Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

VOLUME 9

NUMBER 2

MARCH 2002

 

CONTENTS

 

Editorial

93

Research Articles

 

Removal of heavy metal ions using novel polystyrene supported chelating polymer resins

 

97

  A Ravi Kumar Reddy & K Hussain Reddy

 

 

 

Synthesis and characterization of phosphorus containing adhesive polymers

103

  Sankar Prasad Bhuniya & Sukumar Maiti

 

 

 

Effect of HPMC on the properties of cement

112

  N K Singh, P C Mishra, V K Singh & K K Narang

 

 

 

Spectroscopic investigations of substituted polyaniline

118

  D Kumar

 

 

 

Enzymatic, physicochemical and rheological behaviour of bael fruit pulp and juice

123

  U Ghosh & H Gangopadhyay

 

 

 

Complexometric determination of palladium(II) using 2-mercapto propionyl glycine a demasking agent

 

127

  Prakash Shetty, A Nityananda & R V Gadag

 

 

 

Studies on the extraction of mango juice (Himsagar variety) using enzymes from Aspergillus oryzae

 

130

  U Ghosh & H Gangopadhyay

 

 

 

Estimation of dielectric constants of some polyamides by group additive methods

134

  Muneera Begum, A Varada Rajulu & Siddaramaiah

 

 

 

Effect of particle size on thermal decomposition of lime shell: Suitability of calcined lime shell for pollution control and energy storage

 

137

  B B Kale & A N Gokarn

 

 

 

In-plant corrosion test on special stainless steels in bleach plant of paper industry

141

  Raghuvir Singh & A K Singh

 

 

 

Corrocal¾A computer program for corrosion current density determinations from polarisation experiments

`

148

  R Rengesh Siva, R Prabhakar & V S Muralidharan

 

 

 

Non-promoted Ru/sepiolite catalyst for Ammonia synthesis

154

  Le Zhiping, Yu Xiujing, Lin Jianxin & Wei Kemei

 

 

 

Nitrogen dioxide formation at ambient temperature

159

  S S Verma

 

 

 

Educator

 

Svante Arrhenius and the Greenhouse Effect

165

  Jaime Wisniak

 

 

 

Chem-Tech Scan

174

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 9, March 2002, pp. 97-102

 

 

Removal of heavy metal ions using novel polystyrene
supported chelating polymer resins

A Ravikumar Reddy & K Hussain Reddy*

          A novel polystyrene supported chelating resins have been synthesized by the reaction of chloro-methylated polystyrene (CMPS) with 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, glycine, the Schiff base (derived from anthranilic acid and 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde) and diethanolamine. These resins have been further investigated by thermogravimetry and differential thermal analyses and their energy of activation was calculated. Heavy metal ions viz. Pb(II) and Cd(II) have been removed by using these chelating polymer resins. Metal uptake efficiency, reusability of resins, effect of pH and time on the metal removal, were also studied. Amount of metal removed by the resin was determined by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS).

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 9, March 2002, pp. 103-111

 

 

Synthesis and characterization of phosphorus containing adhesive polymers

Sankar Prasad Bhuniya & Sukumar Maiti*

     Synthesis of phosphorus containing epoxy terminated polymers from dichlorophenyl phosphine oxide, various diols like bisphenol-A, resorcinol, 4-4¢ thiodiphenol and 4-4¢ sulphone diphenol and epichlorohydrin was carried out by the interfacial polymerization process. These polymers were characterized by viscosity measurement, elemental analyses, Schoniger combustion method, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 31P-NMR analyses. These resulting polymers were highly soluble in polar solvents like DMF, DMSO, NMP, HMPA, and acetone etc.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 9, March 2002, pp. 112-117

 

 

 

Effect of HPMC on the properties of cement

N K Singha*, P C Mishraa, V K Singhb & K K Narangc

The HPMC (hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose) has been taken as an additive, which retard the setting of cement. The cement-HPMC mixes were prepared having improved compressive strength, tensile strength and fracture toughness in comparison to ordinary Portland cement at late curing ages. The heat of hydration of different cement-HPMC mixes show that the lower contents of HPMC interact with hydrated cement at early curing while higher content at late. The cement-HPMC mix has been found to have better corrosion resistance than OPC in H2SO4, HCl and sea-water. Spectroscopic studies suggested that HPMC bind with free lime. X-ray diffractrogram of 91days hydrated cement-HPMC mix displays some new peaks as well as few peaks appeared with low intensities showing interaction of HPMC with hydrated cementitious phases.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 9, March 2002, pp. 118-122

 

 

 

 

Spectroscopic investigations of substituted polyaniline$

 

D Kumar*

Conductive poly(o-toluidine) polymer has been synthesized by both chemical and electrochemical polymerization methods. The presence of methyl group affects not only the electrochemical polymerization window but also brings about drastic changes in the optical and electronic properties of parent polymer polyaniline. Poly(o-toluidine) (POT) shows multiple colour transition (Yellow ® Green ® Blue ® Violet) on switching the potential between reduced and oxidized state with a better electrochromic response time. The present paper addresses the spectroscopic studies on conductive polyanilines.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 9, March 2002, pp. 123-126

 

 

 

Enzymatic, physicochemical and rheological behaviour of bael fruit pulp and juice

 

U Ghosh & H Gangopadhyay*

Extraction of pulp was obtained successfully by addition of water to pulp in proportion of 1:1 and 2:1. A clear juice was obtained by centrifugation of the pulp (Fruit-water, 1:2) at 4000 rpm for 10 min. All the products were non-Newtonian pseudoplastic fluids. The power law model was used to determine the viscometric constants. Consistency coefficient values were higher 116.9, 69.98 for pulp of fruit to water 1:1 and 1:2 than that of juice (0.159). Maximum retention of colour and ascorbic acid content was observed with pulp of fruit-water 1:1 and it was 0.321 and 3.60 mg/100 mL respectively. Residual enzyme activity was determined for pulp and juice. Pectin methyl esterase activity was minimum 1.163U for juice and was maximum 1.375U for pulp (Fruit-water 1:1). Maximum amylase activity 71.02U was observed with pulp of fruit-water 1:1. It was 69.21 and 62.81 for pulp of fruit-water 1:2 and juice respectively.

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 9, March 2002, pp. 127-129

 

Complexometric determination of palladium(II) using 2-mercapto propionyl glycine as demasking agent

 

Prakash Shettya*, A Nityananda Shettyb & R V Gadagb

A simple, rapid and accurate complexometric method for the determination of palladium(II) is proposed, based on the selective demasking property of 2-mercapto propionyl glycine (MPGH2) towards palladium(II). In the presence of diverse metal ions, palladium(II) is complexed with excess of EDTA and the surplus EDTA is back titrated at pH 5-5.5 (acetic acid-acetate buffer) with standard zinc sulphate solution using xylenol orange as indicator. An excess of a 0.2% aqueous solution of MPGH2 is then added to displace EDTA from Pd(II)-EDTA complex. The released EDTA is titrated with the same standard zinc sulphate solution as before. Reproducible and accurate results are obtained in the concentration range 2-22 mg of palladium with relative error of ±0.36% and coefficient of variation (n=6) not exceeding 0.31%. The effect of diverse ions are studied. The method is used for the determination of palladium in its complexes, catalysts and synthetic alloy mixtures.

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 9, March 2002, pp. 130-133

 

 

Studies on the extraction of mango juice (Himsagar variety) using
enzymes from Aspergillus oryzae

 

U Ghosh & H Gangopadhyay*

Enzyme produced by Apergillus oryzae was utilized to express juice from mango (Himsagar variety). Various concentrations of enzyme, 1%, 2%, 5% and 10% (v/v) were used to facilitate juice extraction. The enzyme when used at 10% level and incubated at 30±2°C for 18 h produced maximum juice (68%) yield with increase in free flowing characteristic of the juice.

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 9, March 2002, pp. 134-136

 

 

Estimation of dielectric constants of some polyamides by group
additive methods

Muneera Beguma, A Varada Rajulub & Siddaramaiaha*

The dielectric constants (e) of some polyamides (nylons) have been estimated by employing five different equations based on the group additive principle. The estimated values have been compared with the experimental values. The suitability of individual equations is discussed.

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 9, March 2002, pp. 137-140

 

 

Effect of particle size on thermal decomposition of lime shells: Suitability of calcined lime shell
for pollution control and energy storage

B B Kale*a & A N Gokarnb

Lime shells obtained from the lagoons of Kerala Coast have been decomposed with a view to study the effect of particle size. A modified TGA has been used to study the decomposition kinetics at various temperatures. Conversion time data obtained showed typical sigmoidal behaviour and the decomposition kinetics could be fitted to the Prout-Tompkins model at all temperatures and for all particle sizes studied. Arrhenius kinetic parameters showed normal type of compensation behaviour indicating an isokinetic temperature of 730oC. A theoretical explanation for these observed compensation behaviour and isokinetic temperature has been given. Further, the calcined lime shell has been tested for the capture of CO2 and SO2 using TGA. Effects of temperature of decomposition and particle size have been studied in this case. A theoretical, explanation based on pore size distribution of the calcined lime for this special behaviour has been given.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 9, March 2002, pp. 141-147

 

 

In-plant corrosion test on special stainless steels in bleach plant of paper industry

 

Raghuvir Singha* & A K Singhb

 

Bleach plant of paper industry is corrosion intensive. Recent changes brought about in bleaching practices are likely to enhance corrosivity thereby demanding the use of more resistant alloys. As such a mill test, the first ever of its type conducted on Indian bleach plant, was carried on special stainless steels namely 2205, 904L, 254SMO, and 654SMO including 316L type in chlorination and chlorine dioxide washers. The coupons were affected by uniform corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion. The attack shows the gaseous phase of both washers as most corrosive followed by liquid and wet/dry phases. Overall, D-washer appears more corrosive than C-washer. The test clearly indicates the non-suitability of 316L type stainless steel, a conventional material hitherto. Avesta 654SMO remains unattacked. Avesta 254SMO, 904L and 2205 show varying degree of corrosion resistance which correlate well with the PRE number, CCT and CPT values. On the basis of corrosion resistance, mechanical properties, and material’s cost, Avesta 254SMO has been suggested as an acceptable material for gaseous phase and 2205 for liquid and wet/dry phases of both the C- and D-washers.

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 9, March 2002, pp. 148-153

 

 

Corrocal—A computer program for corrosion current density determinations
from polarisation experiments

 

R Rengesh Siva, R Prabhakar & V S Muralidharan*

One area in which computers find use is in the calculation of Corrosion current density and rate calculations. To calculate electrochemical parameters such as anodic and cathodic Tafel slopes, corrosion current density and polarisation resistance, a software has been developed using C++ language. The software would process data obtained either from a galvanostatic experiment or potentiostatic experiment. The potentials are given in milli volts and the current as microamperes as input. The developed software would find: a) Corrosion currents by anodic and cathodic Tafel line extrapolations, b) corrosion rates expressed as mpy, c) Cathodic and Anodic Tafel Slopes, d) Corrosion currents by Stern -Geary method, e) Corrosion currents by Barnatt’s method, f) Corrosion currents by Oldham and Mansfeld’s method. Details of the Corrocal and its applications to various systems are presented.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 9, March 2002, pp. 154-158

 

 

 

Non-promoted Ru/sepiolite catalyst for ammonia synthesis

Le Zhiping*, Yu Xiujing, Lin Jianxin & Wei Kemei

Sepiolite was used as support for ruthenium catalyst. Non-promoted Ru/Sep is proved to be effective for ammonia synthesis. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, XPS and nitrogen adsorption isotherms. Ru is reduced completely and is present in few oxidation states on the support. Using non-aqueous solvent instead of water in the impregnation process on basic support, the Ru dispersion could be increased. Chlorine-free Ruthenium catalyst was prepared using RuCl3 by washing with ammonia solution.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol.9, March 2002, pp. 159-164

 

 

Nitrogen dioxide formation at ambient temperature

 

S S Verma*

The explanation of the formation and existence of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at ambient temperature is important towards the basic understanding of the nature of chemical reactions of the pollutants in the atmosphere and to the visibility of the atmosphere. The objectives of the present studies are to highlight the detailed effect of ambient temperature on the conversion of nitric oxide (NO) to NO2 in the presence of ozone (O3) gas with varying concentrations of other species viz., N2, CO2, CO, H2O, O2, etc. It is found that O3 is the only chemical species active up to its last concentration involved in the conversion of NO into NO2 at ambient temperature.

 

 

Indian Journal of Chemical Technology

Vol. 9, March 2002, pp. 165-173

 

 

 

Svante Arrhenius and the Greenhouse Effect

Jaime Wisniak*

Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927; 1903 Nobel Prize in Chemistry) is one of the most famous scientists of the last century. His theories about electrolyte dissociation, chemical kinetics, physical chemistry, and immunochemistry set the direction for the development of modern electrochemistry, theory of solutions, and catalytic processes. Very few are aware of his substantial contribution to the study of the effect of atmospheric contamination upon climate and the possible reasons of the different Ice Ages that the Earth has experienced during different historical epochs. Here a general description of the so-called greenhouse effect and Arrhenius's contribution to its interpretation is being presented.