NBT) chloride salt and immobilized diaphorase in 0.065 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The minimum detection limit of the method was 4.8 μmol/L in the serum and 19.5 μmol/L in bile. The per cent recovery of added bile acid in the serum and bile was 89.1 and 95.0, respectively. Within and between batch coefficients of variation (CV) for bile acid determination were <1.0% and <0.2% in the serum and <0.2% and <0.6% in bile, respectively. A good correlation for bile acid in the serum (r1= 0.95) and
in bile (r2 = 0.93) was obtained by a standard chemical method (a commonly used method in India) and the present method. The mixture of immobilized 3α-HSD and diaphorase lost 30% of its initial activity after 4 months of regular use. The cost of bile acid determination for 100 the serum and bile samples by the present method was found to be lower than by a commercially available method (Sigma kit 450-A)

Keywords: Bile acid, 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, diaphorase, immobilization, alkylamine glass beads, serum, bile, gallstone

E mail: pundircs@rediffmail.com

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 43, April 2006, pp. 105-118

 

Exploring selectivity requirements for peripheral versus central benzodiazepine receptor binding affinity: QSAR modeling of 2-phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridine acetamides using topological and physicochemical descriptors

 

Manoj Kumar Dalai, J Thomas Leonard and Kunal Roy*

Received 9 September 2005; revised 16 March 2006

Considering the potential of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) ligands in therapeutic applications and clinical benefit in the management of a large spectrum of different indications, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study has been attempted to explore the structural and physicochemical requirements for selectivity of 2-phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridineacetamides for binding with peripheral over central benzodiazepine receptors (CBRs). For PBR binding affinity, molar refractivity (MR) shows a parabolic relation with binding affinity suggesting that binding affinity increases with increase in volume of the compounds, until it reaches the critical value, after which the affinity decreases. The negative coefficients of S_aaN and S_ssNH indicate that binding affinity increases with decrease in E-state value of (aromatic nitrogen) and HN< (secondary amino group) fragments. The coefficient of 3χvc and JX term indicates the importance of shape and branching for binding affinity. For CBR binding affinity, lipophilicity of molecules is detrimental to the binding affinity, while presence of hydrogen at Y position is conducive to the activity. Selectivity pattern of these ligands for peripheral (cortex) over central receptors requires the presence and absence of methyl group at R2 and R3 positions respectively, and shows the importance of MR and shape parameter. Similarly, selectivity of these ligands for peripheral (ovary) over central receptors requires the presence and absence of methyl group at R2 and R3 positions respectively, presence of phenyl group at R1 and R2 positions and selectivity relation shows importance of MR, shape and branching.

Keywords: Quantitative structure-activity relationship, peripheral and central benzodiazepine receptor binding,
2-phenylimidazo[1,2-a]pyridineacetamides

E-mail: kunalroy_in@yahoo.com

 

Notes

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 43, April 2006, pp. 119-122

 

Rapid regulatory effect of tri-iodothyronine (T3) on antioxidant enzyme activities in a fish Anabas testudineus (Bloch): Short-term in vivo and in vitro study

P Sreejith and O V Oommen*

Received 13 September 2005; revised 13 February 2006

The short-term action of thyroid hormone tri-iodothyronine (T3) was studied in vivo and in vitro on antioxidant enzyme activities in a teleost Anabas testudineus (Bloch). T3 injection in vivo (200 ng) in normal fish decreased the lipid peroxidation products and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities after 30 min. T3 in vitro (10-6 M) increased the antioxidant activities of catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), GPx and glutathione level after 15/30 min, except SOD, substantiating in vivo effects in normal fish. The results suggest a rapid regulatory effect of thyroid hormone in vivo and in vitro, in the removal of reactive oxygen species in
A. testudineus.

Keywords:              Anabas testudineus, antioxidant enzyme, fish, free                radicals, lipid peroxidation, thyroid, tri-iodothyronine

 

E-mail: oommen@bigfoot.com

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 43, April 2006, pp. 123-126

Effect of endosulfan on growth, a  amylase activity and plasmids amplification in Bacillus subtilis

Veysel Tolan* and Yavuz Ensari

Received 19 January 2005; revised 20 January 2006

Endosulfan, a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide of cyclodiene subgroup acts as a contact poison in a wide variety of organisms. In the present study, the effect of endosulfan on the growth, a amylase activity and plasmid amplification was investigated in Bacillus subtilis system. The bacteria were grown in medium, incubated with different concentrations (32, 48, 64 and 80 mg/mL) of endosulfan. The bacterial growth was gradually seen after 1st day at up to 48 mg/L endosulfan. The 48 mg/L endosulfan inhibited approximately 50% of the bacterial growth. No growth was observed at and after 64 mg/L endosulfan, for all days (1-5). Also, no a amylase activity was found in the supernatant of the culture medium containing 64 and 80 mg/L endosulfan, whereas slight activity was observed with 32 and 48 mg/L endosulfan concentration. The amount of plasmid increased up to 50% in the presence of 32 mg/L endosulfan. Endosulfan had no effect on the a amylase activity in vitro.

Keywords: Endosulfan, Bacillus subtilis, α amylase, plasmid.

E mail: vtolan@dicle.edu.tr