Indian Journal of Biotechnology

VOLUME 2 

NUMBER 2

APRIL 2003

 

CONTENTS

Reviews

 

 

Bioinformatics: Advancing biotechnology through information technology Part II: In silico gene prediction

 

159

Sudeshna Adak

 

 

 

Immunostimulation: The sense in antisense technology

175

Archana Pandey, Satyendra Mishra & Krishna Misra

 

 

 

Microbial L-Asparaginase: A potent antitumour enzyme

184

Savitri, Neeta Asthana & Wamik Azmi

 

 

 

Papers

 

 

Improved post-larval production in giant prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii through modulation of antioxidant defence system by dietary vitamin-E

 

195

Jagneshwar Dandapat, Gagan B N Chainy & K Janardhana Rao

 

 

 

Characterization of equine influenza A/Equi-2/Ludhiana/87 (H3N8) isolate by nucleotide sequencing of its neuraminidase gene

 

203

Vandanajay Bhatia, A K Gupta & H S Nainawatee

 

 

 

Detection of equine influenza viral genome by RT-PCR and RNA-DNA hybridization

 214

A K Gupta, Anita Ahlawat & Vandanajay Bhatia

 

 

 

Apple pomace utilization for production of baker's yeast: Effect of substrate concentrations and growth stimulators

 

220

V K Joshi & Shashi Bhushan

 

 

 

Analysis of structure of YGNGV motif containing bacteriocins: A model for membrane pore formation

227

S K Sood & P R Sinha

 

 

 

A simple method for the estimation of insulin based on changes in membrane permeability

 

236

S K Saha, P Gayathri, U Roy & R C Srivastava

 

 

 

Nitrification by some diazotrophic enterobacteria

240

V Kannan & P N Raju

 

 

 

Detection of Azospirillum and PSB in rice rhizosphere soil by protein and antibiotic resistance profile and their effect on grain yield of rice

 

246

M R Khan, N C Talukdar & D Thakuria

 

Salt stress induced changes on enzyme activities during different developmental stages of rice (Oryza sativa Linn.)

 

251

T S Swapna

 

 

 

Decolourization and biodegradation of reactive azo dyes by mixed culture

259

P P Vijaya, P Padmavathy & S Sandhya

 

 

 

Synthesis of (+) catechin penta-acetate by callus culture of the Himalayan Yew, Taxus wallichiana

 

264

Shipra Agrawal, Suchitra Banerjee, Sunil K Chattopadhyay, K V Shashidhar, Shiv Kumar Gupta & Sushil Kumar

 

 

 

Short Communications
 

Characterization of mosquito larvicidal Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from soils of India

 

268

Banani Sur, Nitu Nigam, A K Joshi & Vinod Bihari

 

 

 

Enhancement of opium alkaloids production in callus cultures of Papaver rhoeas Linn.

271

Renu Sarin

 

 

 

Organogenesis in Panicum sumatrence Roth ex Roem. & Schult (Little Millet)

273

K Vasanth & N Jayabalan

 

 

 

Conference Report

275

 

 

Announcement

280

 

 

Instructions to Contributors

281

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 2(2), April 2003, pp.157-174

 

Bioinformatics: Advancing Biotechnology through
Information Technology

Part II: In silico Gene Prediction

Sudeshna Adak*

GE Global Research, John F Welch Technology Center, EPIP Phase 2, Hoodi Village, Whitefield Road, Bangalore 560 066, India

 

The paper reviews computational tools and algorithms for in silico genome annotation and, in particular, the Bioinformatics resources available for in silico gene prediction. Gene prediction requires a combination of algorithms with different types of biological databases and the author intends to provide the biologist or biotechnology researcher an insight into the use of these methods. The explosion of information seen in molecular biology has created a veritable maze, through which careful navigation is required for research and innovation in biotechnology. Online databases have given scientists and researchers across the world access to unimaginable volumes of biologically relevant data. Bioinformatics, a truly multidisciplinary science, aims to bring the benefits of computer technologies to bear in understanding the biology of life itself. In this second paper of a three part series, the tremendous value of gene prediction algorithms is discussed, in the context of transforming raw biological sequence data into biologically useful knowledge. It is the first step in harnessing the biological data arising out of the genome projects into a new and improved understanding of biology of organisms.

 

Keywords: homology, ab initio, synteny, EST, genome annotation

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 2(2), April 2003, pp.175-183

 

Immunostimulation: The Sense in Antisense Technology

Archana Pandey1, Satyendra Mishra2 and Krishna Misra*2,3

1Chemistry Department, C M P Degree College, Allahabad 211 002, India

2Nucleic Acids Research Laboratory, Chemistry Department and

3Centre for Biotechnology, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211 002, India

 

Received 25 March 2002; accepted 21 June 2002

 

 

The post-human genomic era has led to the development of therapies, which specifically target molecular pathways responsible for diseases. The original concept of antisense therapy was to simply turn off gene’s activity by a short synthetic DNA sequence, having sequence complementary to mRNA and thus block the production of undesirable protein. However, during the last two decades this concept has undergone miraculous change. Today antisense therapy is on crossroads. The observation that oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG dinucleotides (CpG DNA) exhibit immunostimulatory effect has lead to their use as therapeutic agents and adjuvants for various diseases. Knowledge gained from studies of the medicinal chemistry of CpG DNA has provided a base for designing the second generation of CpG DNA agents with immunostimulatory activity. The present article reviews the recent developments, which have caused the revival of antisense therapy.

 

Keywords: antisense, immunostimulation, vaccine, oligonucleotide therapy

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 2(2), April 2003, pp.184-194

 

Microbial L-Asparaginase: A Potent Antitumour Enzyme

Savitri, Neeta Asthana and Wamik Azmi*

Department of Biotechnology, Himachal Pradesh University, Summer-Hill, Shimla 171 005, India

 

Received 3 May 2002; accepted 29 August 2002

 

 

L-asparaginase (LA) can be effectively used for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and tumour cells. Interest in this enzyme arose few decades ago when it was discovered that the antilymphoma activity of the guinea pig serum was due to LA. For pharmacological and clinical tests, microbial sources are best for the bulk production of LA. Initially this drug failed to fall in antineoplastic category due to the immunogenic reactions caused by the foreign protein. With the development of protein engineering, modifications carried out in purified LA either reduced or completely eliminated the immunogenicity of LA in test model. The improved therapeutic activity and decreased immunogenicity of LA can be of immense use as an antineoplastic agent.

 

Keywords: L-asparaginase, intracellular enzyme, antitumour, antilymphoma, acute lymphoblastic leukemia

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 2(2), April 2003, pp.195-202

 

Improved Post-larval Production in Giant Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, through Modulation of Antioxidant Defence System by Dietary Vitamin-E

Jagneshwar Dandapat1, Gagan B N Chainy1* and K Janardhana Rao2

1Centre for Biotechnology and Biochemistry Unit, Department of Zoology, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751 004, India

2Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar 751 002, India

 

Received 25 June 2002; accepted 6 September 2002

 

 

Giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (deMan) (Crustacea–Decapoda) is an economically important species widely cultured in both freshwater and low saline water (brackish water) aquaculture. The experiments were conducted to study the effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin-E on the post-larval production (seed production), lipid peroxidation (LPX) and antioxidant defence system in the post larvae of M. rosenbergii. Objective of the study is to refine the existing seed production technology through the modulation of antioxidant defence system during larval progression. Results of the first feeding trial clearly exhibit the increased post-larval production in response to different levels of supplementary vitamin-E (50, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg feed). Results of the second feeding experiment with a selective dose of vitamin-E (200 mg/kg feed) were also consistent with that and it was further observed that vitamin-E supplemented diet (200 mg/kg feed) can reduce the level of LPX in the post larvae. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was reduced significantly but that of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) was elevated in the post larvae receiving vitamin-E supplementation. Though ascorbic acid content of the post larvae was elevated in response to vitamin-E supplemented diet, glutathione (GSH) content remained unaltered. The present findings indicate that modulation of antioxidant defence system in response to vitamin-E supplementation in the diet might have a positive role in improving post-larval production.

 

Keywords: Prawn seed production, vitamin-E, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defence system

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 2(2), April 2003, pp.203-213

 

Characterization of Equine Influenza A/Equi-2/Ludhiana/87 (H3 N8) Isolate by Nucleotide Sequencing of its Neuraminidase Gene

Vandanajay Bhatia2, A K Gupta1* and H S Nainawatee3

1National Research Centre on Equines, Sirsa Road, Hisar 125 001, India

2Microbiology Admin, 3.154 Medical Res Building, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, Texas 77555-1070, USA

3Krishi Anusandhan Bhavan, PUSA Campus, IARI, New Delhi 110012, India

 

Received 15 April 2002; accepted 16 June 2002

 

 

Equine influenza virus, A/Equi-2/Ludhiana/87 H3N8 isolated from influenza epizootic in India in 1987 was characterized for its uniqueness by sequencing of its neuraminidase gene as the vaccine prepared with this isolate is still in use and has not been updated for more than a decade. Comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of this gene with other H3 N8 isolates revealed that Indian isolate had maximum differences with avian like equine influenza isolate (Jilin/89) and had resemblance with equine influenza H3N8 isolates namely Alaska/91, Tennessee/86, Newmarket/79 and Kent/87 which further indicated that it belongs to the lineage of currently circulating H3N8 equine viruses in equine population.

 

Keywords: equine influenza virus, Neuraminidase gene, sequencing

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 2(2), April 2003, pp.214-219

 

Detection of Equine Influenza Viral Genome by RT-PCR and
RNA-DNA Hybridization

A K Gupta*, Anita Ahlawat and Vandanajay Bhatia

National Research Centre on Equines, Sirsa Road, Hisar 125 001, India

 

Received 27 March 2002; accepted 26 June 2002

 

 

Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RNA : DNA hybridization based diagnostic techniques were standardized and used for rapid and specific detection of equine influenza virus. RT-PCR technique based on amplification of both Non-structural-1 (NS1) and Neuraminidase (NA) genes was standardized. Beside this, RNA-DNA hybridization technique using both non-structural and neuraminidase gene segments specific hot probes was also developed to directly detect this virus with out involving viral RNA isolation. Both RT-PCR and RNA-DNA hybridization techniques were successfully used for detection of influenza virus in samples within 24 to 48 hrs. These techniques can now be used as a routine tests in the laboratory for detection of influenza virus from field samples.

 

Keywords: equine influenza, RT-PCR, nucleic acid hybridization

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 2(2), April 2003, pp.220-226

 

Apple Pomace Utilization for the Production of Baker's Yeast: Effect of Substrate Concentrations and Growth Stimulators

V K Joshi* and Shashi Bhushan

Department of Postharvest Technology, Dr Y S Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry, Nauni, Solan 173 230, India

 

Received 7 June 2002; accepted 17 October 2002

 

 

Apple pomace powder showed higher percentage of fermentable sugar (to that of total), titratable acidity and higher crude protein than molasses and jaggery. The composition of the extracted/diluted medium was in consistence with the original substrates. Among the different total sugar concentrations tried (5, 10 & 15%), 5% was optimum for higher yeast biomass production. Comparing glucose with apple pomace extract (APE), molasses and jaggery, glucose gave higher fermentation efficiency followed by APE, which was found superior with respect to higher cellular yield coefficient and lower ethanol production. Addition of growth stimulators (vitamins & minerals) increased efficiency of baker's yeast in both ways i.e. to respire or to ferment the available sugar. The different carbon sources behaved similarly with respect to the addition of growth stimulators (minerals, vitamins and their combinations) except APE medium, which exhibited a non-significant effect. Supplementing the APE medium with such growth stimulators thus, is not required to produce baker's yeast.

 

Keywords: apple pomace, molasses, jaggery, Baker’s yeast

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 2(2), April 2003, pp.227-235

 

Analysis of Structure of YGNGV Motif Containing Bacteriocins: A Model for Membrane Pore Formation

S K Sood* and P R Sinha1

Animal Biotechnology Centre, 1Animal Biochemistry Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal 132 001, India

 

Received 20 June 2002; accepted 19 August 2002

 

 

Bacteriocins from Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides or proteins, which are known to kill their target by causing dissipation of proton motive force and leakage of small intracellular substances through pore formation in the cell membrane of sensitive bacteria. An YGNGV sequence motif containing bacteriocin comprises an N-terminal -sheet, a central hinge and a C-terminal amphiphilic either -helix or -sheet. In the proposed model for pore formation, hydrophobic faces of the amphiphilic C-termini interact with each other to form a cylindrical complex. On one end of the cylinder, N-terminal -sheets interact with each other through bidentate arms, resulting in a planar ring containing positively charged claws on the bottom face, and this planar ring attaches the bacteriocin complex onto the negative membrane surface. The C-termini then fold back, through a rotation in the hinge region, to reverse polarities and insert themselves in outer lipid monolayer, resulting in a water filled pore that could span only outer monolayer of lipid bilayer, because the length of C-terminus in YGNGV containing bacteriocins is just enough to span lipid monolayer. In the subsequent step, some of the half pores translocate across to inner monolayer to form inner half pore. Two half pores in each monolayer may occasionally align to form a conducting channel, thereby causing dissipation of PMF and leakage of small intracellular substances, and death of sensitive bacteria.

 

Keywords: YGNGV motif, bacteriocins, pore formation, mechanism of action, structural analysis, LAB

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 2(2), April 2003, pp.236-239

 

A Simple Method for Estimation of Insulin Based on Changes in Membrane Permeability

S K Saha, P Gayathri, U Roy and R C Srivastava*

Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani 333 031, India

 

Received 14 June 2002; accepted 4 September 2002

 

 

A simple method for the estimation of insulin concentration based on changes in membrane permeability is described. The method exploits the phenomenon of formation of hydrophilic pathways by insulin in the liquid membrane bilayers generated by the mixture of lecithin and cholesterol. It works satisfactorily for the estimation of insulin in blood serum.

 

Keywords: insulin estimation, liquid membrane, hydrophilic pathways

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 2(2), April 2003, pp.240-145

 

Nitrification by Some Diazotrophic Enterobacteria

V Kannan* and P N Raju

Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, Guindy Campus, University of Madras, Chennai 600 025, India

 

Received 29 October 2001; accepted 17 September 2002

 

 

Biological nitrogen fixers in addition to their involvement in nitrogen fixation also take part in nitrification and denitrification processes. Some members of enterobacteria used in the present study besides fixing nitrogen also oxidized ammonia to hydroxylamine and nitrite. The whole cells as well as cell free extract of nitrogen fixing populations of these organisms showed oxidation of ammonia and this activity of ammonia monooxygenase was higher at high oxygen conditions which was also confirmed by the calorimetric estimation of hydroxylamine and nitrite in the enzyme assay mixture.

 

Keywords: diazotrophs, nitrification, ammonia oxidation, ammonia monooxygenase

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 2(2), April 2003, pp.246-250

 

Detection of Azospirillum and PSB in Rice Rhizosphere Soil by Protein and Antibiotic Resistance Profile and
Their Effect on Grain Yield of Rice

M R Khan, N C Talukdar* and D Thakuria

Soil Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Soil Science, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat 785 013, India

 

Received 23 April 2002; accepted 25 October 2002

 

 

Two biofertilizer agents, Azospirillum amazonense A10 and Bacillus megaterium P7, alone and in combination increased the grain yield of rice in autoclaved soil by 103-256% over control. Colonies of A. amazonense and B. megaterium were distinguished from the contaminant phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and Azospirilla colonies in the respective media based on colony morphology, colour and thickness of clearing zone. Population densities of A. amazonense and B. megaterium were found to be 2.6 ´ 108 and 2.9 ´ 108 CFUg -1 soil, respectively at 48 day post transplanting. Protein and antibiotic resistance profiles of the inoculated and reisolated A. amazonense, B. megaterium and the contaminant colonies with the pure cultures indicated that the isolates were able to establish in the rice rhizosphere with the resultant enhancement of plant growth and yield.

 

Keywords: rice, Azospirillum, PSB, protein profile, antibiotic resistance profile

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 2(2), April 2003, pp.251-258

 

Salt stress Induced Changes on Enzyme Activities during Different Developmental Stages of Rice (Oryza sativa Linn.)

T S Swapna*

Post Graduate Department of Botany, Sree Narayana College, University of Kerala, S N Puram, Alappuzha 688 582, India

 

Received 10 June 2002; accepted 13 August 2002

 

 

The effect of NaCl stress was studied in four rice varieties, ‘Pokkali’- (salt tolerant variety), ‘MI 48’, ‘Annapoorna’ and ‘Jyothi’- (salt sensitive varieties). The enzymes-esterase, isocitric dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase were studied in different developmental stages such as embryo, 14-day-old seedling, tillering and flowering stage, and in undifferentiated embryo derived callus, before and after giving NaCl stress (100 mM). Esterase activity was found to be higher in embryo stage and isocitric dehydrogenase activity was higher in callus, but the stress caused a reduction in activity of these two enzymes during other developmental stages. An increase in activity of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase was also observed during the different developmental stages under stress. There was a fluctuation in catalase activity under NaCl stress during the different developmental stages in all the varieties. Variety specific and developmental stage specific variation was found in activity of all the enzymes studied and can be reflected in metabolic processes which, when well-defined can serve as markers for salt tolerance.

 

Keywords: rice, salt tolerance, esterase, isocitric dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 2(2), April 2003, pp.259-263

 

Decolourization and Biodegradation of Reactive Azo Dyes by
Mixed Culture

P P Vijaya, P Padmavathy and S Sandhya*

National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, CSIR Complex, Chennai 600 113, India

 

Received 3 October 2001; accepted 6 July 2002

 

 

Synthetic dyes, azo dye in particular, are widely found in the effluents from textile industries. The persistence and toxicity of these compounds cause adverse impact in the receiving streams. A mixture of isolated cultures, from domestic sewage treatment plant was found to decolourize reactive azo dyes, Red RB, Blue M2B and Yellow, efficiently in the absence of added external nitrogen source. After shaking incubation for 48 hrs, mixture of cultures removed these dyes and decolourization was 95% for Red RB and Blue M2B and 50% for Yellow. The mixed culture could degrade 500 mg/l Red RB efficiently with the release of 84.9 mg/l of ammonia. There was also degradation of 100 mg/l of Blue M2B and 50 mg/l of Yellow dyes but the release of ammonia was not observed in Blue M2B and Yellow. Decolourization was remarkably enhanced when peptone was used in the medium. Azoreductase activity was high in the presence of reactive azo dyes and the enzyme could decolourize the reactive dyes much faster when decolourization was studied as cell free extract in the presence of individual dyes.

 

Keywords: azoreductase, azo dyes, decolourization, biodegradation

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 2(2), April 2003, pp.264-267

 

Synthesis of (+) Catechin Penta-acetate by Callus Culture of Himalayan Yew, Taxus wallichiana Zucc.

Shipra Agrawal1, Suchitra Banerjee1, Sunil K Chattopadhyay1, K V Shashidhar1,

Shiv Kumar Gupta1 and Sushil Kumar2*

1Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow 226 015, India

2National Centre for Plant Genome Research, Post Box 10531, JNU Campus, New Delhi 110 067, India

 

Received 11 March 2002; accepted 1 October 2002

 

 

Calli were produced by culturing leaf, stembark, heartwood, root, seed and apical shoot tip explants of Taxus wallichiana from West Bengal Himalayan region. The explants were cultured in dark on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3 mg/ml Picloram (4-amino-3, 5, 6-tripicholinic acid), 2 mg/ml 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) and 0.25 mg/ml Kinetin. The calli were sub-cultured at every 5-10 weeks interval to maintain the callus lines under similar conditions. A fast growing callus line Tws-179 was selected to study the growth kinetics and chemical constituents. This callus line grew logarithmically (G.I.= 9.28) after an initial lag period of three weeks till it attained the stationary phase in about 8 weeks of culture. During its log phase, the callus line produced (+) catechin at a level of 0.002% of fresh callus weight and the acetylated form (+) catechin penta-acetate at 0.05% level. Chemical examination of in vivo organs revealed that only (+) catechin at 0.175% was present in the stembark, while neither (+) catachin nor (+) catachin penta acetate were found in detectable limits in other organs of T. wallichiana.

 

Keywords: Taxus wallichiana, callus culture, (+) catechin, (+) catechin penta-acetate, O-acetyl CoA transferase

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 2(2), April 2003, pp.268-270

 

Characterization of Mosquito Larvicidal Bacillus thuringiensis Isolated from Soils of India

Banani Sur1*, Nitu Nigam2, A K Joshi1 and Vinod Bihari1

1Fermentation Technology Division,

Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 001, India

2Medical Genetics, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute, Lucknow 226 014, India

 

Received 4 February 2002; accepted 14 August 2002

 

 

It has been established now that insects are acquiring resistance to commercial products of Bacillus thuringiensis. So there is a continuous search for bacteria producing new toxins. With this in view, an insecticidal B. thuringiensis was isolated from soil sample obtained from the vicinity of a penicillin factory in Vadodara, India. The isolate belongs to serotype H-14. Phenotypic characters of the isolate were identical to standard B. thuringiensis var. israelensis IPS-82. It was found to possess good larvicidal activity against Anopheles stephensi and Culex pipiens and exhibited high resistance for penicillin (500 mg/ml). The electrophoretic protein profiles of purified crystals with standard B. thuringiensis (IPS-82) were studied. The isolate apparently showed the same protein profile as that of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis. Soil with natural selective pressure of antibiotic penicillin thus appears to be a good ecological niche for the isolation of B. thuringiensis.

 

Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis, bioinsecticide, ecological niche, parasporal inclusion, serotype

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 2(2), April 2003, pp.271-272

 

Enhancement of Opium Alkaloids Production in Callus Culture of Papaver rhoeas Linn.

Renu Sarin*

Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004, India

 

Received 29 May 2002; accepted 12 August 2002

 

 

Callus culture of Papaver rhoeas Linn. established on revised tobacco medium showed presence of three opium alkaloids namely morphine, thebaine and narcotine. The colour of the tissue varied from light grey, dark grey and finally black depending on the age of the tissue. The high yielding cell lines of dark grey color were isolated and maintained as suspension culture on revised Murashige and Skoog's (1962) medium. These high yielding tissues were fed with different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/100 ml) of tyrosine, a known precursor of opium alkaloids in order to further increase the alkaloid content of the tissue. The dark grey tissues grown on RT liquid medium supplemented with 12. 5 mg/100 ml tyrosine yielded maximum percentage of alkaloids and therefore this concentration of tyrosine is considered as the most suitable condition for the enhancement of alkaloids in Papaver rhoeas tissue culture.

 

Keywords: Papaver rhoeas, alkaloids, tyrosine, high-yielding cell lines

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 2(2), April 2003, pp.273-274

 

Organogenesis in Panicum sumatrence Roth ex Roem. & Schult (Little Millet)

K Vasanth and N Jayabalan*

Plant Biotechnology Unit, Department of Plant Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, India

 

Received 1 April 2002; accepted 31 December 2002

 

 

Multiple shoots were produced in MS medium supplemented with BAP (1.333 mM), KIN (0.928 mM) , glutamine (342.2 mM) and glycine (6.665 mM). Addition of GA3 increased the shoot length. The optimum rooting of shoots was observed in MS medium containing NAA (1.611 mM). The hardened plantlets showed 85% survival.

Keyword: Organogenesis, Panicum sumatrence

 

 

 

 

 

 

AUTHOR INDEX

 

Adak S                                    159

Agrawal S                               264

Asthana N                              184

Azmi W                                  184

Banerjee S                               264

Bhatia V                          203,214

Bhushan S                              220

Bihari V                                  268

Chainy G B N                        195

Chattopadhyay S K               264

 Dandapat J                             195

Gayathri P                              236

Gupta A K                      204,214

 Gupta S K                              264

 

 Jayabalan N                            273

Joshi A K                               268

Joshi V K                               220

 

Kannan V                               240

Khan M R                              246

Kumar S                                 264

 

Misra K                                  175

Mishra S                                 175

 

Nainawatee H S                      203

Nigam N                                 268

 

Padmavathy P                        259

Pandey A                               175

 

Raju P N                                 240

Rao K J                                  195

Roy U                                    236


Saha S K                                 236

Sandhya S                               259

Sarin R                                    271

Savitri                                     184

Shashidhar K V                      264

Sinha P R                                227

Sood S K                                227

Srivastava R C                        236

Sur B                                      268

Swapna T S                            251

 

 

Talukdar N C                         246

Thakuria D                             246

 

 Vasanth K                              273

Vijaya P P                              259