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Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

 

ISSN: 0971-457X   CODEN:ICHTEU 11(1) 1-154
VOLUME 11

NUMBER 1

JANUARY 2004

 

CONTENTS

Research articles

Assay of tylosin using sodium metaperiodate as an oxidant

7

 IPC Code: C07G11/00

 

A V S S Prasad, P S N H Ramachandra Rao & C S P Sastry

 

 

 

Determination of ranitidine using potassium iodate and dichlorofluorescein

11

IPC Code: A61P1/04; G01N31/16; G01N21/25

 

K Basavaiah & P Nagegowda

 

 

 

Solvation behaviour of chloramine-T in solvent mixtures at different temperatures

17

IPC Code: G01N27/00

 

J Ishwara Bhat & N V Sabitha

 

 

 

Synthesis, characterization and analytical applications of zirconium(IV) sulphosalicylophosphate

 

23

IPC Code: B01D15/04; C01G25/00

 

D K Singh & Shalini Singh

 

 

 

Synthesis and characterization of m-phenoxo-bridged binuclear copper(II) complexes derived from binucleating ligands

 

29

IPC Code: C01G3/00

 

M Thirumavalavan, S Maria Rayappan, P Akilan & M Kandaswamy

 

 

 

Removal of phenol from wastewater using sawdust, polymerized sawdust and sawdust carbon

35

IPC Code: (C02F1/28, 101:30), C02F103:34

 

D N Jadhav & A K Vanjara

 

 

 

Adsorption kinetics study: Removal of dyestuff effluent using sawdust, polymerized sawdust and sawdust carbon

 

42

IPC Code: (C02F1/28, 101:30), C02F103:34, B01J20/20

 

D N Jadhav & A K Vanjara

 

 

 

Removal of heavy metal ions using polydithiocarbamate resin supported on polystyrene

51

IPC Code: (C02F1/28, 101:10), C02F103:02

 

Prasun K Roy, Ashok S Rawat, Veena Choudhary & Pramod K Rai

 

 

 

Metal complexation on functionalised polymer supports–an adsorption/complexation phenomenon

 

59

IPC Code: C01G51/00; C01G3/00; C08G85/00

 

K Sivadasan Chettiar & K Sreekumar

 

 

 

Shellac as filler in sheet moulding compound

67

IPC Code: B29C70/00; C09F1/00

 

D N Goswami, P C Jha & K Mahato

 

 

 

Effect of various modes of  initiator addition on semicontinuous copolymerization of styrene-butylacrylate

 

74

IPC Code: C09F125/08; B01F17/42

 

R N Madan & R C Dikshit

 

 

 

Preparation, characterization and conductivity measurement of poly(4-vinyl pyridinium) salts in solid state

 

80

IPC Code: C08F26/00

 

Jitu Ranjan Chetia, Manoranjan Moulick & Aradhana Dutta

 

 

 

Modeling of the chromium plating process from non-standard chloride electrolyte

85

IPC Code: C25D3/04

 

Rositza Mantcheva & Yosif Kalev

 

 

 

Removal of acid red 183 from aqueous solution using clay and activated carbon

89

IPC Code: C02F1/28; C02F101/30; C02F103/30; B01J20/16; B01J20/20

 

A Haluk Aydın & Ömer Yavuz

 

 

 

Preparation of biocatalyst for the removal of dissolved organics in wastewater

95

IPC Code: (C02F3/34, 101:30), C02F103:34

 

G Sekaran, A Gnanamani  & P Yogesh

 

 

 

The effect of some nitrogen and sulphur based synthetic inhibitors on corrosion inhibition of mild steel in acid solutions

 

103

IPC Code: C23F11/10; C22C38/00

 

M A Quraishi & R Sardar

 

 

 

Prediction of  reverse osmosis performance using artificial neural network

108

IPC Code: B01D61/02

 

Z V P Murthy & Mehul M Vora

 

 

 

Studies on biohydrometallurgical leaching of iron sulphide ore using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

116

IPC Code: C22B318

 

Sk Masud Hossain, Manas Das,  S H Ibrahim, K M M Sheriffa Begum & N Anantharaman

 

 

 

Utilisation of gummy mass – A by-product of Lac industry

121

IPC Code: C09D5/00; C03C1/00

 

D N Goswami, N Prasad, P C Jha & K Mahato

 

 

 

Studies on soda and soda-AQ pulping of Eulaliopsis binata

127

IPC Code: D21B1/04

 

C H Tyagi, Dharm Dutt & Dhuruba Pokharel

 

 

 

Steam distillation of lemon grass (Cymbopogon sp.)

135

IPC Code: B01D3/02; C11B9/00

 

V K Koul, B M Gandotra, Suman Koul, S Ghosh, C L Tikoo & A K Gupta

 

 

 

Educator

 

Soap-From empiricism to understanding

140

IPC Code: C11D13/00

 

Jaime Wisniak

 

 

 

Chem-Tech Scan

149

 

 

Author Index

153

 

 

Keywords Index

154

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology 

Vol. 11, January 2004, pp. 7-10

 

Assay of tylosin using sodium metaperiodate as an oxidant

A V S S Prasad, P S N H Ramachandra Rao & C S P Sastry*

 

Simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods (M1 and M2) based on the oxidation of tylosin (TS) with excess of sodium metaperiodate and estimating either the amount of periodate consumed (with celestine blue (CB) in the presence of Te(IV), M1) or product formed (iodate with p-N-methylaminophenol sulphate–sulphanilamide (PMAP-SA, M2) have been described. Beer’s law limits, precision and accuracy of the methods are checked by the UV reference method. The methods are found to be suitable for the assay of tylosin. The recovery range is 99.02 to 100.96%.

 

IPC Code: C07G11/00; G01N21/25

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 11, January 2004, pp. 11-16

 

Determination of ranitidine using potassium iodate
and dichlorofluorescein

 K Basavaiah* & P Nagegowda

 

Two methods for determining ranitidine hydrochloride (RNH) in pure drug and in formulations using potassium iodate and dichlorofuorescein are described. Titrimetry involves the oxidation of RNH by a known excess of potassium iodate in acidic conditions followed by iodometric determination of surplus iodate. In spectrophotometry also, the drug is oxidized by a large excess of iodate and the iodine released is oxidized to ICl2- in the presence of chloride ions, and is used to iodinate 2,7-dichlorofluorescein dye and the amount of iodinated dye is measured. Reaction conditions of both methods have been optimized. In titrimetry, the reaction stoichiometry has been established and the reaction scheme of the spectrophotometric method is given. Titrimetry is applicable over 1-16 mg range. In spectrophotometry, the system obeys Beer’s law for 5-50 mg mL-1. The molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity were calculated to be 3.88×103 L Mol-1 cm-1 and 5.72 ng cm-2, respectively. The calculated limits of detection and quantification were 2.14 and 7.15 mg mL-1, respectively. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the determination of RNH in pharmaceutical preparations with recoveries in the range of 98.28 ± 0.88 to 103 ± 1.96% (titrimetry) and 99.46 ± 1.88 to 102.58 ± 0.73% (spectrophotometry). The reliability of the assay was established by parallel determination by an established procedure and by recovery studies using standard–addition technique.

 

IPC Code: A61P1/04; G01N31/16; G01N21/25

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 11, January 2004, pp. 17-22

 

Solvation behaviour of chloramine-T in solvent mixtures
at different temperatures

 J Ishwara Bhat* & N V Sabitha

 

The solvation behaviour of chloramine-T in water and different compositions of water + co-solvent (dioxan, propan-2-ol and propan-1-ol) at 278, 288, 298 and 318K have been studied on the basis of conductivity principle. Experimentally obtained conductivity data are analysed by Kraus-Bray and Shedlovsky conductivity models to obtain limiting molar conductance, dissociation and association constants. Limiting molar conductance decreases with the increasing amount of co-solvent in water at all temperatures. Preferential solvation of cation by the co-solvent is identified. Thermodynamics of association in case of water + dioxan and dissociation in case of water + propan-2-ol and water + propan-1-ol are computed. Exothermic behaviour of solvation is observed. Ion pair formation constant (KP) and triple ion formation constant (KT) are determined from Fuoss-Accascina equation. KP is found to be higher than KT in all the cases, indicating the higher magnitude of association involved in the system. Solvation number is also calculated by a new model and is found to be fractional.

 

IPC Code: G01N27/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 11, January 2004, pp. 23-28

 

Synthesis, characterization and analytical applications of zirconium(IV) sulphosalicylophosphate

D K Singh* & Shalini Singh

 

A new three-component inorganic ion exchanger, zirconium(IV) sulphosalicylophosphate(zsp) has been synthesized under varying conditions. Sample ZSP5 was chosen for detailed ion exchange studies owing to its highest ion exchange capacity, good appearance and chemical stability. ZSP5 has been characterized on the basis of chemical analysis, pH titration, FTIR, TGA and X-ray analysis. The distribution coefficients (Kd) of 16 metal ions were determined in different pH systems, demineralized water and 0.1 M NH4NO3 solution. On the basis of difference in distribution coefficients (Kd) some analytically important separations of metal ions have been achieved. A highly significant factor, KdAl3+/KdMg2+ has been utilized for the separation in their, synthetic mixtures and antacid formulations.

 

IPC Code: B01D15/04; C01G25/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 11, January 2004, pp. 29-34

 

Synthesis and characterization of m-phenoxo-bridged binuclear copper(II) complexes derived from binucleating ligands    

M Thirumavalavan, S Maria Rayappan, P Akilan & M Kandaswamy*

 

The new pentadentate binucleating symmetrical ligand 2,6-bis [N-(3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzyl)-N-cyclohexylamino-methyl]-4-methylphenol (H3L1) has been prepared and its binuclear copper(II) complexes of the general formula [Cu2L(X)], where X = OH (perchlorato counter ion complexes), OAc, NO3 have been prepared. Their spectral properties and catecholase activities were studied. New unsymmetrical ligands and their complexes have also been synthesized. The phenolate oxygen atom of the binucleating ligands behaves as a bridging group. Conductivity studies showed that all the complexes are neutral. ESR spectra of the complexes show a broad band centred at 3500 G with no hyperfine splittings. The observed room temperature magnetic studies were found to be less than spin only value for d9 system. The rate constants of the complexes for the oxidation of catechol to o-quinone were in the range of 0.72´10-3 to 15.0´10-3 min-1.

 

IPC Code: C01G3/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 11, January 2004, pp. 35-41

 

Removal of phenol from wastewater using sawdust,
polymerized sawdust and sawdust carbon

 D N Jadhav* & A K Vanjara

 

The adsorption of phenol on sawdust, polymerized sawdust and sawdust carbon was investigated to assess the possible use of these adsorbents for the processing of phenolic wastewater. The influence of various factors such as initial concentration, agitation speed, and amount of adsorbent, temperature and pH on the adsorption capacity has been studied. The percentage removal of phenol is observed to increase, with the increase in initial concentration of phenol. With increase in temperature the adsorption of phenol decreases, indicating exothermic nature of the reaction. Adsorption isothermal data could be interpreted by the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Kinetic data has been studied, using pseudo-second order equation for understanding the reaction mechanism. Thermodynamic parameters such as DG, DH and DS for the adsorption process were calculated.

 

IPC Code: (C02F1/28, 101:30), C02F103:34

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 11, January 2004, pp. 42-50

 

Adsorption kinetics study: Removal of dyestuff effluent using sawdust, polymerized sawdust and sawdust carbon-II

 D N Jadhav* & A K Vanjara

 

The kinetics study of removal of acidic, basic and disperse dyes on sawdust, polymerized sawdust and sawdust carbon were carried out by adsorption technique. The factors affecting the rate processes involved in the removal of different dyes e.g. initial dye concentration, agitation speed, mass of adsorbent, temperature, have been studied. The adsorption process followed first order rate kinetics. The adsorption data generally fit the Lagergren equation and the intraparticle diffusion rate equation from which adsorption rate constants, diffusion rate constants and diffusion coefficients were determined. Intraparticle diffusion was found to be the rate-limiting step. These kinetic parameters were compared for various dyes under different conditions.

 

IPC Code: (C02F1/28, 101:30), C02F103:34; B01J20/20

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 11, January 2004, pp. 51-58

 

Removal of heavy metal ions using polydithiocarbamate
resin supported on polystyrene

Prasun K Roy, Ashok S Rawat, Veena Choudhary & Pramod K Rai*

 

Polydithiocarbamate chelating resin supported on XAD-2 type polystyrene was synthesised by emulsion polymerisation of styrene and its subsequent reaction with carbondisulphide in alkaline medium. The polydithiocarbamate resin was characterised by elemental analysis, thermal studies and IR studies. The sorbent was evaluated for its analytical characteristics and the optimum sorption conditions for metals like Cu, Ni, Pb, Fe, As and Mn were determined in order to assess the efficiency of the resin. The sorption capacity was considerably higher when compared to other conventional chelating polymers. The sorption kinetics was fairly rapid as apparent from the loading t1/2 values, indicating a better accessibility of the chelating sites.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol.11, January 2004, pp. 59-66

 

Metal complexation on functionalised polymer supports–An
adsorption/complexation phenomenon

K Sivadasan Chettiar & K Sreekumar*

 

The present study is aimed at preparing polymer metal complexes of Co(II) and Cu(II) under controlled conditions of concentration, time, temperature and pH The complexes are derived from DVB crosslinked polystyrene and poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) supported thiosemicarbazone-transition metal interaction. Crosslinked polymer ligand beads with definite porosity can adsorb metal ions. The question whether metal complexation is a case of adsorption and coordination, is investigated. Kinetics and thermodynamics of adsorption of metal ions on the polymeric ligand with proper surface structures is determined. The equilibrium metal intake by 10 and 15% crosslinked resins at constant temperature was utilised to construct Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The influence of temperature on the extent of adsorption was studied by plotting isotherms at different temperatures and calculating different thermodynamic parameters.

 

IPC Code: C01G51/00; C01G3/00; C08G85/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 11, January 2004, pp. 67-73

 

Shellac as filler in sheet moulding compound

 D N Goswami*, P C Jha & K Mahato

 

Use of the natural resin shellac in general grade polyester resin based sheet moulding compound (SMC) has been examined in the manufacture of fibre-glass reinforced sheets (FRP). Use of small quantity of shellac resulted in some improvement in the mechanical properties of FRP sheets and the sheets did not deteriorate in sunlight and showed resistance towards various chemicals. The FRP sheets were also prepared based on isophthalate and bisphenol polyester resins. Shellac being natural and possessing UV ray absorbing properties, its use in the manufacture of FRP sheets is expected to make sheets more eco-friendly and last longer.

 

IPC Code: B29C70/00; C09F1/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 11, January 2004, pp. 74-79

 

Effect of various modes of initiator addition on semicontinuous copolymerization of styrene-butylacrylate

 R N Madan & R C Dikshit*

 

Semi continuous emulsion polymerization studies were carried out in one-litre glass reactor to study the effect of various methods of initiator addition and its effective concentrations. Thirty six runs were carried out to study the effect of various modes of addition of initiator at fixed time intervals of 2, 3 and 4 h with ratio of monomers, speed of agitation and reaction temperature being constant. Initiator was added in two ways, i.e. (a) pinch addition (addition at specific time interval), (b) continuous addition: (i) addition of initiator along with monomer emulsion mixture, (ii) separate continuous addition. Objective was to obtain high solid content emulsion with linear low viscosity polymer. Linear and less viscous emulsions were obtained when initiator was added separately.

 

IPC Code: C09F125/08; B01F17/42

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 11, January 2004, pp. 80-84

 

Preparation, characterization and conductivity measurement of poly(4-vinyl pyridinium) salts in solid state

Jitu Ranjan Chetia, Manoranjan Moulick & Aradhana Dutta*

 

The conductivity and the conduction behaviour of poly (4-vinyl pyridine), poly (4-vinyl pyridinium) bromide and poly (4-vinyl pyridinium) iodide have been reported. 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) is polymerized thermally and the salts are prepared by acidification. The formation of P-4VP salts is confirmed by NMR and analytical method. Electrical conductivities are studied by impedance spectroscopic technique in the temperature range 30 to 90°C at various frequencies in solid state. It is observed that addition of ion increases the ionic conductivity of the polymer with respect to frequency and temperature. There is about 102 to 103 fold increase in conductivity for the new polymer salts. The new materials are shown to be predominantly ionic conductor with tion≈ 0.935 and 0.825 for bromide and iodide salt respectively. Apparent activation energies are determined from logs versus 1000/T curves and found to be 0.075, 0.049 and 0.123 eV for poly(4-vinyl pyridine), its bromide and iodide salt respectively. The polymer salts behave as good polyelectrolyte.

 

IPC Code: C08F26/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 11, January 2004, pp. 85-88

 

Modeling of the chromium plating process from
non-standard chloride electrolyte

 Rositza Mantcheva* & Yosif Kalev

 

The paper deals with elaborating of a mathematical model of chromium plating process. Chromium is deposited from a non-standard electrolyte containing chloride instead of sulphate ions. The parameters of the model are obtained using the program for Gram-Schmidt regression. Regression equations are derived describing the most important properties of the chromium coatings—hardness (H), brightness (B) and cathodic current efficiency (Ce). The adequacy of the equations is checked and values of the statistic criteria (correlation coefficient and mean square deviation) are determined. The test of the model reveals that the deviations of experimentally established parameters from those calculated using the proposed model are within 8-10%.

 

IPC Code: C25D3/04

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 11, January 2004, pp. 89-94

 

Removal of acid red 183 from aqueous solution
using clay and activated carbon

A Haluk Aydın & Ömer Yavuz*

 

The removal of acid red 183 from aqueous solution onto activated carbon, raw kaolinite and montmorillonite has been studied using an agitated batch adsorber. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted to Langmuir isotherm. Parameters of Langmuir isotherm were determined using adsorption data. The adsorption capacity was 1495, 111, 29 and 19 mg dye per g adsorbent for RAC (commercial activated carbon), HAC (activated carbon obtained from hazelnut), KC (raw kaolinite) and MC (montmorillonite) at 25°C respectively.

 

IPC Code: C02F1/28; C02F101/30; C02F103/30; B01J20/20; B01J20/16

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 11, January 2004, pp. 95-102

 

Preparation of biocatalyst for the removal of
dissolved organics in wastewater

G Sekaran*, A Gnanamani & P Yogesh

 

Xenobiotic compounds are used in considerable quantities in leather industries besides organic and inorganic compounds. These compounds resist biological degradation and thus they remain present in the treated wastewater in the unaltered molecular configurations. Immobilization of organisms in carrier matrices protects them from shock load applications and from the toxicity of chemicals in bulk liquid phase. Rice Bran based Activated Carbon (RBAC) has been considered in the present study as the carrier matrix for the immobilization of Bacillus sp. isolated from Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) employed for the treatment of wastewater containing sulphonated phenolic (SP) compounds. The influence of temperature, pH, concentration, particle size, mass of the adsorbent were observed on the immobilization behaviour of Bacillus sp. in RBAC. The percentage immobilization of Bacillus sp. was maximum at pH 7.0, temperature 20°C and for particle size 300 m. Enthalpy, free energy and entropy of adsorption were –46.9 kj mole-1, -1.187 kj mole-1 and –161.36 J °K-1mole-1 respectively at pH 7.0, temperature 30°C and particle size 600 m. Higher values of DH° indicate the firm bonding of the Bacillus sp. in RBAC.

 

IPC Code: (C02F3/34, 101:30), C02F103:34

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 11, January 2004, pp. 103-107

 

Effect of some nitrogen and sulphur based synthetic inhibitors on corrosion inhibition of mild steel in acid solutions

 M A Quraishi* & R Sardar

 

Three organic inhibitors namely, 5-mercapto-3-butyl-4-salicylidineimino-1,2,4-triazole (MBST), 5-mercapto-3-butyl-4-benzylidineimino-1,2,4-triazole (MBBT) and 5-mercapto-3-butyl-4-cinnamylidineimino-1,2,4-triazole (MBCT) were synthesized in the laboratory and their influence on the inhibition of corrosion of mild steel (MS) in aqueous solutions containing 1N HCl and 1N H2SO4 was investigated by weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The inhibition efficiency (IE) of these compounds was found to vary with concentration, temperature and immersion time. Good inhibition efficiency (IE) was evidenced in both acid solutions. The adsorption of these compounds on the steel surface for both acids was found to obey Temkin’s adsorption isotherm. The potentiodynamic polarization data have shown, that, compounds studied are mixed type inhibitors in both the acid solutions.

 

IPC Code: C23F11/10; C22C38/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 11, January 2004, pp. 108-115

 

Prediction of reverse osmosis performance
using artificial neural network

Z V P Murthy* & Mehul M Vora

 

Reverse osmosis (RO) has found extensive usage in the fields of desalination and pollution control. In the present work, an attempt is made to model the separation of sodium chloride-water system by reverse osmosis using neural nets. Experimental data are used to train the network developed for the said system. The training data included the feed concentration range from 1000 to 30000 ppm, pressure range from 20 to 100 atm, and feed rates from 300 to 1500 mL/min. The network thus developed has been found to predict the system variables within the error range of ±1%, except for sudden deviations in process parameters, and initial and final value of flow rates at low pressures. Nearly the same trend, that is, maximum errors at lower pressures and higher flow rates, were observed in the prediction of RO performance with membrane transport models, reported earlier. The reasons for this may be the unsteady state behaviour of the system, or system instability or error in experimentation. Such deviations are not of much importance, because the predicted and experimental values are within the satisfactory range.

 

IPC Code: B01D61/02

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 11, January 2004, pp. 116-120

 

Studies on biohydrometallurgical leaching of
iron sulphide ore using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

Sk Masud Hossain*, Manas Das, S H Ibrahim, K M M Sheriffa Begum & N Anantharaman

 

Biohydrometallurgical leaching of iron sulphide ore in an aerobic batch system using bacteria Thiobacillus ferrooxidans has been studied for process parameters optimization. The maximum bioleaching of Fe2+ is 79.88 and 79.10 per cent (w/w) for 25 and 30 kg/m3 initial ferrous iron loading at optimum conditions. The optimum parameters are—time 172 h, pH 2.5 and temperature 35°C. The optimum glucose and nitrogen (as ammonium sulphate) concentration for maximum bacterial bioleaching is 3.0 and 0.30 per cent (w/w) respectively. The optimum shaking speed (rpm) is 60. 20 percent (v/v) and 7 days age-old suspension culture was used for the studies. The bacteria can tolerate upto 35 kg/m3 initial ferrous iron concentration.

 

IPC Code: C22B3/18

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 11, January 2004, pp. 121-126

 

Utilisation of gummy mass—a by-product of Lac industry

D N Goswami*, N Prasad, P C Jha & K Mahato

 

Attempt has been made to find utilization of gummy mass, a by-product of lac-based industry. High thermal resistant baking type insulating varnishes have been developed based on gummy mass and synthetic resins. These varnishes possess all the basic requirements as per IS:10026-1982. The performance of one of the varnishes was found to be satisfactory by a local consumer when applied on the coils of a 220kW 6.6 kV electric motor. Gummy mass was further attempted for use as an extender in polyester resin based sheet moulding compound (SMC) for preparing fibre-glass reinforced (FRP) sheets. The FRP sheets thus prepared by hand lay-up technique and curing in the cold, possessed good mechanical properties and moderate resistance towards various chemicals. Gummy mass, being cheaper compared to polyester resin, appears to possess potential for utilization in the above fields.

 

IPC Code: C09D5/00; C03C1/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 11 January 2004 pp. 127-134

 

Studies on soda and soda-AQ pulping of Eulaliopsis binata

C H Tyagi, Dharm Dutt* & Dhuruba Pokharel

 

Eulaliopsis binata was cooked by soda and soda–AQ pulping processes and results were compared with alkali-O2, alkali-O2-AQ and NSSC pulping processes. Even the nodes are not resistant to the action of cooking liquor and consequently at 14 % alkali dose whole plant is reduced to a clean and regular pulp giving 48 % screened pulp yield of Kappa number 16. A screened pulp yield of 49.8 % at Kappa no 15.7 was obtained at 12 % alkali and 0.5 % AQ. In order to get 80 % (ISO) brightness, the pulp was bleached by single stage hypochlorite bleaching, O2 delignification followed hypochlorite bleaching, peroxide bleaching, O2 delignification followed by peroxide, CEH and OCEH bleaching sequences. Various paper grades like news print, light weight writing and printing paper, cigarette tissue, condenser paper, high grade bond, ledger and other cultural papers can be manufactured by selecting an appropriate pulp brightness and blending with long fibred pulp.

 

IPC Code: D21B1/04

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 11, January 2004, pp. 135-139

 
Steam distillation of lemon grass
(Cymbopogon spp.)

V K Koul*, B M Gandotra, Suman Koul, S Ghosh, C L Tikoo & A K Gupta

 

A simple first order kinetic model has been developed for steam distillation of lemongrass (Cymbopogon spp.). This rate model was tested on pilot scale, steam distillation units, with lemon grass batches of 70 to 1000 kg. For intimate contact of lemongrass and steam, two improved direct steam spargers were provided in these units. It is observed, that, the loose packing of plant material inside distillation still and steam injection rate, increases the oil yield. Straight line behaviour with intercept on time axis of the above rate model explains, that, oil production inside the distillation unit is not instantaneous, but some time is required for wetting of grass for the diffusion and osmosis of oil.

 

IPC Code: B01D3/02; C11B9/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 11, January 2004, pp. 140-148

 

Soap¾From empiricism to understanding

Jaime Wisniak

 

Soap is a commodity as old as the oldest human activity. It was probably discovered by accident and in the course of its history its manufacture developed to a high degree of sophistication without an understanding of the basic chemical phenomena. The many empirical observations had to wait until the fundamental studies of Chevreul on the chemistry of fats and oils to unravel the scientific principles underlying them.

 

PC Code: C11D13/00