Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

VOLUME 8

NUMBER 1

JANUARY 2001

 

CONTENTS

 

3-Methylhexane aromatization under H2 and N2 atmospheres on Pt/Al2O3 catalysts

1

Folorumsho Aberuagba

 

 

 

Investigation on the polymerization of petroleum vacuum residue using column chromatography

 

7

T P Antony

 

 

 

Spectrophotometric determination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in various environmental samples

 

12

Sukumar Chatterjee, Ajay K Pillai & V K Gupta

 

 

 

Fluorimetric determination of bromoform via its photochemical reaction with diphenylamine in aqueous triton X-100 medium

 

15

Anjali Pal & Manas Bandyopadhyay

 

 

 

Calotropis procera and Nerium indicumTwo potential plant sources of energy and hydrocarbon

 

20

D Kalita & C N Saikia

 

 

 

Alkylbenzenes for detergents

25

Shyamal Kumar Saha, Dipti Saha & Manoranjan Saha

 

 

 

New technology for invert sugar and high fructose syrups from sugarcane

28

J K Gehlawat

 

 

 

Application of capillary electrophoresis for the analysis of nicotine content in Gutkha samples

 

33

R Sekar, U C Kulshrestha & M Viramani

 

 

 

ZnO-photoassisted degradation of textile dye using solar energy

36

B Neppolian, S Sakthivel, Banumathi Arabindoo, M Palanichamy &  V Murugesan

 

 

 

Modelling of Np(VI) and Np(IV) distribution coefficients in 30% TBP/n-dodecane/ nitric acid/water biphasic purex system

 

41

Shekhar Kumar & S B Koganti

 

 

 

Electrodeposition of cobalt-chromium alloys from cobalt chloride-N-(n-butyl) pyridinium chloride molten salt

 

44

M R Ali, A Nishikata & T Tsuru

 

 

 

Modelling of tritium distribution coefficients in 30 vol % TBP/n-dodecane/ UO2(NO3)2/nitric acid system

 

51

Shekhar Kumar & S B Koganti

 

 

 

Effect of combustion temperature on the gas phase formation and destruction of nitrous oxide

 

54

S S Verma

 

 

 

Studies in nitrification of synthetic fertilizer waste water in an upflow biofilter

62

S Chandravathanam & D V S Murthy

 

 

 

Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from cheese whey using Azotobacter vinelandii

 

68

R Dhanasekar, T Viruthagiri & P L Sabarathinam

 

 

 

Bakers yeast medicated hydrolysis of schiffs base

72

Vasanti G Yadav & S B Chandalia

 

 

 

Book Review

74

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 8, January 2001, pp. 1-6

 

 

3-Methylhexane aromatization under H2 and N2 atmospheres on
Pt/Al2O3 catalysts

Folorunsho Aberuagba*

Chemical Engineering Department, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 65, Minna, Nigeria

Received 25 May 2000; accepted 28 September 2000

The aromatization reaction of 3-methylhexane on Pt/Al2O3 in a pulse microcatalytic reactor has been studied under H2 and N2 atmospheres at temperatures ranging between 330C and 500C and at a total pressure of 4.0 kg/cm2. Results showed that the production of only cracked products (mainly methane) from deep fragmentation of 3-methylhexane in H2 sharply contrasts with the reaction in N2 which appears to impart intrinsic aromaticity to the catalyst with the production of methane, benzene and toluene although with an attenuation of the overall activity. In H2-N2 mixtures, 50% H2 was required to reduce the aromatization activity of the catalyst to zero. A test of the kinetic data using Sicas method [Sica et al., Latin Am J Chem Eng Appl Chem, 4 (1974) 108] of pulse kinetic analysis suggests a first order in 3-methylhexane with activation energy of 107 kJ/mol in N2 and 202.03 kJ/mol in H2. The difference in activation energies in both gases is consistent with a difference in reaction mechanisms.

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 8, January 2001, pp. 7-11

 

Investigation on the polymerization of petroleum vacuum residue using column chromatography

T P Antony

Laboratory, Gas Authority of India Ltd, Lakwa, Sibsagar, 785 688,India.

Received 6 June 2000; accepted 16 November 2000

The quality of Industrial Bitumen produced by the waste PVC catalyst is found to be superior in flexibility to that produced by the conventional catalyst ferric chloride. The quality of Bitumen produced by the sodium sulphide catalyst is found to be slightly inferior in flexibility to that produced by the ferric chloride catalyst. The softening point-penetration relationship of industrial bitumen is better if the penetration is higher for a given softening point. The better the softening point- penetration relationship the better will be the flexibility of the product. As per IS 702-1961, there are different grades of industrial bitumen depending on the softening point-penetration relationships. They are mainly 85/25, 85/40, 90/15 and 105/25. (The first figure represents softening point and second one penetration).The optimum temperature of the process and air-flow rate are found to be 220 C and 5 L min.1 kg1 sample. The optimum concentration in wt% of ferric chloride, waste PVC and sodium sulphide are found to be 0.75, 2.0 and 2.0 respectively. It is found that the duration of air-blowing in presence of catalyst required to produce the industrial bitumen of grade 105/25 is about 3 h. By using an activated silica gel column and proper eluants it is possible to sufficiently separate the various fractions in the industrial bitumen which resulted in their accurate determination.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 7 8, January 2001, pp. 12-14

 

Spectrophotometric determination of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in various environmental samples

Sukumar Chatterjee, Ajay K Pillai & V K Gupta*

School of Studies in Chemistry Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, 492 010, India

Received 15 May 2000; accepted 30 August 2000

A new sensitive spectrophotometric method based on the reaction of pentachlorophenol (PCP) with concentrated nitric acid to form chloranil that liberates iodine with potassium iodide is described. The liberated iodine bleaches the pinkish red coloured rhodamine-B dye which was measured at 555 nm. Beers law is obeyed over the concentration range of 1-10 g of PCP in final solution volume of 25 mL (0.04 - 0.4 ppm). The apparent molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity were found to be 7.34 105 l mol-1 cm-1 and 0.0003 g cm‑2. The method has been satisfactorily applied to the determination of PCP in air, water, plant material, textile effluent and biological samples.

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 7 8, January 2001; pp. 15-19

 

 

Fluorimetric determination of bromoform via its photochemical reaction with diphenylamine in aqueous Triton X-100 medium

Anjali Pal & Manas Bandyopadhyay

Civil Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India

Received 1 May 2000; accepted 2 November 2000

A new fluorimetric method based on the photochemical reaction of CHBr3 with diphenylamine (DPA) in aqueous Triton X-100 (TX-100) medium is described for the determination of bromoform (CHBr3). The fluorescence intensity of the product at 480nm (lex: 400 nm) is a direct measure of CHBr3 concentration. The calibration graph is linear in the range of 0-21.8 ppm of CHBr3. The limit of detection (LOD) is 0.1 ppm of CHBr3. The effect of reagent concentration, TX-100 concentration, time of irradiation, interfering substances, and statistical parameters are discussed.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 8, January 2001, pp. 20-24

 

Calotropis procera and Nerium indicum  Two potential plant sources of energy and hydrocarbon

D Kalita & C N Saikia*

Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Jorhat 785 006, India

Received 22 September 1999; accepted 25 October 2000

Calotropis procera and Nerium indicum were evaluated as potential renewable sources of energy and chemicals. The different plant parts  leaf, stem, bark and the plant as a whole were analysed separately for a-cellulose, lignin, ash and elemental compositions. a-cellulose in the whole plant portion were 56.42 % and 57.35 % for C procera and N indicum, while lignins were 20.42 % and 23.25 % respectively. The elemental composition of C, H and N in the plant were 40.36, 6.19 and 2.06 % for C procera, while for N indicum, the C, H and N were 38.54, 5.86 and 1.82 % respectively. Of the two species, C procera contained 4.71 % oil, 11.45 % polyphenol, 3.46 % hydrocarbon, 7.20 % protein and 22.8 % unsaponifiable matter, while N indicum was found to contain 4.36 % oil, 8.62 % polyphenol, 2.18 % hydrocarbon, 7.55 % protein and 49.8 % unsaponifiable matters. The calorific values of the plant species were also determined and found to be 17.5 MJ/kG and 15.3 MJ/kG for C procera and N indicum respectively. Therefore, the species may be considered for large scale cultivation as an alternative source for producing hydrocarbon and chemical feedstocks.

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 8, January 2001, pp.25-27

 

Alkylbenzenes for detergents

Shyamal Kumar Saha, Dipti Saha & Manoranjan Saha

Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh

Received 13 November 1998; accepted 20 June 2000

 

Detergent alkylates have been obtained by the alkylation of benzene with -olefins (C9 - C16) in the presence of borontrifluoride etherate.

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 8, January 2001, pp. 28-32

 

New technology for invert sugar and high fructose syrups from sugarcane

J K Gehlawat

Raha Gehlawat Sugar Academy, 248, R K Vihar, I P Extension, Delhi 110092, India

Received 28 June 1998; accepted 13 November 2000

The invert sugar is an equimolar mixture of glucose and fructose. It may be obtained on hydrolysis of sucrose under milder conditions using strong cationic resins. The fructose content may be increased to about 60 per cent level by a partial removal of glucose from invert sugar using the technique of column chromatography. The resultant product is called high fructose syrups (HFS) which is traditionally produced from starch. HFS may be produced from sucrose with economic advantage by this novel process. The production of invert sugar and high fructose syrups from sucrose (cane juice) is cost effective. It has been commercialized in India. This paper discusses the salient features of this novel technology, which results in an effective 25 per cent increase in the sweetener output from the same quantity of sugarcane as molasses as a waste product is avoided

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 8, January 2001, pp. 33-35

 

Application of capillary electrophoresis for the analysis of nicotine content in Gutkha samples

R Sekar*, U C Kulshrestha & M Vairamani

Analytical Chemistry Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500 007, India

Received 29 May 2000; accepted 18 October 2000

Recently, the chewing of Gutkha is increased in every age group of Indian society. It is severely affecting the youth. The nicotine content of tobacco of Gutkha is harmful for the body. This paper presents the nicotine content in six famous brands of Gutkha which were analysed by Capillary Electrophoresis (CE). CE is a relatively new technique of analysis. In this study, it was observed that CE is very much suitable technique for the determination of nicotine in Gutkha samples. It is simple and economical technique.

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 8, January 2001, pp. 36-40

 

ZnO - photoassisted degradation of textile dye using solar energy

B Neppolian, S Sakthivel, Banumathi Arabindoo, M Palanichamy & V Murugesan*

Department of Chemistry, Anna University, Chennai 600 025, India

Received 19 July 1999; accepted 8 November 2000

 

This paper describes the efficiency of photocatalytic degradation of textile dye, reactive blue 4, using ZnO in the form of slurry. The results showed that the dye molecules can be completely degraded to CO2, SO42-, NH4+, NO3- and H2O under solar irradiation. The effects of various parameters viz., ZnO loading, initial concentration of dye, persulphate ion, pH and sodium carbonate on the photocatalytic degradation were investigated. The degradation of dye was found to be effective in alkaline solution. This work envisages the great potential that sunlight mediated photocatalyst has in the removal of textile dyes from wastewater.

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 8, January 2001, pp. 41-43

 

Modelling of Np(VI) and Np(IV) distribution coefficients in 30%
TBP/n-dodecane/nitric acid/water biphasic purex system

Shekhar Kumar* & SB Koganti

Reprocessing R&D Division, Reprocessing Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, India

Received 18 June 1999; accepted 24 August 2000

In contemporary designs of flowsheets for reprocessing the spent nuclear fuels, neptunium is often termed as a contaminant. During partitioning of uranium and plutonium, its behaviour can be controlled by chemical means. Still its distribution in Purex extraction system is important. In this paper, reported data have been analysed and unique empirical equations for predicting neptunium distribution in 30% TBP/n-dodecane system are reported.

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 8, January 2001, pp. 44-50

 

Electrodeposition of cobalt-chromium alloys from cobalt
chloride-N-(n-butyl)pyridinium chloride molten salt

M R Ali*, A Nishikata & T Tsuru

Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo-152, Japan

Received 29 May 2000; accepted 23 October 2000

Electrodeposition of cobalt-chromium alloys of different compositions (up to 14 at% Cr) has been carried out onto copper cathode by the pulse potential and the pulse current methods from cobalt chloride-N-(n-butyl)pyridinium chloride (BPC) molten salt containing chromium(II) chloride at 110 C. The magnetic properties of the deposited cobalt-chromium alloys have been investigated. The magnetic polarization of the deposited cobalt-chromium alloys at high fields decreases with the increase of chromium content in the deposit except Co-1.22 at% Cr alloy, with maximum magnetic polarization than the bulk cobalt. The cathodic current efficiency for the deposition of alloy is about 99 %..

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 8, January 2001, pp. 51-53

 

Modelling of tritium distribution coefficients in 30 Vol %
TBP/n-dodecane/UO2(NO3)2/ nitric acid system

Shekhar Kumar* & SB Koganti

Reprocessing R&D Division, Reprocessing Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, India

Received 5 July 1999; accepted 9 October 2000

Stringent environmental norms require confinement of tritium and its proper disposal during solvent extraction operations of reprocessing. Current solvent extraction flowsheets, for reprocessing the spent nuclear fuel, have provision for tritium scrubbing from loaded solvent. Quantitative models for tritium distribution are not available in the literature. In this communication, an empirical model is reported for correlating the tritium distribution coefficient in nitric acid-30% TBP/n-dodecane system to aqueous nitric acid and free TBP.

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 8, January 2001, pp. 54-61

 

Effect of combustion temperature on the gas-phase formation and destruction of nitrous oxide

S S Verma

Department of Physics, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal, 148 106, India

Received 23 May 2000; accepted 2 November 2000

N2O emission is significant with in a restricted temperature window of 800-1100 C. Formation and destruction of N2O mainly depends on the combustion temperature and residence time. In the present work, a detailed effect of temperature profiles and residence time on the N2O emission is being highlighted.

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 8, January 2001, pp. 62-67

 

Studies in nitrification of synthetic fertilizer wastewater in an upflow biofilter

 

S Chandravathanam & D V S Murthy

Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering,

Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai 600 036, India

Received 31 March 1999; accepted 19 May 2000

The upflow aerated biofilter was used to investigate the nitrification performance of fertilizer-industry wastewater. A synthetic composition of ammonium nitrogen concentration in the range of 500-2500 mg/L was considered as a representative composition of actual fertilizer wastewater and was studied at a HRT of 24 h (corresponding applied ammonium load range was 0.5-2.5 kg NH4+-N/m3.d). For the influent concentration increase from 500 to 2500 mg/L/NH4+-N, the ammonium removal efficiency variation was observed to be in the range of 81-58 %. The maximum ammonium removal efficiency of 81 % was observed for the applied ammonium load of 0.5 kg NH4+-N/m3/d The relative lower efficiencies were attributed to the probable substrate (ammonium) and/or product (nitrite) inhibition. The experiments were conducted in non-backwash conditions of the biofilter. The results were found to be satisfactory.

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 7 8, January 2001, pp. 68-71

 

Biosynthesis of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) from cheese
whey using Azotobacter vinelandii

R Dhanasekar*, T Viruthagiri & P L Sabarathinam

Department of Technology, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002, India

Received 13 October 1999; accepted 29 September 2000

Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] is a homopolymer of 3-hydroxy butyrate and is the most widespread and best characterized member of the polyhydroxy-alkanoates (PHAs). Eventhough, P(3HB) has been recognized as a good candidate for biodegradable plastics, their high price compared with conventional plastics has limited their use in a wide range of applications. Azotobacter vinelandii (MTCC 124*) was used for the studies because it is able to utilize sucrose, which suggests a cheap carbon source such as cheese whey. The cost of carbon substrate significantly affected the overall economics in large scale production. In order to reduce the cost of production, waste whey from cheese making industry is used as a substrate. The effect of different nitrogen sources on the production of P(3HB) was studied. Bacterial peptone gives the maximum production of 1.44 g P(3HB)L-1 with an incubation time of 48 h. The other effects such as substrate concentration, inoculum size and the environmental condition such as pH are also studied. It was observed that by increasing the inoculum size the time of incubation can be reduced considerably. Productivity of 0.03 g L-1 h‑1 was obtained while a maximum productivity of 0.008 g L1 h-1 has been reported by using 1% cheese whey1. Leudeking-Piret kinetic parameters are determined. The result shows that P(3HB) production kinetics may be non-growth associated.

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 8, January 2001, pp. 72-73

 

 

Baker's yeast medicated hydrolysis of Schiff 's base

Vasanti G Yadav* & S B Chandalia

Chemical Engineering Division,

University Department of Chemical Technology,

University of Mumbai, Matunga 400 019, India

Received 3 May 1999; accepted 7 November 2000

 

In the synthesis of aromatic aldehyde from carboxylic acid via hydrazide of the acid by air oxidation using butyl amine invariably Schiff 's base is formed. Hydrolysis of the Schiff 's base to aldehydes using baker's yeast has been reported in this work.

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