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Indian Journal of Biotechnology

 

 

ISSN:0972-5849

 

CODEN:IJBNAR 3(4) 465-626 (2004)

VOLUME 3

NUMBER 4

OCTOBER 2004

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Reviews

 

Influence of protein structural similarities in adding value to genome data

473

B Anand, S Namboori, S Sandhya & N Srinivasan

 

 

 

Earthworms and vermicomposting

486

S Gajalakshmi & S A Abbasi

 

 

 

Successful in situ oil bioremediation programmes¾Key parameters

495

Sheeja Jagadevan & Suparna Mukherji

 

 

 

Transgenic diazotrophs: Indian perspective

502

M N Jha & S K Misra

 

 

 

Papers

 

Evaluation of long primers for AP-PCR analysis of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]: Genetic relationships and fingerprinting of some genotypes

 

511

Ajay Saini, Sreenivasulu K Reddy & Narendra Jawali

 

 

 

Identification of microsatellite markers for differentiating some Basmati and non-Basmati rice varieties

 

519

Surender Pal, Sunita Jain, Navinder Saini, Aarti & Rajinder K Jain

 

Genetic analysis of Morus alba through RAPD and ISSR markers

Prem P Srivastava, Kunjupillai Vijayan, Aravind K Awasthi & Beera Saratchandra

527 

 

Isolation and characterization of mRNAs differentially expressed during ripening of mango fruits

G V S Saiprasad, Lalitha Anand, K V Ravishankar, J B Mythili, M Nagesh & R Joshi

533

Antigenic and biological diversity among sugarcane mosaic isolates from different geographical regions in India

 

538

G P Rao, Maneesha Singh, R K Gaur & R K Jain

 

 

 

Rapid diagnosis of sugarcane red rot by Dot-immunobinding assay (DIBA) technique

Lingayya Hiremath & G R Naik

542

Genetic characterization of newly developed mutant hairless mice “HRCDRI

B Maity & P Y Guru

546

Production of extracellular pectinolytic, cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes by  thermophilic mould Sporotrichum thermophile Apinis in solid state fermentation

 

552

Guneet Kaur & T Satyanarayana

 

 

 

Isolation and characterization of alkaline phosphatase of Saccharopolyspora erythraea from fermentation broth of erythromycin production

 

558

Subhasree Bhattacharjee, Ananta K Das & Sunil K Mandal

 

 

Bacillus sp. APR-4 protease as a laundry additive

563

D Kumar & T C Bhalla

 

 

 

Stable degradation of catechol by Pseudomonas sp. strain NGK1 encapsulated in alginate and polyurethane foam

 

568

 Neelakanteshwar K Patil, U Sharanagouda, Javed H Niazi & T B Karegoudar

 

 

 

Apple juice clarification using fungal pectinolytic enzyme and gelatin

573

Sandeep Singh & Reena Gupta

 

 

 

Role of lignocellulosic enzymes during basidiomata production by Pleurotus djamor var. roseus

 

577

K Periasamy & K Natarajan

 

 

 

Rapid in vitro regeneration of Gerbera jamesonii (H. Bolus ex Hook. f.) from different explants

 

584

Purnima Tyagi & S L Kothari

 

 

Factors influencing initiation of embryogenic cultures in Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gord.

589

 Chitta Ranjan Deb & Pramod Tandon

 

       

 

Rapid regeneration of Mentha piperita L. from shoot tip and nodal explants

594

Kiran Ghanti, C P Kaviraj, R B Venugopal, F T Z Jabeen & Srinath Rao

 

       

 

Conformational analysis of cytidine with cobaloximes

599

 J V Madhuri & S Satyanarayana

 

       

 

Short Communications

 

 

 

Detection and molecular characterisation of waterborne pathogenic Escherichia coli using multiplex PCR

 

603

Sabu Thomas, K Hari Krishnan, Manoj Narayanan & Sandhya C Nair

 

 

 

Immobilization of yeast invertase by gel entrapment

606

 K Meena & T K Raja

 

 

 

Book Reviews

609

 

 

List of Referees

611

 

 

Annual Author Index

615

 

 

Annual Subject Index

617

 

 

Annual IPC Code Index

621

 

 

Instructions to Contributors

623

Author Index

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 3, October 2004, pp 473-485

 

Influence of protein structural similarities in adding value to genome data

B Anand, S Namboori, S Sandhya and N Srinivasan*

 

One of the central problems in post-genomic era is the understanding of function of myriad of putative gene products suggested by the genome sequencing projects. Computational approaches aimed at establishing the relationships between proteins, purely on the basis of their amino acid sequences, provide a rapid and useful first step. Sequence analysis methods, which use evolutionary information on protein families perform well in terms of detecting remote homologues. Use of three-dimensional (3-D) structures provides a further edge in detecting distantly related proteins as 3-D structures are conserved better than the amino acid sequences. Also, in many cases, similarity in the fold of proteins corresponds to gross similarity in functions. Hence, knowledge of 3-D structures has profound influence in identifying the functions of newly discovered gene products. This review covers recent developments in this area of homology detection and its influence in computational genomics.

 

Keywords: database searching, homology detection, protein evolution, protein structures, sequence analysis

 IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 G 01 N 33/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

 Vol 3, October 2004, pp 486-494

 

Earthworms and vermicomposting

S Gajalakshmi and S A Abbasi*

 

A review is presented summarizing the global state-of-the-art, including the gist of the studies conducted by the authors, on vermicomposting. Studies on the impact of vermicast on plant growth are also reviewed. The paper brings out the suitability or otherwise of different species of earthworms to ‘bioprocess’ different types of organic waste. The paper also presents the gist of the studies–which are surprisingly few and far between–on the impact on plant growth of vermicasts produced in reactors fed with aquatic weeds or agrowaste.

 

Keywords: earthworms, vermicomposting, Eudrilus eugeniae, Perionyx excavatus, Lampito mauritii, Drawida willsi

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C 05 F 3/00, 9/04 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

 Vol 3, October 2004, pp 495-501

 

Successful in situ oil bioremediation programmes¾Key parameters

Sheeja Jagadevan1* and Suparna Mukherji2

 

Naturally occurring microbial consortia have been utilized in a variety of bioremediation processes. One important characteristic of bioremediation is that it is carried out in non-sterile open environments, which contain a host of microorganisms. Successful in situ bioremediation strategy should be tailored in such a manner that due consideration be given to the various environmental constraints (salinity, nutrient availability, anaerobic degradation, bioavailability considerations) that affect a particular location.

 

Keywords: bioremediation, microorganisms, hydrocarbons, salinity, bioavailability

 IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C 02 F 3/34

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

 Vol 3, October 2004, pp 502-510

 

Transgenic diazotrophs: Indian perspective

M N Jha* and S K Misra

 

One of the major objectives of direct agronomic importance is either to engineer a microbe having better nitrogen fixation rate and efficiency or to extend the symbiotic nitrogen fixation process to non-nodulated plants, especially cereals. This could be achieved either by increasing the number of nif genes or by making nitrogenase specific to only N2 molecule. Introduction of hup gene in symbiont and increasing the number of hetR gene in an asymbiont cyanobacteria may improve the nitrogen fixing potential. Search for a better nitrogen fixer would be another ideal approach to achieve the goal. A number of researchers have described the induction of ‘nodule like’ structure in cereals, systemic distribution of some diazotrophs in grasses and incorporation of cyanobacteria into higher plant protoplast or midrib air space. Such developments suggest the possibility of creating artificial symbiosis. However, at present we can say “In theory any plant–and at the moment no plant whatever! The authors briefly review this research and discuss the strategies associated with better bionitrogen availability to cereals.

 

Keywords : transgenic, diazotroph, cyanobacteria, nif gene, artificial symbiosis

 IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C 12 N 15/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

 Vol 3, October 2004, pp 511-518

 

Evaluation of long primers for AP-PCR analysis of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]: Genetic relationships and fingerprinting of some genotypes

Ajay Saini1, Sreenivasulu K Reddy2 and Narendra Jawali1*

 

There are a number of applications of molecular markers in agriculture such as assessing genetic diversity, generating DNA fingerprints and developing markers linked to a trait of interest, etc. Arbitrarily Primed-Polymerase Chain Reaction (AP-PCR) in which template DNA is amplified using single arbitrary primers of 10 base in length is a widely used technique. The objectives of this investigation were: (a) to compare efficiency of long primers (ranging from 18 to 22 base in length) and 10 base primers in detecting RAPDs in mungbean and (b) to evaluate some selected long primers for their ability to discriminate 46 mungbean genotypes and to study the genetic relationships among them. Both the groups of primers were evaluated for the total number of discrete and detectable amplified fragments and polymorphic bands detected between two mungbean genotypes. The long primers yielded significantly higher number of discrete and detectable bands as well as polymorphic bands than 10 base primers. A set of eight long primers was used for AP-PCR analysis of 46 mungbean genotypes. A total of 173 fragments were amplified of which 39.08 % were polymorphic. AP-PCR profiles from only three primers were sufficient to differentiate all the genotypes. A high degree of genetic variation was observed among different genotypes, whereas, those originating from the same source were highly related. The results show that long primers can be used for efficiently analysing genetic diversity and the relationships in a large mungbean germplasm collection.

 

Keywords: AP-PCR, genetic similarity, long primers, mungbean, RAPD, Vigna radiata

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C 12 N 15/10 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

 Vol 3, October 2004, pp 519-526

 

Identification of microsatellite markers for differentiating some Basmati and non-Basmati rice varieties

Surender Pal1, Sunita Jain2, Navinder Saini1, Aarti1 and Rajinder K Jain1*

 

Microsatellite marker (SSR) analysis was used to differentiate premium traditional Basmati rice varieties from other cheaper cross-bred Basmati/long-grain rice varieties and monitor the cases of adulteration in milled rice samples. Thirteen rice cultivars (4 commercial traditional Basmati, 6 cross-bred Basmati and 3 non-Basmati varieties) were evaluated for allelic diversity using 35 SSR markers. A total of 123 alleles (79-345 bp) were detected; 25 of these were present in Basmati rice varieties only. Polymorphism information content (PIC) value, which is indicative of level of polymorphism, varied from 0.0 (RM167) to 0.858 (RM252), with an average value of 0.447. SSR analysis generated polymorphism sufficient to differentiate all the 13 rice genotypes. Of the 35 markers, 16 showed amplification of a different allele in one or more of the traditional/cross-bred Basmati rice varieties than in IR36 (indica) and Azucena (japonica). Some SSRs (RM60, RM84, RM252, RM171, and RM257) were found unique among the closely related traditional Basmati rice varieties. Traditional Basmati rice varieties could be differentiated from one or more of the cross-bred Basmati rice varieties by allelic polymorphism at 27 of the 35 SSR loci; the most useful markers being RM171, RM1, RM44, RM110, RM229, RM234, RM242, and RM255. Rice varieties were clustered in three groups (indica, japonica, Basmati groups), which correspond well to their known pedigree data. This paper provides effective means to the Basmati traders for varietal differentiation and monitoring adulteration cases using milled rice samples.

 

Keywords: Oryza sativa, Basmati, genetic diversity, microsatellite markers, SSR, varietal differentiation

 IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C 12 N 15/10

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

 Vol 3, October 2004, pp 527-532

 

Genetic analysis of Morus alba through RAPD and ISSR markers

Prem P Srivastava*, Kunjupillai Vijayan, Aravind K Awasthi and Beera Saratchandra

 

Information on the genetic identity and interrelationships of different Morus spp. genotypes is essential for their proper conservation and utilization. Hence, the present investigation was undertaken with genetically more reliable DNA markers to study the genetic relationship among eleven selected genotypes of mulberry collected from Japan, India and Italy. Using ten RAPD and ten ISSR primers, 60.75% and 74.13 % of DNA polymorphism could be detected among these genotypes. The genetic similarity among the genotypes varied from 0.73 to 0.89 when pooled data from ISSR and RAPD were used for UPGMA analysis. The phenogram obtained from the whole data set by using UPGMA, grouped all the genotypes into two distinct clusters. In one cluster all the genotypes from India and China were grouped while the other group comprised of the Japanese, Italian and the single genotype from Philippines. Though, the distinct grouping of Japanese genotypes with the Indian ones offers a possibility of utilising them in genetic improvement of M. alba genotypes of India.

 

Keywords: Morus alba, RAPD, ISSR, genetic similarity

 IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C 12 N 15/10

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

 Vol 3, October 2004, pp 533-537

 

Isolation and characterization of mRNAs differentially expressed
during ripening of mango fruits

G V S Saiprasad, Lalitha Anand*, K V Ravishankar, J B Mythili, M Nagesh and R Joshi

 

Mango, an important climacteric fruit crop with low shelf life, requires technologies to increase shelf life to reduce post harvest losses. During ripening of mango, the authors isolated five ripening related cDNAs from two mango varieties, Alphonso and Totapuri, using RT-PCR technique. The predicted polypeptides of five of these clones exhibit similarity to database protein sequences of PRL-1 protein, transcription initiation factor, CCR-4 protein, 18S ribosomal RNA gene and 23S ribosomal RNA gene. None of these proteins appear to be directly related to events generally associated with ripening such as cell wall metabolism or the accumulation of sugars and pigments or ethylene biosynthetic pathway. They are the regulatory elements/signals known to be involved during fruit ripening and may, therefore, be involved in regulating the expression of other genes directly associated with fruit ripening. The probable role of these proteins in mango fruit ripening needs to be elucidated further.

 

Keywords: CCR-4, PRL-1, transcription factor, rRNA, RT-PCR

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C 12 N 15/10 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

 Vol 3, October 2004, pp 538-541

 

Antigenic and biological diversity among sugarcane mosaic isolates
from different geographical regions in India

G P Rao1*, Maneesha Singh3, R K Gaur3 and R K Jain2

 

A recently characterized sugarcane mosaic virus isolate (SCM-UP) from eastern Uttar Pradesh, India was found antigenically similar to sugarcane mosaic virus isolates of West Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. The results were confirmed either by DAC-ELISA, EBIA, DIBA and ISEM together or by any of these serological tests. The SCM-UP isolate reacted with AP isolate of sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV-AP, antiserum), a member of Tritimovirus and a proposed genus in the family Potyviridae, which is recently reported from South India in ISEM test. Hence, it was concluded that sugarcane mosaic disease in India, observed on many varieties of sugarcane, is caused by pathotype of sugarcane mosaic virus which is antigenically similar to other virus isolates causing sugarcane mosaic disease all over India. These virus isolates showed more or less similar biological reactions on sorghum, sugarcane and Johnsongrass.

 

Keywords: sugarcane mosaic virus, isolates, serology diversity, biological diversity

 IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 G 01 N 33/53

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

 Vol 3, October 2004, pp 542-545

 

Rapid diagnosis of sugarcane red rot by Dot-immunobinding
assay (DIBA) technique

Lingayya Hiremath and G R Naik *

 

A high sugar and early maturing, sugarcane var. CoC.671 has been found susceptible to red rot disease caused by Colletotrichum falcatum Went. However, during early stages in the field, diagnosis of the disease is very difficult. Therefore, a protocol for rapid diagnosis of sugarcane red rot infection by using DIBA technique is described in the present paper. Antigenic proteins of C. falcatum were SDS-PAGE separated on 12% gel, whereas DIBA was performed on nitrocellulose membrane. A series of dilutions of infected test samples depicted dark blue precipitate on the nitrocellulose membrane due to the antigen and antibody reaction. This indicated the presence of red rot antigen in the test sample and hence the disease. The DIBA described in this study is simple, rapid and specific for laboratory diagnosis of sugar cane (var. CoC.671) red rot infection in the planting material at an early growth stage.

 

Keywords: Colletotrichum falcatum, DIBA, red rot, SDS-PAGE, sugarcane

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 G 01 N 33/53 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

 Vol 3, October 2004, pp 546-551

 

Genetic characterization of newly developed mutant hairless mice “HRCDRI

B Maity* and P Y Guru

 

Newly developed mutant hairless mice and two outbred mouse strains (Park and Swiss) were examined at 16 loci encoding proteins and enzymes in cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Genetic variation as per cent polymorphism (P%=43.7), observed heterozygosity (Hob=0.02±0.071), expected heterozygosity (HE=0.175±0.229) and even genetic distance values (D=0.1348 in hairless Vs Swiss; D=0.1688 in hairless Vs Park and D=0.0686 in Swiss Vs Park) were found completely different in hairless strain. Seven protein biochemical markers loci (Akp-I, Car-I, Ce-2, Es-3, Idh-I, Mod-I and Pep-3) were polymorphic in hairless mice. Rest of the loci including locus Es-10 on chromosome no. 14, which is responsible for hr/hr locus (hairless, recessive) mutation for HRS/J strain were found monomorphic and also similar to that of HRS/J strain. Hence, present outbred strain may be designated as “HRcdri” which can be developed as a first inbred line of hairless mice like HRS/J strain in India. A detailed study of mtDNA/microsatellite marker sequencing could lend more support to this study.

 

Keywords: hairless mice, Mus musculus, allozyme variation, cellulose acetate, electrophoresis

 IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A 01 K 67/027; C 12 N 15/52

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

 Vol 3, October 2004, pp 552-557

 

Production of extracellular pectinolytic, cellulolytic and xylanoytic enzymes by thermophilic mould Sporotrichum thermophile Apinis in solid state fermentation

Guneet Kaur and T Satyanarayana*

 

Among four thermophilic moulds, Sporotrichum thermophile produced high titres of xylanases, pectinases and cellulases after 4 days of incubation in solid-state fermentation (SSF). Of the 27 different combinations of agro-residues tried, wheat bran (WB) and citrus pectin (CP) in 1:1 ratio supported a very high production of enzymes. When the mixed substrate at pH 7.0 was moistened with tap water (1:2.5 ratio) to aw of 0.95 and inoculated with 60 ´ 107 conidiospores (from 5 day-old culture) 10-1 g of substrate, S. thermophile secreted maximum enzyme titres (xylanase 1900, pectinase 250 and cellulase 42 Ug-1 dry mouldy bran in 4 days at 45°C. The mixture of enzymes has been found useful in the treatment of fruit pulps for enhanced juice recovery.

 

Keywords: citrus pectin, cellulase, pectinase, Sporotrichum thermophile, SSF, thermostable, wheat bran, xylanase

 IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A 01 N 63/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 3, October 2004, pp 558-562

 

Isolation and characterization of alkaline phosphatase of Saccharopolyspora erythraea from fermentation broth of erythromycin production

Subhasree Bhattacharjee, Ananta K Das and Sunil K Mandal*

 

Alkaline phosphatase having two pH optima (8.4 and 9.2) was excreted in substantial amount by Saccharopolyspora erythraea during erythromycin production and was precipitated from the broth with 60 - 80 % final saturation of ammonium sulphate. PAS and silver nitrate staining of SDS-gel electrophoresis depicted eight distinct bands of glycoproteins in the precipitate. Buffer A (pH 8.4) eluted the glycoproteins from native gels and showed four bands of phosphatase with optimum activity at pH 8.4 and four at pH 9.2. After three successive native gel electrophoreses and elutions, four isomers of pH 8.4 were isolated with Buffer A and four of pH 9.2 with Buffer B (pH 9.2). The eight isoenzymes of alkaline phosphatase were purified more than 20-folds and were characterized as glycoproteins of different molecular weights, turnover numbers and extensive sugar percentages in their molecules.

 

Keywords:   alkaline phosphatase, glycoprotein, native gel electrophoresis, PAS-staining, SDS-PAGE, Saccharopolyspora erythraea

 IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A 01 N 63/04

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

 Vol 3, October 2004, pp 563-567

 

Bacillus sp. APR-4 protease as a laundry additive

D Kumar and T C Bhalla*

 

A protease from a new isolate of Bacillus sp. APR-4 with optimum activity at pH 9.0 and 65-70°C was found stable in 5% detergents (Farishta®, Fena®) at 50°C and also in 500 mg/l of sodium hypochlorite. It retained 78% activity even after 24 hrs of incubation with detergents (Farishta®, Fena®) at 30°C. The protein stains (egg yolk) were removed within 10 min from test fabric (cotton) in 100 U/ml enzyme at pH 9.0 with 1% detergent (Farishta®) and it took 30 min to remove blood stains with 100 U/ml enzyme only.

 

Keywords: Bacillus sp. APR-4, alkaline protease, detergent compatibility, stain removal

 IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A 01 N 63/00; C 11 D 1/32; C 12 S

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 3, October 2004, pp 568-572

 

Stable degradation of catechol by Pseudomonas sp. strain NGK1 encapsulated in alginate and polyurethane foam

Neelakanteshwar K Patil, U Sharanagouda, Javed H Niazi and T B Karegoudar*

 

Catechol is a terminal metabolite formed during the degradative pathways of various aromatic compounds, generally pollutants. Pseudomonas sp. strain NGK1 (NCIM 5120), a soil microbe, is capable of utilizing catechol as the carbon and energy source. This bacterium was encapsulated in alginate and polyurethane foam (PUF). The degradation rate of 20 and 40 mM of catechol in shaken batch cultures, repeated batch cultures, and continuous degradation in a packed bed reactor by free cells was compared with the degradation rate by alginate-and PUF-immobilized cells. The degradation for 72 hrs incubation in batch cultures was: free cells, 6 and 4; alginate-encapsulated cells, 15 and 18; and PUF-encapsulated cells, 18 and 30 mM catechol. Further, the alginate- and PUF-encapsulated cells were used in repeated batch degradation of catechol. Alginate- and PUF-encapsulated cells were found more efficient for the degradation than free cells. Continuous degradation in a packed bed reactor was also investigated. The efficiency of both the immobilized systems for the degradation of catechol was examined.

 

Keywords: immobilization, degradation, catechol, alginate, polyurethane foam, Pseudomonas sp. strain NGK1

 IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C 08 B 37/04; C 08 G 71/04

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 3, October 2004, pp 573-576

 

Apple juice clarification using fungal pectinolytic enzyme and gelatin

Sandeep Singh and Reena Gupta*

 

Clarity in fruit juices, particularly from apples and grapes, is desirable to maintain aesthetically pleasing quality and international standards. For this mainly fungal pectinases are used in industrial processes. In present study, effect of gelatin on efficacy of a fungal pectinolytic enzyme preparation from Aspergillus niger van Tieghem was analyzed for clarification of a commercial apple juice (himcu, sweetened apple juice, Deptartment of Horticulture, Govt of Himachal Pradesh). Juice containing both gelatin and enzyme was about 1.5- to 2-times more clarified in same time of incubation as compared to that containing enzyme alone. The most effective clarification (%T650, 85%; p<0.001) was achieved with 15 IU/ml of enzyme preparation, in presence of 0.01% gelatin, at 45°C in 6 hrs of holding time. Juice treatment, scaled-up to 200-times, resulted in about 143% more transmittance as compared to control. On complete clarification, a viscosity drop of 35.5% was observed in the juice. The clarified juice stored at room temperature (~25°C) did not show any significant haze development after two months of storage.

 

Keywords: apple juice, clarification, gelatin, pectinase

 IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A 23 L 1/09; A 01 N 1/054, 1/0562, 63/04

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

 Vol 3, October 2004, pp 577-583

 

Role of lignocellulosic enzymes during basidiomata production
by Pleurotus djamor var. roseus

K Periasamy* and K Natarajan

 

The mushroom mycelium is able to grow on a wide spectrum of lignocellulosic waste materials, which can be attributed to its ability to secrete a range of degradatory enzymes both saccharifying (cellulases, hemicellulases and xylanases) and oxidative (LiP, MnP and laccases). The degraded products are used as their energy source to produce protein rich edible biomass. The changes in extracellular enzyme activities of laccases are directly correlated with growth and fruit body formation. The present investigation deals with the potentiality of the enzymatic activity during fructification of the pink coloured oyster mushroom, Pleurotus djamor (Fr.) Boedijn var. roseus Corner.

 

Keywords: Pleurotus djamor var. roseus, lignocellulosic wastes, enzymatic degradation, cellulase, lignin peroxidase, laccases

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A 01 G 1/04; A 01 N 63/04 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

 Vol 3, October 2004, pp 584-588

 

Rapid in vitro regeneration of Gerbera jamesonii
(H. Bolus ex Hook. f.) from different explants

Purnima Tyagi and S L Kothari*

 

Rapid in vitro multiplication of shoots has been described using capitular sections and leaf explants in Gerbera jamesonii. Three types of basal media regimes were used including MS and two of its modified forms¾MSI and MSA. Shoot induction was achieved on all three regimes but MSI medium supplemented with Kn (4 mg/l) and IAA (0.5 mg/l) was ideal for shoot bud initiation (8-11) from capitular sections and Kn (4 mg/l) and IAA (0.1 mg/l) from leaves (5-8 shoot buds). MSI medium with 2 mg/l Kn+0.5 mg/l PAA was used for rapid multiplication of organogenic callus; 20-25 shoot buds developed from this callus. Rooting of in vitro shoots was achieved on MS medium with 0.5 mg/l IAA. Plantlets were transferred to pots where they matured and flowered.

 

Keywords: Gerbera jamesonii, capitulum, leaf, in vitro regeneration

 IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A 01 H 4/00, 5/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 3, October 2004, pp 589-593

 

Factors influencing initiation of embryogenic cultures in Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gord.

Chitta Ranjan Deb1* and Pramod Tandon2

 

Seeds, 5-6 week old, secondary needles and apical domes of Pinus kesiya were collected during January-February, March-June and May-July, respectively. The explants were primed before initiation of culture. The embryogenic cultures were obtained on mMS medium from zygotic embryos (79.6%), dissected out from imbibed seeds (for 24 hrs at 4°C), on MS medium from secondary needles (88.6%) and on ½DCR medium from 0.2-0.5 mm thick pre-cultured (on ½DCR medium, containing 2% sucrose, 0.4% activated charcoal, at 4°C for 72 h) apical dome sections (92.6%). All media were supplemented with 2% sucrose, 1000 mg l-l casein-hydrolysate, 1000 mg l-l myo-inositol and 500 mg l-l l-glutamine, adjusted to pH 5.5. For initiation of embryogenic cultures, 5 mg l-l each of 2,4-D and NAA along with 2.5 mg l-l BAP were incorporated to media for both zygotic embryos and apical dome sections, while 3.0 mg l-l of 2,4-D and NAA each along with 1.0 mg l-l BAP were incorporated for secondary needles. The proembryonal masses and proembryos were developed from embryogenic cultures of zygotic embryos and secondary needles, and cold treated (at 4oC for 24 h) cultures of apical dome sections by culturing them on their basal media containing 1/10th level of growth regulators followed by growth regulator free media. Further, the cotyledonary embryos were formed on their respective basal media containing 4% sucrose and 4 mg l-l ABA.

 

Keywords: activated charcoal treatment, MS medium, Pinus kesiya, seed imbibition period, somatic embryogenesis

 IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A 01 H 4/00, 7/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 3, October 2004, pp 594-598

 

Rapid regeneration of Mentha piperita L. from shoot tip and nodal explants

Kiran Ghanti, C P Kaviraj, R B Venugopal, F T Z Jabeen and Srinath Rao*

 

A high frequency and rapid regeneration protocol was developed from shoot tip and nodal explants of Mentha piperita L. on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with either 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP; 1 mg/l)) or zeatin (0.25 mg/l). The highest number of shoots (49.8) was obtained on medium containing BAP. The regenerated dwarf shoots were further elongated on MS medium supplemented with gibberellic acid (GA3; 1 mg/l). In vitro shoots were then excised from shoot clumps and transferred to rooting medium containing naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 1 mg/l). The rooted plantlets were hardened on MS basal liquid medium and subsequently in polycups containing sterile soil and vermiculite (1:1). Plantlets, thus, developed were successfully established and finally transferred to a greenhouse. The plantlets showed high survival rate (90%) in the soil.

 

Keywords: BAP, GA3, IBA, Mentha piperita, MS medium, NAA, zeatin

 IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A 01 H 4/00, 5/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

 Vol 3, October 2004, pp 599-602

 

Conformational analysis of cytidine with cobaloximes

J V Madhuri and S Satyanarayana*

 

The structure of cytidine bound with alkyl cobaloximes was optimized using molecular mechanics. By means of CONFLEX, an extensive conformational search was undertaken using Bio Med Cache 5.02 software, which generated numerous conformations and finally arrived at the lowest energy conformer. The conformational search is crucial for discovering new drugs where the conformation of the pharmacaphore is important.

 

Keywords: binding, cobaloximes, conformational analysis, conformer, DNA

 IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C 07 C 251/00, C 07 H 19/073 // A 61 K

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol 3, October 2004, pp 603-605

 

 Short Communications

Detection and molecular characterisation of waterborne pathogenic Escherichia coli using multiplex PCR

Sabu Thomas*, K Hari Krishnan, Manoj Narayanan and Sandhya C Nair

 

Specific culture methods were adopted for the isolation of lactose fermenting bacteria from various water sources. MPN study revealed that the drinking water sources in Kottarakara area of Kollam District, Kerala were polluted with faecal coliforms. A multiplex PCR (mPCR) protocol was used for the identification of Escherichia coli strains. In mPCR, only six isolates gave a 224/227 bp fragment of the SLT I/SLT II genes of E. coli. Antibiogram studies showed that all E. coli isolates were resistant to many of the drugs used in the study. However, Carbenicillin, Chloramphenicol and Tetracyclin were sensitive to all the isolates.

 

Keywords: antibiogram, bacteriology, drinking water, plasmid profile, SLT producing E. coli

 IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C 12 N 15/10; C 12 P 29/00, 35/00

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

 Vol 3, October 2004, pp 606-608  

 

Immobilization of yeast invertase by gel entrapment

K Meena and T K Raja*

 

Immobilization of yeast invertase in calcium alginate is well known. The present work describes the feasibility of gel entrapment of yeast invertase using strontium, barium, calcium-strontium, calcium-barium and strontium-barium alginates.

 

Keywords: immobilization, yeast invertase, gel entrapment, alginates

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A 01 N 63/04; C 08 B 37/04

 

Author Index

 

Abbasi S A

486

Joshi R

533

Periasamy K 

577

Anand B

473

 

 

 

 

Anand L

533

Karegoudar T B

568

Rao G P

538

Aarti

519

Kaur G 

552

Rao S

594

Awasthi A K

527

Kaviraj C P

594

Ravishankar K V

533

 

 

Kothari S L

584

Reddy S K

511

Bhalla T C

563

Krishnan K H

603

 

 

Bhattacharjee S

558

Kumar D

563

Sharanagouda U

568

 

 

 

 

Saini A

511

Das A K 

558

Madhuri J V 

599

Saini N 

519

Deb C R

589

Maity B 

546

Saiprasad G V S

552

 

 

Mandal S K

558

Sandhya S

473

Gajalakshmi S

486

Meena K 

606

Saratchandra B

527

Gaur R K

538

Misra S K

502

Satyanarayana S

599

Ghanti K

594

Mukherji S

495

Satyanarayana T

552

Gupta R

573

Mythili J B

533

Singh M

538

Guru P Y

546

 

 

Singh  S

573

 

 

Nagesh M

533

Srinivasan N

473

Hiremath L

542

Naik G R

542

Srivastava P P

527

 

 

Namboori S

473

 

 

Jabeen F T Z

594

Narayanan M 

603

Tandon P

589

Jagadevan S

495

Natarajan K

577

Thomas S

603

Jain Rajinder K

519

Niazi J H 

568

Tyagi P

584

Jain R K

538

Nair S C

603

 

 

Jain S

519

 

 

Venugopal R B

594

Jawali N

511

Pal S

519

Vijayan K

527

Jha M N 

502

Patil N K

568