Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 48

NUMBER 1

JANUARY 2010

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 48 (1) - (2010) 1-88

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

 

 

Strain diversity within Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis
A review

 

7

J S Sohal , S V Singh, A V Singh & P K Singh

 

 

 

Papers

 

 

 

Trans-differentiation of iris pigmented epithelial cells of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis tadpoles into lens in vitro

17

Manshi Sharma, O P Jangir, Sunita Jhajharia , Sumer Singh, Vijay Singh &
Amit Nagpal

 

 

 

Evaluation of effect of aqueous extract of Enicostemma littorale Blume in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats

26

Santosh L Vishwakarma, Sonawane Rakesh D, M Rajan & Ramesh K Goyal

 

 

 

Rapamycin induces autophagy and exacerbates metabolism associated complications in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes

31

        Zhengyu Zhou, Shuyan Wu, Xinyin Li, Zhimou Xue & Jian Tong

 

 

 

Stem bark extraction of Ficus bengalensis Linn for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models

39

        Vishnu N Thakare, Anupama A Suralkar, Avinash D Deshpande & Suresh R Naik

 

 

 

Antiallergic activity of Arisotlochia bracteolata Lank in animal model

46

        H R Chitme, Mallikarjun Malipatil, V M Chandrashekhar & P M Prashant

 

 

 

Adaptogenic and in vitro antioxidant activity of flavonoids and other fractions of Argyreia speciosa (Burm.f) Boj. in acute and chronic stress paradigms in rodents

53

        P V Habbu, K M Mahadevan, P V Kulkarni, C Daulatsingh, V P Veerapur & R A Shastry

 

 

 

 

Role of glucagon-like peptide-1 in vascular endothelial dysfunction

61

        Sandeep Goyal, Suresh Kumar, Krishnareddy V Bijjem & Manjeet Singh

 

 

 

Production of bioemulsifier by Acinetobacter species isolated from healthy
human skin

70

Shweta Jagtap, Supriya Yavankar, Karishma Pardesi & Balu Chopade

 

 

 

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) peptide(s) mimic gibberellin action and regulate
stomatal opening

77

Amitava Ghosh, Palash Mandal & Prasanta Kumar Sircar

 

 

 

Notes

 

 

 

Screening and partial immunochemical characterization of sulfite oxidase from
plant source

83

Ausaf Ahmad & Sarfraz Ahmad

 

 

 

Information for Authors

87

 

 

 

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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology in Open Access Mode

 

      The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology (IJEB) is now an open access journal in the repository, NISCAIR Online Periodicals Repository (NOPR) [http://nopr.niscair.res.in].Full text of all articles published in IJEB from 2006 onwards can now be accessed at NOPR in the open access mode. Papers in the current issue shall be uploaded immediately. Papers published in earlier years shall be added soon. NOPR is based on DSpace, a digital repository software, and allows document browsing, document searching and various search options like title, author name, keywords, year, issue, etc.

 

————————

 

 

 

Editor’s Note

 

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology is covered by the following international abstracting and indexing services:

 

Science Citation Index ExpandedTM

PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov/)

MEDLINE

BIOSIS Previews

Chemical Abstracts Service

Excerpta Medica

Informascience

Refrativnyi Zhurnal

Zoological Records

 

 

Author Index

 

Ahmad Ausaf

83

Ahmad Sarfraz

83

 

 

Bijjem Krishnareddy V

61

 

 

Chandrashekhar V M

46

Chitme H R

46

Chopade Balu

70

 

 

Daulatsingh C

53

Deshpande Avinash D

39

 

 

Ghosh Amitava

77

Goyal Ramesh K

26

Goyal Sandeep

61

 

 

Habbu P V

53

 

 

Jagtap Shweta

70

Jangir O P

17

Jhajharia Sunita

17

Kulkarni P V

53

Li Xinyin

31

 

 

Mahadevan K M

53

Malipatil Mallikarjun

46

Mandal Palash

77

 

 

Nagpal Amit

17

Naik Suresh R

39

 

 

Pardesi Karishma

70

Prashant P M

46

 

 

Rajani M

26

Rakesh D Sonawane

26

 

 

Sharma Manshi

17

Shastry R A

53

Singh A V

7

Singh Manjeet

61

Singh P K

7

Singh S V

7

Singh Sumer

17

Singh Vijay

17

Sircar Prasanta Kumar

77

Sohal J S

7

Suralkar Anupama A

39

Suresh Kumar

61

 

 

Thakare Vishnu N

39

Tong Jian

31

 

 

Veerapur V P

53

Vishwakarma Santosh L

26

 

 

Wu Shuyan

31

 

 

Xue Zhimou

31

 

 

Yavankar Supriya

70

 

 

Zhou Zhengyu

31

 

 

Keyword Index

 

Acinetobacter

70

Adaptogen

53

Analgesic activity

39

Antiallergic

46

Antianaphylactic

46

Antidermatitis

46

Anti-inflammatory

39

Antioxidant activity

53

Antipruritis

46

Antirhinitis

46

a-Amylase

77

Argyreia speciosa

53

Aristlochia bracteolata

46

Autophagy

31

 

 

Biochemical parameters

39

Bioemulsifier

70

 

 

Cleaning property

70

Comparative genomics

7

 

 

Diabetes

26

Diabetes mellitus

61

Disodium chromoglycate

46

 

 

Emulsion

70

Enicostemma littorale

26

Exendin-4

61

 

 

Ficus bengalensis

39

Flavanoids

53

Frog

17

 

 

Gibberellin

77

 

 

Host adaptation

7

Host response

7

Human skin

70

Hyperhomocysteinemia

61

 

 

IDDM

26

Immobilization stress

53

Immuno-biochemical properties

83

Inter-species transmission

7

 

 

Lens

17

 

 

Molybdenum

83

Molybdoenzyme

83

Mouse model

31

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

7

Oxidase

83

 

 

Paratuberculosis

7

Peptide(s)

77

Pigmented epithelial cells

17

Plant hormones

77

Plant sources

83

Proteoglycan

70

 

 

Rapamycin

31

Root

 

 

 

Stomata

77

STZ

26

Sulfite

83

Sulfite oxidase

83

Swertiamarin

26

Swimming endurance test

53

 

 

Toluene diisocyanate

46

Trans-differentiation

17

Triticum aestivum

77

Type 1 diabetes mellitus

31

 

 

Vascular endothelial dysfunction

61

Vruddhadaruka

53

 

 

Correspondent author has been indicated by * sign

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, January 2010, pp. 7-16

 

 

 

Review Article

 

 

 

Strain diversity within Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis ¾
A review

J S Sohal, S V Singh*, A V Singh & P K Singh

Microbiology Laboratory, Central Institute for Research on Goats, Makhdoom, PO- Farah, Mathura, 281 122, India

 

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), is the etiological agent of Johne’s disease (or paratuberculosis) in animals and has also been linked with Crohn’s disease of human beings. Extreme fastidious nature of the organism (MAP) has hampered studies on diversity within the organism. Studies based on phenotypic properties like growth rate, pigmentation, lipid profile etc., are unable to provide complete information on diversity of MAP organism in nature. However, with the advent of molecular assays (IS900 RFLP, PFGE, IS1311 PCR-REA, SSR typing, VNTR typing etc.) in last 2 decades, progress has been made to differentiate MAP strains. MAP isolates have been classified into various types and subtypes using these molecular tools. Optimization of these typing assays has led to generation of new information about MAP strains, subtypes, their comparative genomics, relative evolution, comparative virulence etc. Knowledge of strain diversity is important for better understanding of molecular and sero-epidemiology, infection and patho-biology, vaccine development and planning control strategies. The present review provides available information on MAP strains, host adaptations, their virulence, comparative genomics, relative genetic evolution and differentiation.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, January 2010, pp. 17-25

 

 

Papers

 

 

Trans-differentiation of iris pigmented epithelial cells of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis tadpoles into lens in vitro

Manshi Sharma, O P Jangir*, Sunita Jhajharia, Sumer Singh**, Vijay Singh & Amit Nagal

Developmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Dungar College, Bikaner 334 401, India

Received 15 May 2009; revised 16 September 2009

Meshed pigmented iris epithelium along with neural retina of tadpoles of the frog Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis were found to undergo dedifferentiation and subsequently transdifferentiate into lens in culture medium. During lag period, depigmentation (dedifferentiation) occurred in many cells. When culture became confluent 3-4 weeks after seeding tiny lens like structures differentiated from foci of cultured pigmented iris epithelium cells. The percentage of lens formation was higher in vitamin A treated cases. The culture system appears to be a suitable for investigating the changes occurred during trans-differentiation of pigmented epithelial cells into lens.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, January 2010, pp. 26-30

 

 

Evaluation of effect of aqueous extract of Enicostemma littorale Blume in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats

Santosh L Vishwakarma1, Sonawane Rakesh D1, M Rajani2 & Ramesh K Goyal1*

1Department of Pharmacology, L.M. College of Pharmacy, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380 009, India

2Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Department, B.V. Patel Pharmaceutical Education and Research Development Center,
Thaltej, Ahmedabad 380 054, India

Received 12 May 2009; revised 18 September 2009

The present investigation was undertaken to standardize and study the dose-dependent effect of three weeks treatment with hot and cold aqueous extract of E. littorale (0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg, po) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced type I diabetic (confirmed by histopathology) rats (45 mg/kg, iv single dose). Treatment of rats with STZ produced cardinal signs of diabetes-mellitus like a significant loss of body weight, polyuria and polydipsia. There was also a significant increase in fasting blood glucose levels and AUCglucose associated with decrease in insulin levels and AUCinsulin in STZ-diabetic rats. Treatment with E. littorale hot extract (1 and 2 g/kg) significantly reduced the elevated food intake and water intake, glucose and AUCglucose levels of diabetic rats. There was also a significant increase in serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride in the STZ diabetic rats. Treatment with E. littorale hot extract (1 and 2 g/kg) significantly decreased all these elevated levels in diabetic rats. Hot aqueous extract of E. littorale at 0.5 g/kg produced a significant decrease in serum glucose and triglycerides. At this doses serum cholesterol and AUCglucose were not found to be altered significantly.TLC finger-print profiles were established for the aqueous extract using HPTLC. Swertiamarin, which was used as a chemical marker, was found to be one of the major components in the hot extract while it was absent in cold extract. The results suggest that
E. littorale possesses potential antidiabetic activity and improves lipid profile at a small dose of 0.5 g/kg.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, January 2010, pp. 31-38

 

 

Rapamycin induces autophagy and exacerbates metabolism associated complications in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes

Zhengyu Zhou, Shuyan Wu, Xinyin Li, Zhimou Xue & Jian Tong*

Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou, P. R. China

Received 5 August 2009; revised 22 September 2009

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is characterized by lack of insulin production as a consequence of massive beta cells destruction. The contributions of autophagy to loss of beta cell mass were not clearly elucidated. Rapamycin is a specific and potent inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and is used as the central immunosuppressant in T1DM patients especially for those who received islet transplantation. In the present study, effects of rapamycin on autophagy of T1DM were investigated in a mouse model treated with multiple low doses of streptozotocin. Rapamycin treatment led to hyperglycemia, weight loss, increased intake of food and drinking water, and islet inflammation in T1DM mice. Pathological changes including autophagy and apoptosis in pancreas, kidney, spleen and thymus, accompanied with an accumulation of LC3-II, Beclin1 and Caspase-3 protein were observed. The results indicate that rapamycin may exacerbate metabolism associated complications by activating autophagy and apoptosis in T1DM.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, January 2010, pp. 39-45

 

 

Stem bark extraction of Ficus bengalensis Linn for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models

Vishnu N Thakare1, Anupama A Suralkar1 Avinash D Deshpande1 & Suresh R Naik2*

1 Department of Pharmacology, Padm Dr D Y Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Pimpri, Pune 411018, India

2 Department of Pharmacology, Sinhgad Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (SIPS), Kusgaon, Lonavala 410401, India

Received 20 April 2009; revised 24 July 2009

In the present study, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of aqueous extract of Ficus bengalensis (AEFB) and methanolic extract of F. bengalensis (MEFB) was evaluated in animal models. Preliminary results indicated that MEFB treatment possesses significant anti-inflammatory potential as compared to AEFB. The anti-inflammatory activity of MEFB exhibited in both acute (carrageenan induced hind paw edema and acetic acid induced vascular permeability) and sub-chronic (cotton pellet-induced granuloma) models of inflammation was found to be significant. In addition, the extract also showed significant analgesic activity in acetic acid induced writhing. Pretreatment with MEFB during inflammatory condition (both acute and sub-chronic) prevented increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and myeloperoxidase activity in edematous as well as granulomatous tissue. Further, serum marker enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP) increased in inflammatory conditions were also inhibited with MEFB treatment. Hence, the anti-inflammatory activity observed in the present study with MEFB could be attributed largely to its antioxidant and lysosomal membrane stabilizing effects.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, January 2010, pp. 46-52

 

 

Antiallergic activity of Aristolochia bracteolata Lank in animal model

H R Chitme1, Mallikarjun Malipatil, V M Chandrashekhar & P M Prashant

Department of Pharmacology, H S K College of Pharmacy, Bagalkot 587 101, India

Received 15 January 2009; revised 31 August 2009

Antiallergic activity of Aristolochia bracteolata was evaluated by using compound 48/80 induced anaphylaxis, dermatitis rhinitis and pruritis, as a preclinical model for acute phase of hypersensitivity reactions. The late phase hypersensitivity was evidenced by considering toluidine diisocyanate induced volume of bronchoalveolar fluid secretion and its inhibition. The possible antiallergic mechanism was evaluated by using compound 48/80 induced mast cell activation and estimated serum nitric oxide (NO), rat peritoneal fluid NO, bronchoalveolar fluid NO and blood histamine levels. The present study implied that the chloroform extract of Aristolochia bracteolata had potent and significant inhibitory effect on compound 48/80 induced pruritis and dermatitis activity in Swiss albino mice. It showed significant effect in toluidine diisocyanate induced rhinitis in swiss albino mice. Mast cell membrane stabilization activity was also observed in compound 48/80 induced mast cell activation. A significant reduction was observed in serum nitrate levels, rat peritoneal fluid nitrate levels and BAL nitrate levels. The extract was also found to possess significant inhibitory effect on blood histamine levels. It could be concluded that chloroform extract of A. bracteata possess potent antiallergic activity, possibly through mast cell membrane stabilization, inhibiting NO and histamine pathway.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, January 2010, pp. 53-60

 

 

Adaptogenic and in vitro antioxidant activity of flavanoids and
other fractions of Argyreia speciosa (Burm.f) Boj.
in acute and
chronic stress paradigms in rodents

P V Habbu 1*, K M Mahadevan 2, P V Kulkarni 3, C Daulatsingh 3, V P Veerapur 4 & R A Shastry 1

1*Post graduate Department, Division of Pharmacognosy, S.E.T’s College of Pharmacy, Dharwad 580 002, India

2Post graduate Department in Chemical Sciences and Research, Kuvempu University, Shankarghatta, Shimoga, India

3Post graduate Department, Division of Pharmacology, S.E.T’s College of Pharmacy, Dharwad 580 002, India

4Post graduate Department, Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, S.E.T’s College of Pharmacy, Dharwad 580 002, India

Received 20 March 2009; revised 16 Septemper 2009

Argyreia speciosa (sweet) (Burm.f.) Boj. is an Ayurvedic rasayana plant used as an adaptogen. The present study reports the investigations done on the adaptogenic property of ethanol (EtAS; 100 and 200 mg/kg; po), ethyl acetate (EAAS; 100 and 200 mg/kg; po) fraction and flavanoids such as quercetin and kaempferol (25 mg/kg; po) of the root. Immobilization induced acute stress (AS; 3 days) and chronic stress (CS; 7 days) and swimming induced stress models were used to screen the anti-stress effect of the plant fractions and isolated flavanoids. The tested doses of EtAS and isolated flavanoids were able to produce significant effects in normalizing altered serum biochemical parameters and the severity of ulcer in both AS and CS models. Higher dose of EtAS, quercetin and kaempferol (25 mg/kg; po) were found to be significant in restoring the hypertrophy of adrenal gland and atrophy of spleen and thymus gland only in CS model. Greater swimming time was noted in the mice pretreated with tested doses of flavanoids and EtAS. In addition, levels of adrenal ascorbic acid and cortisol were restored compared to stress control group. EtAS exhibited significant scavenging effect of DPPH, hydroxyl radical and LPO. Thus, EtAS, quercetin and kaempferol are capable of increasing the capacity to tolerate non-specific stress in experimental animals, as evident from restoration of large number of parameters in the stress models studied. Bioactivity of EtAS may be due to the synergetic action of isolated flavanoids. Improvement in stress markers may be due its prolong effect of resistance to stress and partly due to free radical scavenging activity.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, January 2010, pp. 61-69

 

 

Role of glucagon-like peptide-1 in vascular endothelial dysfunction

Sandeep Goyal* & Suresh Kumar

Department of Pharmacology, S D College of Pharmacy, Barnala 148 101, India

and

Krishnareddy V Bijjem & Manjeet Singh

Cardiovascular Pharmacology Division, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga 142 001, India

Received 12 June 2009; revised 24 September 2009

The present study has been undertaken to investigate the effect of exendin-4 (a glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist) in diabetes mellitus (DM) and hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED). Streptozotocin (55 mg kg−1, iv, once) and methionine (1.7% w/w, po, 4 weeks) were administered to rats to produce DM (serum glucose >200 mg dl−1) and HHcy (serum homocysteine >10 μM) respectively. VED was assessed using isolated aortic ring preparation, microscopy of thoracic aorta, and serum nitrite/nitrate concentration. Serum TBARS concentration was estimated to assess oxidative stress. Atorvastatin has been employed as standard agent. Exendin-4 (1 μg kg−1, ip) and atorvastatin (30 mg kg−1, po) treatments significantly attenuated increase in serum glucose and homocysteine but their concentrations remained markedly higher than sham control value. Exendin-4 and atorvastatin treatments markedly prevented DM and HHcy-induced (i) attenuation of acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, (ii) impairment of vascular endothelial lining, (iii) decrease in serum nitrite/nitrate concentration, and (iv) increase in serum TBARS. However, this ameliorative effect of exendin-4 has been prevented by L-NAME (25 mg kg-1, ip), an inhibitor of NOS. It may be concluded that exendin-4 may activate eNOS due to activation of GLP-1 and consequently reduce oxidative stress to improve vascular endothelial dysfunction.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, January 2010, pp. 70-76

 

 

Production of bioemulsifier by Acinetobacter species isolated
from healthy human skin

Shweta Jagtap1, Supriya Yavankar1, Karishma Pardesi1 & Balu Chopade*1,2

1Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune 411 007, India
2Institute of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, University of Pune, Pune 411 007, India

Received 28 April 2009; revised 31 August 2009

Six Acinetobacter sp. isolated from healthy human skin were checked for the production of bioemulsifier. Optimization studies indicated that Luria Bertani broth pH 7 supplemented with calcium chloride (1%) was the optimum medium. Temperature at 37°C was optimum and inducer oils in the medium did not enhance bioemulsifier production. Partial purification of bioemulsifier and chemical analysis revealed that it is a proteoglycan with protein (53%), polysaccharide (43%) and lipid (2%). Maximum emulsification activity obtained was 400 EU/ml. Thin layer chromatography revealed the presence of mannose and rhamnose sugar and oleic and palmitic acids as parts of lipids. The yield obtained was 1.9 g / l. Reconstitution studies revealed that the protein and polysaccharide fractions together display 94.55% of emulsification activity. It was also noted that the bioemulsifier was stable for 72 hr at 37°C and displayed good cleaning property towards different oils. The partially purified bioemulsifier formed stable oil-in-water emulsions with plant oils.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, January 2010, pp. 77-82

 

 

Wheat (Triticum aestivum) peptide (s) mimic gibberellin action and
regulate stomatal opening

Amitava Ghosh1, Palash Mandal2 & Prasanta Kumar Sircar*3

1Botany Department, Asutosh College, 92, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata 700 026, India
2 Department of Botany, North Bengal University, Raja Ram Mohanpur 734 430, India

3Department of Botany, Plant Physiology & Biochemistry Section, University of Calcutta Kolkata 700 019, India

Received 20 April 2009; revised 15 October 2009

Wheat peptides (0.5 to 3 KDa Mr) mimick hormonal activity like that of gibberellins and forced open dark closed stomata. The deionized amphoteric peptides solution after passing through cation and anion exchanger resins was run through Amicon’s ultrafilters, 10, 3 and 0.5 kDa (Mr) cut off system. The 3 to 0.5 kDa fraction passed through sephadex LH-20 column and collected in 140 tubes (5 ml in each tube). The two fractions F 9 (91-100 tubes) and F 12 (121-130) were found much active on stomatal opening and α-amylase activity, respectively and were ninhydrin positive. Capillary electrophoresis of F 9 fraction yielded several peptides ranging 1600 to 2200 (Mr) and F 12 fraction showed
1800 – 2800(M
r). Both the fractions were totally hydrolysed for amino acid analysis by HPLC. Most of the amino acids were present except cystein in both the fractions. The F 9 fraction, (peptide present in 10 μg fresh wt tissue per ml) induced the dark grown closed stomata to open upto 70%. In F 12 fraction, (peptide present in 10 μg fresh wt equivalent tissue per ml) showed α-amylase induction which was much higher than GA3 (10-9 M). The peptide might be present in membrane and bound with GA that activated α-amylase m-RNA synthesis. The peptide might act directly on α-amylase gene.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, January 2010, pp. 83-86

 

 

Note

 

Screening and partial immunochemical characterization of sulfite oxidase from
plant source

Ausaf Ahmad1* & Sarfraz Ahmad2

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University), Hamdard Nagar
New Delhi 110 062, India

2Florida Hospital Medical Center, Cancer Institute and University of Central Florida, College of Medicine, 2501 N. Orange Ave., Orlando, FL 32804, USA

Received 25 November 2008; revised 4 September 2009

Sulfite oxidase [SO; EC 1.8.3.1] catalyses the physiologically vital oxidation of sulfite to sulfate, the terminal reaction in degradation of sulfur containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Sulfite oxidase from vertebrate sources is among the best studied molybdenum enzymes. Existence of SO in plants has been established recently by identification of a cDNA from Arabidopsis thaliana encoding a functional SO. The present study was undertaken to identify herbaceous and woody plants (viz., Azardirachta indica L., Cassia fistula L., Saraca indica L., Spinacea oleracea L., and Syzyzium cumini L.), a relatively less explored source, having significant SO activity and to characterize some of its immuno-biochemical properties. The Syzyzium cumini was chosen to characterize SO as it showed maximum enzyme activity in the crude extract as compared to other plants. Absorption spectra of SO revealed two peaks at 235 and 277 nm, but no distinct peak in the visible region could be observed. Crude extract of all the plants were taken into considerations for immuno-biochemical studies. Despite of significant protein structure-functional similarities between plant and animal SO, no cross-reactivity could be established between the two sources of SO. These data suggested that plants SO, however, differed with regards to their immuno-biochemical properties.