Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

CODEN : IJBBBQ  ISSN : 0301-1208

Total visitors: 2,672  since 19-08-08

 

VOLUME 45

NUMBER4

AUGUST 2008

 
CONTENTS

 

Minireviews

 

Natural Immunity to Rotavirus Infection in Children

219

        Jyoti Malik, Maharaj K. Bhan and Pratima Ray*

 

 

 

Manipulation of Cytokine Production Profiles as a Therapeutic Approach for Immunologic Pregnancy Loss

229

        Raj Raghupathy*

 

 

 

Papers

 

In vivo quality control of photosystem II in cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803: D1 protein degradation and repair under the influence of light, heat and darkness

237

        Munna Singh*, Kimiyuki Satoh, Yasusi Yamamoto, Eira Kanervo and
Eva-Mari Aro

 

 

 

Isolation and characterization of photosystem II from the filamentous sporophyte
of Porphyra yezoensis

244

        Z Q Gao, C X Meng, G C Wang* and N H Ye

 

 

 

Effects of soluble antigen-induced immune cell activation on steroidogenesis in
murine lymphoid organ

250

        Rupanjan Mukhopadhyay and Biswadev Bishayi*

 

 

 

Modeling studies on phospholipase A2-inhibitor complexes

256

        Nithya Nirmal, G Om Praba and D Velmurugan*

 

 

 

Non-invasive assessment of oxidative capacity in young Indian men and women:
A 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

263

        Poonam Rana, Aruna Varshney, M Memita Devi, Pawan Kumar and
Subash Khushu*

 

 

 

Harmful effects of 41 and 202 MHz radiations on some body parts and tissues

269

        Vijay Kumar*, R P Vats and P P Pathak

 

 

 

Notes

 

Functional characterization of sll0659 from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

275

        Cheng-Wei Liang,  Xiao-Wen Zhang, Li Tiana and Song Qin*

 

 

 

Melatonin treatment prevents modulation of cell-mediated immune response induced by propoxur in rats

278

        Sanvidhan G Suke, Rahul Pathak, Rafat S Ahmed, A K Tripathi and B D Banerjee*

 

 

 

Instructions to Authors

282

 

 

——————

*Author for correspondence

 

AUTHOR INDEX

 


Ahmed R S

278

Aro E M

237

 

 

Banerjee B D

278

Bhan M K

219

Bishayi B

250

 

 

Devi M M

263

 

 

Gao Z Q

244

 

 

Kanervo E

237

Khushu S

263

Kumar P

263

Kumar V

269

 

 

Liang C W

275

 

 

Malik J

219

Meng C X

244

Mukhopadhyay R

250

 

 

Nirmal n

256

 

 

Om Praba G

256

 

 

Pathak P P

269

Pathak R

278

 

 

Qin S

275

 

 

Raghupathy R

229

Rana P

263

Ray P

219

 

 

Satoh, K

237

Singh M

237

Suke S G

278

 

 

Tian L

275

Tripathi A K

278

 

 

Varshney A

263

Vats R P

269

Velmurugan D

256

 

 

Wang G C

244

 

 

Yamamoto Y

237

Ye N H

244

 

 

Zhang X W

275


 

 

 


 

MINIREVIEWS

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, August 2008, pp.219-228

 

Natural Immunity to Rotavirus Infection in Children

Jyoti Malik, Maharaj K. Bhan and Pratima Ray*

Center for Diarrheal Disease Research,
Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, India

Received 09 August 2007; revised 24 July 2008

Annual deaths in infants and young children due to rotavirus (RV) infection are around 100,000 in India and about 600,000 globally. Development of a vaccine for this disease is a high priority. The protective mechanisms for RV diarrhea in human are not fully understood, but it is known that children develop natural immunity against RV. Early exposure to RV results in most severe episode of diarrhea and subsequent infections are milder or asymptomatic. Of the immune responses measured during natural infection, RV-specific antibodies have been well documented, whereas data on cellular immunity in humans are sparse. It is generally thought that two outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7 play a critical role in protective immunity by stimulating production of neutralizing antibodies. While serotype- specific protection mediated by antibodies directed against the outer capsid proteins may be a mechanism of protection, such a correlate for protection has been difficult to demonstrate in humans during clinical trials. Increasing evidences suggest that viral proteins that lack a capacity of eliciting neutralizing antibody response also induce protective immunity. Limited efforts have focused on the role of non-structural proteins in protective immunity. This review describes current understanding of antibody responses in children with focus on responses specific to viral antigens with their possible role in protective immunity. We have also briefly reviewed the responses elicited to non-antibody effectors during RV infection in human subjects.

Keywords: Rotavirus, Diarrhea, Children, Immune response, IgA, IgG, Antibodies, T cell, Cytokines, Natural infection

*E-mail: pratimaray@gmail.com

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, August 2008, pp.229-236

 

Manipulation of Cytokine Production Profiles as a Therapeutic Approach for Immunologic Pregnancy Loss

Raj Raghupathy

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 24923, Safat 13110, Kuwait

Received 14 September 2007; revised 25 April 2008

Pregnancy is not as successful as one might think; it can be compromised by several complications such as recurrent spontaneous miscarriage, pre-term delivery, pre-eclampsia etc. Much attention has been paid to the possibility of the maternal immune system mediating deleterious effects on pregnancy. Research conducted during the last two decades has shed much light on cell-mediated immunologic effectors that might underlie these pregnancy complications. Of particular interest are the effects that pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines have on the foetus and placenta, and thus on the success and failure of pregnancy. This review presents evidences that certain cytokine profiles are associated with recurrent miscarriage and pre-term delivery and discusses possible pathways of effector function of cytokines in pregnancy loss and the redirection of cytokine profiles from one that is antagonistic to pregnancy towards one that is conducive to the success of pregnancy. Among the promising agents for the modulation of the Th1/Th2 balance are progestogens like progesterone and dydrogesterone; this review also discusses recent evidence that progestogens are capable of modulating cytokine production patterns in pregnancy loss.

Keywords: Recurrent miscarriage, Pre-term delivery, Cytokines

*E-mail: raj@hsc.edu.kw

 

 

 

PAPERS

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, August 2008, pp.237-243

 

In vivo quality control of photosystem II in cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803: D1 protein degradation and repair under the influence of light,  heat and darkness

Munna Singh*abc, Kimiyuki Satoha, Yasusi Yamamotoa, Eira Kanervoc and Eva-Mari Aroc

aDepartment of Biology, Okayama University, Okayama- 700-8530, Japan

bDepartment of Plant Physiology, CBSH, G.B.Pant University of Agriculture and Technology,
Pantnagar- 263 145 (Uttrakhand), India.

c Department of Biology, University of Turku, FIN- 20014 Turku, Finland

Received 20 November 2007; revised 03 June 2008

The cells of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 were subjected under photoinhibitory irradiation (600 µmolm-2s-1) at various temperatures (20-40°C) to study in vivo quality control of photosystem II (PSII). The protease biogenesis and its consequences on photosynthetic efficiency (chlorophyll fluorescence ratio Fv/Fm) of the PSII, D1 degradation and repair were monitored during illumination and darkness. The loss in Fv/Fm value and degradation of D1 protein occurred not only under high light exposure, but also continued when the cells were subjected under dark restoration process after high light exposure. No loss in Fv/Fm value or D1 degradation occurred during recovery under growth/low light (30 µmol m-2 s-1). Further, it helped the resynthesis of new D1 protein, essential to sustain quality control of PSII. In vivo triggering of D1 protein required high light exposure to switch-on the protease biosynthesis to maintain protease pool which induced temperature-dependent enzymatic proteolysis of photodamaged D1 protein during photoinhition and dark incubation. Our findings suggested the involvement and overexpression of a membrane-bound FtsH protease during high light exposure which caused degradation of D1 protein, strictly regulated by high temperature (30-40ºC). However, lower temperature (20ºC) prevented further loss of photoinhibited PSII efficiency in vivo and also retarded temperature-dependent proteolytic process of D1 degradation.

Keywords: D1 degradation, Photoinhibition, Protease, Photosystem II, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Cyanobacteria

*E-mail: drmunnasingh@yahoo.com

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, August 2008, pp.244-249

 

Isolation and characterization of photosystem II from the filamentous sporophyte of Porphyra yezoensis

Z Q Gao1, C X Meng1, G C Wang2* and N H Ye3

1School of Life Sciences, Shandong University of Technology, 255049, Zibo, China

2Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Qingdao, 266071, China

3Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China

Received 21 May 2007; revised 15 February 2008

Thylakoid membranes were isolated and purified from diploid filamentous sporophytes of Porphyra yezoensis Ueda using sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation (SDGUC). After thylakoid membranes were solubilized with SDS, the phtosystem II (PSII) particles with high 2, 6-dichloroindophenol (DCIP) photoreduction activity were isolated by SDGUC. The absorption and fluorescence spectra, DCIP photoreduction activity and oxygen evolution activity of the thylakoid membranes and PSII particles were determined. The polypeptide composition of purified PSII particles was distinguished by SDS-PAGE. Results showed that PSII particles of sporophytes differed from the gametophytes in spectral properties and polypeptide composition. Apart from 55 kDa D1-D2 heterodimer, CP47, CP43, 33 kDa protein, D1, D2, cyt b559 and 12 kDa protein were identified from PSII particles from sporophytes; a new 102 kDa protein was also detected. However,
cyt c-550, 20 kDa, 14 kDa and 16 kDa proteins found in PSII particles from gametophytes were not detected in the sporophytes.

Keywords: Porphyra yezoensis,  Photosystem II, Filamentous sporophytes, Thylakoid membranes, Polypeptide composition, Sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation

*E-mail: zq77232002@yahoo.com

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, August 2008, pp.250-255

 

Effects of soluble antigen-induced immune cell activation on steroidogenesis in murine lymphoid organ

Rupanjan Mukhopadhyay and Biswadev Bishayi*

Immunology laboratory, Department of Physiology, University of Calcutta,
University Colleges of Science and Technology, 92 A.P.C. Road, Kolkata -700009, India

Received 29 August 2007; revised 04 July 2008

The effect of soluble antigenic (bovine serum albumin, BSA) stimulation to induce steroidogenesis in murine lymphoid organs with concomitant changes in proinflammatory or inflammatory cytokine levels and its implication in the alteration of T-cell response was studied in the mice. Male Swiss albino mice (6-8 weeks old) with average body weight (20 ± 4 g) were randomly assigned to 3 groups and injected with BSA in presence and absence of Freund’s complete or incomplete adjuvant, whereas the control group received only saline. After 3 weeks, animals were sacrificed, and serums as well as lymphoid organs were collected. From the lymphoid tissue homogenate, the activities of steroidogenic enzymes and corticosterone and cytokine levels of the serum were estimated. Steroidogenic enzyme activities in murine lymphoid organs, as well as the pro-inflammatory and inflammatory cytokines levels in serum increased after Freund’s complete adjuvant-emulsified BSA administration, as compared to control. The serum corticosterone and serum cytokine profile were also elevated. Results suggested that soluble protein antigen (BSA) administration stimulated steroidogenesis in murine lymphoid tissues and rise in the pro-inflammatory or inflammatory cytokine levels might indicate monocyte recruitment as well as TH1 activation.

Keywords: Steroidogenic enzyme, Soluble antigen, Lymphoid organ, Corticosterone, Cytokine

*E-mail: biswa_dev2@yahoo.com

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, August 2008, pp.256-262

 

Modeling studies on phospholipase A2-inhibitor complexes

Nithya Nirmal, G Om Praba and D Velmurugan*

Center of Advanced Study in Crystallography and Biophysics, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai - 600 025

Received 12 April 2008; revised 24 May 2008

Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a ubiquitous enzyme that specifically catalyzes hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids to produce lysophospholipids and free fatty acid, namely arachidonic acid, which provides substrate for eicosanoids biosynthesis. Thus, the compounds inhibiting PLA2 have been implicated as potential therapeutic agents in treatment of inflammation related diseases. Plant and marine organisms serve as sources of compounds that act as potential therapeutic agents for treatment of various diseases. The present study reveals the relationship between the structure and function of the medicinally important herbal compounds (acalyphin, chlorogenic acid, stigmasterol, curcumin and tectoridin) and marine compounds (gracilin A and aplysulphurin A). To understand the binding mechanisms of these compounds, molecular modeling studies has been performed with Russell’s viper and bovine pancreatic PLA2 as target molecules using molecular operating environment (MOE) software. These compounds show favorable interactions with the amino acid residues at the active site of Russell’s viper and bovine pancreatic PLA2, thereby substantiating their proven efficacy as anti-inflammatory compounds and antidotes.

Keywords: Phospholipase A2, Inflammation, Acalyphin, Aplysulphurin 1, Chlorogenic acid, Curcumin, Gracilin A, Stigmasterol, Tectoridin, MOE

*E-mail: d_velu@yahoo.com

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, August 2008, pp.263-268

 

Non-invasive assessment of oxidative capacity in young Indian men and women: A 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

 

Poonam Rana, Aruna Varshney, M Memita Devi, Pawan Kumar and Subash Khushu*

NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), Defence R & D Organisation,
Brig. S. K. Mazumdar Marg, Timarpur, Delhi 110054, India

Received 25 September 2007; revised 27 June 2008

It is generally assumed that men display greater strength and muscle capacity than women. However, previous biochemical and histological studies have shown that men have greater capacity for anaerobic metabolism and women have higher or similar oxidative metabolism. Therefore, in the present study, we estimated oxidative capacity of gastrocnemius muscle and compared in Indian men and women using non-invasive in vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Healthy subjects (8 young males and 9 females, age-matched) performed plantar flexion exercise within a magnet and MRS measurements of inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphocreatine (PCr), ADP, and pH of the calf muscles were carried out using a 1.5 T whole-body MRI system. PCr values during recovery were fitted to an exponential curve, and oxidative capacity was calculated using rate constant (kPCr), as an index of oxidative phosphorylation. When men and women were compared for different metabolic ratios, ADP, pH, kPCr and oxidative capacity, all parameters turned out to be statistically insignificant. The results showed no gender effect on skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism. The study demonstrated the usefulness of such non-invasive method to indirectly measure the oxidative capacity of the muscle based on PCr recovery.

Keywords: Gender, Skeletal muscle, Oxidative capacity, Magnetic resonance spectroscopy

*E-mail: skhushu@yahoo.com, skhushu@inmas.org

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, August 2008, pp.269-274

 

Harmful effects of 41 and 202 MHz radiations on some body parts and tissues

Vijay Kumar1*, R P Vats2 and P P Pathak3

1Department of Physics, S D Bansal College of Technology, Umeria, near Rau, Indore 452012 (M.P.) India

2Department of Physics, M S (P G) College, Saharanpur 247001 (U.P.), India

3Department of Physics, Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar 249404 (U.A.), India

Received 14 February 2008; revised 15 May 2008

Many types of invisible electromagnetic waves are produced in our atmosphere. When these radiations penetrate our body, electric fields are induced inside the body, resulting in the absorption of power, which is different for different body parts and also depends on the frequency of radiations. Higher power absorption may result into health problems. In this communication, effects of electromagnetic waves (EMW) of 41 and 202 MHz frequencies transmitted by the TV tower have been studied on skin, muscles, bone and fat of human. Using international standards for safe exposure limits of specific absorption rate (SAR), we have found the safe distance from TV transmission towers for two frequencies. It is suggested that transmission towers should be located away from the thickly populated areas and people should keep away from the transmission towers, as they radiate electromagnetic radiations that are harmful to some parts/tissues of body.

Keywords: Induced electric field, Specific absorption rate, Electromagnetic wave, Human body

*E-mail: vijay_phd05@rediffmail.com

 

 

NOTES

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, August 2008, pp.275-277

 

Functional characterization of sll0659 from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

Cheng-Wei Liang a,b, Xiao-Wen Zhanga, Li Tiana, Song Qina,*

 

aInstitute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, P.R. China

bInstitute of Life Sciences, Qingdao University of Science & Technology, Qingdao 266042, P.R. China

 

Received 17 December 2007; revised 01 April 2008

 

Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacks a gene for the any known types of lycopene cyclase. Recently, we reported that Sll0659 (unknown for its function) from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 shows similarity in sequence to a lycopene cyclase gene—CruA from Chlorobium tepidum. To test, whether sll0659 encoded protein serves as lycopene cyclase, in this study, we investigated the carotenoids of the wild types and mutants. In the sll0659 deleted mutant, there is no blockage at the lycopene cyclization step. Our results demonstrate that sll0659 does not affect lycopene cycilzation. However, the ultrastructure of mutants suggests the involvement or necessity of sll0659 in the cell division.

Keywords:             Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, sll0659, Lycopene cyclase, Cell division

E-mail: sqin@ms.qdio.ac.cn

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, August 2008, pp.278-281

 

Melatonin treatment prevents modulation of cell-mediated immune response induced by propoxur in rats

Sanvidhan G Suke, Rahul Pathak, Rafat S Ahmed, A K Tripathi and B D Banerjee*

Environmental Biochemistry and Immunology Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences and G.T.B. Hospital (University of Delhi), Dilshad Garden, Delhi 110 095, India

Received 28 September 2007; revised 26 February 2008

The effect of melatonin, a major secretory product of the pineal gland, in attenuation of propoxur (2-isopropoxy phenyl N-methyl carbamate)-induced modulation of cell- mediated immune (CMI) response was studied in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were exposed to propoxur (a widely used pesticide) orally (10 mg/kg) and/or melatonin (10 mg/kg) orally for 4 weeks. CMI was measured by delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), leucocyte and macrophage migration inhibition (LMI and MMI) responses and estimation of cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ levels. Rats exposed to propoxur for 4 weeks showed significant decrease in DTH, LMI and MMI responses. Propoxur also suppressed TNF-α and IFN-γ production significantly. Administration of melatonin alone caused a significant increase in DTH response. Although there were no changes in the LMI and MMI response, the cytokine levels were significantly increased, as compared to control. Co-administration of melatonin along with propoxur significantly nullified the effect of the pesticide on the CMI response, except DTH and reversed levels of cytokines to near control/normal values. Thus, melatonin treatment considerably attenuated immunomodulation caused by sub-chronic treatment of propoxur in experimental animals.

Keywords: Melatonin, Propoxur, Cell-mediated immune response, Cytokine

*E-mail: banerjeebd@hotmail.com