Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

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VOLUME 15

NUMBER 2

MARCH 2008

CODEN:ICHTEU

 

ISSN:0971-457X

 

CONTENTS

 

Paper

 

 

MBR-a promising technology for wastewater treatment: An overview

101

        M A Islam, M S I Mozumder & M T Uddin

 

 

Separation of cadmium ions and estimation of membrane transport parameters of a nanofiltration membrane

 

107

        Z V P Murthy & Latesh B Chaudhari

 

 

Mass transfer characteristics in extraction by emulsion liquid membrane system -immobilized emulsion phase

113

        D Mondal, D Saha, A Bhowal & S Datta

 

 

Mathematical model for a multiple effect evaporator system with condensate-, feed-and product-flash and steam splitting

 

118

        Ravindra Bhargava, Shabina Khanam, Bikash Mohanty & Amiya K Ray

 

 

Removal of basic and acidic dyes from aqueous solution by adsorption on a low cost activated carbon: Kinetic and thermodynamic study

 

130

        S Arivoli, M Sundaravadivelu & K P Elango

 

 

Removal of dyes using low cost adsorbents

140

        V K Verma & A K Mishra

 

 

Adsorption of dyes on sawdust phosphate: Kinetics and equilibrium studies

146

        Aditya Prakash, Sangeeta Solanki & PTSRK Prasada Rao

 

 

A study on brightening property of newly synthesized compound in electroplating of zinc-nickel alloy

 

155

        H B Muralidhara, Y Arthoba Naik, H P Sachin & T V Venkatesha

 

 

Electrochemical study of the mechanism of interaction of 1,2,3-benzotriazole on SS304 surface in HCl medium

 

163

        A K Satpati, M M Palrecha & R I Sundaresan

 

 

Effect of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) on corrosion of metallic fasteners: Implications in boat building

 

168

        M Ajith Peter & Leela Edwin

 

 

Corrosion characteristics of mild steel in aqueous solution of formic acid containing some acetic acid

 

174

        S K Singh, Ashim K Mukherjee & M M Singh

 

Dissolution kinetics of calcined chalcopyrite ore in sulphuric acid solution

180

        Mustafa Gulfen & Ali Osman Aydin

 

 

Determination of palladium using 2-thiobarbituric acid as a releasing agent

186

        J Karthikeyan, P Parameshwara, A Nityananda Shetty & Prakash Shetty

 

 

Notes

 

o-Chlorophenol anchored tin antimonate: An ion exchanger for separation of heavy metals

190

        P G Chithra & B Beena

 

 

Spectrophotometric determination of eprosartan mesylate in raw material and experimental tablets

 

194

        M M Kamila, N Mondal & L K Ghosh

 

 

Synthesis and photoinduced conductivity changes of polyesters with ortho-hydroxyazo groups

197

        K R Girijan & E Purushothaman

 

 

 

Author Index

201

 

 

Keyword Index

202

 

 

Guidelines for Authors

203

 

  

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, March 2008, pp. 101-106

 

MBR- a promising technology for wastewater treatment: An overview

M A Islam*, M S I Mozumder & M T Uddin

 

The principle of degradation of organic hazardous matters in wastewater by microorganism has been discussed. It is shown how the mechanism of biodegradation is successfully used in conventional activated sludge processes for wastewater treatment, and also in advanced technologies as Membrane Bioreactor (MBR). The MBR systems are compared with conventional wastewater treatment systems, and the advantages of the first over the second have been clearly pointed out. Membrane fouling, membrane regeneration, the progress in the design and the application of the MBR system in the developed countries have also been briefly discussed. It is concluded that the replacement of polymeric membrane by locally manufactured filtration units in a MBR could be highly inspiring for small and medium scale industries in the developing world to build their effluent treatment plant based on MBR principle.

Keywords: Membrane, Bioreactor, Fouling, Activated sludge, Biodegradation, Wastewater treatment

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, March 2008, pp. 107-112

 

Separation of cadmium ions and estimation of membrane transport parameters of a nanofiltration membrane

 

Z V P Murthy* & Latesh B Chaudhari

 

Nanofiltration (NF) has been widely used to separate solutes from dilute solutions where, in general, high rejection of the solute is not required. In the present work, performance of a commercial TFC-NF-300 membrane has been studied to separate cadmium salt from dilute synthetic wastewaters at different operating conditions. The operating variables studied are applied pressure (3-20 atm), feed salt concentration (10-250 ppm) and feed flowrates. The feed and permeates are analyzed for solute concentration by conductivity method, which represents well for the concentration of a single metal solute in a solution. It is observed that the rejection of cadmium ions increases with increase in feed pressure and decreases with increase in feed concentration at constant feed flowrate. The maximum observed rejection efficiency of the metal is found to be 75.76 and 61.47% for an initial feed concentration of 10 and 250 ppm, respectively. Membrane transport parameters are estimated using Spiegler-Kedem model based on irreversible thermodynamics.

Keywords: Nanofiltration, Rejection, Permeate flux, Cadmium, Membrane transport model

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, March 2008, pp. 113-117

 

Mass transfer characteristics in extraction by emulsion liquid membrane system – immobilized emulsion phase

D Mondal, D Saha, A Bhowal* & S Datta

 

Continuous extraction by an emulsion liquid membrane system is usually carried out by countercurrent contact of the two phases in devices like packed columns, mechanical agitated columns, etc. In contrast to the conventional modes of contact where both phases flow continuously, in this work one phase –the emulsion phase is immobilized in the pores of a porous bed while the other phase – the feed solution flows continuously through this bed. The effect of feed concentration, chemical reagent concentration, feed velocity and bed height on the mass transfer performance of this contactor has been studied. Artificial neural network with radial basis transfer function was used to model experimental time dependent exit stream concentration.

Keywords: Emulsion liquid membrane, Packed bed, Immobilization, Artificial neural network

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, March 2008, pp. 118-129

 

Mathematical model for a multiple effect evaporator system with condensate-, feed- and product- flash and steam splitting

Ravindra Bhargavaa, Shabina Khanamb*, Bikash Mohantya & Amiya K Rayc

 

In the present investigation a non-linear mathematical model is developed for the analysis of multiple effect evaporators (MEE) system. This model is capable of simulating process of evaporation and takes into account variations in -boiling point rise (BPR) due to variation in concentration and temperature of liquor, -overall heat transfer coefficient (OHTC) of effects and -physico-thermal property of the liquor. Using mass and energy balance around an effect, a cubic polynomial equation is developed to model an effect, which is solved using generalized cascade algorithm. For this purpose, a Septuple effect flat falling film evaporator (SEFFFE) system with backward feed flow sequence, being used for concentrating weak black liquor and operating in a near by paper mill, is selected as a typical MEE system. This system supports different operating strategies such as steam splitting and condensate-, feed- and product- flashing. The empirical correlations for BPR, OHTCs of flat falling film evaporators and heat loss have been developed using the plant data. Using these correlations, average errors of 3.4%, ± 10% and –33 to +29% have been observed for the predictions of BPR, OHTC and heat loss, respectively.

Keywords: Mathematical model, Flat falling film evaporator, Empirical correlations, Overall heat transfer coefficient, Heat loss

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, March 2008, pp. 130-139

 

Removal of basic and acidic dyes from aqueous solution by adsorption on a low cost activated carbon: Kinetic and thermodynamic study

 

S Arivoli, M Sundaravadivelu & K P Elango*

 

Batch experiments were carried out for the sorption of Congo red (CR), Malachite green (MG), Rhodamine B (RDB) and Rose Bengal (RB) dyes onto acid activated carbon prepared from a plant material, Aloe barbadensis Mill. The operating variables studied were initial dye concentration, pH, temperature and contact time. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations. From this, adsorption efficiency, adsorption energy, adsorption capacity, intensity of adsorption and dimensionless separation factor were calculated. The amounts of CR, MG, RDB and RB removed from a 60 mg L-1 of the dye solution at 30°C are 21.17, 26.19, 8.50 and 3.62 mg g-1, respectively. The results of these studies indicate that the adsorption is favourable. From the kinetic studies, the rate constant values for the adsorption process were calculated. The thermodynamic parameters like ∆G°, ∆H°, and ∆S° indicate that the adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous in nature. The mechanism of the adsorption of dyes onto the adsorbent has been investigated by using the experimental results and confirmed by FT IR, XRD and SEM images.

Keywords: Adsorption, Dyes, Kinetic, Thermodynamic, Activated carbon

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, March 2008, pp. 140-145

 

Removal of dyes using low cost adsorbents

 

V K Verma* & A K Mishra

 

The low cost adsorbents namely Rice Husk Carbon (RHC), Wheat Straw Carbon (WSC) and Saw Dust Carbon (SDC) have been tested for the effectiveness in decolourisation of wastewater containing a mixture of dyes. Three dyes namely crystal violet, direct orange and magenta have been used for imparting colour in the representative samples of wastewater. Effect of various parameters such as agitation time, pH, temperature and adsorbent dosage has been investigated in the study. The adsorption of dyes are best described by pseudo first order mechanism. The rate constants of adsorption (Kad)
for the three dyes have been determined for the three adsorbents separately which are found to be 6.8
´10-3, 8´10-3 and 25´10-3 min-1 for crystal violet, 8´10-3, 12´10-3 and 16´10-3 min-1 for direct orange and 10´10-3, 10.6´10-3 and  6´10-3 min-1 for magenta when treated with RHC, WSC and SDC respectively.

Keywords: Adsorbents, Dyes, Decolourisation, Rice husk carbon, Wheat straw carbon, Saw dust carbon

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, March 2008, pp. 146-154

 

Adsorption of dyes on sawdust phosphate: Kinetics and equilibrium studies

Aditya Prakash, Sangeeta Solanki & PTSRK Prasada Rao*

 

The distribution coefficients, Kd, for navy brown 3REL, direct red, procion red H8B, methylene blue, metamega chrome yellow and lanasyn green 5 GL, solar violet and procion blue H5G from their aqueous solutions, at pH 3.2 and 7.5 on saw-dust phosphate (SDP) have been reported. Effect of pH and added surfactant concentration on the percent removal of lanasyn green 5 GL has been studied. Percent dye removal increases with the decrease in pH. The applicability of the Freundlich and Langmuir equation has been tested for equilibrium data of which Langmuir isotherm model is found to be most appropriate. The values of Langmuir and Freundlich constants as well as the distribution constants show that SDP is a good adsorbent for all dyes, being better for basic dyes. The kinetics of adsorption of lanasyn green 5 GL on SDP was investigated at pH 3.2 and temperatures 25, 30, 35 and 40oC. It is first order with respect to the dye and less than unity with respect to SDP. The values of kad, kp and kf at 30o was found to be 2.18 ´ 10-4 s-1, 15.33 ´ 10-5 s-1 and 20.72 ´ 10-4 s-1 respectively.

Keywords: Adsorption, Sawdust phosphate, Textile effluents, Adsorption isotherms

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, March 2008, pp. 155-162

 

A study on brightening property of newly synthesized compound in
electroplating of zinc-nickel alloy

H B Muralidhara, Y Arthoba Naik*, H P Sachin & T V Venkatesha

 

The electrodeposition of zinc-nickel (Zn-Ni) alloy from chloride bath was carried out in presence of condensation product formed between thiamine hydrochloride (THC) and furfural (FFL). The bath constituents were optimized through Hull cell experiments. Operating parameters such as pH, temperature and current density were also optimized. Current efficiency and throwing power were measured. Polarization study revealed shift of potential towards negative direction in the presence of addition agents. Corrosion resistance tests revealed good protection of base metal by Zn-Ni alloy deposit. SEMs showed fine-grained deposit in the presence of condensation product. FTIR spectrum of the scrapped deposit showed the inclusion of condensation product in the deposit during plating. The consumption of brightenerin the lab scale was 5 mLL-1 for 1000 amp-h.

Keywords: Chloride bath, Electroplating of zinc-nickel, Furfural, Hull cell studies, Thiamine hydrochloride

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, March 2008, pp. 163-167

 

Electrochemical study of the mechanism of interaction of 1,2,3-benzotriazole on SS304 surface in HCl medium

 

A K Satpati*, M M Palrecha & R I Sundaresan

 

The interaction of 1,2,3, benzotriazole (BTAH) on austenitic stainless steel in HCl medium was studied. The results are compared with some reported results. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) at the OCP at different concentrations of BTAH and potentiodynamic polarization were also studied to ascertain the mechanism of dissolution of SS304 in presence and in the absence of BTAH. Parameters like, polarization resistance (Rp), double layer capacitance (Cdl), percentage of surface coverage, etc. were calculated. It was observed that the adsorption of BTAH followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. EIS experiments were performed at different bias potentials. From the measured polarization resistance and capacitance value the potential of zero charge (PZC) of SS304 in 0.2 M HCl was estimated. Adsorption of the inhibitor followed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

Keywords: Benzotriazole (BTAH), Stainless steel 304, EIS, Corrosion inhibitor

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, March 2008, pp. 168-173

 

Effect of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) on corrosion of metallic fasteners: Implications in boat building

 

M Ajith Peter & Leela Edwin*

 

Wooden boat building involves the use of metal fasteners made of iron, copper etc. The scarcity of durable wood necessitates wood preservation. When preservative treated wood is nailed, the possibility of corrosion of the nail cannot be ignored. This demands further studies on the performance of the nail with respect to its resistance to corrosion. The main aim of this study is to find out the rate of corrosion of copper, iron, painted iron nails and galvanized iron screws drawn into rubber wood treated to three different retentions of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) viz. 16, 29, 42 kgm-3 and wood without any treatment. The experiments were conducted both in the laboratory and under estuarine conditions. The rate of corrosion is estimated by weight loss method. The results show that CCA does not affect corrosion in 16 and 29 kgm-3 retentions to a significant level, but in 42 kgm-3 retention, the corrosion rate is found to be accelerated significantly when analysed statistically. It can be concluded that in lower retentions, CCA does not influence corrosion of fasteners. The rate of corrosion is least in galvanized iron and painting of iron nail is found to effectively reduce corrosion.

Keywords: Corrosion, Fasteners, CCA, Rubber wood, Salt spray chamber

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, March 2008, pp. 174-179

 

Corrosion characteristics of mild steel in aqueous solution of formic acid containing some acetic acid

 

S K Singh, Ashim K Mukherjee* & M M Singh

 

Weight loss and potentiostatic techniques were used at 25, 35 and 45°C to investigate the corrosion behaviour of mild steel in aqueous solution of formic acid containing different amounts of acetic acid, maintaining the total concentration of the acids at 20%. It was found that the corrosion rate of mild steel in the mixture of the two acids is a function of acid composition and temperature. The maximum corrosion rate was observed in 20:0 % (formic:acetic) acid solutions by both techniques. The corrosion rate of mild steel in the aqueous mixture of formic and acetic acid having different compositions (%) followed the order 20:0> 19:1>18:2> 15:5> 10:10. Active corrosion behaviour of mild steel was observed over the whole range of potentials at each composition and temperature. The cathodic polarisation curves were almost identical irrespective of the composition of the two acids in the mixture.

Keywords: Mild steel, Acetic acid, Formic acid, Corrosion, Passivity

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, March 2008, pp. 180-185

 

Dissolution kinetics of calcined chalcopyrite ore in sulphuric acid solution

 

Mustafa Gülfen* & Ali Osman Aydin

 

The dissolution kinetics of the primary calcined chalcopyrite ore from Damar mine area in Artvin city, Turkey was investigated in sulphuric acid solution. The ore was calcined for 1, 2 and 3 h at 373, 473, 573, ....1273 K temperatures. Then the calcined samples were dissolved in sulphuric acid solution. The calcination temperature and time, sulphuric acid concentration, solid/liquid ratio, agitation rate, particle size, dissolution temperature and time were determined. In addition the sulphation of the sulphide ore between 573-1073 K temperatures was examined. Finally, the activation energy in the dissolution was calculated as 4.04 kJ/mole for the calcined chalcopyrite ore. It was found that the dissolution process was controlled by limit film diffusion.

Keywords: Chalcopyrite, Calcination, Thermal analysis, XRD analysis, Sulphation, Dissolution kinetics

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, March 2008, pp. 186-189

 

Determination of palladium using 2-thiobarbituric acid as a releasing agent

 

J Karthikeyan, P Parameshwara, A Nityananda Shetty* & Prakash Shetty

 

A simple, rapid and accurate complexometric method for the determination of palladium(II) is proposed, based on the selective masking property of 2-thiobarbituric acid towards palladium(II). In the presence of diverse metal ions, palladium(II) is complexed with excess of EDTA and the surplus EDTA is back titrated with standard zinc sulphate solution at pH 5 – 6 (acetic acid - sodium acetate buffer) using xylenol orange as indicator. An excess of a 0.3% solution of 2-TBA is then added to displace EDTA from Pd(II)-EDTA complex. The released EDTA is titrated with the same standard zinc sulphate solution as before. Reproducible and accurate results are obtained in the concentration range 1.30 - 20.00 mg of palladium with relative error of 0.50% and coefficient of variation not exceeding 0.45%. The effects of diverse ions are studied. The method is used for the determination of palladium in alloys, hydrogenation catalyst and complexes.

Keywords: Complexometric method, Palladium determination, 2-Thiobarbituric acid

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, March 2008, pp. 190-193

 

o-Chlorophenol anchored tin antimonate: An ion exchanger for
separation of heavy metals

 

P G Chithra* & B Beena

 

An inorgano-organic ion exchanger (SnSboCP) has been prepared by anchoring o-chlorophenol onto tin antimonate (SnSb). The ion exchanger has been characterized by elemental, spectral and thermal analysis. Chemical stability of the exchanger in acidic, basic and organic media has been assessed. Ion exchange capacity (i.e.c) has been determined and distribution behaviour towards several metal ions in different electrolyte solutions with varying concentrations has been studied and a few binary separations achieved.

Keywords: Ion-exchanger, Tin antimonate, o-Chlorophenol, Binary separation

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, March 2008, pp. 194-196

 

Spectrophotometric determination of eprosartan mesylate in raw material and experimental tablets

M M Kamila, N Mondal & L K Ghosh*

 

A simple, sensitive and accurate UV spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of eprosartan mesylate in raw material and experimental tablets. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range 2-30 μg mL-1 for the drug (λ = 232 nm) with an apparent molar absorptivity and Sandell sensitivity of 2.8 × 104 L.mol-1cm-1 and 0. 01854 µg cm-2/0.001A, respectively. The limits of detection and quantitation were calculated to be 0.3623 and 1.098 µg mL-1, respectively. Results were validated statistically according to ICH guidelines. Validation of the method yielded good results in the concerning range (2-30 µg mL-1), linearity (r2 = 0.9998), precision and accuracy. The excipients present in the experimental tablets did not interfere with the method.

Keywords: Eprosartan mesylate, UV spectrophotometry

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, March 2008, pp. 197-200

 

Synthesis and photoinduced conductivity changes of polyesters
with ortho-hydroxyazo groups

 

K R Girijan* & E Purushothaman

 

The synthesis and photoinduced changes in conductivity of polyesters with ortho-hydroxyazo groups in the polymer backbone are presented. Reversible photoincrease in conductivity was observed. A reasonable explanation to this effect has been offered.

KeywordsPhotoinduced conductivity, Synthesis, Polyesters