Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 48

NUMBER 8

AUGUST 2010

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 48 (8) 769–860 (2010)

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Papers

 

 

 

Macrophage apoptosis associated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi plasmid

773

        Shuyan Wu, Yuanyuan Li, Yang Xu, Guorong Song, Zhenghong Qin & Rui Huang

 

 

 

Preparation and characterization of Immunoglobulin yolk against the venom of Naja naja atra

778

        Sihong Liu, Weihua Dong & Tianhan Kong

 

 

 

In vitro effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan, indoleamines and leptin on arylalkylamine
N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) activity in pineal organ of the fish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) during different phases of the breeding cycle

786

        B B P Gupta, L Yanthan & Ksh Manisana Singh

 

 

 

Neuroprotective effect of pioglitazone on acute phase changes induced by partial global cerebral ischaemia in mice

793

        Bikash Medhi, Raman Aggarwal & Amitava Chakrabarti

 

 

 

Antidiabetic effect of Dodonaea viscosa (L). Lacq. aerial parts in high fructose-fed insulin resistant rats: A mechanism based study

800

        V P Veerapur, K R Prabhakar, B S Thippeswamy, Punit Bansal, K K Srinivasan &
M K Unnikrishnan

 

 

 

Antinociceptive and acute toxicity evaluation of Vernonia condensata Baker leaves extracted with different solvents and their mixtures

811

        Wagner E Risso, Ieda S Scarminio & Estefania G Moreira

 

 

 

Antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae) in animal models of nociception

817

        Chandana C Barua, Archana Talukdar, Shameem A Begum, Lalit C Lahon, Dilip K Sarma, Debesh C Pathak & Probodh Borah

 

Hepatoprotective activity of Luffa acutangula against CCl4 and rifampicin induced liver toxicity in rats: A biochemical and histopathological evaluation

822

        Vishal B Jadhav, Vishnu N Thakare, Anupama A Suralkar, Avinash D Deshpande &
Suresh R Naik

 

 

 

Effect of maternal fluoride exposure on developing CNS of rats: Protective role of Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ocimum sanctum

830

        N Madhusudhan, P Mahaboob Basha, Puja Rai, Fiyaz Ahmed & G Ravi Prasad

 

 

 

(Contd)

Effect of Aloe vera gel extract on antioxidant enzymes and azoxymethane-induced oxidative stress in rats

837

        K R Anilakumar, K R Sudarshanakrishna, G Chandramohan, N Ilaiyaraja, Farhath Khanum & A S Bawa

 

 

 

Antioxidant activity of carotenoid lutein in vitro and in vivo

843

        Edakkadath R Sindhu, Korengath C Preethi & Ramadasan Kuttan

 

 

 

Genetic characterization of dengue virus serotypes causing concurrent infection in an outbreak in Ernakulam, Kerala, South India

849

        M Anoop, Aneesh Issac, Thomas Mathew, Sairu Philip, Nabeel Abdul Kareem,
R Unnikrishnan, & E Sreekuma
r

 

 

 

Notes

 

 

 

Effect of combined treatment of thioperamide with some antiepileptic drugs on methionine-sulfoximine induced convulsions in mice

858

        Divya Vohora, Razia Khanam, Shanthi N Pal & K K Pillai

 

 

 

 

  

 

 

 


Editor’s Note

 

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology is covered by the following international abstracting and indexing services:

 

Science Citation Index ExpandedTM

PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov/)

MEDLINE

BIOSIS

Chemical Abstracts Service

Excerpta Medica

Informascience

Refrativnyi Zhurnal

Zoological Records

 

Author Index

Aggarwal Raman

793

Ahmed Fiyaj

830

Anilakumar K R

837

Anoop M

843

Bansal Punit

800

Barua Chandana C

817

Basha P Mahaboob

830

Bawa A S

837

Begum Shameem A

817

Borah Probodh

817

Chakrabarti Amitava

793

Chandramohan G

837

Deshpande Avinash D

822

Dong Weihua

778

Gupta B B P

786

Huang Rui

773

Ilaiyaraja N

837

Issac Aneesh

849

Jadhav Vishal B

822

Kareem Nabeel Abdul

849

Khanam Razia

858

Khanum Farhath

837

Kong Tianhan

778

Kuttan Ramadasan

843

Lahon Lalit C

817

Li Yuanyuan

773

Liu Sihong

778

Madhusudhan N

830

Mathew Thomas

849

Medhi Bikash

793

Moreira Estefania G

811

Naik Suresh R

822

Pal Shanthi N

858

Pathak Debesh C

817

Philip Sairu

849

Pillai K K

858

Prabhakar K R

800

Prasad G Ravi

830

Preethi Korengath C

843

Qin Zhenghong

773

Rai Puja

830

Risso Wagner E

811

Sarma Dilip K

817

Scarminio Ieda S

811

Sindhu Edakkadath R

843

Singh Ksh Manisana

786

Song Guorong

773

Srinivasan K K

800

Sudarshanakrishna K R

837

Suralkar Anupama A

822

Talukdar Archana

817

Thakare Vishnu N

822

Thippeswamy B S

800

Unnikrishnan M K

800

Veerapur V P

800

Vohora Divya

858

Wu Shuyan

773

Xu Yang

773

Yanthan L

786

 

 

 

 

Keyword Index

AA-NAT

786

Achyranthes aspera

817

Aloe vera gel extract

837

Analgesic

811

Antiinflammatory

811

Antioxidant

822

Antioxidants

843

Apoptosis

773

Azoxymethane

837

Breeding phase

786

Carotenoid

843

Cerebral ischaemia

793

Co-infection

849

Dengue

849

Detoxifying enzymes

837

Dodonaea viscosa

800

DPP-IV

800

Egg yolk

778

Fluoride toxicity

830

Free radicals

843

Gabapentin

858

Genotyping

849

Hepatoprotection

822

Homeostatic model assessment

800

Hot plate

817

HPLC

800

5-HTP

786

Immunoglobulin

778

Indoleamines

786

Leptin

786

Lethal dose

811

Lipid peroxidation

830

Luffa acutangula

822

Lutein

843

Macrophage

773

Macrophages

843

Macular pigment

843

Melatonin

786

Methionine-sulfoximine

858

Micronuclei

837

Multiplex RT-PCR

849

Naja naja atra

778

Neuroprotection

793

Nociception

817

Oxidative stress

830

Phytochemical screening

811

Phytoextracts

830

Pineal

786

Pioglitazone

793

Plasmid

773

PPAR- g

793

PPAR- g

800

Prediabetic

800

PTP-1B

800

Quercetin

800

Rat liver

837

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi

773

Serum marker enzymes

822

Snake venom

778

Sodium valproate

858

Tail flick test

817

Thioperamide

858

Vernonia condensate

811

Writhing syndrome

817

Writhing test

811

 

 

Correspondent author has been indicated by * sign

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, August 2010, pp. 773-777

 

 

Macrophage apoptosis associated with Salmonella enterica
serovar Typhi plasmid

Shuyan Wu, Yuanyuan Li, Yang Xu , Guorong Song, Zhenghong Qin* & Rui Huang*

Medical College of Soochow University, No. 199, Ren Ai Road, Suzhou 215123, China

Received 27 November 2009 ; revised 12 March 2010

The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between plasmid isolated from S. enterica serovar
Typhi (pR ST98 ) and macrophage apoptosis. pR ST98 was transferred into an attenuated S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strain RIA to create a transconjugant pR ST98 /RIA. Standard S. enterica serovar Typhimurium virulence strain SR-11 was used as a positive control, and RIA as a negative one. Murine macrophage-like cell line (J774A.1) was used as an infectious cell model in vitro. In order to determine the inhibition and bactericidal effect of amikacin (AMK) to extracellular bacteria and the best optimization co-culture ratio between Salmonella and J774A.1, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of AMK to strains SR-11 , pR ST98 /RIA and RIA and multiplicity of infection (MOI) w ere detected first, and then J774A.1 was infected by the above three serovar Typhimurium strains. Apoptosis of J774A.1 was examined with electron microscopy and flow cytometry after annexin-V/propidium iodide labeling at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h. Mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by JC-1 staining method. It was demonstrated that MIC of AMK to the three strains was 10µg/ml, MBC was 80µg/ml, and optimal MOI was 100:1. pR ST98 /RIA resulted in a higher apoptosis of J774A.1 than RIA, apoptotic features such as chromatin margination could be observed after 3 h, and death of J774A.1 cells was associated with the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. These results indicated that pR ST98 could enhance the virulence of its host bacteria, evidenced by increased macrophage apoptosis.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, August 2010, pp. 778-785

 

 

Preparation and characterization of immunoglobulin yolk against the venom of
Naja naja atra

Sihong Liu, Weihua Dong & Tianhan Kong *

Department of Pathophysiology, Guangzhou Medical College, #195 Dong Feng West Road,
Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510082, China

Received 13 July 2009 ; revised 7 April 2010

Chinese Cobra ( Naja naja atra ) bite is one of the leading causes of snake-bite mortality in China . The traditional anti-cobra venom serum therapy was found to be expensive and with high frequency of side effects. Therefore attempts were made to generate a high titer immunoglobulin from egg yolk (IgY) of crude cobra-venom immunized Leghorn hens, and to standardize an effective method for producing avian antivenom in relatively pure form. The IgY was isolated first by water dilution method to remove the lipid, then extracted by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and purified through anion exchange chromatogram. The different purities of IgY from different isolating stages were submitted to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and SDS - PAGE to determine their titers. Immunoblotting showed that the purified IgY (ion exchange chromatography fraction, IECF) recognized several antigenic fractions of cobra venom, and presented with the character of polyclonal antibody. IECF on SDS - PAGE under reducing conditions migrated as a 65 kDa heavy chain and a 35 kDa light chain, respectively. The LD 50 of the N. naja atra venom was 0.62 mg/kg body weight in mice. Four times the LD 50 dose of venom was selected as challenge dose, and the ED 50 of IgY was 3.04 mg IECF/mg venom. The results indicate that the activity of anti-snake venom IgY could be obviously elevated by ion exchange chromatography, thus possessing therapeutic significance for snakebite envenomation.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, August 2010, pp. 786-792

 

 

In vitro effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan, indoleamines and leptin on arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) activity in pineal organ of the fish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) during different phases of the breeding cycle

B B P Gupta*, L Yanthan & Ksh Manisana Singh

Environmental Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, North-Eastern Hill University , Shillong 793 022, India

Received 15 December 2009 ; revised 21 April 2010

Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme of melatonin biosynthetic pathway. In vitro effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and indoleamines (serotonin, N-acetylserotonin and melatonin) were studied on AA-NAT activity in the pineal organ of the fish, C. gariepinus during different phases of its annual breeding cycle. Further, in vitro e ffects of leptin on AA-NAT activity in the pineal organ were studied in fed and fasted fishes during summer and winter seasons. Treatments with 5-HTP and indoleamines invariably stimulated pineal AA-NAT activity in a dose-dependent manner during all the phases. However, l eptin increased AA-NAT activity in a dose-dependent manner only in the pineal organ of the fed fishes, but not of the fasted fishes irrespective of the seasons.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, August 2010, pp. 793-799

 

 

Neuroprotective effect of pioglitazone on acute phase changes induced by
partial global cerebral ischemia in mice

Bikash Medhi*, Raman Aggarwal & Amitava Chakrabarti

Department of Pharmacology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160 012, India

Received 22 October, 2009 ; revised 15 March 2010

Present study was carried out to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of pioglitazone, an antidiabetic agent, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist on acute phase changes in mice model of cerebral ischemia induced by Bilateral Common Carotid artery Occlusion (BCCAO). BCCAO model was used to induce partial global cerebral ischemia. BCCAO induced significant brain infarct size and edema in saline treated control group along with high increase in oxidative stress showed by increase lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of antioxidants like superoxide superoxide dismutage, catalase, glutathione peroxidase. Pioglitazone (20 mg/kg, orally) administration showed neuroprotective effects by reducing cerebral infarct size significantly as compared to control group. Postischemic seizure susceptibility was also reduced as number of positive responders decreased to a significant number. Brain edema was subsided to a significant level. Pioglitazone reduced the plasma TNF- a levels as compared to ischemia group significantly. Pioglitazone treatment also improved all the antioxidants levels showing activity against oxidative stress induced by BCCAO. Pioglitazone showed neuroprotection against ischemic insult suggesting the role of PPAR ? agonist in neuroprotective agents.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, August 2010, pp. 800-810

 

 

Antidiabetic effect of Dodonaea viscosa (L). Lacq. aerial parts in high
fructose-fed insulin resistant rats: A mechanism based study

V P Veerapur 1* , K R Prabhakar 1 , B S Thippeswamy 2 , Punit Bansal 1 , K K Srinivasan 3 & M K Unnikrishnan 1

1 Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal 576 104, India
2 Department of Pharmacology, Sree Siddaganga College of Pharmacy, Tumkur 572 102, India
3 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal 576 104, India .

Received 25 February 2010 ; revised 10 May 2010

To study the effect and mode of action of water extract (DVW) and polar fraction of ethanol extract (DVE-4) of D. viscosa in high-fructose diet induced insulin resistance in male Wistar rats. D. viscosa' s effects were evaluated on a battery of targets involved in glucose homeostasis ( in vitro studies). Rats were rendered insulin resistant by feeding 66% (w/w) fructose and 1.1% (v/w) coconut oil mixed with normal pellet diet (NPD) for six weeks. DVW and DVE4 at different doses were administered simultaneously. At the end of the study, blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, lipid profile and insulin were estimated and homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) levels were calculated. In addition, enzymatic and non-enzymatic liver antioxidant levels were also estimated. Quantification of biomarker quercetin was done using HPLC. Fructose diet with DVW, DVE-4 significantly reduced blood glucose, serum insulin, HOMA, lipid profiles and significantly improved glucose tolerance and HDL-c levels. In addition, these extract and fraction also decreased oxidative stress by improving endogenous antioxidants. In different bioassays, DVW and DVE-4 inhibited protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B with IC 50 65.8 and 54.9 m g/ml respectively and showed partial inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV. Moreover, DVW and
DVE-4, at 10 m g/ml showed 60 and 54.2% binding to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- g . Further, 2.1% (w/w) of quercetin was quantified in bioactive-DVE-4 using HPLC method. The results provide pharmacological evidence of D. viscosa in treatment of prediabetic conditions and these effects may be mediated by interacting with multiple targets operating in diabetes mellitus.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, August 2010, pp. 811-816

 

 

Antinociceptive and acute toxicity evaluation of Vernonia condensata Baker leaves extracted with different solvents and their mixtures

Wagner E Risso a ,b , Ieda S Scarminio a & Estefania G Moreira b,*

a Department of Chemistry, and b Department of Physiological Sciences, State University of Londrina, 8651-980-Londrina, Paraná , Brazil

Received 3 November 2009 ; revised 4 March 2010

Extract of Vernonia condensata (Asteraceae = Compositae) leaves has different uses in Brazilian folk medicine, which includes analgesic and antiinflamatory agent. The aim of this study was to apply a modified simplex-centroid mixture design to evaluate the best extractor system for the antinociceptive activity, evaluated by writhing test. Different solvents (acetone, dichloromethane, ethanol and ethyl acetate) as well as their binary, ternary and quaternary mixtures were used. For comparison, aqueous extract was also evaluated. LD 50 was estimated and qualitative phytochemical screening, conducted. The extracts with antinociceptive activity were: aqueous, acetone, dicloromethane (DCM), ethanol (ETOH), acetone-DCM, acetone-ETOH, acetone-ethyl acetate, ETOH-ethyl acetate, acetone-DCM-ethyl acetate, acetone-ETOH-ethyl acetate and DCM-ETOH-ethyl acetate. The higher margin of safety (LD 50 /ED 50 ) was for acetone > acetone-ETOH-ethyl acetate > aqueous > ETOH = acetone-ETOH > DCM > acetone-ethyl acetate > DCM-ETOH-ethyl acetate > acetone-DCM > acetone-DCM-ethyl acetate. Phytochemical screening showed that all the extracts contained alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins and saponins. In conclusion, the extractor system influences both the pharmacological activity and acute toxicity of leaves from V. condensata . Acetone and the ternary mixture, acetone-ETOH-ethyl acetate extracts showed higher margin of safety than aqueous extract.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, August 2010, pp. 817-821

 

 

Antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Achyranthes aspera Linn. ( Amaranthaceae) in animal models of nociception

Chandana C Barua 1* , Archana Talukdar 1 , Shameem A Begum 1 , Lalit C Lahon 1 , Dilip K Sarma 2 , Debesh C Pathak 3 & Probodh Borah 2

Department of 1 Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2 Microbiology and 3 Pathology, College of Veterinary Science ,
Assam Agricultural University, Khanapara, Guwahati 781 022, India .

Received 26 November 2009 ; revised 1 April 2010

Antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of leaves of A. aspera was studied by peripheral/ non-narcotic model of nociception like acetic acid induced writhing syndrome test and central/narcotic models like hot plate and tail flick tests. The methanolic extract of the plant, administered orally (@ 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg, body weight) and the standard drug (piroxicam; 10 mg/kg body weight, po) produced significant analgesic activity in acetic acid induced writhing syndrome as compared to the vehicle treated control group. In the hot plate analgesic test, in A. aspera at the above doses and the standard drug treated group (morphine sulphate @ 1.5 mg/kg, ip), the duration of reaction time (sec) increased dose dependently and significantly compared to the control group. I n the tail flick test, the plant extract produced dose dependant increase in reaction time which was significantly higher in the test and standard group compared to the control group. The plant possesses significant antinociceptive property as evidenced in all the animal models of nociception. It might possibly exert its effect through diverse mechanism that may involve both central and peripheral pathways. The preliminary phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of steroids, alkaloids and triterpene in the methanolic extract of leaves of A. aspera which may be responsible for its antinociceptive activity.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, August 2010, pp. 822-829

 

 

Hepatoprotective activity of Luffa acutangula against CCl 4 and rifampicin induced liver toxicity in rats: A biochemical and histopathological evaluation

Vishal B Jadhav 1 , Vishnu N Thakare 2 , Anupama A Suralkar 1 , Avinash D Deshpande 1 & Suresh R Naik 2*

1 Department of Pharmacology, Padm Dr D Y Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Pimpri, Pune 411 018, India

2 Department of Pharmacology, Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (SIPS), Kusgaon (Bk),Lonavala 410 401, India

Received 16 December 2009 ; revised 9 April 2010

Hepatoprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Luffa acutangula (HAELA) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) and rifampicin-induced hepatotoxicity in rats was evaluated and probable mechanism(s) of action has been suggested. Administration of standard drug- silymarin and HAELA showed significant hepatoprotection against CCl 4 and rifampicin induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Hepatoprotective activity of HAELA was due to the decreased levels of serum marker enzymes viz., (AST, ALT, ALP and LDH) and increased total protein including the improvement in histoarchitecture of liver cells of the treated groups as compared to the control group. HAELA also showed significant decrease in malondialdehyde ( MDA) formation, increased activity of non-enzymatic intracellular antioxidant, glutathione and enzymatic antioxidants, catalase and superoxide dismutase. Results of this study demonstrated that endogenous antioxidants and inhibition of lipid peroxidation of membrane contribute to hepatoprotective activity of HAELA.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, August 2010, pp. 830-836

 

 

Effect of maternal fluoride exposure on developing CNS of rats: Protective role of Aloe vera , Curcuma longa and Ocimum sanctum

N Madhusudhan, P Mahaboob Basha*, Puja Rai, Fiyaz Ahmed & G Ravi Prasad †

Department of Zoology and Botany, Bangalore University , Bangalore 560 056, India

 

 

Received 21 July 2009 ; revised 26 March 2010

Fluoride is toxic to neuronal development and its excessive intake during pregnancy cause adverse effects on neonatal development. The present study examined the presence of oxidative stress during maternal exposure of fluoride and the therapeutic strategy of Aloe vera, Curcuma longa and Ocimum sanctum extracts in functional prevention of fluoride led oxidative stress. The pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to 100 ppm fluoride in drinking water and pups born to them were supplemented with phytoextracts daily. On 21 st postpartum day, the pups were sacrificed to analyse fluoride and oxidative stress markers. Fluoride exposure significantly increased its accumulation, lipid peroxidation and decreased the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione levels in discrete regions of the central nervous system (CNS) of pups indicating oxidative stress and inhibited antioxidant defense. The results implied the vulnerability of developing CNS to fluoride toxicity. On phytoextract supplementation, the oxidant devastation was suppressed by regaining antioxidant homeostasis near normal level proving efficacy and therapeutic strategy. Among the phytoextracts supplemented the Ocimum sanctum is found to be more effective.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, August 2010, pp. 837-842

 

 

Effect of Aloe vera gel extract on antioxidant enzymes and azoxymethane-induced oxidative stress in rats

K R Anilakumar*, K R Sudarshanakrishna, G Chandramohan, N Ilaiyaraja, Farhath Khanum & A S Bawa

Biochemistry & Nutrition Discipline, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore 570011, India

Received 14 September 2009 ; revised 12 March 2010

The present work was undertaken with a view to study the effect of oral feeding of 2% Aloe vera gel extract (AGE) for 30 days on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced oxidative stress in rats. It was observed that AOM administration resulted in a significant increase in malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes, with reduction in hepatic glutathione (GSH), vitamin A and uric acid contents. AOM-induced reduction in hepatic GSH and uric acid was brought back to normal by AGE. There was a significant raise in hepatic catalase, superoxide dismutase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) activities as a result of feeding of the extract. Ingestion of the extract effected reduction in AOM-induced colonic GSH-peroxidase, G-6- PD and glutathione S-transferase and femur bone marrow micronuclei formation. Hence, it is suggested that Aloe vera gel extract possess the ability to reduce AOM- induced oxidative stress and toxicity in liver.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, August 2010, pp. 843-848

 

 

Antioxidant activity of carotenoid lutein in vitro and in vivo

Edakkadath R Sindhu, Korengath C Preethi & Ramadasan Kuttan*

Amala Cancer Research Centre, Amala Nagar, Thrissur 680 555, India

Received 15 December 2009 ; revised 15 March 2010

Carotenoid lutein was evaluated for its antioxidant potential both in vitro and in vivo . L utein was found to scavenge superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals and inhibited in vitro lipid peroxidation. Concentrations needed for 50 % inhibition (IC 50 ) were 21, 1.75 and 2.2 µ g/mL respectively. It scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (IC 50 35 µ g/mL) and nitric oxide radicals (IC 50 3.8 µ g/mL) while 2,2-azobis-3-ethylbenzthiozoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals were inhibited at higher concentration. Ferric reducing power (50%) of lutein was found to be equal 0.3 µ mols/mL of FeSO 4 .7H 2 O. Its oral administration inhibited superoxide generation in macrophages in vivo by 34.18, 64.32 and 70.22 % at doses of 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight. The oral administration of lutein in mice for 1 month significantly increased the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione in blood and liver while the activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase were found to be increased in the liver tissue. Implication of these results in terms of its role in reducing degenerative diseases is discussed.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, August 2010, pp. 849-857

 

 

Genetic characterization of dengue virus serotypes causing concurrent
infection in an outbreak in Ernakulam, Kerala, South India

M Anoop 1 , Aneesh Issac 1 , Thomas Mathew 2,3 , Sairu Philip 2 , Nabeel Abdul Kareem 2 ,
R Unnikrishnan 3 & E Sreekumar 1 *

1 Molecular Virology Laboratory, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology (RGCB), Thycaud P O,
Thiruvananthapuram 695 014, Kerala, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, T D Medical College, Alappuzha 688 005, Kerala, India
3 State Disease Control and Monitoring Cell (SDCMC), National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), Kerala, India

Received 17 September 2009 ; revised 18 February 2010

Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne viral infection, causes significant morbidity and has become endemic in the Indian subcontinent. Virus strains currently circulating in many parts of the country are not well studied at the molecular level. In the present study, genetic characterization of virus strains from a dengue outbreak that occurred in and around a tertiary care hospital in Ernakulam, Kerala in the year 2008 has been reported. By reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
(RT-PCR), 37 out of 75 (49.3%) clinically suspected cases were positive for dengue viral RNA. Among these, 21 (56.8%) samples showed concurrent infection with multiple serotypes of the virus. Majority of the combined infections were caused by dengue serotype 2 and 3. Co-infections with type 1 and 2 in two patients, and type 1, 2 and 3 in one patient were also observed. The core-pre-Membrane ( CprM) junction nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the
type 1 strains were related to the viral strains reported from Delhi-2001 and Gwalior-2002 dengue outbreaks, while the
type 2 strains were related to the strains from Gwalior-2001 epidemic. Sequences of type 3 strains did not show clear relation to any of the previous Indian isolates, and in the phylogenetic analysis, they formed a distinct lineage within the Indian type 3 strains. This study indicates hyperendemicity of dengue in the region with the presence of multiple serotypes and high rates of co-infection, and local genomic evolution of the viral strains involved in this outbreak.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, August 2010, pp. 858-860

 

 

Effect of combined treatment of thioperamide with some antiepileptic drugs on methionine-sulfoximine induced convulsions in mice

Divya Vohora 1* , Razia Khanam 1 , Shanthi N Pal 2
& K K Pillai 1

1 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India

2 Health Technology & Pharmaceuticals, World Health Organization, Geneva-27, Switzerland

Received 5 October 2009 ; revised 29 March 2010

Methionine-sulfoximine (MSO), a convulsant is known to increase the activity of histamine N-methyl transferase. The effect of a selective H3 receptor agonist R- (a) methylhistamine (RAMH) and antagonist (thioperamide, THP) and some antiepileptic drugs (gabapentin and sodium valproate) have been evaluated on MSO-induced convulsions in mice. The effect of THP was also evaluated in combination with these antiepileptic drugs. Sodium valproate (300 mg/kg, po) and gabapentin (400 mg/kg, po) offered protection against MSO-induced convulsions as evidenced by a significant prolongation of latency to abnormal dorsoflexion and complete protection against mortality within 6 h of administration. THP (15 mg/kg, ip) alone and in combination with sub-effective doses of gabapentin (75 mg/kg, po) and sodium valproate (75 mg/kg, po) revealed no significant differences from the control group or either drug alone. Hence, the convulsant action of MSO does not appear to be mediated via histaminergic mechanisms.