Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

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VOLUME 15

NUMBER 5

SEPTEMBER 2008

CODEN:ICHTEU

 

ISSN:0971-457X

 

CONTENTS

 

Papers

 

 

Separation of Zn(II) by sorption onto powdered marble wastes

433

S E Ghazy & A H M Gad

 

 

Removal of acid brown 348 dye from aqueous solution by ultrasound irradiated

 

exfoliated graphite

443

Ya-Li Song, Ji-Tai Li & Hua Chen

 

 

Production of cellulase and xylanase by Trichoderma reesei (QM 9414 mutant),

Aspergillus niger and mixed culture by solid state fermentation (SSF) of water

hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

 

 

449

S K Deshpande, M G Bhotmange, T Chakrabarti & P N Shastri

 

 

Greaseproof paper from Banana (Musa paradisica L.) pulp fibre

457

T Goswami, Dipul Kalita & P G Rao

 

 

Methyl orange as corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in well water

462

J Sathiyabama, Susai Rajendran, J Arockia Selvi & A John Amalraj

 

 

Investigation of acid oil as a source of biodiesel

467

B M Kulkarni, B G Pujar & S Shanmukhappa

 

 

Electrochemical behaviour of famotidine in pharmaceutical formulation at

composite polymer membrane electrode

472

D C Tiwari, Rajeev Jain & Gaurav Sahu

 

 

Electrchemical detection of heparin based on its interaction with acridine orange

476

Xueliang Niu, Wei Sun, Na Zhao & Kui Jiao

 

 

Recovery of boron from wastewater using 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol in

carbon tetrachloride

483

Debasish Mohapatra, Gautam Roy Chaudhury & Kyung Ho Park

 

 

Spectrophotometric determination of sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate using

congo red

488

Xiang-Hu Liu, Jing-Bai, Qing-Xu, Jiao-Rong Ren, He-Ping Zhao & Hong-

Wen Gao

 

 

Indirect complexometric determination of mercury(II) using 3-acetyl-2-thiohydantoin

as a selective masking agent

493

J Karthikeyan, P Parameshwara & A Nityananda Shetty

 

Notes

 

 

 

Microcrystalline cellulose from bagasse and rice straw

497

Ambuj Ilindra & J D Dhake

 

 

Fluoride removal from water by adsorption on acid activated kaolinite clay

500

Pradip K Gogoi & Ruby Baruah

 

 

Voltammetric trace determination of sub-mg level chlorate in natural waters

504

P Sharma & S Songara

 

 

Studies on the degreasing of skin using enzyme in liming process

507

Altan Afsar & Fatma Cetinkaya

 

 

Distribution of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in chrome tanned leather

511

Bahri Basaran, Mete Ulas, Behzat Oral Bitlisli & Ahmet Aslan

 

 

 

 

Author Index

 

515

Keyword Index

 

516

Guidelines for Authors

517

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, September 2008, pp. 433-442

 

 

Separation of Zn(II) by sorption onto powdered marble wastes

 

S E Ghazy* & A H M Gad

 

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, P. O. Box 66, Mansoura, Egypt

Email: ghazyse@mans.edu.eg

 

Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to remove Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions and water samples using powdered marble wastes (PMW) as an effective sorbent which is inexpensive, widespread, and considered as an environmental problem. The parameters such as solution pH, sorbent and Zn(II) concentrations, stirring times, foreign ions and temperature were investigated. The sorption of Zn(II) ions onto (PMW) is described by Langmuir model. Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm model was also applied to describe the nature of the adsorption of the metal. Thermodynamic parameters, viz. the Gibbs free energy change (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were also calculated. These parameters indicated that the adsorption process of Zn(II) ions on PMW was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Under the optimum experimental conditions employed, the removal of ~100% of Zn(II) ions was attained. The procedure was successfully applied to remove Zn(II) ions from aqueous and different natural water samples. The adsorption mechanism is also suggested.

Keywords: Zinc(II) sorption, Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm, Marble waste, Natural water

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, September 2008, pp. 443-448

 

 

Removal of acid brown 348 dye from aqueous solution by ultrasound
irradiated exfoliated graphite

 

Ya-Li Songa,b, Ji-Tai Lia,* & Hua Chena

 

aCollege of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Key Laboratory of Analytical Science and Technology of Hebei Province, Baoding 071002, P R China

bCollege of Vocational and Technological Sanitation, Hebei University, Baoding 071000, P R China

Email: lijitai@hbu.edu.cn

 

Acid brown 348 dye was removed from aqueous solution using ultrasound-assisted adsorption on exfoliated graphite. The effects of relevant parameters, namely, contact time, sorbent dosage, temperature, initial dye concentration and pH have been investigated. The results show that ultrasound irradiation significantly improves removal of acid brown 348 from aqueous solutions in presence of exfoliated graphite. The ultrasound/exfoliated graphite process yielded 90% removal rate within 120 min using 2.0 g L-1 exfoliated graphite at pH 1 and 40C.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Acid brown 348, Exfoliated graphite, Decolourization

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, September 2008, pp. 449-456

 

 

Production of cellulase and xylanase by Trichoderma reesei (QM 9414 mutant), Aspergillus niger and mixed culture by solid state fermentation (SSF) of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

 

S K Deshpandea, M G Bhotmangeb, T Chakrabartic & P N Shastrib*

 

aDepartment of Scientific and Industrial Research, Ministry of Science & Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India

bDepartment of Food Technology, Laxminarayan Institute of Technology,

RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur 440 033, India

cBiotechnology Division, NEERI, Nagpur 440 020, India

Email: pnslit@yahoo.com

Studies on cellulase production by Trichoderma reesei QM 9414 mutant (T. reesei M) and Phanerochaete chrysosporium in flask culture indicated suitability of water hyacinth (WH) as a substitute for conventional wheat bran (WB) medium by Solid-State Fermentation (SSF). Maximum cellulase production was obtained with T. reesei M on WH substrate with Toyoma Ogowa (TO) medium at liquid /solid ratio of 2.5, and incubation period of 10 days. However,T. reesei M failed to produce β-glucosidase on WH medium. Further experiments on cellulase and xylanase production were performed in Solid State Cabinet Fermenter (SSCF) to resemble conditions in tray fermenter. As compared to the flask culture, cellulase production by T. reesei M was more in SSCF, and supplementation of TO medium with whey (40%) and peptone (0.15%) further enhanced production of both cellulase complex and xylanase by 2-3 fold. When Aspergillus niger was used in combination with T. reesei M, production of both cellulase and xylanase was enhanced considerably. The synergistic effect may be attributed to the β-glucosidase production by A. niger which could eliminate the inhibitory effect of cellobiose.

Keywords: Cellulase, Xylanase, Water hyacinth, Solid State Fermentation, Trichoderma reesei (QM9414 mutant), Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus niger, Mixed culture fermentation

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, September 2008, pp. 457-461

 

 

Greaseproof paper from Banana (Musa paradisica L.) pulp fibre

T Goswami, Dipul Kalita* & P G Rao

 

North East Institute of Science and Technology (CSIR), Jorhat 785 006, India
Email: dipkalita_2001@yahoo.co.in

 

Utilization of banana pulp fibre for producing greaseproof paper has been investigated. The morphological characteristics of plant and fibre, chemical constituents of the sheath, characteristics of pulp and physical strength properties of hand sheet of 45+5 gsm made from banana pulp alone or in combination with bamboo pulp fibre are presented. Results of the laboratory investigation show that Musa paradisica contain high quantity of gums and mucilage inside the sheaths. The pentosan content (13.5%) may also impart the greaseproof properties. The drainage time of the banana pulp increases with the increase of beating time. At 800SR freeness, the pulp becomes hydrated and forms a jelly like stock. The paper made out of this hydrated pulp stock shows the characteristics of greaseproof paper with burst index 6.10 kpam2g-1, tear index 7.00 mNm2g-1 and tensile index 51.2 N mg-1 with very good blister and oil resistibility. The physical strength properties of the paper may further be enhanced by incorporating 20% bamboo pulp beaten up to 850SR freeness and mixed with banana semi bleached pulp stock beaten up to 850SR freeness.

Keywords: Banana sheath, Hydration, Hemicellulose, Greaseproof paper, Musa paradisica

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, September 2008, pp. 462-466

 

 

Methyl orange as corrosion inhibitor for carbon steel in well water

J Sathiyabama, Susai Rajendran*, J Arockia Selvi & A John Amalraj1

 

Corrosion Research Centre, Department of Chemistry, GTN Arts College, Dindigul 624 005, India

1Department of Chemistry, Loyola College, Chennai, India

Email: srmjoany@sify.com

 

The corrosion inhibition efficiency of methyl orange in controlling corrosion of carbon steel immersed in well water has been evaluated by weight loss method both in absence and presence of zinc ion. A synergistic effect exists between methyl orange (MO) and Zn2+. The inhibition efficiency (IE) of the MO Zn2+ system decreases with increase in immersion period. Polarization study suggests that the MO-Zn2+ system functions as a mixed inhibitor system. FTIR spectra indicate that the protective film consists of Fe2+ - MO complex and Zn(OH)2.

Keywords: Carbon steel, Corrosion inhibition, Methyl orange, Zinc ion

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, September 2008, pp. 467-471

 

 

Investigation of acid oil as a source of biodiesel

 

B M Kulkarni, B G Pujar & S Shanmukhappa*

 

Chemistry Research Centre, Bapuji Institute of Engineering and Technology, Davangere 577 004, India

Email: drsschemical@yahoo.com

 

Acid oil which is a byproduct of vegetable oil industry has been investigated for its suitability as a source of biodiesel, as it is economic and readily available in considerable quantities at most of vegetable oil refinery sites. The biodiesel from acid oil is produced by a new type of ED3R esterification process developed at the Institute. Fuel properties of biodiesel thus produced are compared with standard biodiesel and diesel fuel. Blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel are prepared. Fuel property variations of biodiesel blends produced are reported.

Keywords: Acid oil, Biodiesel, Biodiesel blend, Fuel property variation

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, September 2008, pp. 472-475

 

 

Electrochemical behaviour of famotidine in pharmaceutical formulation at composite polymer membrane electrode

D C Tiwaria, Rajeev Jainb,* & Gaurav Sahub

 

aSchool of Studies in Physics, bSchool of Studies in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, India

Email: rajeevjain54@yahoo.co.in

 

Electrochemical behaviour of famotidine has been studied at composite polymer membrane working electrode. Cyclic voltammetric method has been developed for the determination of drug in pharmaceutical formulation. A well-defined anodic peak was observed for famotidine in the entire pH range. The current increases steadily with scan rate and concentration. This composite film showed good catalytic behaviour, which includes a good current response. The result is compared with the glassy carbon electrode and it was found that the current with composite polymer electrode is of the order of 18.60 mA whereas with glassy carbon electrode it was around 565.00 A.

Keywords: Famotidine, Composite polymer electrode, Cyclic voltammetry, Glassy carbon electrode

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, September 2008, pp. 476-482

 

 

Electrochemical detection of heparin based on its interaction with acridine orange

Xueliang Niu, Wei Sun*, Na Zhao & Kui Jiao

 

College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, Peoples Republic of China

Email: sunwei@qust.edu.cn

 

The interaction of acridine orange (AO) with heparin was studied by voltammetric method. In Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffer solution (pH 2.3), AO showed a sensitive linear sweep voltammetric reductive peak at -0.94 V (vs. SCE). The addition of heparin into the AO solution caused a decrease in the reductive peak current without any change in the peak potential. The results indicated that a reaction occurred between the positively charged AO and the negatively charged heparin, which led to the decrease of the free AO concentration and subsequent decrease of the reductive peak current of AO. Under the optimal conditions, the decrease of reductive peak current of AO was proportional to heparin concentration in the range of 0.8-6.0 mg L-1 and the data reductive peak current were correlated as ∆ip″(nA)=807.58 C (mg L-1)-542.51 (n=10, correlation coefficient γ=0.995) and the detection limit was calculated as 0.13 mg L-1 (3 S0/S). The new method was successfully applied to the determination of heparin content in heparin sodium injection samples with satisfactory results and good recovery. The interaction of the reactants was also confirmed by UV-Vis absorption spectrophotometric experiments.

Keywords: Heparin, Acridine orange, Voltammetric determination

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, September 2008, pp. 483-487

 

 

Recovery of boron from wastewater using 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol in carbon tetrachloride

Debasish Mohapatra1*, Gautam Roy Chaudhury2 & Kyung Ho Park3

 

1DAEIL Development Co. Ltd. R&D Centre, Ansan 425 836, Korea

2Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (IMMT), Bhubaneswar 751 013, India

3Minerals and Materials Processing Division, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM),
Daejeon 305 350, Korea

Email: m_debasish2001@yahoo.com

 

A process was developed to recover boron from the waste stream of liquid crystal display (LCD) industry using 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol dissolved in carbon tetrachloride as an extractant. Several parameters such as contact time, boron concentration in the aqueous phase, extractant concentration, equilibrium pH and phase ratio were studied for process optimization. Equilibrium conditions for boron recovery were optimized from the batch test results as: 2 stages of extraction and 2 stages of stripping with an organic: aqueous (O:A) ratio of 1. Maximum boron extraction was achieved at a pH range of 1.0 - 6.0. Overall 95.6% boron recovery was achieved under the best experimental conditions.

Keywords: LCD industry, 2,2,4-Trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol, Boron extraction, Solvent extraction

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, September 2008, pp. 488-492

 

 

Spectrophotometric determination of sodium dodecylbenzene sulphonate using congo red

 

Xiang-Hu Liu, Jing-Bai, Qing-Xu, Jiao-Rong Ren, He-Ping Zhao & Hong-Wen Gao*

 

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering,
Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, P R China

Email: emsl@mail.tongji.edu.cn

 

A new spectrophotometric method is developed to determine sodium dodecylbenezene sulphonate (SDBS) in natural water without the use of organic hydrophobic solvents and two-phase extraction. In BR buffer solution (pH 2.03), SDBS replaces sodium diphenyl diazo-bis-a-naphthylamine-4-sulphonate (Congo red, CR) in CR-cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) system. Application of absorbance ratio difference (ARD) to this replacement reaction gives a new spectrophotometric method for the determination of SDBS. The absorbance measurements are made at 590 nm and 469 nm. Results have shown that absorbance ratio difference (DAr) gives linear curve in the range of 3.3 -139.4 mg/L for SDBS. The limit of determination of SDBS (3δ/k) is 1.1 mg/L. The method has been employed to determine SDBS in natural water with satisfactory results. Relative standard deviation was less than 5%, and the recovery was about 103.7%. The method is comparable to new methylene blue (NMB) method.

Keywords:  Linear alkylbenezene sulphobates, Sodium dodecylbenezene sulphonate, Cetylpyridinium chloride, Congo red, Absorbance ratio difference

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, September 2008, pp. 493-496

 

 

Indirect complexometric determination of mercury(II) using 3-acetyl-
2-thiohydantoin as a selective masking agent

 

J Karthikeyana, P Parameshwarab & A Nityananda Shettyb*

 

aDepartment of Chemistry, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600 119, India

bDepartment of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal,

Srinivasnagar 575 025, India

Email: nityashreya@rediffmail.com

 

A complexometric method for the determination of mercury(II) in presence of other metal ions is described based on the selective masking action of 3-acetyl-2-thiohydantoin towards mercury(II). Mercury(II) present in a given sample solution is first complexed with an excess of EDTA and the unreacted EDTA is titrated against standard lead nitrate solution at pH 5-6 (hexamine buffer) using xylenol orange as the indicator. A 0.5% solution of 3-acetyl-2-thiohydantoin is then added to displace EDTA from the Hg(II)-EDTA complex. The released EDTA is estimated. Reproducible and accurate results are obtained for 3.96 - 80 mg of mercury(II) with relative error less than 0.25% and coefficient of variation not more than 0.38%. The effects of various ions were studied. The method is used for the analysis of mercury in its synthetic mixtures of ions and in complexes.

Keywords: Mercury(II), 3-Acetyl-2-thiohydantoin, Complexometric titration

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, September 2008, pp. 497-499

 

 

Microcrystalline cellulose from bagasse and rice straw

Ambuj Ilindra* & J D Dhake

 

Department of Pulp and Paper Technology,
Laxminarayan Institute of Technology, Nagpur 440 010, India

Email: ambuj.i@rediffmail.com

 

Microcrystalline cellulose from two different locally available lignocellulosic materials, namely bagasse and rice straw has been prepared by simple process of hydrolysis. The different characteristics of prepared microcrystalline cellulose were determined and are found to be comparable with the characteristics of commercially available microcrystalline cellulose and the specifications given by Indian Standards.

Keywords: Microcrystalline cellulose, Bagasse, Rice straw

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, September 2008, pp. 500-503

 

 

Fluoride removal from water by adsorption on acid activated kaolinite clay

Pradip K Gogoi *& Ruby Baruah

 

Department of Chemistry, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh, 786 004, India

Email: dr_pradip@yahoo.com

 

When drinking water contains excess fluoride it causes health hazards to human beings. In the present investigation the removal of fluoride has been attempted using acid activated kaolinite clay obtained from local traditional potter of Majuli river island, Assam. The clay was characterized by chemical analysis, IR, XRD data and thermal analysis. The clay was activated with conc. H2SO4. The fluoride removal studies were done by adsorption method on raw clay and acid activated clay. The effects of contact time, approximate particle size, pH and temperature were investigated. The adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm. The results show that acid activated kaolinite clay is effective for defluoridation of water while raw kaolinite has very low defluoridation capacity due to low adsorption.

Keywords: Fluoride removal, Activated kaolinite, Majuli clay, Adsorption isotherms

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, September 2008, pp. 504-506

 

 

Voltammetric trace determination of sub-μg level chlorate in natural waters

P Sharma* & S Songara

 

Electroanalytical Laboratory, Department of Chemistry,

J.N.V.University, Jodhpur 342 003, India

Email: sharma_pk00@yahoo.com

 

A simple, rapid and sensitive differential pulse polarographic (DPP) method for the determination of low concentration of chlorate in water samples is presented. It is based on the measurement of increased current of titanium (IV) polarographic reduction wave by the addition of chlorate in oxalic acid medium. A linearity between 1.0 μg mL-1 and 41.20 μg mL-1 of chlorate concentration was obtained with a correlation of coefficient of 0.99.

Keywords: Chlorate determination, Differential pulse polarography, Water samples

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, September 2008, pp. 507-510

 

 

Studies on the degreasing of skin by using enzyme in liming process

Altan Afsar* & Fatma Cetinkaya1

 

Engineering Faculty, Leather Engineering Department, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir -Turkey

1Vocational School, Leather Department, Usak University, 64300 Usak-Turkey

Email: altan.afsar@ege.edu.tr

 

This study has been conducted for the purpose of making the effective use of two enzymes viz. proteases and lipases for the removal of natural fat from the skin and increasing the effectiveness of degreasing; also decreasing the amount of chemicals used in degreasing and reducing the load of water treatment and eventually minimizing the harm that the leather industry poses to the environment. The optimum degreasing combination in which natural fat remains in the pelt at a level that could determine the efficacy of the enzymes was investigated. During the process of liming, enzymes such as alkali protease and alkali lipase were used alone and in combinations in varying amounts, and degreasing was achieved. Each experiment was processed till the end of tanning and effectiveness of the enzymes in degreasing was investigated. Results suggested that best degreasing conditions can be obtained with the use of 0.2% alkali lipase. The alkali lipases and the combinations of alkali proteases and lipases also proved to be satisfactory degreasing agents.

Keywords: Leather, Degreasing, Enzyme, Natural fat, Lipase, Protease

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 15, September 2008, pp. 511-514

 

 

Distribution of Cr (III) and Cr (VI) in chrome tanned leather

Bahri Başaran*, Mete Ulaş, Behzat Oral Bitlisli & Ahmet Aslan

 

Leather Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering,
Ege University, TR-35100, Izmir,Turkey

Email: bahri.basaran@ege.edu.tr

 

Basic chromium sulphate is the most versatile and common tanning agent in the leather industry. Under certain circumstances, the oxidation of the trivalent chromium salts into the hexavalent compounds, which are used in leather manufacture, is a crucial issue. In this study, different proportions of basic chromium sulphate were used in tanning and re-tanning processes according to a commonly used recipe, and levels of chromium oxide and hexavalent chromium were studied stratigraphically in the cross-section of the leather. It was observed that the levels of chromium oxide and hexavalent chromium in the skins increased in relation to the proportions of basic chromium sulphate used in the process, and that the amounts added in the tanning process had a greater effect on the levels of hexavalent chromium formed in the layers of the skins than did the amounts added in re-tanning.

Keywords: Skin, Tanning, Chromium oxide, Chromium (VI), Tanned leather