Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

CODEN : IJBBBQ  ISSN : 0301-1208

Total visitors: 3,691  since 25-06-08

 

VOLUME 45

NUMBER3

JUNE 2008

 
CONTENTS

 

Minireviews

 

Host genes that affect progression of AIDS/HIV in India and novel gene therapeutic approaches against HIV

141

Vikas Sood, Anurag Rathore, Sajid Husain, Sohrab Khan, Shruti Patra, Vijay Shankar, Harsh Kumar, Neha Rani, Aalia S Bano, Ujjwal Neogi, V G Ramachandran and Akhil C Banerjea*

 

 

 

Protein translocation pathways across the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes

149

Jaspreet Kaur and Gautam Kaul*

 

 

 

Papers

 

Thermodynamic properties of the Calvin cycle and pentose phosphate pathway

157

Vladimir Leskovac*, Svetlana Trivić, Draginja Peričin, Mira Popović
and Julijan Kandrač

 

 

 

DNA aggregation by an archaeal DNA binding protein Sac10b and its novel DNA
nicking activity

166

Jaya S Koti, Sreenivas Kanugula and Tangirala Suryanarayana*

 

 

 

Pichia pastoris INO1 gene expression affects intracellular maltase activity and MAL1+ gene expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

174

Zhengming Chi*, Jing Li, Lin Wang, Susu He and Xianghong Wang

 

 

 

Myeloperoxidase activity in infection complicated and uninfected diabetic patients

179

T V Suchithra and K F Zuhara*

 

 

 

Inhibitory effects of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde on the activity of phenoloxidase from
Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera) larvae

184

Chao-Bin Xue, Wan-Chun Luo*, Qing-Xi Chen, De-Ying Ma and Qin Wang

 

 

 

Porcine pancreas lipase catalyzed synthesis of lauryl laurate in organic solvent media:
A kinetic study

192

Sumbita Gogoi, M G Pathak, A Dutta and N N Dutta*

 

 

 

QSAR study of lipid peroxidation-inhibition potential of some phenolic antioxidants

198

Supratim Ray, Kakali De, Chandana Sengupta and Kunal Roy*

 

 

 

Notes

 

Hepatoprotective effect of vitamin C on sodium nitrite-induced lipid peroxidation in albino rats

206

P Krishnamoorthy* and M Sangeetha

 

 

 

Alterations in immunoglobulins and cytokine levels in blood of malathion
poisoning cases

209

Vandana Seth, B D Banerjee*, Rafat S Ahmed, A Bhattacharya and S T Pasha

 

 

 

Instructions to Authors

212

 

 

*Author for correspondence

 

 

 

AUTHOR INDEX

 


Ahmed R S

209

 

 

Banerjea A C

141

Banerjee B D

209

Bano A S

141

Bhattacharya A

209

 

 

Chen Q X

184

Chi Z

174

 

 

De K

198

Dutta A

192

Dutta N N

192

 

 

Gogoi S

192

 

 

He S

174

Husain S

141

 

 

Kandrač J

157

Kanugula S

166

Kaul G

149

Kaur J

149

Khan S

141

Koti, J S

166

Krishnamoorthy P

206

Kumar H

141

 

 

Leskovac V

157

Li J

174

Luo W C

184

 

 

Ma D Y

184

 

 

Neogi U

141

 

 

Pasha S T

209

Pathak M G

192

Patra S

141

Peričin D

157

Popović M

157

 

 

Ramachandran V G

141

Rani N

141

Rathore A

141

Ray S

198

Roy K

198

 

 

Sangeetha M

206

Sengupta C

198

Seth V

209

Shankar V

141

Sood V

141

Suchithra T V

179

Suryanarayana T

166

 

 

Trivić S

157

 

 

Wang L

174

Wang Q

184

Wang X

174

 

 

Xue C B

184

 

 

Zuhara K F

179


 

 

MINIREVIEWS

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, June 2008, pp.141-148

 

Host genes that affect progression of AIDS/HIV in India and novel gene therapeutic approaches against HIV

Vikas Sood, Anurag Rathore^, Sajid Husain@, Sohrab Khan, Shruti Patra, Vijay Shankar, Harsh Kumar,
Neha Rani, Aalia S Bano, Ujjwal Neogi, V G Ramachandran# and Akhil C Banerjea*

Laboratory of Virology, National Institute of Immunology, JNU Campus, New Delhi 110 067, India

@Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab 143 005, India

#University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi 110 095, India

^Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226 014, UP, India

Received 05 September 2007; revised 28 April 2008

A multitude of host and viral factors play critical role in susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and its subsequent progression to AIDS. Various host factors involved in HIV-1 infection include the chemokine receptors CCR5, CX3CR1, their ligands, RANTES, SDF-1 and cytokines like IL-10, IL-4, among others. The CCR5∆32 allele is the most important genetic factor known to confer resistance to HIV-1 infection. However, other mutations in CCR5, CX3CR1 and SDF-1 have also been identified in Indian population. Polymorphisms in DC-SIGN, MHC class-I and II molecules are also known to affect HIV-1 progression. These polymorphisms can be utilized as genetic markers for evaluating disease progression and developing effective therapeutics. The review also describes the development of anti-viral therapy, involving the use of catalytic nucleic acids like DNA-enzymes and ribozymes and the expression of ribozymes and si-RNA using lentiviral vectors for stem cell based anti-HIV therapy.

Keywords: HIV-1, CCR5, Polymorphisms, Chemokine receptors, DNA-enzyme, Ribozyme, siRNA, Lentiviral vectors

* E-mail: akhil@nii.res.in; akhil_banerjea@yahoo.com

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, June 2008, pp. 149-156

 

Protein translocation pathways across the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes

Jaspreet Kaur and Gautam Kaul*

Department of Animal Biochemistry, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana 132001, India

Received 29 June 2007; revised 02 May 2008

Mitochondria import different proteins that are encoded by nuclear genes and synthesized in the cytosol. Separate translocases in inner and outer mitochondrial membranes like TOM, TIM23, TOB/SAM, TIM22 complex facilitate recognition, import and intramitochondrial sorting of preproteins. Various cytosolic factors as Hsp70 and auxillary factors assist in targeting these preproteins to their destinations. Also, different protein components in the matrix participate in this energetically driven translocation process in a reaction that depends upon membrane potential and matrix-ATP. This review summarizes the present knowledge on import and sorting of mitochondrial precursor proteins with glance on unresolved questions.

Keywords: Mitochondria, Translocation, Membrane potential, ATP hydrolysis.

*E-mail: gkndri@gmail.com

 

 

 

 

PAPERS

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, June 2008, pp. 157-165

 

 

Thermodynamic properties of the Calvin cycle and pentose phosphate pathway

Vladimir Leskovac1*, Svetlana Trivić2, Draginja Peričin1, Mira Popović2, and Julijan Kandrač3

1Faculty of Technology, 2 Faculty of Science, and 3 Faculty of Agriculture,

University of Novi Sad, Bulevar Cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia

Received 17 September 2007; revised 28 April 2008

The enzymes of the Calvin cycle and pentose phosphate pathway operate in close conjunction with enzymes of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. The last two metabolic routes are thermodynamically well characterized, but the former two are not. In this work, the thermodynamic properties of the 19 enzymatic reactions of the pentose phosphate pathway and the Calvin cycle, under standard conditions were calculated in the form of standard transformed reaction Gibbs energies at pH 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9, 25oC and ionic strength 0.25 M.

Keywords: Calvin cycle; Pentose phosphate pathway; Gibbs free energy.

*E-mail: jkandrac@polj.ns.ac.yu

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, June 2008, pp. 166-173

 

DNA aggregation by an archaeal DNA binding protein Sac10b and its novel DNA nicking activity

Jaya S Koti+, Sreenivas Kanugula# and Tangirala Suryanarayana*

Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046, India

Received 18 June 2007; revised 31 January 2008

The solution structure of an archaeal DNA binding protein Sac10b (DBNP-B) by cross-linking with formaldehyde and its interaction with DNA were studied. Results indicated that Sac10b existed as oligomeric structure in solution and the oligomerization was greatly stimulated by Mg2+ ions and elevated temperatures. In light of our earlier observation that Sac10b interacts with DNA forming different types of complexes with DNA at different protein concentrations, its DNA-binding properties were also studied. Results demonstrated that the protein formed rapidly sedimentable
co-aggregation complexes with both native and denatured DNA in a protein concentration-dependent manner. These protein DNA complexes were fluid-like crystalline material at a protein DNA ratio (3-6:1 w/w). Gel mobility shift assays carried out to study the interaction of the protein with plasmid DNA indicated possible DNA nicking by the protein. The DNA nicking activity of Sac10b was optimal in pH range of 7-8.5 and was dependent on Mg2+ ions. It was maximal at protein to DNA ratio of (8:1, w/w) and very little activity was observed above and below this ratio. Nicking of DNA at this ratio indicated structure-specific DNA nicking by the protein. The protein might have important multi-functional role in the DNA metabolism in this organism.

Keywords: Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, Sac10b, DNA aggregation, DNA nicking

*E-mail: tssl@uohyd.ernet.in

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, June 2008, pp. 174-178

 

Pichia pastoris INO1 gene expression affects intracellular maltase activity and MAL1+ gene expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

Zhengming Chi*, Jing Li, Lin Wang, Susu He and Xianghong Wang

UNESCO Chinese Center of Marine Biotechnology, Ocean University of China, Yushan Road, No.5, Qingdao 266003, China.

Received 29 May 2007; revised 28 April 2008

In our previous study, we found that the transformant Sch.p944 which contains the plasmid pADH-INO synthesized higher inositol than the transformant Sch.p1025 which contains the plasmid pSPIN-22. In this study, we examined the influence of INO1 gene expression on intracellular maltase activity and MAL1+ gene expression in these two transformants. The highest specific maltase activity was observed when Sch.p944 was grown in the synthetic medium containing initial 2.0% (w/v) glucose, whereas glucose repression of maltase activity occurred when Sch.p1025 was cultivated in the same medium containing glucose more than initial 0.5% (w/v), suggesting that synthesis of the maltase was derepressed in Sch.p944. Also, higher mRNA encoding intracellular maltase activity was found in Sch.p944 than that in Sch.p1025 after 32 h of cell growth in the media containing initial 2.0% glucose, indicating that the derepression occurred at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, higher phosphatidylinositol (PI) content was detected in Sch.p944 cells grown in the medium containing initial 2.0% (w/v) glucose for 32 h than in Sch.p1025 cells grown under the same conditions, indicating that PI might be involved in derepression of MAL1+ gene expression and intracellular maltase activity.

Keywords: MAL1+ gene expression, Maltase activity, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, phosphatidylinositol, Glucose repression

*E-mail: zhenming@sdu.edu.cn

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, June 2008, pp. 179-183

 

Myeloperoxidase activity in infection complicated and uninfected diabetic patients

T V Suchithra and K F Zuhara*

Department of Life Sciences, University of Calicut, Calicut University (P.O), Malappuram (Dt), Kerala 673 635, India

Received 30 October 2007; revised 31 March 2008

The activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the blood and tissue neutrophils of three groups viz., Group I: patients of diabetes mellitus (DM) without infection and related complications; Group II: patients of DM with infections and related complications, and Group III: non-diabetic normal persons as control subjects was estimated to find out the influence of the MPO status on the occurrence of diabetes and also on the infection and related complications found in some of these patients. Group III category showed the highest blood MPO compared to the two diabetic groups (P<0.001). Group II patients exhibited higher MPO activity than group I (P<0.001). The study revealed that increase in MPO in group II was achieved both by increased production of the enzyme at cellular level and also of leukocytes in the system. Estimation of MPO in infected tissue was performed in group II in relation to the histological features and compared with group III, as an index of neutrophil infiltration to the infected sites. Tissue MPO was found higher in group II than group III subjects. Histological analysis revealed that the elevated MPO in infected cases was due to the increased neutrophil infiltration to the infected site. Blood sugar status, diabetic management measures, wound healing ability etc. of diabetic patients was also studied in relation to MPO. MPO activity was higher in normal subjects having normal sugar. In group II, MPO was low in the uncontrolled sugar group compared to the controlled, and in group I vice versa. Insulin-treated diabetic patients showed higher MPO activity than drug-treated and combined therapy groups. Also, patients with healing impairment showed comparatively high MPO activity.

Keywords: Myeloperoxidase, Diabetes mellitus

*E-mail: lifescienceshd@gmail.com

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, June 2008, pp. 184-191

 

Inhibitory effects of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde on the activity of phenoloxidase from Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera) larvae

Chao-Bin Xue1, Wan-Chun Luo1*, Qing-Xi Chen2, De-Ying Ma3 and Qin Wang2

1College of Plant Protection, Key Laboratory of Pesticide Toxicology and Application Technique, Shandong Agricultural University, Shandong Tai′an 271018, P. R. China

2The key Lab of Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences,
Xiamen University, Fujian Xiamen 361005, P. R. China

3College of Agronomy, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Xinjiang Urumqi 830052, P. R. China

Received 15 May 2007; revised 23 April 2008

Phenoloxidase (PO) is a key enzyme in insect development, responsible for catalyzing the hydroxylation of tyrosine into o-diphenols and oxidation of o-diphenols into o-quinones. In the present study, the kinetic assay for PO from Pieris rapae (L.) larvae was performed in air-saturated solutions and its kinetic behavior in the oxidation of L-tyrosine (a monophenol) and L-DOPA (L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, a diphenol) was studied. The inhibitory effects of
2-hydroxybenzaldehyde (2-HBD) on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of PO were also studied. Results showed that 2-HBD inhibit both the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of PO. The lag period of L-tyrosine oxidation catalyzed by the enzyme was lengthened and the steady-state activity of the enzyme sharply decreased. The inhibitor was found to be noncompetitively reversible with a KI (KI = KIS) of 1.21 mmol/L and an estimated IC50 of 8.08
0.11 mmol/L for monophenolase and 4.14 0.08 mmol/L for diphenolase activities. In the time-course of oxidation of L-DOPA catalyzed by the enzyme in the presence of different concentrations of 2-HBD, the rate decreased with increasing time until a straight line was reached. The microscopic rate constants for the reaction of 2-HBD with the enzyme were determined.

Keywords: Phenoloxidase, Inhibition kinetics, 2-Hydroxybenzaldehyde, Monophenolase, Diphenolase, Pieris rapae (L.)

*E mail: wcluo@sdau.edu.cn

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, June 2008, pp 192-197

 

Porcine pancreas lipase catalyzed synthesis of lauryl laurate in organic solvent media: A kinetic study

Sumbita Gogoia, M G Pathakb, A Duttac and N N Duttaa*

aChemical Engineering Division,

bAnalytical Chemistry Division, North-East Institute of Science and Technology, Jorhat 785 006, Assam, India

cDepartment of Chemistry, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh 786 004, Assam, India

Received 01 October 2007; revised 08 April 2008

The esterification of lauric acid with lauryl alcohol was studied using lipase from Porcine pancreas, with particular emphasis on the effect of the pertinent variables and kinetic aspects of the reaction. The reaction was studied in eight different solvents having hydrophobicity (the logarithm of octanol-water partition coefficient, log P) values ranging from 0.6 to 3.5 with constant water content in the reaction mixture and n-hexane was the most suitable solvent. The initial rates of the reaction were attempted to correlate with solvent properties and a significant good correlation was obtained with solvent hydrophobicity (log P) and water solubility (log Sw). The kinetics of the esterification reaction conformed to the so-called Ping-Pong Bi-Bi mechanism with alcohol inhibition.

Keywords: Porcine pancreas lipase, Lauryl laurate, Kinetics, Mechanism, Ping-Pong Bi-Bi

*E-mail: sumbita_gogoi@yahoo.co.in

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, June 2008, pp. 198-205

 

QSAR study of lipid peroxidation-inhibition potential of some phenolic antioxidants

Supratim Ray, Kakali De, Chandana Sengupta and Kunal Roy*

Drug Theoretics & Cheminformatics Lab, Division of Medicinal & Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, India

Received 15 May 2007; revised 15 April 2008

QSAR models have been developed for lipid peroxidation (LPO)-inhibition potential of a series of phenolic compounds in phosphate-buffered and pre-emulsified linoleic acid systems using the descriptors such as topological indices, topological charge indices and quantum chemical descriptors. In both model systems, a considerably large number (131) of descriptors have been used. The subsequent variable selection is made using standard techniques like stepwise regression and multiple linear regression (MLR) with factor analysis (FA) as the data-preprocessing step for variable selection (FA-MLR). The best equation is obtained from FA-MLR (R2 = 0.950, Q2 = 0.914) for the first system, and from stepwise regression analysis (R2 = 0.960, Q2 = 0.949) for the second system. The results reveal that bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) and maximal electrotopological positive variation (MAXDP) have negative contributions to the LPO-inhibition activity. The best equations satisfy the Fmax criteria suggested by Livingstone and Salt (2005). The derived equations may be helpful in designing novel phenolic antioxidants.

Keywords: QSAR, LPO-inhibition potency, Phenolic antioxidants, FA-MLR, Stepwise analysis

*E-mail: kunalroy_in@yahoo.com; URL:http://www.geocities.com/kunalroy_in

 

 

 

 

NOTES

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, June 2008, pp. 206-208

 

Hepatoprotective effect of vitamin C on sodium nitrite-induced lipid peroxidation in albino rats

P Krishnamoorthy and M Sangeetha*

Department of Zoology, Raja Serfoji Govt. College,
Thanjavur 613005, Tamil Nadu, India

*Department of Biotechnology, J. J. College of Arts and Science, Pudukkottai-622 404 Tamil Nadu

Received 20 September 2007; revised 18 March 2008

The possible protective role of vitamin C on liver antioxidant enzymes of albino rats in sodium nitrite induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) was investigated. Sodium nitrite and vitamin C were administered orally through intragastric tube. Sodium nitrite (300 mg/kg body wt.) significantly increased the LPO and the activities of liver marker enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), acid phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level in LPO-induced rats; the remarkable changes in the enzyme activities was due to hepatotoxicity of nitrite. The vitamin C (300 mg/kg body wt.) significantly decreased the LPO level and the activities of liver enzymes and increased antioxidant enzymes activities, thus exerts ameliorating effect on sodium nitrite-induced lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: Sodium nitrite, Vitamin C, Lipid peroxidation, Antioxidant, Marker enzymes.

*E-mail: pkmoorthy68@rediffmail.com

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics

Vol. 45, June 2008, pp 209-211

 

Alterations in immunoglobulins and cytokine levels in blood of malathion poisoning cases

Vandana Seth1, B D Banerjee2*, Rafat S Ahmed2,
A Bhattacharya3 and S T Pasha4

1Medical Toxicology Division, Central Insecticides Lab, Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage,
Ministry of Agriculture, NH IV, Faridabad
121 001, Haryana

2Environmental Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, and 3Anesthesiology, University College of Medical Sciences and G.T.B. Hospital, University of Delhi, Dilshad Garden, Delhi 110 095, India

4Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, National Institute of Communicable Diseases, Delhi 110 054, India

Received 28 September 2007 ; revised 19 April 2008

The excessive exposure and use of malathion, an organophosphate pesticide, has lead to deleterious effects on human health. Chronic exposure to organophosphates has been shown to suppress immune system in experimental animals. Therefore, in this study, we have investigated the immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgE and IgA) and cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ and TNF-α) levels in blood of malathion poisoning cases, admitted in Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital (University of Delhi), Dilshad Garden, Delhi, India. All the seriously ill patients of malathion poisoning showed significant levels of residue (503-702 mg/L). While no significant changes were found in Igs levels in blood of malathion poisoning cases, there was a significant increase in IL-2, IL-4 and TNF-α levels in blood of malathion poisoning cases, and significant decrease in IFN-γ level, as compared to normal subjects. This study demonstrated altered levels of cytokines and interleukins in serum in response to malathion exposure.

Keywords: Malathion, Cytokines, Interleukins, Immunoglobulins, Pesticides

*E-mail: banerjeebd@hotmail.com