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Indian Journal of Biotechnology

 

 

 

ISSN:0972-5849

 

CODEN:IJBNAR 4(2) 165 - 298 (2005)

VOLUME 4

NUMBER 2

APRIL 2005

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

 

Reviews

 

Stem cells: The revolution in current medicine

173

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C12N5/22

 

Kaiser Jamil & G Prabhavathy Das 

 

 

 

Biodegradation of polymers

186

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01N63/04; C08C; C08F10/02, 12/08, 18/08, 114/26, 120/56; C08G18/00, 63/00, 64/00, 65/00, 69/00, 69/14, 73/10

 

Premraj R & Mukesh Doble

 

 

 

Papers

 

Mutational scanning of RB1 gene by multiplex PCR

194

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C12N15/07; 15/10

 

Biju Joseph, Komaravelly Siva Narayana, Gandra Mamatha, Gayathree Raman &
Govindasamy Kumaramanickavel

 

 

 

Process analysis in disturbed environment during oscillatory metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

 

201

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C12C11/00; C12R1:865

 

P R Patnaik

 

 

 

Entrapped cyanobacteria: Implications for biotechnology

209

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C08B37/04; C05F11/08; C12N11/04

 

Mayashree B Syiem

 

 

 

A study on accumulation of PHB in native Pseudomonas isolates LDC-5 & LDC-25

216

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C08G63/00; C12N15/10; C12R1:38

 

K Sujatha, A Mahalakshmi & R Shenbagarathai

 

 

 

Lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 2488: Partial purification, characterization and calcium dependent thermostability

 

222  

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01N63/02; C12N9/16, 9/20; C12R1:385

 

Vandana Kukreja & M B Bera

 

 

 

Characterization of β-galactosidase from an Antarctic Bacillus sp.

227

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01N63/02; C12N9/38; C12R1:07

 

Ram Kumar Dhaked, Syed Imteyaz Alam & Lokendra Singh          

 

 

.

Translocation of cytoplasmic b-galactosidase across the inner membranes of Kluyveromyces lactis

 

232

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01N63/02; C12N9/38

 

Vivek D Farkade & Aniruddha B Pandit

 

 

 

Enzymatic hydrolysis of castor oil: An approach for rate enhancement and enzyme economy

 

241

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01N63/04; C12N9/16, 9/20, 15/09

 

Samir R Kulkarni & Aniruddha B Pandit

 

 

 

Bioconversion of Amorphophallus campanulatus to citric acid by Aspergillus niger — Effect of metal ions on fermentation, modelling studies and correlation of theoretical and experimental parameters

 

 

246

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C12P1/02, 7/48; C12R1:685

 

A R Angumeenal & D Venkappayya

 

 

 

Organogenic plant regeneration via callus induction in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)—Role of genotypes, growth regulators and explants

 

251

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01H4/00, 5/00

 

Anju Arora & H S Chawla

 

 

 

Plantlet regeneration via adventitious shoot bud proliferation from leaf explants in Potentilla fulgens Wall ex Hook.—A plant possessing hypoglycemic activity

 

257

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01H4/00, 5/00

 

M A Laskar, J P Lyngdoh, J J Buam & D Syiem

 

 

 

In vitro regeneration and mass multiplication of Psoralea corylifolia—An endangered medicinal plant

 

261

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01H4/00,5/00

 

Mohammad Anis & Mohd Faisal

 

 

 

Micropropagation and ecorestoration of Decalepis arayalpathra (Joseph & Chandra.) Venter—An endemic and endangered ethnomedicinal plant of Western Ghats

 

265

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01H4/00, 5/00

 

A Gangaprasad, S William Decruse, S Seeni & G M Nair

 

 

 

Fungicidal activity of marine actinomycetes against phytopathogenic fungi

271

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C12N1/02,1/04; C12R1:01

 

K Kathiresan, R Balagurunathan & M Masilamani Selvam

 

 

 

Influence of assay medium on degradation of malathion by Serratia marcescens

277

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01N63/02; C12R1:43

 

V Kannan & V Vanitha

 

 

  

Short Communications

 

Differentiation of rabies fixed and street viruses using RT-PCR coupled with restriction endonuclease analysis

284

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C12N15/10, 15/47; C12R1:93

 

Praveen K Gupta, V K Chaturvedi, P C Verma & K D Pandey

 

 

PCR-RFLP based genotyping of cattle using DNA extracted from hair samples

287

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C12N15/06, 15/10

 

Pushpendra Kumar, V Choudhary, T K Bhattacharya, B Bhushan & Arjava Sharma

 

 

 

Production and effect of killer toxin by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia kluyveri on sensitive yeasts and fungal pathogens

 

290

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01N63/04; C12R1:865,1:84

 

Madhusudan P Dabhole & K N Joishy

 

 

 

Extracellular lipases from anaerobic microorganisms of Antarctic

293

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01N63/02; C12N9/16, 9/20

 

Pramod W Ramteke, Babu Joseph & M Kuddus

 

 

 

Instructions to Contributors

295

 

 


 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol. 4, April 2005, pp. 173-185

 

Stem cells: The revolution in current medicine

Kaiser Jamil* and G Prabhavathy Das

 

Biological science is being bombarded with problems of HIV, cancers, thousands of genetic disorders, obesity, diabetes, microbial infections, biological warfare, SARS and degenerative organ diseases of the lung, liver, kidney and heart. A big question today is the promise of stem cells. Will stem cells one day be good enough to save the sinking Noah’s Ark of human health? This review attempts to give an overview of stem cells and the scientific factors revolving around it.

 

Keywords: adult stem cells (ASCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), hemopoietic stem cells (HESCs), stem cell markers, pluripotency, plasticity

 

IPC Code: C12N5/22

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol. 4, April 2005, pp 186-193

 

Biodegradation of polymers

Premraj R and Mukesh Doble

 

Exhaustive studies on the degradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. Recent work has included studies of the distribution of synthetic polymer-degrading microorganisms in the environment, the isolation of new microorganisms for biodegradation, the discovery of new degra­dation enzymes, and the cloning of genes for synthetic polymer-degrading enzymes. Under ambient conditions, polymers are known to undergo degradation, which results in the deterioration of polymer properties, characterized by change in its molecular weight and other physical properties. In this paper mainly the biodegradation of synthetic polymers such as polyethers, polyesters, polycaprolactones, polylactides, polylactic acid, polyurethane, PVA, nylon, polycarbonate, polyimide, polyacrylamide, polyamide, PTFE and ABS have been reviewed. Pseudomonas species degrade polyethers, polyesters, PVA, polyimides and PUR effectively. No microorganism has been found to degrade polyethylene without additives such as starch. None of the biodegradable techniques has become mature enough to become a technology yet.

Keywords: biodegradation, polymer, biodegradable polymers

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01N63/04; C08C; C08F10/02, 12/08, 18/08, 114/26, 120/56; C08G18/00, 63/00, 64/00, 65/00, 69/00, 69/14, 73/10

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol. 4, April 2005, pp. 194-200

 

  Mutational scanning of RB1 gene by multiplex PCR

Biju Joseph, Komaravelly Siva Narayana, Gandra Mamatha, Gayathree Raman and Govindasamy Kumaramanickavel*

 

Multiplex PCR (mPCR) strategy was applied for mutational screening of the exons of RB1 gene in retinoblastoma patients from India. After ethanol purification, the amplified products were directly cycle-sequenced using fluorescent dNTP (deoxy nucleotide triphosphate) ready reaction mix, followed by sequencing in an ABI PRISM 310 automated sequencer. Eighteen of the 27 exons of RB1 gene were amplified in eight multiplex groups with direct savings of 46% of PCR time and 30% of reagents compared to individual amplifications. Thus, the mPCR strategy for sequencing comparatively offered rapid diagnosis and considerable amount of savings in PCR time and reagents’ cost. The mutation results were used for genetic counselling of the patients and their families.

Keywords: cost analysis, mPCR, mutations, RB1 gene

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C12N15/07; 15/10

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol. 4, April 2005, pp. 201-208

 

Process analysis in disturbed environment during oscillatory metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

P R Patnaik

 

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits sustained oscillations under noise-free controlled conditions in continuous cultures. The regular periodicity of the oscillations and synchrony between different metabolic variables may be described by mathematical models and model-based control. Large bioreactors, however, are prone to disturbances or noise in the feed stream, which may alter the oscillatory behaviour. This aspect has been investigated. Time-dependent Gaussian noise was applied to the substrate feed rate, and it was seen through simulations that while periodicity in the cell mass concentration was lost, other variables were less severely affected. A corollary observation was that the earlier synchrony among different variables, some intra-cellular and some extra-cellular, remained neither complete nor constant, indicating that intra-cellular processes are affected by external disturbances. Thus, deterministic models and control policies based on them may not be suitable in realistic industrial conditions, where intelligent heuristic approaches are more appropriate.

 

Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inflow disturbances, oscillatory metabolism, process analysis.

 

IPC Code: Int.Cl.7: C12C11/00; C12R1:865

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol. 4, April 2005, pp 209-215

  

 Entrapped cyanobacteria: Implications for biotechnology

Mayashree B Syiem*

 

Immobilized cyanobacteria behaved like spores under adverse conditions. Air dried immobilized cyanobacteria stored under open conditions of light, temperature, air and dust of all seasons retained the ability to regenerate active colonies at least for three years. Upon restoration to liquid media, these regenerated cyanobacterial colonies showed growth and nitrogen fixation comparable to their free-living counterparts by second generation. Air-drying shrinked the gel beads to the size of the mustard seeds and hence, a large amount of such beads could be stored in a small space. This opens up the possibility of convenient storage and transportation of desirable cyanobacterial strains for various purposes including using them as inoculum in crop fields and in poor quality soil to increase the fixed nitrogen content.

Keywords: cyanobacteria, Nostoc, immobilization, biofertilizers, nitrogen fixation, inoculum, plant-cyanobacterial associations

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C08B37/04; C05F11/08; C12N11/04

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol. 4, April 2005, pp. 216-221

 

 
A study on accumulation of PHB in native Pseudomonas isolates LDC-5 and LDC-25

K Sujatha, A Mahalakshmi and R Shenbagarathai

 

Poly (b-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) are natural polyesters produced by a variety of bacteria.They are represented most commonly by poly (b-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), an intracellular storage biodegradable polymer material. The production costs of PHB are quite high compared with those of synthetic non-degradable plastics, hence search for potential strains with high PHB accumulating ability. Hundreds of indigenous bacterial strains were screened for the accumulation of PHB by Nile red, fluorescence microscopy (Nile blue A) and PCR. Three degenerate primers were used as PCR primers to detect PHA synthase genes. Among the tested isolates, 35 strains yielded a specific amplicon of 496 bp and 406 bp in colony PCR and seminested PCR, respectively. Among the 35 short chain length positive strains, only 2 isolates yielded a specific amplicon of 540 bp PCR product in medium chain length PCR, representing partial coding sequences of phaC1/phaC2 genes. The mcl-PCR positive Pseudomonas indigenous isolates (LDC-5 and LDC-25) could be potential candidates for bioplastic production.

Keywords: polyhydroxyalkanoate; PHA synthase; colony PCR; seminested PCR; biodegradable plastics, Pseudomonas

 

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C08G63/00; C12N15/10; C12R1:38

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol. 4, April 2005, pp. 222-226

 

 Lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 2488: Partial purification, characterization and calcium dependent thermostability

Vandana Kukreja and M B Bera

 

Psuedomonas aeruginosa MTCC 2488 produced lipase on Rhodamine B agar plates containing olive oil. Extra-cellular lipase activity was analyzed spectrophotometrically using Tween-20 as well as olive oil as substrate. The semipurified enzyme, precipitated by 30% saturated ammonium sulphate, showed 20.79 fold increase in specific activity (U/mg) and reduction in carbohydrate content to 1.7% as compared to the crude enzyme. The enzyme hydrolyzed Tween-20 and -40 better than Tween-60 and -80. Lipase has been found to be thermostable with maximum activity at 55-60oC but marked decrease was observed above this temperature. Ca2+ seemed to play an important role in the thermostability as 97% of enzyme activity was retained after 2 hr incubation at 65oC and 1hr incubation at 70oC in presence of 10 mM CaCl2. However, thermostability of the enzyme was decreased considerably in presence of 5 mM EDTA, confirming the enzyme to be a metalloprotein. Lipase has been found to be stable in presence of 30% acetone, methanol and ethanol. While, the enzyme activity was decreased by 30-50% in presence of n propanol, 2 propanol, n methyl propanol, isooctane and hexane. Further, 30% butanol resulted in ~65% decrease in the enzyme activity. Lipase has been found to be stable in presence of nonionic detergents, whereas anionic detergent, SDS completely inactivated the enzyme.

Keywords: calcium dependent thermostability, lipase, lipase activity, P aeruginosa, Tween-20

 

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01N63/02; C12N9/16, 9/20; C12R1: 385

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol. 4, April 2005, pp. 227-231

 

  Characterization of β-galactosidase from an Antarctic Bacillus sp.

Ram Kumar Dhaked, Syed Imteyaz Alam and Lokendra Singh

 

Antarctica is the coldest continent on the earth and harbours a variety of microorganisms. One of the bacterial isolates from cyanobacterial mats of Schirmacher Oasis, characterized as Bacillus sp. grew at 5-35oC with an optima at 25oC, and produced intracellular cold active b-galactosidase. The maximum activity was recorded at pH 6.8 and 40oC during late stationary phase. At 5oC, the enzyme retained 39.7% activity and at 60oC, became completely inactive within 15 min. The enzyme activity was stimulated by metal ions but was inhibited by ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid. Non-denaturing polyacylamide separation followed by in situ hydrolysis of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-b-galactopyanoside, suggested the presence of isozymes. These properties of b-galactosidase, indicate its potential use in removal of lactose from the milk for lactose intolerant people.

 

Keywords: Bacillus sp., Antarctica, psychrotroph, b-galactosidase, cold-active enzymes

 

IPC Code: Int.Cl.7: A01N63/02; C12N9/38; C12R1:07

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol. 4, April 2005, pp 232-240

 

  

Translocation of cytoplasmic b-galactosidase across the inner membranes of Kluyveromyces lactis

Vivek D Farkade and Aniruddha B Pandit

 

The translocation behaviour of cytoplasmic b-galactosidase to periplasmic space and through the outside cell wall across the inner membranes of Kluveromyces lactis has been investigated to optimize the cell disruption process by ultrasonication for the production and separation of intracellular target biomolecule i.e. b-galactosidase. The translocation of b-galactosidase in the cells was judged by a concept of location factor (LF), which allows the location of the enzymes to be judged within the cell and has been determined using the relative rates of the enzyme and protein during the cell disruption process. The temperature was found to be useful external stimuli for the translocation of target enzyme (LF could be increased to one or more). The LF values were maximum when cells were subjected to heat stress between 45-50°C for a specified time. The enzyme activity was also found to decrease with an increase in the temperature. Maximum enzyme activity was found to be at 45°C of the heat treatment process for translocation. The kinetics of translocation of the target enzyme across the inner membrane has been reported on the basis of the variation in the location LF.

Keywords: translocation, b-galactosidase, Kluyveromyces lactis, location factor, cytoplasm, periplasm

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01N63/02; C12N9/38

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol. 4, April 2005, pp 241-245

 

 

 Enzymatic hydrolysis of castor oil: An approach for rate enhancement and enzyme economy

Samir R Kulkarni and Aniruddha B Pandit

 

Lipase has been used to catalyze the hydrolysis of castor oil. The effect of solvent, temperature, pH and the enzyme concentration on the rate of reaction has been investigated. The rate of reaction could be considerably improved by modifying the reaction protocol with the help of addition of a solvent. The amount of enzyme used for the reaction was found to increase the rate of reaction in a logarithmic relation. By optimizing the enzyme addition protocol, the total amount of enzyme required for the reaction could significantly be reduced.

 

Keywords: castor oil, lipase, enzyme economy, hydrolysis, solvent effect

 

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01N63/04; C12N9/16, 9/20, 15/09

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol. 4, April 2005, pp 246-250

 

 

 Bioconversion of Amorphophallus campanulatus to citric acid by Aspergillus niger–Effect of metal ions on fermentation, modelling studies and correlation of theoretical and experimental parameters

A R Angumeenal and D Venkappayya

 

Amorphothallus campanulatus tuber was used as an efficient substrate for citric acid production by batch fermentation using Aspergillus niger. The amount of citric acid produced was compared with that produced from glucose as substrate. To scale up the bioprocess, transition metal ions such as Cr, Mo, Cd and Pb were added at optimum concentration as nutritional supplements and their effect on the biosynthetic route of the citric acid cycle was observed. Experimentally observed growth stages were used for mathematical modelling to evaluate the kinetic parameters. The calculated values agreed well with the observed ones.

 

Keywords: Amorphophallus campanulatus, Aspergillus niger, citric acid, metal ions, kinetics

 

IPC Code: Int Cl.7 C12P1/02, 7/48; C12R1:685

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

 Vol. 4, April 2005, pp. 251-256

 

 Organogenic plant regeneration via callus induction in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)—Role of genotypes, growth regulators and explants

Anju Arora and H S Chawla

 

Organogenic plant regeneration via callus induction was studied in genotypes Pusa256 and PG186 from four explants, viz. immature embryos, immature cotyledons, mature embryo axes and mature cotyledons, on media containing different combinations and concentrations of growth regulators. Different callusing media containing varying levels of NAA (0.5 to 2 mg/l) with or without BAP (1 mg/l) were tested for callus induction response. Maximum (90%) callusing response was obtained from immature cotyledon explants on medium supplemented with 2 mg/l NAA and 1 mg/l BAP. However, only 64% of induction frequency was obtained from immature embryos on medium containing 2 mg/l NAA. After 8 weeks of induction, the calluses were transferred on different regeneration media containing varying levels of BAP (1 to 3 mg/l) with or without NAA (0.05 mg/l). Multifactorial analysis of the study revealed that calluses, induced from a medium with high callus induction frequency, did not show high shoot induction frequency. Thus, all the factors, viz. explants, genotypes and growth regulators, during callus induction play a significant role in the subsequent high frequency shoot regeneration. In general, calluses induced from embryonic explants on medium with 1.5 mg/l NAA and 1 mg/l BAP showed 17-18% shoot regeneration on a medium containing 1-2 mg/l BAP alone or in combination with 0.05 mg/l NAA.

Keywords: chickpea, organogenic regeneration, callus induction

 

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01H4/00, 5/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol. 4, April 2005, pp 257-260

 

  

Plantlet regeneration via adventitious shoot bud proliferation from leaf explants in Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook.—A plant possessing hypoglycemic activity

M A Laskar, J P Lyngdoh, J J Buam and D Syiem

 

A method for adventitious shoot bud regeneration from leaves of Potentilla fulgens has been developed. Leaves were obtained from plants growing in the natural habitat. Explant browning, a major hurdle in the establishment of cultures, was overcome by treating leaves with a combination of antioxidants (100 mg l-1 ascorbic acid, 100 mg l-1 citric acid and 20 mg
l-1 L-cysteine HCl). Influence of the growth regulators BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and NAA (α-naphthaleneacetic acid) on adventitious bud differentiation and shoot regeneration was observed on modified Murashige and Skoog’s (MMS) agar medium. The most effective treatment was MMS with 0.1 mg l-1 BAP and 0.1 mg l-1 NAA, which gave 80% bud induction frequency with 38.4 BFC (Bud Forming Capacity) index and 48 shoots per explant of 3.5 cm length. Rooting was induced on MS basal medium. The regenerated plants had 70% survival rate.

Keywords: adventitious shoot regeneration, explant browning, Potentilla fulgens

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01H4/00, 5/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol. 4, April 2005, pp. 261-264

 

  

In vitro regeneration and mass multiplication of Psoralea corylifolia—An endangered medicinal plant

 Mohammad Anis and Mohd Faisal

 

An efficient protocol has been developed for plant regeneration from shoot tip and nodal explants of in vitro grown Psoralea corylifolia. Nodal segments were more morphogenic to shoot bud differentiation than shoot tips. Proliferation of shoots was achieved on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various concentrations of BA, Kn, IAA, NAA either singly or in various combinations. The highest shoot regeneration frequency (90%) and number of shoots (12.0 ± 0.57) were obtained from nodal segment on MS medium fortified with 5 µM BA and 0.5 µM NAA. Addition of CH (100 mg/l) to the shoot induction medium enhanced the growth of regenerants. The regenerated shoots rooted best on MS medium containing 0.5 µM IBA. Regenerated plantlets with well-developed shoot and roots were hardened, successfully transferred to soil and maintained in green house. The present in vitro procedure can be used in conservation and mass propagation of this endangered medicinal plant.

Key words: endangered, in vitro plant regeneration, MS medium, Psoralea corylifolia, tissue culture

IPC Code: Int. cl.7 A01H4/00,5/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol. 4, April 2005, pp. 265-270

 

Micropropagation and ecorestoration of Decalepis arayalpathra (Joseph & Chandra.) Venter—An endemic and endangered ethnomedicinal plant of Western Ghats

 A Gangaprasad, S William Decruse, S Seeni and G M Nair

 

Single nodes from young top shoots of Decalepis arayalpathra were cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) agar medium supplemented with 0.1 to 5.0 mg l-1 BAP. All the concentrations of BAP induced single axillary shoot of varying length. However, MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg l-1 BAP supported rapid growth and produced the longest shoots (6.8 cm) in 60 days. For further multiplication, the nodes and shoot tips from in vitro derived shoots were recultured on MS medium fortified with 0.5 mg l-1 BAP, which produced the 8 cm long shoots having 5-7 nodes in 30 days period. Further, the top microshoot cuttings (3-5 cm long) with 2-3 nodes, subcultured onto MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg l-1 IAA, produced an average of 6.3 roots in 30 days period. The rooted plants after hardening were reintroduced into their natural habitat at Kallar reserve forest, Thiruvananthapuram. After two years, 84% survival of reintroduced plants was recorded.

 

Keywords: Decalepis arayalpathra, ecorestoration, endemic, micropropagation, Western Ghats

 

IPC Code: Int Cl.7 A01H4/00, 5/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol. 4, April 2005, pp. 271-276

   

Fungicidal activity of marine actinomycetes against phytopathogenic fungi

 K Kathiresan, R Balagurunathan and M Masilamani Selvam

 

A total of 160 isolates of marine actinomycetes were isolated from the sediment samples drawn from mangroves, estuary, sand dune, and industrially polluted coast. Of these, mangrove sediments were rich sources of marine actinomycetes. Each isolate was tested against four phytopathogenic fungi, viz. Rhizoctonia solani, Pyricularia oryzae, Helminthosporium oryzae (causing sheath blight, blast and leaf spot diseases of rice) and Colletotrichum falcatum (causing red rot disease of sugar cane). About 51% of isolates were found effective against H. oryzae and P. oryzae, 31% against R. solani, and 12.5% against C. falcatum. Of 160 isolates, 10 showed a potent activity against all the fungi tested. These isolates appeared to produce high antifungal compounds at 120 hrs of incubation period of production medium culture. Glucose and soybean meal were the best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively and 17.5 ppt was the best salinity level for maximum antibiotic production. Cylinder plate method was found better for antifungal assay than the disc diffusion method. Based on the morphological and culture characteristics, the potent strains were identified as the species belonged to the genus Streptomyces. These strains may prove to be the potent source for isolation of agrobased fungicides.

Keywords: antifungal activity, fungicides, marine actinomycetes, plant pathogens, Streptomyces

 

IPC Code: Int.Cl.7 C12N1/02,1/04; C12R1:01

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol. 4, April 2005, pp. 277-283

  

Influence of assay medium on degradation of malathion by Serratia marcescens

V Kannan and V Vanitha

 

Serratia marcescens isolated from degraded cattle bone was able to grow on high concentrations of malathion, a non-systemic wide spectrum organophosphorus pesticide. The test organism tested under three different assay conditions very effectively catalyzed the breakdown of malathion. Degradation potential of the test organism was high in nutrient broth than in mineral salts medium and distilled water. Decline in the pH during growth on malathion and assay period indicated the formation of acidic intermediates.

 

Keywords: pesticides, degradation, malathion, Serratia marcescens

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01N63/02; C12R1:43

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol. 4, April 2005, pp. 284-286

 

 Differentiation of rabies fixed and street viruses using RT-PCR coupled with restriction endonuclease analysis

Praveen K Gupta, V K Chaturvedi, P C Verma and K D Pandey

 

A method based on RT-PCR and restriction endonuclease digestion of amplified PCR product was used to differentiate rabies laboratory “fixed” and “street” viruses. The primer sets from glycoprotein and nucleoprotein gene of rabies virus were used to amplify 406 and 533 bp amplicons, respectively. After amplification in RT-PCR, the PCR product was digested with HaeIII restriction endonuclease and analysed for the presence or absence of restriction site on amplicons. The presence of HaeIII restriction site on amplicons indicated rabies fixed virus while absence indicated street virus.

Keywords: rabies, virus, differentiation, restriction endonuclease analysis street, fixed, RT-PCR,

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 C12N15/10, 15/47; C12R1:93

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol. 4, April 2005, pp. 287-289

 

  

PCR-RFLP based genotyping of cattle using DNA extracted from hair samples

Pushpendra Kumar, V Choudhary, T K Bhattacharya, B Bhushan and Arjava Sharma

 

A simple method of genotyping of farm animals using DNA extracted from hair samples is described. Hair samples of 35 F ´ H (Holstein Friesian ´ Hariana) crossbred cattle were processed for isolation of genomic DNA. These DNA samples were used for genotyping of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP 3) gene using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Thus, hair samples could be an easy and reliable source of DNA for genotyping of farm animals or any other molecular genetic research work where DNA is needed as an experimental material for the study.

Keywords: DNA, genotyping, hair, PCR, FLP

IPC Code: Int.Cl.7 C12N15/06, 15/10

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol. 4, April 2005, pp. 290-292

 

 Production and effect of killer toxin by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia kluyveri on sensitive yeasts and fungal pathogens

 Madhusudan P Dabhole and K N Joishy

 

Killer yeasts from flowers of Indian medicinal plants were isolated and the effect of their killer toxin was determined on sensitive yeast cells as well as fungal pathogens. The toxin of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia kluyveri inhibited Dekkera anomala accumulating methylene blue cells on Yeast Extract Peptone Dextrose agar (pH 4.2) at 21°C. There was no inhibition of growth or competition between the yeast cells in the mixed population of S. cerevisiae isolated from Acalypha indica. S. cerevisiae and P. kluyveri were found to tolerate 50% and 40% glucose, while D. anomala tolerated 40% glucose. Both S. cerevisiae and P. kluyveri did not inhibit the growth of Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans and Fusarium spp.

Keywords: killer yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia kluyveri, Dekkera anomala, killer toxin, killer phenomenon

IPC Code: Int.Cl.7 A01N63/04; C12R1:865,1:84

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Biotechnology

Vol. 4, April 2005, pp. 293-294

 

 Extracellular lipases from anaerobic microorganisms of Antarctic

Pramod W Ramteke, Babu Joseph and M Kuddus

 

Anaerobic microorganisms of Antarctic were investigated for production of extracellular lipases. Of 137 anaerobic strains studied, 49 (35.7%) strains showed lipolytic activity. Amongst the strains studied, 64 were psychrophiles (29 strict, 35 facultative) and 73 psychrotrophs (31 strict, 42 facultative). Of lipase producing psychrophiles, 9 (31.0%) were strict and 11 (31.4%) facultative anaerobes, whereas amongst lipase producing psychrotrophs, 13 (41.9%) were strict and 16 (38.0%) facultative anaerobes.

Keywords: Antarctica, anaerobe, lipase

IPC Code: Int. Cl.7 A01N63/02; C12N9/16, 9/20

 

 

 

AUTHOR INDEX

 

 

Alam S I

227

Laskar M A

257

Angumeenal A R

246

Lyngdoh J P

257

Anis M

261

 

 

Arora A

251

Mamatha  G

194

 

 

Mahalakshmi A

216

Bera M B

222

 

 

Balagurunathan R

271

Nair G M

265

Bhattacharya T K

287

Narayana K S

194

Bhushan B

287

   

Buam J J 

257

Pandey K D

284

 

 

Pandit A B

232, 241

Chaturvedi V K

284

   

Chawla H S

251

Patnaik P R

201

Choudhary V

287

Prabhavathy Das G

173

Dabhole M P

290

Premraj R

186

Decruse S W

265

 

 

Dhaked RK

227

Raman G

194

 

 

Ramteke P W

293

Farkade V D

232

 

 

 

 

Selvam M M

271

Gangaprasad A

265

Seeni S

265

Gupta P K

284

Sharma A

287

   

Singh L

227

Jamil K

173

Shenbagarathai R

216

Joishy K N

290

Sujatha K

216

Joseph, B

194

Syiem D

257

Joseph Babu

293

Syiem M B

209

 

 

 

 

Kannan V

277

Vanitha V

277

Kathiresan K

271

Venkappayya D

246

Kuddus M

293

Verma P C

284

Kumar P

287

   

Kumaramanickavel G

194