Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

CODEN : IJBBBQ  ISSN : 0301-1208

Total visitors: 3,381  since 21-02-08

 

VOLUME 45

NUMBER 1

FEBRUARY 2008

 
CONTENTS
 

 

Minireviews

 

Xenobiotic-induced Immune Alterations: Implications in Health and Disease

7

        Basu Dev Banerjee*, Ayanabha Chakraborti, Sanvidhan G Suke, Rafat S Ahmed and A K Tripathi

 

 

 

Sodium stibogluconate: Therapeutic use in the Management of Leishmaniasis

16

        Jayeeta Roychoudhury and Nahid Ali*

 

 

 

Papers

 

Activation of cell mediated immune response and apoptosis towards malignant cells with turmeric treatment in murine model

23

        Ashim K Chakravarty* and Hadida Yasmin

 

 

 

Cloning and characterization of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) cDNA sequence from Brassica juncea cv Pusa bold

30

        N Ilaiyaraja, A P Rajarani and I M Santha*

 

 

 

Application of fast chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OJIP) analysis to monitor functional integrity of pea (Pisum sativum) mesophyll protoplasts during isolation

37

        B Sunil, K Riazunnisa, T Sai Krishna, Gert Schansker, Reto J Strasser,
Agepati S Raghavendra and Prasanna Mohanty*

 

 

 

Effect of probucol and desferroxamine against adriamycin toxicity in cardiac and renal tissues of rats

44

        Nermin A H Sadik*, Manal F Ismail and Amira A Shaheen

 

 

 

Conformation of a residue substituted fragment (349-364) of human lactoferrin protein in DMSO-d6 by 1H NMR and restrained molecular dynamics

51

        P N Sunil Kumar, C Sadasivan, K S Devaky and M Haridas*

 

 

 

Notes

 

Exogenous administration of dehydroepiendrosterone attenuates loss of superoxide dismuatse activity in the brain of old rats

57

        Nupur Sinha, Asia Taha, N Z Baquer and Deepak Sharma*

 

 

 

TRendys Meeting Report 2007

61

 

 

Instructions to Authors

65

 

 

——————

*Author for correspondence

AUTHOR INDEX

 

 

 

MINIREVIEWS

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, February 2008, pp.7-15

 

Xenobiotic-induced Immune Alterations: Implications in Health and Disease

Basu Dev Banerjee*, Ayanabha Chakraborti, Sanvidhan G Suke, Rafat S Ahmed and A K Tripathi

Environmental Biochemistry and Immunology Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry,
University College of Medical Sciences and G.T.B. Hospital (University of Delhi), Dilshad Garden, Delhi-110 095, India

Received 14 May 2007; revised 5 December 2007

Immune function may be significantly altered following occupational, inadvertent or therapeutic exposure to chemically diverse xenobiotics. The environmental chemicals like pesticides, halogenated hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, organic solvents, asbestos, silica, heavy metals etc. may interact with both cellular and humoral components of the immune system which can result in altered immune status that in turn may lead to decreased resistance to infection, certain forms of neoplasia or in some cases exacerbate allergy or autoimmunity. Recent advances in pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics have contributed a lot to delineate the mechanism of interaction of xenobiotics with the biological system at the cellular and molecular level. However, detection of immune changes on exposure to immunotoxic agents is highly complex, especially in humans due to several confounding factors like age, sex, race gender, co- existence of disease, food habits, smoking etc. Thus, establishing a quantitative relationship between immunotoxicological data and risk assessment, following xenobiotic exposure is still a challenge. The present article reviews the immune alterations caused by exposure to variety of xenobiotics, and their implications in health and disease.

Keywords: Xenobiotics, Pesticides, Disease, Autoimmunity, Immunotoxicity

*E-mail: banerjeebd@hotmail.com

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, February 2008, pp.16-22

 

Sodium Stibogluconate: Therapeutic use in the Management of Leishmaniasis

Jayeeta Roychoudhury and Nahid Ali*

Infectious Diseases and Immunology Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Biology

4 Raja S. C. Mullick Road, Kolkata-700032, India

Received 30 July 2007; revised 17 December 2007

Leishmaniasis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The disease is endemic in developing countries of tropical regions, and in recent years economic globalization and increased travel has also spread to people in developed countries. In the absence of effective vaccines and vector-control measures, the main line of defense against the disease is chemotherapy. Organic pentavalent antimonials, including sodium stibogluconate have been the first-line drug for the treatment of leishmaniasis for the last several decades, and clinical resistance to these drugs has emerged as a primary obstacle to successful treatment and control. The present review describes the structure, activity, mode of action of sodium stibogluconate and mechanism of resistance towards this drug in leishmaniasis.

Keywords: Sodium stibogluconate, Visceral leishmaniasis, Resistance, Pentavalent antimonials

*E-mail: nali@iicb.res.in

 

 

PAPERS

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, February 2008, pp.23-29

 

Activation of cell mediated immune response and apoptosis towards malignant cells with turmeric treatment in murine model

Ashim K Chakravarty and Hadida Yasmin

Immunology & Cell Biology Lab, Dept. of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, University of North Bengal,
Siliguri 734 013, India

Received 22 May 2007; revised 30 October 2007

The effect of ethanolic turmeric extract (ETE) on murine lymphocytes vis-ΰ-vis tumor cells was studied, in terms of its ability to activate lymphocytes and to induce apoptosis in tumor cells. Degree of activation and proliferation of lymphocytes treated with ETE was analyzed in terms of blastogenesis, DNA synthesis through 3H-thymidine incorporation and cell cycle analysis by flourescence activated cell sorter (FACS). FACS analysis was also carried out to observe the proliferation as well as apoptosis of tumor cells. Morphological condition of both the cell types in presence of ETE was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytotoxic capability of ETE-treated effector T lymphocytes towards tumor cells was judged in vitro by 51Cr-release assay and the growth of tumor in situ. ETE stimulated murine lymphocytes towards blastogenesis and synthesis of DNA, as revealed by increased incorporation of 3H-thymidine. FACS indicated that the lymphocytes were driven towards mitotic cycle by activating G2-M transition. In the same count, the tumor cells mostly remained accumulated in the G2-M phase, and thus mitotically arrested. Scanning electron photomicrographs revealed the blastoid transformation of lymphocytes and ETE-induced apoptotic condition of tumor cells. Furthermore, ETE-treated  T cells were cytotoxic towards tumor cells in vitro, as shown by 51Cr- release assay. ETE administered intravenously or orally could delay the onset and growth of tumor, and thus prolonged the life span of the tumor-bearing host. The present investigation suggests potential of turmeric both to destroy the malignant cells directly and via activation of the host’s cellular immunity.

Keywords: Turmeric, Lymphocytes, Immunostimulatory, Tumor cells, Apoptotic

*Email: prof_ashim_chakravarty@rediffmail.com

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, February 2008, pp.30-36

 

Cloning and characterization of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) cDNA sequence from Brassica juncea cv. Pusa Bold

N Ilaiyaraja, A P Rajarani and I M Santha*

Division of Biochemistry, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012

Received 30 May 2007; revised 3 January 2008

Diacylgycerol acyltransferase (DGAT: EC 2.3.1.20) is the only enzyme in the Kennedy pathway that is exclusively committed to the synthesis of storage oil in plants. In this study, cloning and characterization of DGAT gene sequence from Brassica juncea cv Pusa bold, an important oil seed crop of India is reported. A partial gene sequence of 2003 bp was PCR amplified and cloned from B. juncea. Sequence analysis showed that it has 10 exonic and 9 intronic sequences in the partial gene. Two cDNA sequences namely BjDGAT 1 and BjDGAT 2 (1.5 kb) encoding DGAT enzymes were amplified by RT-PCR from the developing seeds. The complete length of these two cDNAs as determined by RACE technique was 1768 bp, including and 3’-UTR. Comparative analysis of the sequences showed that BjDGAT1 was 85.1% and 96% identical to BjDGAT2 across 1512 coding region and 503 overlapping deduced amino acids respectively. These proteins were alkaline in nature (pI, 8.5-8.6), having similar molecular size (56-57 kD), an N-terminal hydrophilic segment and 9 transmembrane segments. Diacylglycerol/phorbol ester-binding motif (HKWXXRHXYXP) and acyl CoA binding motif (FYXDWWN) required for binding of substrates remained conserved in these proteins. Expression of the two transcripts of DGAT and their role in oil biosynthesis can further be studied.

Keywords: Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), Kennedy pathway, Triacylglycerol,  RT-PCR, cDNA cloning

*Email: ims_bio@yahoo.com

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, February 2008, pp.37-43

 

Application of fast chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OJIP) analysis to monitor functional integrity of pea (Pisum sativum) mesophyll protoplasts during isolation

B Sunil1, K Riazunnisa1, T Sai Krishna1, Gert Schansker2, Reto J Strasser2, Agepati S Raghavendra1 and Prasanna Mohanty1*#

1Department of Plant Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046, India

2Bioenergetics Laboratory, University of Geneva, CH-1254, Jussy-Geneva, Switzerland

Received 10 May 2007;  revised 28 November 2007

Intact and metabolically very active mesophyll protoplasts were isolated rapidly from pea (Pisum sativum) leaves. The functional performance of protoplasts at various stages of their isolation was analyzed by using fast Chl a fluorescence OJIP transients and compared with that of intact leaves. The results demonstrated that the OJIP transients could successfully be used to monitor the quality of mesophyll protoplasts at different isolation steps. The protoplasts maintained their integrity and photosynthetic status very well, and their performance was very similar to that of the intact leaves.

Keywords: Chl a fluorescence, Functional integrity, Mesophyll protoplasts, O-J-I-P Transients, Pisum sativum, Protoplast isolation

*E-mail: prasanna37@hotmail.com, photosis@rediffmail.com

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, February 2008, pp. 44-50

 

Effect of probucol and desferroxamine against adriamycin toxicity in cardiac and renal tissues of rats

Nermin A H Sadik*, Manal F Ismail and Amira A Shaheen

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt 11562

Received 28 March 2007; revised 10 May 2007

Adriamycin (ADR) is an anthracycline glycoside with a broad spectrum of therapeutic activity against various tumors; however, its clinical use has been limited due to its cardiac and renal toxicity. Production of free radicals is involved in the development of ADR-induced toxicity. This study investigated the effect of pre-treatment with probucol (PROB, a hypolipidemic drug with a powerful antioxidant property) and desferroxamine (DFO, an iron chelator) against ADR-induced oxidative stress in the cardiac and renal tissues. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Group I rats received ADR (3 mg/kg, b.w i.p.) over a period of 2 weeks for a cumulative dose of 18 mg/kg, b.w; Group II or ADR + PROB group rats were given PROB i.p. in a cumulative dose of 120 mg/kg, b.w. divided into twelve equal injections over a period of
4 weeks starting 2 weeks before ADR administration; Group III or ADR + DFO group rats were given DFO i.p. in six equal doses each 50 mg/kg, b.w.over a period of 2 weeks given 30 min before ADR injection; and Group IV rats were kept without treatment and served as a control. Results showed that ADR administration caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level in serum, heart and kidney tissues along with lowered activities of cardiac and renal glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). A significant decrease in cardiac glutathione (GSH) level and xanthine dehydrogenase (XD)/xanthine oxidase (XO) ratio, serum creatine kinase (CK) and renal glutathione reductase (GR) activities was also observed. Cytotoxic damage was evident from
the histopathological examination in heart and kidney specimens. Pre-treatment with either PROB or DFO restored the cardiac, renal and serum MDA levels and renal GR and cardiac GST activities. They also caused significant elevation in serum CK activity and renal XD/XO ratio. PROB normalized the activity of cardiac GPx, whereas DFO restored activity of GPx in both cardiac and renal tissues. It can be concluded that pre-treatment with either PROB or DFO counteracts the state of oxidative stress associated with ADR treatment by modulating the antioxidant status of the animals.

Keywords: Adriamycin, Probucol, Desferroxamine, Oxidative stress, Heart, Kidney, Rat

*E-mail: nerminsadik@yahoo.com

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, February 2008, pp.51-56

 

Conformation of a residue substituted fragment (349-364) of human lactoferrin protein in DMSO-d6 by 1H NMR and restrained molecular dynamics

P N Sunilkumar1, C Sadasivan1, K S Devaky2 and M Haridas1*

1Department of Biotechnology and Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Kannur University,
Thalassery Campus, Palayad P.O., Kerala 670 661, India
2School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala 686 560, India

Received; 18 July 2007; revised 28 December 2007

The 16mer peptide AVGEQELRGCNQWSGL is the Lys9Gly substitution analogue of 349-364 fragment of human lactoferrin (HLf). Interestingly, this HLf (349-364) fragment shows 68.75% sequence identity with the corresponding sequence in porcine lactoferrin (PLf), 50% with camel lactoferrin (ULf) and other lactoferrins coming in between the above two. From the available crystal structure data, the 349-364 sequence stretch was found to adopt a right-handed α-helical structure. The three-dimensional structure of the analogue in dimethyl sulphoxide-d6 (DMSO-d6) at 25°C was determined using two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. 2D correlation experiments (DQF-COSY, TOCSY and NOESY) enabled the complete sequence-specific assignment of all the 1H resonances. The solution structure derived from the combined use of NMR data and restrained molecular dynamics indicated that the sequence stretch from Gln5 to Gln12 formed a right-handed a-helix. Experimental structure showed good superposition with the reported local structure of the complete protein, excepting the terminal residues. This observation led to the conclusion that while designing active peptides with strong structural implication from larger proteins, importance may be given to the flanking regions of the relevant sequence.

Keywords:          Human lactoferrin, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Peptide conformation, Restrained molecular dynamics, Solid-phase peptide synthesis

*Email: mharidasm@rediffmail.com

 

 

NOTES

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, February 2008, pp.57-60

 

Exogenous administration of dehydroepiendrosterone attenuates loss of superoxide dismuatse activity in the brain of old rats

Nupur Sinha, Asia Taha, N Z Baquer and Deepak Sharma*

School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi110 067, India

Received 20 June 2007; revised 31 December 2007

The influence of exogenously administered dehyroepiendrosterone (DHEA) on the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was investigated in the mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions from cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus and medulla regions of the brains of 12- and 22-months old rats. DHEA was administered daily at the dose of 30 mg/kg/body wt, intraperitonially (i.p) in both age groups of rats for 1 month. Results showed that SOD activity was significantly higher in the mitochondrial fraction than in the cytosolic fraction, in DHEA-treated animals in both age groups. This indicated that exogenous DHEA affected mitochondrial SOD more than the cytosolic SOD. In terms of percent increase, 22 months-old animals showed significant increase in the SOD activity in both the fractions of all the four brain regions than in the 12 months old DHEA-treated animals. This showed that exogenous DHEA provided more protection to the SOD in ageing brain of older rats (22 months) than the younger (12 month) ones. The study suggests that exogenous DHEA is more beneficial at old age in terms of neuroprotection against oxidative stress-mediated brain dysfunctions and may protect age-related alterations in cognitive functions like learning and memory.

Keywords: Dehydroepiendrosterone, Superoxide dismutase, Brain, Aging

*Email: deepak57in@yahoo.com