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Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

 

 

 

ISSN: 0971-457X

CODEN:ICHTEU 12(2) 131-252

Volume 12

Number 2

March 2005

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Research articles

 

Microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of a new chelating resin functionalized with 2-aminothiazole: Application in trace level cadmium-mercury separation in biological samples

139

IPC Code: A61N 5/01; B01D 15/00

 

Suparna Dutta & Arabinda K Das

 

 

 

Spectrophotometric determination of anionic surfactants in wastewater using acridine orange

145

IPC Code: G01J 3/00; C11D 1/02

 

Asok Adak, Anjali Pal & Manas Bandyopadhyay

 

 

 

Rapid titrimetric and spectrophotometric determination of frusemide (furosemide) in formulations using bromate-bromide mixture and methyl orange

149

IPC Code: G01J 3/00; A61K

 

K Basavaiah, U Chandrashekar & P Nagegowda

 

 

 

A novel fibre-coated sorbent for rapid removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Sorption of Zinc(II) from dilute aqueous solutions in the presence of high concentrations of common salts

156

IPC Code: B01D 21/00; C02F 1/42

 

Manas Chanda & S Arumugom Pillay

 

 

 

Nitrate removal from groundwater using electrolytic reduction method

164

IPC Code: C25F

 

P K Raghu Prasad, M Nisha Priya & K Palanivelu

 

 

 

Assay of bromhexine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations by extraction spectrophotometry

170

IPC Code: G01J 3/00; A61K 9/00

 

S V Murali Mohan Rao, I Nageswara Rao, T Rama Subba Reddy & C S P Sastry

 

 

 

Studies on energetic compounds Part 43: Effect of some BEMP complexes on the combustion and condensed phase thermolysis of HTPB-AP composite solid propellants

175

 IPC Code: C22B 9/00; F02K 9/10; C06B

 

Gurdip Singh & Durgesh Kumar Pandey

 

 

 

Rubber seed shell carbon as sequestrant of heavy metals and organic compounds from aqueous solution

181

IPC Code: B01D 21/00; C02F 1/42

 

F E Okieimen, C O Okieimen & F I Ojokoh

 

 

Synthesis, characterization and thermal behaviour of hydrazinium nitroformate (HNF) and its new N-alkyl substituted derivatives

187

IPC Code: G01K; C01B

 

H S Jadhav, M B Talawar, D D Dhavale, S N Asthana & V N Krishnamurthy

 

 

 

High performance paints from a sustainable resource

193

IPC Code: C09D 163/00

 

Sharif Ahmad, S M Ashraf, S Kumar, Manawwer Alam & Abul Hasnat

 

 

 

Light induced electropolymerization of aniline

198

IPC Code: C07C 211/46; C08F 2/58

 

Ishwar Das, Sujeet Kumar Gupta & R S Lall

 

 

 

A mass transfer model for the prediction of permeate concentration during ultrafiltration of methyl violet dye solution

205

IPC Code: C02F 1/00; C02F 1/46

 

S Chatterjee & D K Acharjee

 

 

 

Chaotic analysis of pressure fluctuations in a gas-solid fluidized bed

212

IPC Code: F23C 10/00; F23C 101/00

 

Pradeep Ahuja, Harshit Agrawal, Anadi Kishore Sethi & Utpal Raj

 

 

 

Inhibition of mild steel corrosion by oleochemical based hydrazides

220

IPC Code: C23F 11/00; C07C 243/00

 

M A Quraishi, N Saxena & D Jamal

 

 

 

Notes

 

Copper and thorium selective new chelating ion exchange resin of mandelic acid

225

IPC Code: C08J 5/22

 

V R Jeena & C Janardanan

 

 

 

Determination of heavy metals in selected drug substances by inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry

229

IPC Code: G01J 3/00; C22B 4/04

 

A S R Krishna Murty, U C Kulshresta, T Nageswara Rao & M V N Kumar Talluri

 

 

 

Educator

 

Catalytic Hydrogenation

232

Jaime Wisniak

 

 

 

Chem-Tech Scan

 

245

Author Index

 

249

Keywords Index

250

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

 Vol. 12, March 2005, pp. 139-144

 

Microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of a new chelating resin functionalized with 2-aminothiazole: Application in trace level cadmium-mercury separation in biological samples

Suparna Dutta & Arabinda K Das*

 

Chloromethylated polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer has been functionalized with 2-aminothiazole by using microwave irradiation. The resulting resin has been characterized by elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectra, water regain and metal sorption capacity. Various parameters like pH, equilibriation rate and sorption and desorption of metal ions, and effect of diverse ions have been studied. The maximum sorption capacities for Cd(II) and Hg(II) are 0.15 (pH 1) and 0.51 mmol.g-1 (pH 6) respectively. The concentration of Cd(II) was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry while Hg(II) was measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The limits of quantification (10s) values were found to be 5.70 and 0.14 ng mL–1 for Cd(II) and Hg(II) respectively. The procedure has been applied to the determination of cadmium and mercury in certified biological samples after their dissolution by microwave-assisted treatment. The method is simple, rapid and free from interference and can be used routinely.

 

Keywords: Solid phase extraction, 2-aminothiazole, Cd-Hg separation, AAS determination, microwave-assisted treatment, biological samples

IPC Code: A61N5/01; B01D15/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 12, March 2005, pp. 145-148

 

Spectrophotometric determination of anionic surfactants in wastewater using acridine orange

Asok Adak, Anjali Pal* & Manas Bandyopadhyay

 

A simple and rapid spectrophotometric method for the determination of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), an anionic surfactant (AS) is developed. SDS forms a yellow coloured complex with acridine orange (ACO), a cationic dye. The complex is extracted in toluene. The absorbance of the complex in toluene layer is measured at maximum wavelength max) of 467 nm. The calibration curve is linear in the range of 0 – 6.0 ppm of SDS concentration. The method is compared with the standard MBAS method in terms of time, ease and accuracy. It is noticed that the present method is much easier and less time consuming. The method requires chemicals, which are less toxic than those required for the standard method. The method is applicable to wastewater analysis.

 

Keywords: Anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate, cationic dye, acridine orange, spectrophotometry

IPC Code: G01J 3/00; C11D 1/02

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

 Vol. 12, March 2005, pp. 149-155

 

Rapid titrimetric and spectrophotometric determination of frusemide (furosemide) in formulations using bromate-bromide mixture and methyl orange

K Basavaiah*, U Chandrashekar & P Nagegowda

 

Two methods based on titrimetric and spectrophotometric techniques using bromate-bromide mixture and methyl orange as reagents are described for the determination of frusemide in bulk drug and formulations. In titrimetry, an acidified solution of frusemide is titrated directly with bromate-bromide mixture using methyl orange as indicator. Spectrophotometry entails adding a fixed and known amount of bromate-bromide mixture to an acidified solution of drug and determination of the residual bromine by reacting with a fixed amount of methyl orange and measuring the absorbance at 520 nm. The amount of bromine reacted corresponds to drug content. The quantification in titrimetry is based on a 1:0.333 reaction stoichiometry (Frusemide: KBrO3) and the method is applicable over 2-20 mg range. In spectrophotometry, the calibration graph is found to be linear over 0.25-3.50 µg mL-1 range with a molar absorptivity of 6.11´104 L mol-1 cm-1 and a Sandell sensitivity of 5.18 ng cm-2. The limits of detection and quantification are calculated to be 0.07 µg mL-1 and 0.24 µg mL-1, respectively. The statistical evaluation of the methods was examined by determining the intra-day and inter-day precision. The methods were applied to the determination of frusemide in tablets and the results were found to agree well with the declared amounts. The accuracy and reliability of the proposed methods were further ascertained by parallel determination by a reference method and by recovery studies using standard addition technique.

 

Keywords: Frusemide, determination, titrimetry, spectrophotometry, bromate-bromide, methyl orange

IPC Code: G01J3/00; A61K

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

  Vol. 12, March 2005, pp. 156-163

 

A novel fibre-coated sorbent for rapid removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Sorption of Zinc(II) from dilute aqueoussolutions in the presence of high concentrations of common salts

Manas Chanda* & S Arumugom Pillay

 

The commercial acrylic fibre “Cashmilon” was partially hydrolyzed to convert a fraction of its nitrile (-CN) groups to carboxylic acid (-COOH) groups and then coated with polyethylenimine (PEI) resin and cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to produce a novel gel-coated fibrous sorbent with multiple functionalities of cationic, anionic and chelating types, and significantly faster sorption kinetics than bead-form sorbents. The sorption properties of the fibrous sorbent were measured using Zn(II) in aqueous solution as the sorbate to determine the effects of pH and the presence of common ions in the solution on the sorption capacity. The rate of sorption on the gel-coated fibre was measured in comparison with that on Amberlite IRA-68 weak-base resin beads, to demonstrate the marked difference between fibre and bead-form sorbents in their kinetic behaviour.

 

Keywords: Acrylic fibre, zinc ion, ion-exchange resin, polyacrylonitrile, polyethylenimine, sorbent, sorption

IPC Code: B01D 21/00; C02F 1/42

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

 Vol. 12, March 2005, pp. 164-169

 

Nitrate removal from groundwater using electrolytic reduction method

P K Raghu Prasad, M Nisha Priya & K Palanivelu*

 

Nitrate (NO3-) contamination of groundwater is a major concern throughout intensive agricultural areas. In the present laboratory scale study, an electrolytic reduction method employing copper cathode and insoluble triple mixed oxide anode was studied for the denitrification of groundwater in a divided cell. Influence of process parameters such as pH, current density and time were studied and the optimal conditions of operation were found to be at pH 8, at 0.89 mA/cm2 for 7 h. It is possible to remove nitrate below the limit of the drinking water standard using this method. The denitrification was found to follow pseudo first order kinetics with a k value of 0.23 h-1.

 

Keywords: Groundwater, denitrification, electrolytic reduction, divided cell

IPC Code: C25F

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

 Vol. 12, March 2005, pp. 170-174

 

Assay of bromhexine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations by extraction spectrophotometry

S V Murali Mohan Rao, I Nageswara Rao*, T Rama Subba Reddy & C S P Sastry

 

Three simple and sensitive spectrophotometric methods (A-C) for the assay of bromhexine hydrochloride in pure and dosage forms based on the formation of chloroform soluble ion-associates under specified experimental conditions are described. Three acidic dyes, namely, Tropaeolin oo (TP oo, method A), Naphthalene blue 12BR (NB 12BR, method B) and Azocarmine G (ACG, method C) are utilized. The extracts of the ion-associates exhibit absorption maxima at 420, 620 and 540 nm for methods A, B and C respectively. Regression analysis of Beer-Lambert plots showed good correlation in the concentration ranges (2.0-10) mg/mL for method A, (5.0-25) mg/mL for methods B and C respectively. Beer’s law and the precision and accuracy of the methods are checked by the UV reference method. The results are reproducible with an accuracy of ± 1.0%. The methods are found to be suitable for the determination of bromhexine hydrochloride in the presence of the other ingredients that are usually present in dosage forms.

 

Keywords: Spectrophotometry, tropaeolin oo, naphthalene blue 12BR, azocarmine G

IPC Code: G01J 3/00; A61K 9/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 12, March 2005, pp. 175-180

 

Studies on energetic compounds Part 43: Effect of some BEMP complexes on the combustion and condensed phase thermolysis of HTPB-AP composite solid propellants

Gurdip Singh* & Durgesh Kumar Pandey

 

Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-ammonium perchlorate (AP) composite solid propellants (CSPs) have been prepared by incorporating five bis(ethylenediamine)metal perchlorate (BEMP) complexes like [M(en)2](ClO4)2 (where, M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and en = ethylenediamine) as ballistic modifiers. The steady burning rate of the propellants was increased considerably by the additives, [Fe(en)2](ClO4)2 being the most efficient one. The condensed phase thermolysis of un-modified and modified propellants was studied using simultaneous thermogravimetry (TG)-differential thermal analysis (DTA) in nitrogen atmosphere. Thermolysis of propellants is affected when these energetic additives are used as burning rate modifiers in small percentage (2% by wt.). Ignition delay (tid) measurements on propellants have been conducted to examine the effect of these additives under the condition of rapid heating. The role of these additives on thermal decomposition of oxidizer (AP) is also investigated using simultaneous TG-DTA in N2. Also rapid thermolysis of pure AP as well as AP + additive mixtures was assessed by tid measurement technique. The complexes of Fe and Cu show considerable effect on both slow and rapid thermolysis of propellants and AP.

 

Keywords: Metal complexes, propellants, thermolysis, burning rate, ignition delay

IPC Code: C22B 9/00; F02K 9/10; C06B

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

 Vol. 12, March 2005, pp. 181-186

 

Rubber seed shell carbon as sequestrant of heavy metals and organic compounds from aqueous solution

F E Okieimen*, C O Okieimen & F I Ojokoh

 

Powdered activated carbon was prepared from ammonium chloride activated rubber seed shell at 500 °C and characterized in terms of pH, bulk density, surface area, abrasion resistance and total surface charge. The sorption behaviour of zinc ions and alcohols (methanol, ethanol and n-propanol) on the shell carbon was studied. The removal efficiency of the metal ions was found to depend upon the initial metal ion concentration, with efficiency decreasing with increase in concentration of the metal ions. By fitting the equilibrium sorption data obtained into the Langmuir isotherm equation, values for maximum metal ions binding capacity and affinity (binding) constant of 0.425 mmol/g and 2.614 respectively were determined. The sorption data also fitted the Freundlich isotherm equation, but with relatively lower correlation coefficient, and values for the coefficient and exponent of the isotherm equation of 0.19 and 0.59 respectively were determined. The removal efficiency of the alcohols was measured in terms of changes in the chemical oxygen demand of solutions containing various volume fractions of the alcohols before and after treatment with the shell carbon. Removal efficiency was generally lower than 30%: and corresponded to about 5.82 mg/L/g decrease in chemical oxygen demand; and was highest for n-propanol and lowest for methanol.

 

Keywords: Activated carbon, rubber seed shells, adsorption capacity, zinc ions, alcohols

IPC Code: B01D21/00; C02F1/42

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

 Vol. 12, March 2005, pp. 187-192

 

Synthesis, characterization and thermal behavior of hydrazinium nitroformate (HNF) and its new N-alkyl substituted derivatives

 H S Jadhav, M B Talawar*, D D Dhavalea, S N Asthana & V N Krishnamurthy

 

Two new derivatives of hydrazinium nitroformate (HNF) viz., mono methyl hydrazinium nitroformate (MMHNF) and dimethyl hydrazinium nitroformate (DMHNF) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental, spectral and thermal analysis. The nitration of isopropanol using fuming nitric acid and sulphuric acid yielded nitroform which on neutralization with equivalent quantities of hydrazine hydrate yielded HNF, whereas neutralization with methyl hydrazine and dimethyl hydrazine solution in xylene solvent gave title compounds MMHNF and DMHNF respectively. MMHNF and DMHNF were thermally stable up to 128-137°C whereas the decomposition of HNF commenced at 120°C. The impact sensitivity data established relatively less susceptibility of MMHNF and DMHNF than that of the HNF. Performance of MMHNF and DMHNF was also predicted theoretically by applying Linear Output Thermodynamic User friendly Software for Energetic Systems (LOTUSES) code. Out of the three compounds synthesized, HNF finds potential application as a eco-friendly oxidizer and MMHNF may find application as a potential high performance energetic material and DMHNF appears to be potential ingredient for melt castable high explosive formulations.

 

Keywords: Hydrazinium nitroformate, oxidizers, energetic additives, thermolysis.

IPC Code: G01K; C01B

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 12, March 2005, pp. 193-197

 

High performance paints from a sustainable resource

Sharif Ahmad*, S M Ashraf, S Kumar, Manawwer Alam & Abul Hasnat

 

Epoxy based paints are widely formulated from diglycedyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA). They are foremost anticorrosive industrial paints but show poor outdoor weatherability, low resistance to acids and are susceptible to chalking. In view of the fast depleting stocks of petroleum, DGEBA, one of the petroleum-derived chemicals in paints can be partially or fully replaced by a vegetable oil epoxy, which is a sustainable based resource material. Attempts to obtain usable paints from pure vegetable oil epoxy like epoxidised linseed oil (LOE), by authors have been unsuccessful as it does not form rigid film. To overcome this problem, the oil epoxy was blended with hard polymers like polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene (PS), with a low weight percentage to obtain LOE based compatible blend paints. Such a low quantity of PMMA and PS were found to yield fast setting paint films of good physico-mechanical and anticorrosive characteristics. It was observed that LOE-PMMA-MF paint showed improved performance than DGEBA-Polyamide (PA) paint except against alkali.

 

Keywords: Paint, linseed oil epoxy, poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(styrene).

IPC Code: C09D 163/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 12, March 2005, pp. 198-204

 

Light induced electropolymerization of aniline

Ishwar Das*, Sujeet Kumar Gupta & R S Lall

 

Electropolymerization of aniline has been carried out in the presence of light. The kinetics of polymer growth has been studied in terms of weight of the aggregate as a function of time in the absence and presence of ZnSO4 and found that zinc sulphate inhibited the polymer growth by incorporating itself in the polymer network. An empirical equation w = cemt was obeyed in acid-aniline system while a different equation w12 = m1t + c was obeyed when zinc sulphate was admixed. It indicated that a different mechanism is operative for the polymerization of aniline in the presence of zinc sulphate in acid-aniline system. TG studies reveal that zinc sulphate increases the stability of the polymer. The aggregates were characterized by IR, FAB mass, TG and XRD studies. Analysis of mass spectra shows the possibility of cross linked fragments in the polymer. Oscillatory characteristics have been studied in HCl-aniline system and its dependence on light of different wavelengths, zinc sulphate, applied potential, aniline, HCl and acetonitrile concentrations has also been studied. Polymerization was found to be reduced by 70% in complete darkness.

 

Keywords: Electropolymerization, aniline, TG, XRD, mass spectra.

IPC Code: C07C211/46; C08F2/58

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

 Vol. 12, March 2005, pp. 205-211

 

A mass transfer model for the prediction of permeate concentration during ultrafiltration of methyl violet dye solution

S Chatterjee & D K Acharjee*

 

A mass transfer model is proposed for prediction of permeate concentration and percent rejection at different inlet pressures and feed dye concentrations in membrane ultrafiltration. A differential equation in cylindrical co-ordinates considering the spiral wound membrane equivalent to a cylindrical module is derived which coupled with mass balance and permeate flux equations are solved to yield the theoretical permeate concentration. As the mass transfer coefficient used from literature gave high values for predicted permeate concentration, an empirical correlation for mass transfer coefficient was obtained based on experimental data on the dissolution of solid in aqueous solution from the wall of a hollow cylindrical tube where the mass transfer occurred in the boundary layer. The experimental permeate concentrations agreed reasonably well with those predicted from the model developed.

 

Keywords: Ultrafiltration, permeate concentration, spiral wound module, mass transfer model.

IPC Code: C02F1/00; C02F1/46

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

 Vol. 12, March 2005, pp. 212-219

 

Chaotic analysis of pressure fluctuations in a gas-solid fluidized bed

Pradeep Ahuja*, Harshit Agrawal, Anadi Kishore Sethi & Utpal Raj

 

The aim of the present work is to determine the superficial gas velocity range for which chaos occurs in a gas-solid fluidized bed for various static-bed-height to bed diameter ratios and sand/plastic-bead mixtures and to observe the change in deterministic chaos parameters. Four piezo-resistive pressure transducer along the height of fluidized bed have been used to record pressure fluctuations at 600 Hz. Amplitude Adjusted Fourier Transform (AAFT) technique has been used for generating surrogate data. Data have been analyzed for the superficial gas velocity range of 0 to 16 times the minimum fluidization velocity. For the various static bed heights and sand plastic-bead mixtures it is seen that chaos is observed in the superficial gas velocity range of 8 to 12 times the minimum fluidization velocity. The Hurst exponent rises with superficial gas velocity and then falls after a maximum. The change in the fractal dimension between surrogate and original time series also follows the same trend. The superficial velocity range for which chaos occurs is confirmed when there is change in fractal dimension between original and surrogate series greater than 0.55, Hurst exponent is above 0.5 and Lyapunov exponent is positive.

 

Keywords: Chaotic analysis, pressure fluctuations, gas-solid fluidized bed, Lyapunov exponent, Hurst exponent.

IPC Code: F23C10/00; F23C101/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 12, March 2005, pp. 220-224

 

Inhibition of mild steel corrosion by oleochemical based hydrazides

M A Quraishi*, N Saxena & D Jamal

 

Selected hydrazides of fatty acids with C9–C17 carbon atoms have been synthesized and evaluated as corrosion inhibitors of mild steel (MS) in hydrochloric acid (HCl) solutions by weight loss and potentiodynamic polarization methods. The adsorption of all the hydrazides on mild steel surface in the acid solution has been found to obey Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. The potentiodynamic polarization studies revealed that all compounds block the corrosion reactions. Inhibition efficiency (IE) of these compounds has been found to vary with the concentration of the compound, solution temperature, immersion time and concentration of the acid solution. The values of activation energy (Ea) and free energy of adsorption (DGads) have been calculated to investigate the mechanism of the corrosion inhibition.

 

Keywords: Corrosion inhibition, oleochemical, hydrazines, mild steel, polarization.

IPC Code: C23F11/00; C07C243/00

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 12, March 2005, pp. 225-228

 

Copper and thorium selective new chelating ion exchange resin of mandelic acid

 V R Jeena & C Janardanan*

 

A new copper and thorium selective chelating ion exchanger has been synthesized by condensing mandelic acid with formalin (37%) under alkaline condition using resorcinol as cross-linking agent. The characterization of the resin was done by determining the moisture content of the resin, distribution coefficients for various metal ions, base exchange capacity, pH titration and IR spectra. The sorption and desorption cycles have been examined using a column packed with the resin without any loss of column performance, which indicates the possibility for its reuse. The developed column technique has been used for the binary separations Mg2+/Cu2+, Zn2+/Pb2+, Mg2+/Pb2+, Zn2+/Th4+, Al3+/Th4+, Mg2+/Al3+ and Mg2+/Ca2+. The separation performed on the ion exchange column is very important for the environmentalists.

 

Keywords: Chelating ion-exchanger, mandelic acid, resorcinol formaldehyde, distribution coefficient, base exchange capacity, pH titration, column technique, binary separation

IPC Code: C08J 5/22

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 12, March. 2005, pp. 229-231

 

Determination of heavy metals in selected drug substances by inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry

A S R Krishna Murty*, U C Kulshresta, T Nageswara Rao & M V N Kumar Talluri

 

Heavy metal contents in dicyclomineHCl, ethambutol, pyrazinamide and furazolidone drugs were determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) - mass spectrometry (MS). The drugs were analyzed for Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Pb metals by selecting a suitable isotope. Cr, Fe, Ti and Cu were observed to be highest in dicyclomineHCl, ethambutol, pyrazinamide and furazolidone respectively. Ni and Hg were absent in all the four drugs, while traces of Cd were present in ethambutol and pyrazinamide. Analytical results showed that ICP-MS method is useful for monitoring inorganic impurities present in such drugs.

 

Keywords:  Inductivity coupled plasma, heavy metal determination, dicyclomineHCl, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, furazolidone.

IPC Code: G01J 3/00; C22B 4/04

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 12, March 2005, pp. 232-243

                                                                          

 

Catalytic Hydrogenation

Jaime Wisniak*

 

Development of catalytic hydrogenation is one of the most significant chapters in theoretical and applied chemistry, which led to the opening of a whole series of new industries, particularly in the petrochemical area. The mechanism for a catalytic reaction involving the presence of an intermediate complex formed by the catalysts and one of the reagents, which eventually led to our present understanding of the phenomenon was suggested by Paul Sabatier. For his achievements in the development of catalytic processes Sabatier was awarded the 1912 Nobel Prize of chemistry, together with Victor Grignard.