Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 48

NUMBER 4

APRIL 2010

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 48 (4) - (2010) 328-420

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

Drosophila ananassae: A good model species for genetical, behavioural and
evolutionary studies

333

Bashisth N Singh

 

 

 

Papers

 

Modulation of cell surface architecture in gastrulating chick embryo in response to altered flibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling

346

Seema Borgave & Surendra Ghaskadbi

 

 

 

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), heat shock proteins (HSPs) and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) expression in co-culture of colon tumor spheroids with normal cells after incubation with interleukin-1b (1L-1b) and/or camptothecine (CPT-11)

354

Roman Paduch, Joanna Jakubowicz-Gil & Piotr Niedziela

 

 

 

Differential effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on anxiety in unstressed and stressed mice

365

Neeraj Gilhotra, Harshita Jain & Dinesh Dhingra

 

 

 

Effect of antioxidant vitamins A, C, E and their analogues on azo-dye binding protein in liver of rats treated with p-dimethylaminoazobenzene

373

A Antony Joseph Velanganni & C Balasundaram

 

 

 

Neuroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of dried fruits of Trapa bispinosa Roxb on lipofuscinogenesis and fluorescence product in brain of D-galactose induced ageing accelerated mice

378

D B Ambikar, U N Harle, R A Khandare, V V Bore & N S Vyawahare

 

 

 

Cadmium tolerance and antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas sp. isolated from water, sludge and fish raised in wastewater-fed tropical ponds

383

Sova Patra, T K Das, Subhas Ch Ghosh, Dipanwita Sarkar & B B Jana

 

 

 

Effects of long-term ethanol consumption on adhesion molecules in the liver

394

Subir Kumar Das, Sukhes Mukherjee & D M Vasudevan

 

 

 

Wound healing potential of Ocimum sanctum Linn. with induction of tumor necrosis factor-a

402

Anjana Goel, Sandeep Kumar, Dilip Kumar Singh & Ashok Kumar Bhatia

 

 

 

Antibacterial effects of goat and chicken heart tissues against human pathogenic bacteria

407

M Sundaramoorthy & T S Saravanan

 

Microbial transformation of albendazole

415

G Shyam Prasad, S Girisham & S M Reddy

 

 

 

Announcement

 

ICMR International Fellowships

332

 

 

覧覧覧覧覧覧覧

 

ICMR International Fellowships

The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) invites applications from Indian biomedical scientists for the international fellowships for the year 2010-11.

 

Number of fellowships: Young scientists 12; Senior scientists 6

 

Duration: 3-6 months for young scientists and 10-15 days for senior scientists

 

Eligibility:

  • M.D./Ph.D. degree with at least 3/15 years teaching/research experience for young and senior scientists, respectively.
  • Regular position in a recognized biomedical/research/health institution in India.
  • Below 45/55 years of age for young and senior scientists respectively.

 

Financial support:

US $ 2400 per month, contingency grant of Rs. 15,000/- and return economy class air ticket (excursion airfare) for young scientists. US $ 160 per day (including US $ 75 as per diem and rest for accommodation expenses) and return economy class air ticket (excursion airfare) for senior scientists.

 

Note:

  • The applicant should submit a letter of acceptance from the foreign Institute where he/she proposes to work along with a concrete plan of training / research work to be undertaken during the fellowship.
  • Recommendation by the Head of the parent organization / institute is essential.
  • Incomplete applications will not be entertained.
  • Decision of ICMR will be final.
  • If selected, the fellowship is to be availed before 28th February, 2011.

 

Ten copies of the application should be submitted to: International Health Division, Indian Council of Medical Research, V. Ramalingaswami Bhawan, Post Box No. 4911, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029.

 

For details and format of application, log on to ICMR website: http://www.icmr.nic.in

 

Last date of receipt of applications: 15th April, 2010

 

 

覧覧覧覧覧

 

 

 

Author Index

Ambikar D B

378

 

 

Balasundaram C

373

Bhatia Ashok Kumar

402

Bore V V

378

Borgave Seema

346

 

 

Das Subir Kumar

394

Das T K

383

Dhingra Dinesh

365

 

 

Ghaskadbi Surendra

346

Ghosh Subhas Ch

383

Gilhotra Neeraj

365

Girisham S

415

Goel Anjana

402

 

 

Harle U N

378

 

 

Jain Harshita

365

Jakubowicz-Gil Joanna

354

Jana B B

383

 

 

Khandare R A

378

Kumar Sandeep

402

 

 

Mukherjee Sukhes

394

 

 

Niedziela Piotr

354

 

 

Paduch Roman

354

Patra Sova

383

Prasad G Shyam

415

 

 

Reddy S M

415

 

 

Saravanan T S

407

Sarkar Dipanwita

383

Singh Bashisth N

333

Singh Dilip Kumar

402

Sundaramoorthy M

407

 

 

Vasudevan D M

394

Velangannni A Antony
 Joseph

 

373

Vyawahare N S

378

 

 

 

Keyword Index

Adhesion molecule

394

Albendazole

415

Albendazole sulfone

415

Albendazole sulfoxide

415

Altered FGF signaling

346

Antibacterial

407

Antibiotic resistant

383

Antioxidant vitamins A,
 C and E

 

373

Anxiety

365

Azo-dye binding protein

373

 

Bactericidal

407

Biotransformation

415

 

 

Cadmium tolerance

383

Cell surface architecture

346

Chick embryo

346

Chicken

407

Co-culture

354

Colon carcinoma

354

Cytokine induction

402

Cytokines

394

 

 

Drosophila ananassae

333

 

 

Ethanol

394

 

 

Fluorescence product

378

 

 

Goat

407

 

 

Heart Tissue

407

Heat shock proteins

354

Hepatocyte growth factor

354

 

 

Immobilization

365

 

 

Lipid peroxidation

378

Lipofuscin granules

378

Liver

394

 

 

Model species

333

Multidrug resistance protein

354

 

 

Nitric oxide synthase

365

 

 

Ocimum sanctum

402

 

 

Pathogenic bacteria

407

p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene

373

Pseudomonas sp.

383

 

 

TNF-a

402

Trapa bispinosa

378

 

 

Waste stabilization ponds

383

Water quality

383

Wound healing

402

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, April 2010, pp. 333-345

 

 

Correspondent author has been indicated by * sign

 

 

Review Article

 

 

 

Drosophila ananassae: A good model species for genetical, behavioural
and evolutionary studies

Bashisth N Singh

Genetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India

Drosophila ananassae, a cosmopolitan and domestic species, was first described by Doleschall in 1858 from Indonesia. During 1930s, cytological and genetical investigations in D. ananassae were initiated in Japan and USA which showed that it is a genetically unique species. Since then a large number of studies have been carried out by researchers in Japan, USA, India, France and Germany in this genetically unique species. Present review briefly summarizes the work done on genetical, behavioural and evolutionary aspects in D. ananassae which demonstrates that it is a good model species for such studies. Further, it is also discussed how the work on D. ananassae has enriched our understanding of basic phenomena like evolution and behaviour compared to similar studies on other model Drosophilds like D. melanogaster, D. pseudoobscura or D. subobsura.

 

 

 

Papers

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, April 2010, pp. 346-353

 

 

 

Modulation of cell surface architecture in gastrulating chick embryo in response to altered fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling

Seema Borgave & Surendra Ghaskadbi*

Division of Animal Sciences, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune 411 004, India

Received 15 October 2009

Gastrulation is a fundamental process that results in formation of the three germ layers in an embryo. It involves highly coordinated cell migration. Cell to cell communication through cell surface and the surrounding molecular environment governs cell migration. In the present work, cell surface features, which are indicative of the migratory status of a cell, of an early gastrulating chick embryo were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The distinct ultrastructural features of cells located in the various regions of the epiblast are described. Differences in the surface features of cells from distinct embryonic regions indicate differences in their migratory capacities. Further, the dynamic nature of these cell surface features by their response to altered fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling, experimentally created by using either excess FGF or inhibition of FGF signaling are demonstrated.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, April 2010, pp. 354-364

 

 

 

Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), heat shock proteins (HSPs) and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) expression in co-culture of colon tumor
spheroids with normal cells after incubation with
interleukin-1b (IL-1b) and/or camptothecin (CPT-11)

Roman Paduch1, Joanna Jakubowicz-Gil2 & Piotr Niedziela3

1Department of Virology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland

2Department of Comparative Anatomy and Anthropology, Institute of Biology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University,
Akademicka 19, 20-033 Lublin, Poland

3Department of Surgery, District Railway Hospital, Kruczkowskiego 21, 20-468 Lublin, Poland

Received 30 July 2009; revised 26 November 2009

Tumor chemoresistance and metastasis are some of the most important problems in colon cancer therapy. In the present study, co-cultures of human colon carcinoma cell spheroids, obtained from different grades of tumor, with human colon epithelium, myofibroblast and endothelial cell monolayers were performed. The purpose of these co-cultures was to reflect, in in vitro conditions, different stages of colon tumor development. In order to investigate the invasive capacities of the tumor cells and their resistance to chemotherapy, HGF, HSP27, HSP72 and MRP levels were analyzed after incubation of the co-cultures with IL-1b and irinotecan (CPT-11) added as single agents or in combination. Myofibroblasts produced significantly higher amounts of HGF than epithelial cells. Tumor cells released trace amounts of this molecule. In co-cultures, IL-1b induced HGF release, while CPT-11 alone or combined with IL-1b decreased HGF secretion. An immunoblotting analysis followed by densitometry revealed that the combination of IL-1b plus CPT-11 added to the co-cultures led to a decrease in HSPs and MRP levels. In conclusion, direct and paracrine interactions of colon tumor cell spheroids with normal cells and exogenously added CPT-11 change HSP27, HSP72 and MRP expression in comparison to monocultures. IL-1b and CPT-11, dependent on whether they are added separately or jointly, differentially modulate HGF expression in monocultures of colon tumor spheroids or normal cells and their co-cultures.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, April 2010, pp. 365-372

 

 

 

Differential effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on anxiety in
unstressed and stressed mice

Neeraj Gilhotra1,2,*, Harshita Jain2 & Dinesh Dhingra3

1Pharmacology Division, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,

Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125 001, India

2Pharmacology Division, School of Pharmacy,

Gyan Vihar University, Jaipur 302 004, India

3Pharmacology Division, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,

Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125 001, India

Received 16 June 2009; revised 19 November 2009

Effects of selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), a selective inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and aminoguanidine (AG), a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) on anxiety in unstressed and stressed mice were investigated using elevated plus maze (EPM) test and light-dark test (LDT). 7-NI
(20 and 40 mg/kg, ip) produced anti-anxiety effect in unstressed mice but not in stressed mice. AG (50 and 100 mg/kg, ip) produced anxiolytic effect in stressed mice and failed to produce the similar effect in unstressed mice. Nitrite levels were increased in stressed mice, but not in unstressed mice, exposed to EPM and LDT for 5 min. Increased nitrite levels in stressed mice were attenuated by AG, but not by 7-NI. The effects of AG were enhanced by pyrrolidine-dithio-carbamate (PDTC), an inhibitor of NF-κB induction, in stressed mice. The results suggest the possible role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in stress-induced anxiogenesis as compared to unstressed mice, where neuronal form of NOS may plays pre-dominant role.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, April 2010, pp. 373-377

 

 

 

 

Effect of antioxidant vitamins A, C, E and their analogues on azo-dye binding protein in liver of rats treated with p-dimethylaminoazobenzene

A Antony Joseph Velanganni*

Department of Biochemistry, J.J. College of Arts and Science, Pudukkottai 622 422, India

and

C Balasundaram

Department of Animal Science, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, India

Received 21 July 2009; revised 19 November 2009

p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene (DAB) is an azo-dye and known to cause liver tumour in rats. Azo-dye binding protein is a specific cytosolic protein involved in the translocation of azo-dye carcinogen metabolites from liver cytoplasm into the nucleus. Administration of vitamin A (40,000 and 50,000 IU), L-ascorbic acid (500 and 1,000 mg) and vitamin E succinate (200500 mg) reduced the amount of azo-dye binding protein in liver of rats treated with DAB. Supplementation of high doses of vitamin A acetate, vitamin A palmitate, sodium ascorbate, ascorbyl palmitate and vitamin E acetate had no effect on the quantity of azo-dye binding protein in liver. When the vitamin mixture was given, the level of azo-dye binding protein decreased in the liver at all the studied doses, which may be due to their synergistic effect.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, April 2010, pp. 378-382

 

 

 

 

 

Neuroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of dried fruits of Trapa bispinosa Roxb on lipofuscinogenesis and fluorescence product in brain of D-galactose induced ageing accelerated mice

D B Ambikar, U N Harle, R A Khandare, V V Bore & N S Vyawahare*

Department of Pharmacology, AISSMS College of Pharmacy, Kennedy Road, Pune 411 001, India

Received 14 January 2009; revised 16 December 2009

Effect of hydroalcoholic extract T. bispinosa (TB) was studied on fluorescence product and biochemical parameter like lipid peroxidation, catalase activity and glutathione peroxidase activity in the brain of female albino mice. Ageing was accelerated by the treatment of 0.5 ml 5% D-galactose for 15 days. This resulted in increased fluorescence product, increase lipid peroxidation and decrease antioxidant enzyme like glutathione peroxides and catalase in cerebral cortex. After co-treatment with hydroalcoholic extract of TB (500 mg/kg, po) there was decrease in fluorescence product in cerebral cortex. Moreover, TB inhibited increase lipid peroxidation and restores glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity in cerebral cortex as compare to ageing accelerated control group. To conclude TB found to be effective antioxidative agent which could to some extent reverse D-galactose induced ageing changes resulted due to oxidative damage.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, April 2010, pp. 383-393

 

 

 

Cadmium tolerance and antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas sp. isolated from water, sludge and fish raised in wastewater-fed tropical ponds

Sova Patra, T K Das1, Subhas Ch Ghosh, Dipanwita Sarkar & B B Jana*

International Centre for Ecological Engineering and 1Department of Biochemistry & Biophysics
University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, India

Received 5 May 2009; revised 7 July 2009

The numbers of Pseudomonas sp. isolated were counted in samples collected from water, sludge and intestine of fishes raised in different wastewater ponds along an effluent gradient in a sewage treatment plant. Total fish yield in the last maturation pond increased by 73% over the yield in first maturation pond or facultative pond. The number of Pseudomonas sp. isolated from the intestine of the tilapia (Oreochromis mssambicus) raised in facultative pond, was more than three times the counts (7.22 ラ 108/g) observed in the last maturation pond (2.025 ラ 108/g). The effective lethal concentration of cadmium for Pseudomonas sp. isolated from the intestine of the tilapia was 0.6 mM and 0.08-0.09 mM when the fish was procured from facultative pond and last maturation pond, respectively. The Pseudomonas sp. isolated from the intestine of the tilapia did not have resistance to any of the ten antibiotics tested. However, the bacterium isolated from raw sewage, water and sediment of the anaerobic pond was resistant to seven out of ten antibiotics tested.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, April 2010, pp. 394-401

 

 

 

 

Effects of long-term ethanol consumption on adhesion molecules in liver

Subir Kumar Das1*, Sukhes Mukherjee2 & D M Vasudevan2

Department of Biochemistry
1Agartala Govt Medical College, Kunjaban P.O., Agartala 799 006, India
2Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Cochin 682 041, India

Received 12 August 2009; revised 18 November 2009

Adhesion molecules play an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. In this study, expression of adhesion molecules was examined in the setting of chronic alcohol induced liver damage of male albino Wistar strain rats (16-18 weeks-old, 200-220 g) in a time dependent manner. Decreased protein level and increased activities of liver marker enzymes in response to the chronic ethanol (1.6 g ethanol/kg body weight/day) exposure, indicated that these animals suffered from liver damage in a time-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that chronic ethanol treatment induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in liver tissues of rats with duration of ethanol exposure. The results suggest that the adhesion molecules may be associated with the initiation of hepatic injury during alcohol intoxication.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, April 2010, pp. 402-406

 

 

 

Wound healing potential of Ocimum sanctum Linn. with induction of
tumor necrosis factor-α

Anjana Goel1, Sandeep Kumar, Dilip Kumar Singh & Ashok Kumar Bhatia*

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, College of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry,
U.P. Pt Deen Dayal Upadhyay Pasu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalaya evam Go Anusandhan Sansthan, Mathura 281 001, India

Received 20 April 2009, revised 13 December 2009

Ocimum sanctum, a well known herb in Indian medicine, possesses various therapeutic properties including healing properties and cytokine induction. Wound healing activity of cold aqueous extract of O. sanctum leaves along with its effect on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was assessed using excision model of wound repair in Wistar albino rats. After application of the O. sanctum extract, rate of epithelization with an increase in wound contraction was observed. In animals, treated with 10% O. sanctum extract in petroleum jelly, wound healing was faster as compared to control group which were treated with petroleum jelly alone but significant accelerated healing was noticed in animals which in addition to the topical application of 10% extract of O. sanctum, were prefed with 250mg/kg body weight of aqueous O. sanctum extract daily for 20 consecutive days. During wound healing phase TNF-α level was found to be up regulated by O. sanctum treatment. Early wound healing may be pronounced due to O. sanctum extract, by elevating TNF-α production.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, April 2010, pp. 407-414

 

 

 

 

Antibacterial effects of goat and chicken heart tissues against
human pathogenic bacteria

M Sundaramoorthy & T S Saravanan*

Department of Biotechnology, ARJ College of Engineering & Technology, Mannargudi, India 614 001

and

PG & Research Department of Zoology, Jamal Mohamed College, Tiruchirappalli, India, 620 020

Received 14 May 2009; revised 17 November 2009

The crude buffer (Tris Buffer Saline-I) extracts of muscles, liver, kidney and heart of goat and chicken (White leghorn) were screened against 16 clinical isolates. Among the five tissues, the heart tissue of each animal showed significant bactericidal activities on many isolates. The acid extracted crude proteins of both heart tissues also showed significant antibacterial activities against many bacterial isolates. The crude proteins of goat heart tissues displayed strong bactericidal activities against Salmonella paratyphi 羨 and Salmonella typhimurium (MIC: 16 mg/ml) whereas the crude proteins of chicken heart tissues displayed strong bactericidal activities against Escherichia coli ATCC and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 16 and 63 mg/ml concentrations respectively. The peptides of low molecular weight (< 30 kDa) were also separated from the acid extracted crude proteins of goat and chicken heart tissues by SDS-PAGE after staining with silver nitrate solution.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, April 2010, pp. 415-420

 

 

 

Microbial transformation of albendazole

G Shyam Prasad*, S Girisham & S M Reddy

Department of Microbiology, Kakatiya University, Warangal 506 009, India

Received 13 July 2009; revised 3 December 2009

Screening scale studies were performed to biotransform anthelmintic drug albendazole by using twelve bacterial strains representing six genera and five actinomycetes cultures. Among the cultures studied, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 619, Escherichia coli MTCC 118 and Klebsiella pneumoniae MTCC 109 could transform albendazole to one metabolite whereas, Enterobacter aerogenes NCIM 2695, Klebsiella aerogenes NCIM 2258, Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2074 and Streptomyces griseus NCIM 2622 could transform albendazole into two metabolites in significant quantities. The transformation of albendazole was identified by HPLC. Based on LC-MS-MS data, the two metabolites were predicted to be albendazole sulfoxide (M1) and albendazole sulfone (M2), the major mammalian metabolites reported previously. Since M1 is active metabolite, the results prove the versatility of microorganisms to perform industrially attractive chemical reactions.