Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

CODEN : IJBBBQ  ISSN : 0301-1208

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APRIL 2008





Cathepsins: Fundamental Effectors of Endolysosomal Proteolysis


Sonia Guha and Harish Padh*






Optimized conditions for high-level expression and purification of recombinant human interleukin-2 in E. coli


Paromita Sengupta, Kalpana Meena, Rama Mukherjee, S K Jain and
Kapil Maithal*




Optimized expression, solubilization and purification of nuclear inclusion protein b of Cardamom mosaic virus


        T Jebasingh, T Jacob, M Shah, D Das, S Krishnaswamy and R Usha*




Optimized culture conditions for bacteriocin production by Pediococcus acidilactici LAB 5 and its characterization


        Vivekananda Mandal*, Sukanta Kumar Sen and Narayan Chandra Mandal




Co-immobilization of lipase, glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase and peroxidase on to aryl amine glass beads affixed on plastic strip for determination of triglycerides in serum


        Minakshi and C S Pundir*




Genetic screening in couples experiencing recurrent assisted procreation failure


        Rima Dada*, R Kumar, M B Shamsi , M Tanwar, D Pathak, S Venkatesh, H Singh, K Singh, M Aron, R Kumar, G Singh, R K Sharma and N P Gupta






Identification and partial characterization of juvenile hormone esterase from cotton pest Dysdercus cingulatus


        U Gayathri Elayidam* and D Muraleedharen




Mitochondrial complex I impairment and differential carbon monoxide sensitivity of cytochrome c oxidase in wild type and CMS II mutants of Nicotiana sylvestris


R M Naik




SFRR-India Meeting Report 2008




Instructions to Authors





*Author for correspondence








Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, April 2008, pp.75-90


Cathepsins: Fundamental Effectors of Endolysosomal Proteolysis

Sonia Guha and Harish Padh*

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, B. V. Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development (PERD) Centre,
S.G. Highway, Thaltej, Ahmedabad 380054, India

Received 21 August 2007; revised 7 March 2008

Intracellular protein degradation is a universal feature of eukaryotic cells and vital for nutrition, protein turnover, intracellular signaling, development and other major physiological processes like antigen presentation and immunity. One of the major compartments of intracellular proteolysis is the endosome-lysosome system. The latter offers a highly orchestrated, vesicular pathway for protein transport and ultimate degradation in lysosomes. Though lysosomes are the classical organelles of complex, multi-enzymatic degradation, it is increasingly evident that endosomes conduct much more than mere transport functions. Endosomes contain significant levels of proteases like cathepsins and are sites of potent intracellular proteolysis. Further, discrete classes of endosomes harbor specific cathepsins and perform selective and exclusive functions. Hence, extra-lysosomal proteolytic machinery within the endocytic pathway enjoys spatial and temporal control over proteolytic functions. The review outlines the structural association and function(s) of major endolysosomal cathepsins.

Keywords: Endosome, Cathepsins, Intracellular proteolysis








Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, April 2008, pp.91-97


Optimized conditions for high-level expression and purification of recombinant human interleukin-2 in E. coli

Paromita Sengupta1,2, Kalpana Meena1, Rama Mukherjee1, S K Jain2 and Kapil Maithal1,*

1Dabur Research Foundation, 22, Site IV, Sahibabad, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh 201010, India

2Center for Biotechnology, Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi 110062, India

Received 11 October 2007; revised 20 February 2008

Interleukin-2 (IL-2), a potent cytokine has been used in anti-cancer therapy for over a decade now. IL-2, originally identified as a growth factor for T lymphocytes is a 15 kDa hydrophobic glycoprotein that induces the activation, clonal proliferation and differentiation of T and B-lymphocytes and enhances the cytotoxicity of monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. Here, we report a simple method for the cloning, high-level expression and purification of IL-2 protein, which can be easily extended to other bioactive therapeutic proteins. The IL-2 gene was amplified from human spleen cDNA and cloned in a prokaryotic (E. coli) expression system. An optimal expression of the IL-2 protein was determined by varying the expression conditions like temperature, inducer concentration and duration of induction. The protein was expressed as inclusion bodies and a panel of reagents including detergents, urea and guanidine hydrochloride were used to solubilize it. After solubilization, the protein was renatured and subjected to a single step gel-filtration chromatography to yield immuno-bioactive IL-2 protein with >99% purity.

Keywords: Interleukin-2, Inclusion bodies, Cytokines, Refolding







Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, April 2008, pp.98-105


Optimized expression, solubilization and purification of nuclear inclusion protein b of Cardamom mosaic virus

T Jebasingh, T Jacob, M Shah, D Das, S Krishnaswamy and R Usha*

School of Biotechnology, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai-625021, Tamil Nadu, India

Received 5 September 2007; revised 28 February 2008

All RNA viruses encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) that is required for replication of the viral genome. Nuclear inclusion b (NIb) gene codes for the RdRp in Potyviridae viruses. In this study, expression, solubilization and purification of NIb protein of Cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV) is reported. The objective of the present study was to express and purify the NIb protein of CdMV on a large scale for structural characterization, as the structure of the RdRp from a plant virus is yet to be determined. However, the expression of NIb protein with hexa-histidine tag in Escherichia coli led to insoluble aggregates. Out of all the approaches [making truncated versions to reduce the size of protein; replacing an amino acid residue likely to be involved in hydrophobic intermolecular interactions with a hydrophilic one; expressing the protein along with chaperones; expression in Origami cells for proper disulphide bond formation, in E. coli as a fusion with maltose-binding protein (MBP) and in Nicotiana tabacum] to obtain the RdRp in a soluble form, only expression in E. coli as a fusion with MBP and its expression in N. tabacum were successful. The NIb expressed in plant or as a fusion with MBP in E. coli can be scaled up for further work.

Keywords:              RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, Nuclear inclusion b protein, Cardamom mosaic virus, Inclusion bodies, Expression, Solubilization







Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, April 2008, pp.106-110


Optimized culture conditions for bacteriocin production by Pediococcus acidilactici LAB 5 and its characterization

Vivekananda Mandal1*, Sukanta Kumar Sen2 and Narayan Chandra Mandal#2

1P.G. Department of Botany, Darjeeling Govt. College, Darjeeling 734 101, India

2Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731 235, India

Received 30 Octobe 2007; revised 28 February 2008

A strain of Pediococcus acidilactici LAB 5 was isolated from vacuum-packed fermented meat product, in order to obtain a novel bacteriocin from food-grade organisms. Optimized culture conditions for bacteriocin production in different media (viz., MRS, TGE, TGE + buffer, TGE + Tween 80, and TGE + Tween 80 + buffer) and at different temperatures and pH conditions were reported. TGE + Tween 80 + buffer medium was found to be most effective for bacteriocin production (about 2,400 AU/ ml) by this strain, when incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Bacteriocin, partially purified by adsorption-desorption method showed molecular mass of 10.3 kDa and produced prominent inhibition zone in activity gel. It showed significant storage stability both at high as well as in low temperatures for up to 6 months and retained its activity in a number of organic solvents, except in 2-mercaptoethanol. The treatment with amylase and lysozyme did not change its activity, but it lost its activity on proteinase K treatment. Antibacterial efficacy of bacteriocin was proved against some food spoilage and human pathogenic bacteria like Enterococcus, Leuconostoc, Listeria, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Bacteriocin, Cystibiotics, Pediococcus acidilactici







Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, April 2008, pp.111-115


Co-immobilization of lipase, glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase and peroxidase on to aryl amine glass beads affixed on plastic strip for determination of triglycerides in serum

Minakshi and C S Pundir*

Biochemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry & Genetics, MD University, Rohtak 124 001, Haryana, India

Received 9 April 2007; revised 10 January 2008

Commercial lipase, glycerol kinase (GK), glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO) and peroxidase (POD) have been
co-immobilized covalently on to arylamine glass beads affixed on a plastic strip through diazotization with a conjugation yield of 89.1 mg/g support and 64.1% retention of specific activity. The co-immobilized enzymes showed maximum activity at pH 7.5, when incubated at 40°C for 20 min. The strip was employed for determination of serum triglycerides (Tgs). The minimum detection limit of the method was 0.20 mM/L. The recovery of added Tgs was 88.0%. Within day and between day coefficient of variations were <7.0 % and <11.0%, respectively. A good correlation (r = 0.982) was observed between total serum Tgs values obtained by present method and the most commonly used enzymic colorimetric method, employing free enzymes. Among the various serum substances tested at their physiological concentrations, only cholesterol, ascorbic acid and bilirubin caused 30%, 15%, and 20% inhibition of strip-bound enzymes, respectively. The strip lost 50% of its activity after 150 regular uses over a period of 33 days, when stored in reaction buffer at 4°C. The method reported here has the advantage over other existing methods, as it provides higher sensitivity, better stability and reusability of co-immobilized enzymes and is also economical.

Keywords: Triglyceride, Lipase, Glycerol kinase, Glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase, Peroxidase, Co-immobilization, Arylamine glass beads, Serum, Plastic strip







Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, April 2008, pp. 116-120


Genetic screening in couples experiencing recurrent assisted procreation failure

Rima Dadaa*, R Kumara, M B Shamsia , M Tanwara, D Pathaka, S Venkatesha, M Kumara, H Singha, K Singha, M Aronc,
R Kumarb, G Singhe, R K Sharmad and N P Guptab

aLaboratory of Molecular Reproduction and Genetics, Department of Anatomy; bDepartment of Urology;

cDepartment of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110029, India

dAssisted Reproductive Technique Centre, Army Research and Referral Hospital, New Delhi, 110010

eDepartment of Pathology, Airforce Central Medical Establishment, Subroto Park, New Delhi, 110010

Received 7 May 2007; revised 29 January 2008

Infertility is a major health problem affecting about 10-20% of couples in the reproductive age group. Male factor is assumed to be responsible in about 50% cases of infertility. The origin of reduced testicular sperm function is unknown in about 50-70% of cases and for such couples assisted reproduction techniques (ART) are a boon. Male infertility is often due to poor semen quality and may be associated with genetic defects. ART has revolutionized management of infertility and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is the ART procedure of choice in 60-80% cases. Despite major technological advancements and professional expertise in ART, the success rate and carry-home live birth rate of ICSI is low (18-25%). This study was aimed to understand the genetic etiopathology of recurrent ART failure. For this, 110 couples with 3 or more failed ART cycles were recruited. A detailed history was taken and only idiopathic ART failure cases were enrolled for this study. They were subjected to cytogenetic and Yq microdeletion analysis. Genetic abnormalities were detected in 19 couples. Since a large number (18.2%) cases harboured genetic abnormalities, it is important for all couples opting for ART to undergo a thorough genetic analysis to prevent recurrent emotional, physical and financial stress.

Keywords: Chromosomal abnormalities, Yq microdeletion, Assisted reproduction, AZF, Infertility, Assisted Reproduction (ART), Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)









Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, April 2008, pp.121-125


Identification and partial characterization of juvenile hormone esterase from cotton pestDysdercus cingulatus

U Gayathri Elayidam* and D Muraleedharen

Department of Zoology, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvanathapuram 695581, Kerala, India

Received 22 May 2007; revised 29 January 2008

Juvenile hormone esterase (JHE), a selective enzyme that hydrolyzes the methyl ester of insect juvenile hormone plays an important role in regulating metamorphosis in nymphs as well as reproduction in adults. Studies on JH degradation provide insight into the possibilities of physiological disruption in the insects. In the present study, the JH degrading enzyme, JHE from the cotton pest Dysdercus cingulatus (Heteroptera) is characterized. Electrophoretic analysis of haemolymph during various developmental stages showed the JHE bands prominent only on the final day of 5th instar nymph, and the esterase substrate specificity confirmed the presence of JHE isoforms. In an attempt to clone cDNA of JHE gene from the final instar nymphs, mRNA isolated from fat bodies was coupled with JHE gene-specific primers and the cDNA was synthesized using RT-PCR. The PCR amplified cDNA showed the presence of JHE isoforms in D. cingulatus.

Keywords: Dysdercus cingulatus, Juvenile Hormone Esterase, isoforms, PCR, cDNA







Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, April 2008, pp.126-129


Mitochondrial complex I impairment and differential carbon monoxide sensitivity of cytochrome c oxidase in wild type and CMS II mutants of Nicotiana sylvestris


R M Naik

Received 25 July 2007; revised 12 February 2008

Plant mitochondria unlike their animal counterpart have some unique features with highly branched respiratory chain. The present work was undertaken in order to investigate the effect of loss/dysfunction of plant mitochondrial complex I on the relative flux of electrons through alternative oxidase (AOX) and cytochrome oxidase. Loss of a major subunit of mitochondrial complex I in cytoplasmic male sterile II (CMS II) mutant of Nicotiana sylvestris caused respiratory redox perturbations, as evident from the differential CO sensitivity of cytochrome oxidase. The leaf segments of CMS II mutant when exposed to CO under dark aerobic condition were insensitive to the inhibition of cytochrome oxidase, as against the wild type (WT). The differential CO response of WT and CMS II mutants appeared to be due to differences in the redox state of cytochrome a3 (cyt a3), the terminal electron acceptor during in situ respiration. Cyt a3 appeared to be more in its oxidized form in CMS II and hence unable to form cyt a3-CO complex. Pre-treatment of CMS II leaves with 2,4-dinitrophenol, an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation increased the CO response. The slight increase in rotenone-insensitive respiration of CMS II could be attributed partly to enhanced flux of electrons through cytochrome pathway to compensate for the loss of phosphorylation site and partly through AOX, which was induced by nitrate.

Keywords: Nicotiana sylvestris, Cytochrome oxidase, Alternative oxidase, Carbon monoxide sensitivity, Nitrate reductase induction,Mitochondrial complex I







Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, April 2008, pp. 130-132



SFRR-India Satellite Meeting Report 2008

The Society for Free Radical Research (SFRR) ‑ India satellite meeting 2008 on the theme “Free radicals and antioxidants in human health, gene regulation and signal transduction” was held at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi during 11-12 February 2008, organized by the Department of Biochemistry, AIIMS, under the secretarial steering guidance of Prof. D N Rao. The meeting was successful with the participation of more than 330 delegates representing various academic research institutes and universities, both within the country and abroad. The Chief Guest was Dr. N K Ganguly, former Director General of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi. Inaugural address was given by Dr. T D Dogra, Director, AIIMS. Presence of Dr. R D Lele, President, SFRR-India, Dr. T P A Devasagayam, President, SFRR-Asia and Dr. Helmut Sies, President, Oxygen Club of California graced the occasion. Dr. S Sinha, Chairman, Dept. of Biochemistry, AIIMS chaired the congress secretariat. In all, the two-day event had 41 invited lectures, 26 oral presentations and 138 posters by eminent speakers and researchers and students accommodated optimally in well-arranged ten scientific sessions.

The inaugural lecture was delivered by Dr. Nilanjana Maulik (University of Connecticut Medical School, USA) on how reactive oxygen species regulate vascular angiogenesis through the expression of angiogenic genes, such as VEGF, FGF, etc. and its redox signaling mechanisms. Prof. V P Menon (Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu) revealed how curcumin analogues and aminothiazole derivatives offer protection to normal lymphocytes against γ-radiation. Eminent biochemist Prof. K Subba Rao (Univ of Hyderabad) showed how ageing brain is unable to regulate the base excision repair mechanism leading to neurological disorders. ROS overproduction causing aggravation of viral pathogenisis, especially HIV virus by activating LTR repeats was explained by Dr. Akhil C Banerjee (National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi) in his lecture that marked the end of session I.

Session-II started with Dr. K B Sainis’s [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai] lecture on how chlorophyllin, a green coloring plant product modifies lymphocyte homeostasis and lymphophemic condition. Subsequently, Dr. Maitree Suttajit from Naresuan University, Thailand spoke on possible protective role of Thai dietary vegetables, fruits, medicinal herbs and their seeds in oxidative stress and antioxidative glycation. Role of calcium in regulation of flavanol production, a protective molecule in keeping people healthy was briefed by Dr. G. Fraga from the Univ of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Dr. Uma Rani Kuppusamy (Institute of Biological Sciences, Univ of Malaya) presented how edible mushroom extracts protect the cells against oxidative stress and cell death. In the concluding lecture of the session, Dr. Mitali Chatterjee (Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research, Kolkata) briefed the importance of thiol-dependent antioxidant pathway in Leishmania and its use as a biomarker for antimony resistance.

Session-III had lectures presented by eminent speakers viz. Dr. Hari S Sharma (Univ Medical Centre, Rotterdam, Netherlands), Dr. K L Khanduja (PG Institute of Medical Education and Research Institute, Chandigarh), Dr. Sandip K Bandyopadhyay (Dr. B C Roy PG Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Kolkata), Dr. Irfan Rahman (Univ of Rochester Medical Centre, New York) and Dr. Malini Laloraya (Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Thiruvanathapuram) on (i) how density DNA microarray chip analysis helps in identifying the upregulatory genes such as VEGF and ECM proteins to correct ventricular hypertrophy, (ii) efficacy of α-tocopherol succinate either alone or in combination with all trans-retinoic acid inducing apoptosis of cancer cells through upregulation of ROS and onco proteins, (iii) the healing activity of two traditional spice plant products in drug-induced gastric ulcer in animals, (iv) how dietary polyphenols act as safer nutraceuticals  in chromatin remodeling by downregulating the ROS activity, and (v) how O2- anion helps in embryo implantation generated from peri-implanting embryos as well as from uteri, respectively.

In Session–IV, Dr. Chandan K Sen (Ohio State University Medical Centre, Ohio) briefed the effect of relative excess of pO2 leading to activation of p2 signalling molecule that helps in cardiac cells remodeling during ischemia. Following was the laudable presentation on ischemia priming the micro-vascular endothelial cells for angiogenesis by Dr. A.B. Fisher (Univ of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania). Dr. Dipak K Das (Univ of Connecticut School of Medicine, Connecticut) discussed redox sensitive angiogenic response protein PR39 and Trx-1 as a gene therapy against ischemia and reperfusion injury in type-I diabetic animals. Mauritius black tea with its rich polyphenolic compounds play a vital role in cardioprotection and cancer by reducing serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid, advocated Dr. Theesan Bahorun from the Univ of Mauritius. Dr. Lindsay Brown (Univ of Queensland, Australia) concluded the session demystifying how homocysteine concentration in blood acts as a risk factor in cardiovascular disease and at the same time use of sulphur-containing amino acids helps in cardiovascular remodeling.

Dr. Vijay Kumar (International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi) initiated Session‑V with his interesting lecture on how chemicals like hydroxyurea and methyl­methanesulfone induce stress. These chemicals have shown to destabilize G1/S cell cycle phase, thereby arresting the apoptosis. Dr. T P A Devasagayam (BARC, Mumbai) highlighted the importance of aminothiazol compounds from marine sources which have radio-protective effects to normal cells, and cytotoxic to the cancer cells. Exposure to pesticide and the neuronal damage was discussed with a mechanistic view at the cell level by Dr. H P Misra from Virginia Tech Corporate Research Centre, Virgnia. Dr. Vishakha Bhave (Univ of Louisiana at Monroe, Louisiana) described the role of secretory enzymes sPLA2 in liver injury and COX-2 in repair. Last speaker in the session Dr. Samar Basu (Uppsala University, Sweden) showed the importance of isoprostanes as a marker of in vivo oxidative stress in various experimental animals.

Day‑II started with Session–VII and VIII parallely. Dr. Helmut Sies (Heinrich Heine University, Germany) explained in his lecture how NO and NOS synthase enzyme help in vasorelaxation and also role of dietary flavanols in the diet. Dr. Shyam Biswal (John Hopkins University, Baltimore) discussed how KEAP1-NRF2 pathway induces environmental stress that protects the cells from exogenous and endogenous stimuli. In the following lecture, veteran Biochemist Prof. T Ramasarma (Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad) explained how diradicals act in both oxidation as well as autooxidation. For autooxidation, evidence was proposed for charged transfer complex formation. This was best correlated with some of the quinone compounds present in electron-transport system which nature has adopted as defense mechanism. Dr. Sushil K Jain (Louisiana State University Health Sciences Centre, Louisiana) highlighted the importance of curcumin as a protective agent in cardiovascular and diabetic complaints. The same molecule also showed anti-inflammatory effect in a number of communicable/non-communicable diseases. Dr. C N Ramchand [Kemin Industries South Asia (P) Ltd, Chennai] concluded the session with his lecture on a cyclic peptide possessing varied pharmacological activity produced by Bacillus subtilis. He also touched upon different kinases and transcriptional factors that regulate the genes of interest.

In Session‑VIII, Dr. D Shashikiran (Univ of Louisiana at Monroe, Louisiana) in his lecture defined the importance of PPARα nuclear receptor on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxic NASH mice and its repair mechanism through CYP2E1 protein. Role of 2-deoxy-D-glucose as an inhibitor of glycolytic pathway was explained by Dr. Dwarakanath (Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi). He stressed the importance of this molecule in downregulating oxidative stress as well as mediators of inflammation in an uncontrolled proliferating cell. In the following talk, Dr. Anshu Mittal Roy from Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, USA described the role of VEGF in angiogenesis, especially in tumours that could activate stromal cells to support tumour growth. Dr. M Owais (Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh) discussed the mechanism of action of a small peptide, tuftsin in liposomal delivery inactivating anti-apoptotic proteins such as Bcl-2 and Bax in cancer cell lines. Dr. Dilip Ghosh (Univ of Wollongong, Australia) in his lecture demonstrated nutrigenomics as an alternative tool in understanding the importance of GMO foods in various aspects of health. Lastly, Dr. L Pari (Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu) described the role of caffeic acid as an anti-oxidant against nickel-induced toxicity in various organs and influences various liver enzymes.


Dr. Gopal C Kundu (National Centre for Cell Science, Pune) started Session-IX with his lecture on the role of two important transcriptional factors, their crosstalk, and how they regulate hypoxia/ reoxygenation in breast cancer progression. Dr. Molly Jacob (Christian Medical College, Vellore) spoke on how the NSAIDs help in healing small intestine damage caused by indomethacin. Consequently, Dr. M Raghunath (National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad) discussed the role of water soluble vitamins in correcting the apoptosis of intestinal cells which are triggered by oxidative stress. Fourth speaker, Dr. S Swarnakar (Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Kolkata) explained the influence of oxidative stress on matrix-metalloproteinases synthesis in endometriosis. Dr. S Mazumdar (Univ of Kolkata, Kolkata) delivered the concluding lecture of invited talks on how bilirubin excess in neonatal jaundice acts as an antioxidant.

Two Sessions (VI on day-1 and X on day-2) were dedicated to presentations by students. There were twenty-six such presentations with the duration of seven minutes each by the students from various Institutes/Universities across the country. Of these, six were selected for ‘best oral presentation’ awards. Among the 138 posters displayed, six were awarded the ‘best poster’ awards. At the end, valedictory address was given by the special guest Dr. R C Deka, (Dean, AIIMS, New Delhi) and Dr. Irfan Rahman was the special invitee. The meeting ended with the following recommendations:—

·        More emphasis on mid-career scientists presentation.

·        Senior Faculty lectures should be minimized.

·        More time for poster presentation.

·        Best talks were invited as full manuscript to be published in Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics, a CSIR peer-reviewed journal as Special Issue.

The SFRR-India acknowledges the support provided by the funding agencies, both National and International, and the Industries through sponsorship.

Prof. D N Rao

Dept of Biochemistry

AIIMS, New Delhi