Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

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11-09

 

 

VOLUME 16

NUMBER 6

NOVEMBER 2009

CODEN: ICHTEU

 

ISSN: 0971-457X

                                        

                                                 CONTENTS

 

Papers

 

 

 

Treatment of water contaminated with Pb(II) and Cd(II) by adsorption on kaolinite, montmorillonite and their acid-activated forms

 

457

        Susmita Sen Gupta & Krishna G Bhattacharyya

 

 

 

Zinc chloride activated coir pith carbon as low cost adsorbent for removal of
2,4-dichlorophenol: Equilibrium and kinetic studies

 

471

        R Subha & C Namasivayam

 

 

 

Corrosion inhibition of stainless steel 302 by 1-methyl-3-pyridine-2-Y1-thiourea in acidic media

 

480

        S M A Hosseini & M Salari

 

 

 

Inhibiting effect of anisidines on corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid

486

        P S Desai & S M Kapopara

 

 

 

Solar assisted photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange over synthesized copper, silver and tin metalloporphyrins

 

492

        S D Gokakakar & A V Salker

 

 

 

Effect of water proofing admixture on the hydration of Portland cement

499

        Mukesh Kumar, N P Singh & N B Singh

 

 

 

Tailoring of Guar gum for desert sand stabilization

507

        Satish Chandra Gupta, K S Hooda, N K Mathur & S Gupta

 

 

 

Effects of impurities on oxygen transfer rate in the electroflotation process

513

        M Kotti, N Dammak , I Ksentini & L Ben Mansour

 

 

 

Enhanced viability of Bacillus coagulans after spray drying with calcium lactate, storage and re-hydration

 

519

        A K Yadav, A B Chaudhari & R M Kothari

 

 

 

Alkoxygen and alkoxygen-AQ delignification of Ipomea carnea and Cannabis sativa

523

        Dharm Dutt, C H Tyagi, Swarnima Agnihotri, Alok Kumar & Siddhartha

 

 

 

Acknowledgement

529

 

 

Annual Author Index

531

 

 

Annual Keyword Index

533

 

 

Guidelines for Authors

537

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 16, November 2009, pp. 457-470

 

 

Treatment of water contaminated with Pb(II) and Cd(II) by adsorption on kaolinite, montmorillonite and their acid-activated forms

 

Susmita Sen Gupta1 & Krishna G Bhattacharyya2*

 

1Department of Chemistry, B N College, Dhubri 783324, India

2Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, India

Received 27 January 2009; revised 4 June 2009

Removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) from spiked water samples by adsorption on clays was studied in this work as a model for water treatment. Kaolinite and montmorillonite were used as the clay adsorbents and they were further activated by treating with 0.25 M H2SO4. All the adsorbents were characterized with respect to surface area, cation exchange capacity and structural features as revealed with XRD and FTIR measurements. The adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch process with the variation of initial concentration of metal ions, amount of clay, pH, time and temperature. The adsorption was favoured at higher pH. The clay-Pb(II) interactions attained equilibrium at 180 min, whereas clay-Cd(II) system required 240 min to reach the same. Both the systems follow second order kinetic model. Montmorillonite and its acid-treated form had better adsorption properties. The Langmuir monolayer capacity varied from 11.1 to 34.0 mg/g and from 9.9 to 33.2 mg/g for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions, respectively depending on the clay. Pb(II) adsorbed exothermally while the processes were endothermic with Cd(II). Kaolinite, montmorillonite and their acid activated forms have good potential for taking up Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous medium.

Keywords: Kaolinite, Montmorillonite, Acid-activated clays, Adsorption, Cd(II), Pb(II)

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 16, November 2009, pp. 471-479

 

 

Zinc chloride activated coir pith carbon as low cost adsorbent for removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol: Equilibrium and kinetic studies

R Subha & C Namasivayam*

 

Environmental Chemistry Division, Department of Environmental Sciences

Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, India

Email: cnamasi@gmail.com

Received 6 January 2009; revised 14 September 2009

Activated carbon prepared from coir pith (ZnCPC) using ZnCl2 was investigated to find the feasibility of its application for removal of 2,4–dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in aqueous solution through adsorption process. Batch mode kinetics and isotherm studies were carried out to evaluate the effects of contact time, initial concentration, adsorbent dose, pH, and temperature. Lagergren, Second order, and Banghams were used to fit the experimental data. Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin–Radushkevich and Temkin isotherm models have been employed to analyse the adsorption equilibrium data. The Langmuir adsorption capacity, Qo, was found to be 131.6 mg/g of the adsorbent. The pH effect and desorption studies showed that ion exchange mechanism was involved in the adsorption process. Adsorption of 2,4-DCP by ZnCPC was spontaneous. The results indicated that ZnCPC was an effective adsorbent for removing 2,4-DCP from water.

Keywords: Coir pith, Activated carbon, 2,4-Dichlorophenol, Kinetics, Equilibrium isotherm

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 16, November 2009, pp. 480-485

 

 

Corrosion inhibition of stainless steel 302 by 1-methyl-3-pyridine-

2-Yl–thiourea in acidic media

S M A Hosseini* & M Salari

 

Department of Chemistry, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman 76169, Iran

Email: s.m.a.hosseini @mail.uk.ac.ir

 

Received 17 March 2009; revised 14 September 2009

The corrosion inhibition of stainless steel type 302 (302 SS) with different concentrations (0.004-0.007 M) of 1-methyl-3-pyridine-2-Yl–thiourea (MPT) in acid solutions was investigated by potentiostatic polarization measurements. The effect of temperature (283-323±1 K) on corrosion parameters was examined. The open circuit potential values in the presence and absence of MPT noted before and after experiments indicated the formation of passive film on the surface of the samples. It was found that corrosion potential (Ecorr) increases with increasing MPT concentrations, while, corrosion current (icorr) decreases. Inhibition efficiency of MPT is slightly more in 1 M H2SO4 than in 1 M HCl. The inhibitor functions through adsorption and follows Temkin isotherm in both the acids. Activation energy (Ea) and Gibbs free energy (∆Gads) for adsorption of MPT are calculated. The values of ∆Gads decreased (attained more negative values) with increasing temperature.

Keywords: Corrosion, Stainless steel, MPT, Polarization behaviour, Temkin isotherm

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 16, November 2009, pp. 486-491

 

 

Inhibiting effect of anisidines on corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid

P S Desai* & S M Kapopara

 

Department of Chemistry, Arts, Science and Commerce College Kholwad, Kamrej Char Rrasta, Surat 394 185, India

Email: psdesai69@yahoo.co.in; s_kapopara@yahoo.co.in

 

Received 16 March 2009; revised 25 June 2009

Anisidines (o-, m- and p-) were used as corrosion inhibitors for aluminium in hydrochloric acid solution. The inhibition efficiency depended on the concentration and type of the anisidine. The inhibition efficiency ranged between 76 and 93% at the highest concentration (80 mM), and between 65 and 85% at the lowest concentration (20 mM) of inhibitor in 0.4 M HCl solution. Inhibition efficiency decreased with rise in temperature, this corresponded to surface coverage of the metal by the inhibitor. The calculated degrees of surface coverage, θ, were found to increase with the inhibitor concentration. The results also showed that, the inhibitors were adsorbed on the aluminium surface according to Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Polarization study revealed that all the three anisidines functioned as slightly anodic but significantly cathodic inhibitors.

Keywords: Corrosion, Aluminium, Hydrochloric acid, Anisidine

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 16, November 2009, pp. 492-498

 

 

Solar assisted photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange over synthesized copper, silver and tin metalloporphyrins

S D Gokakakar1 & A V Salker*

 

Department of Chemistry, Goa University, Goa 403 206, India

Email: avsalker@gmail.com

 

Received 5 January 2009; revised 14 September 2009

The free base porphyrin, tetraphenyl porphyrin (TPP) and metalloporphyrins of Cu, Ag and Sn were synthesized and characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy and Elemental analysis.  The results are discussed in the light of magnetic susceptibility, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). These porphyrins showed interesting semiconducting behaviour and were employed for trapping solar radiations for photocatalytic degradation of the azo dye methyl orange at different pH conditions. This reaction was studied as a model reaction for finding the photoactivities of these compounds.

Keywords: Metalloporphyrins, Photocatalysts, Photodegradation, Methyl orange, Organic semiconductors

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 16, November 2009, pp. 499-506

 

 

Effect of water proofing admixture on the hydration of Portland cement

Mukesh Kumar1, N P Singh2 & N B Singh3*

 

1Kryton, Buildmat Company Pvt. Ltd., Gurgaon 122 002, India

2Department of Chemistry, U.P. Autonomous College, Varanasi 221 002, India

3Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273 009, India

Email: dr_n_b_singh@rediffmail.com

 

Received 16 February 2009; revised 24 August 2009

Water seepage is a major problem in construction industries particularly when the buildings are constructed in the damped environment. A large number of waterproofing compounds containing hydrophobic groups are used. Majority of such compounds block the pores at the outer surface but do not affect the pores inside. Due to percolation of water inside, the outer surface is ruptured in due course of time. Because of this, number of harmful ions enter inside and make the structure weak and less durable. In order to overcome this problem the effect of a water proofing agent with a brand name KIM (KRYSTOL INTERNAL MEMBRANE) on the hydration of cement has been studied. It is found that KIM has a retarding effect during the hydration. In the presence of KIM the setting times are increased, non-evaporable water contents and free lime are decreased. Heat evolution profile and X-ray diffraction studies have shown the retarding effect of KIM during cement hydration. Water percolation and expansion in the corrosive atmospheres are reduced whereas the compressive strength at 28 days is increased. Based on the results of the study the overall mechanism of action of KIM as waterproofing material in cement and concrete is also discussed.

Keywords: Portland cement, Waterproofing, Krystol internal membrane

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 16, November 2009, pp. 507-512

 

 

 

Tailoring of Guar gum for desert sand stabilization

 

Satish Chandra Guptaa+, K S Hoodab, N K Mathurc & S Guptac

 

aDefence Institute of Advanced Technology, DRDO, Giri Nagar, Pune 411 025, India

bDefence Laboratory, DRDO Bhavan, Jodhpur 342 011, India

cJ N V University, Jodhpur 342 011, India

Email: satish_c_gupta@yahoo.com

 

Received 6 May 2008; revised 11 August 2009

A low viscosity grade guar gum has been developed by two techniques i.e. gamma irradiation and H2O2 treatment. The desired viscosity is achieved by controlling the quantity of hydrogen peroxide solution or the g-irradiation dose. The viscosity of 1% guar gum was reduced from 3240 cps to 116 cps using 10% H2O2 solution (50% v/v) and from 3203 cps to 222 cps using 6 kGy g-irradiation dose. The reduced viscosity was stabilized by adding 0.5% solution of formaldehyde
(37% v/v) or by using 0.5% cobalt naphthenate. The low viscosity grade guar gum powder and the solutions stabilized with cobalt naphthenate or formaldehyde could be stored for long periods without loss of viscosity. The reduced viscosity guar gum is used for grouting stabilization of sand for construction works across desert.

Keywords: Guar gum, Viscosity, Grout, Stabilization of sand

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 16, November 2009, pp. 513-518

 

 

Effects of impurities on oxygen transfer rate in the electroflotation process

M Kotti, N Dammak, I Ksentini & L Ben Mansour*

 

Laboratory of Water – Environment and EnergySciences Faculty of Sfax, B.P.1171, 3000 Sfax - Tunisia

Email: lassaadbenmansour@yahoo.fr

 

Received 22 December 2008; revised 18 June 2009

In this work, three different types of impurities: soybean oil, surfactant and diatomaceous earth were doped to simulate the impurities in wastewaters issued from edible oil refinery plant. The effects of the impurities on the oxygen transfer rate were investigated in an electroflotation cell. The volumetric mass transfer coefficient was studied for a batch mode involving different values of the current density for different impurities concentrations. The capacity of oxygenation and the corrective alpha factor were also studied. Models which relate the volumetric mass transfer coefficient to the current density and the concentration of the impurities were established. The results showed that the presence of impurities significantly reduce the volumetric mass transfer coefficient KLa.

Keywords:  Electroflotation, Transfer of oxygen, Soyabean oil, Surfactant

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 16, November 2009, pp. 519-522

 

 

Enhanced viability of Bacillus coagulans after spray drying with
calcium lactate, storage and re-hydration

A K Yadav, A B Chaudhari & R M Kothari*

 

School of Life Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon 425 001, India
*Jain Hi-Tech Agri Institute, Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd., Jalgaon 425 001, India
Email: ramanlal.kothari@bharatividyapeeth.edu

 

Received 27 December 2008; revised 31 July 2009

The present work has provided an alternative probiotic preparation, which is easily scalable for commercial operations in eco-friendly and cost-effective manner. Spray drying being a proven technology compared to convective current, infra-red exposure and lyophilization, it will make visible impact on production, sale and use of Bacillus coagulans as an effective probiotic preparation.

Keywords: Probiotics, Bacillus coagulans, Calcium lactate as protectant, Spray drying

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 16, November 2009, pp. 523-528

 

 

Alkoxygen and alkoxygen-AQ delignification of Ipomea carnea and
Cannabis sativa

Dharm Dutt, C H Tyagi, Swarnima Agnihotri, Alok Kumar & Siddhartha*

 

Department of Paper Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Saharanpur Campus,

 Saharanpur 247 001, India

*National Institute of Fashion Technology, Bangalore 560 071, India

 

Received 24 March 2009; revised 14 September 2009

Molecular oxygen is a specific oxidizing agent for lignin but its low solubility in cooking liquor causes a serious problem of mass transfer in a heterogeneous chemical pulping process with wood. The anatomy of Ipomea carnea and Cannabis sativa permit much easier diffusion and penetration of the molecular oxygen into the reactive zones of fiber wall. The low lignin content and more open and looser fiber structure of I. carnea and C. sativa makes them suitable for alkoxygen delignification. Due to their identical cooking conditions except liquor to wood ratio mixed cooking of I. carnea and C. sativa by alkoxygen delignification process is able to produce good quality pulp because the pulp blend has unique morphological characteristics of I. carnea which resembles with softwoods with respect to cell wall thickness and lumen diameter along with long fibers of C. sativa in which I. carnea deficits. The present study aims at optimizing the various operating parameters of alkoxygen delignification process for I. carnea and C. sativa. An oxygen pressure of 10 kg/cm2 at 16% alkali dose, cooking temperature of 1600C for 120 min produces screened pulp yield 53.5% at kappa number 30 for
C. sativa and 46.1% at kappa number 27 for I. carnea. The addition of 0.1% AQ at O2 pressure of 10 kg/cm2 improves pulp yield by 1.6% for C. sativa and 1.1% for I. carnea with a decrease of kappa number by 2 units in both the cases. I. carnea shows good bleaching response compared to C. sativa. Therefore, I. carnea pulp may be used as brightness improver to enhance the overall brightness of the blend.

Keywords: Ipomea carnea, Cannabis sativa, Alkali-O2 delignification, Pulp