Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
 
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VOLUME 48

NUMBER 5

MAY 2010

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 48 (5) 421-524 (2010)

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

Free radicals: Their beneficial and detrimental effects on sperm function

425

      Shiva Kothari, Aaron Thompson, Ashok Agarwal & Stefan S du Plessis

 

 

 

Papers

 

A novel DNA vaccine constructed by heat shock protein 70 and melanoma antigen-encoding gene 3 against tumorigenesis

436

      Ping Qu, Jia-Hai Ma, Xiu-Min Zhang, Xiao-Jun Huang, Xin-Wei Yang &
Yan-Fang Sui

 

 

 

Noggin induces human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into neural and photoreceptor cells

444

      Yu X Tao, Hai W Xu, Zheng Q Yin & Thomas FitzGibbon

 

 

 

Effect of dihydrotestosterone on gastrointestinal tract of male Alzheimer’s disease
transgenic mice

453

      Sritulasi Karri, Veronica Acosta-Martinez & Gopalakrishnan Coimbatore

 

 

 

Effect of anti-depressants on neuro-behavioural consequences following impact accelerated traumatic brain injury in rats

466

      Radhakrishnan Mahesh, Dilip Kumar Pandey, Shruti Katiyar, Gaurav Kukade,
Shruti Viyogi & Anjuman Rudra

 

 

 

Hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. affords protection against PTZ-induced seizures, oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in rats

474

      Mahaveer Golechha, Jagriti Bhatia & Dharamvir  Singh Arya

 

 

 

Effect of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy. and Asparagus racemosus Willd on learning and memory in young and old mice: A comparative evaluation

479

      Komal Sharma, Maheep Bhatnagar & S K Kulkarni

 

 

 

Cysteine rich cyanopeptide b2 from Spirulina fussiformis exhibits plasmid DNA
pBR322 scission prevention and cellular antioxidant activity

486

      H Madhyastha & T M Vatsala

 

 

 

Anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-lipidperoxidant effects of
Cassia occidentalis Linn.

494

      G Sreejith, P G Latha, V J Shine, G I Anuja, S R Suja, S Sini, S Shyamal ,
S Pradeep , P Shikha & Rajasekharan

 

(Contd)

Effect of Cyclea peltata Lam. roots aqueous extract on glucose levels, lipid profile, insulin, TNF-a and skeletal muscle glycogen in type 2 diabetic rats

499

      H Kirana & B P Srinivasan

 

 

 

Effect of carnitine supplementation on mitochondrial enzymes in liver and skeletal muscle of rat after dietary lipid manipulation and physical activity

503

      Jyothsna Karanth & K Jeevaratnam

 

 

 

Racial divergence of a rare laboratory evolved centromeric fission Cytorace of
nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila

511

      Thongatabam Bijaya & Nallur B Ramachandra

 

 

 

Enhancement of magnetotactic bacterial yield in a modified MSGM medium without alteration of magnetosomes properties

518

      Srikanya Kundu & Gauri R Kulkarni

 

 

 

Book Review

 

Animal Cell Technology

524

      Sukh Mahendra Singh

 

 

 

 

 

Author Index

Acosta-Martinez Veronica

453

Agarwal Ashok

425

Anuja G I

494

Arya Dharamvir Singh

474

 

 

Bhatia Jagriti

474

Bhatnagar Maheep

479

Bijaya Thongatabam

511

 

 

Coimbatore Gopalakrishnan

453

 

 

FitzGibbon Thomas

444

 

 

Golechha Mahaveer

474

 

 

Huang Xiao-Jun

436

 

 

Jeevaratnam K

503

 

 

Karanth Jyothsna

503

Karri Sritulasi

453

Katiyar Shruti

466

Kirana H

499

Kothari Shiva

425

Kukade Gaurav

466

Kulkarni Gauri R

518

Kulkarni S K

479

Kundu Srikanya

518

 

 

Latha P G

494

 

 

Ma Jia-Hai

436

Madhyastha H

486

Mahesh Radhakrishnan

466

 

 

Pandey Dilip Kumar

466

Plessis Stefan S du

425

Pradeep S

494

 

 

Qu Ping

436

 

 

Rajasekharan S

494

Ramachandra Nallur B

511

Rudra Anjuman

466

 

 

Sharma Komal

479

Shikha P

494

Shine V J

494

Shyamal S

494

Singh Sukh Mahendra

524

Sini S

494

Sreejith G

494

Srinivasan B P

499

Sui Yan-Fang

436

Suja S R

494

 

 

Tao Yu X

444

Thompson Aaron

425

 

 

Vatsala T M

486

Viyogi Shruti

466

 

 

Xu Hai W

444

 

 

Yang Xin-Wei

436

Yin Zheng Q

444

 

 

Zhang Xiu-Min

436

 

 

Keyword Index

Acrosome reaction

425

Alzheimer's disease

453

Amyloid precursor protein

453

Anti-allergy

494

Anti-depressants

466

Anti-inflammatory

494

Anti-lipid peroxidation

494

Antioxidation

486

Antitumor agents

436

Anxiety

466

Apoptosis

425

Asparagus racemosus

479

 

 

Capacitation

425

Carnitine supplementation

503

Cassia occidentalis

494

Centric fission

511

Cognitive impairment

474

Colon microflora

453

Convolvulus pluricaulis

479

C-phycocyanin b peptide

486

Culture

518

Cyclea peltata

499

 

 

Depression

466

Dietary fat

503

Dihydrotestosterone

453

DNA damage

425

DNA scission activity

486

 

 

Elevated plus maze

479

Emblica officinalis

474

Epidermal growth factor

444

Epilepsy

474

 

 

Fissioncytorace-1

511

Free radical

425

 

 

GI tract

453

Glycogen

499

 

 

Heat-shock proteins 70

436

 

 

Insulin

499

 

 

Learning Memory

479

Liver

503

 

 

MAGE-3 protein

436

Magnetosome

518

Magnetotactic bacteria

518

Malondialdehyde

494

Mast cell degranulation

494

Membrane phospholipids
composition

 

503

Mesenchymal stem cells

444

Mitochondrial enzymes

503

Morphometrics

453

 

 

Noggin

444

 

 

Oxidative stress

474

 

 

Photoreceptor

444

Physical activity

503

PTZ

474

 

 

Recombinant DNA vaccines

436

Recombinational raciation

511

 

 

Skeletal muscle

503

Sperm function

425

Spirulina fussiformis

486

 

 

TNF- a

499

Trans-differentiation

444

Traumatic brain injury

466

Type 2 diabetes

499

 

 

Correspondent author has been indicated by * sign

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 48, May 2010, pp. 425-435

 

 

 

Review Article

 

Free radicals: Their beneficial and detrimental effects on sperm function

Shiva Kothari 1 , Aaron Thompson 1 , Ashok Agarwal 1 * & Stefan S du Plessis 2

1 Center for Reproductive Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue , Desk A19.1, Cleveland , Ohio 44195 , USA

2 Division of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch , South Africa

 

Free radicals are molecules with one or more unpaired electron(s) commonly found in seminal plasma. Physiologically, free radicals control sperm maturation, capacitation and hyperactivation, the acrosome reaction, and sperm-oocyte fusion. Pathologically, free radicals induce lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis of spermatozoa. The present review deals with both the beneficial and detrimental effects of free radicals on sperm function.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 48, May 2010, pp. 436-443

 

Papers

A novel DNA vaccine constructed by heat shock protein 70 and melanoma
antigen-encoding gene 3 against tumorigenesis

Ping Qu 1, # , Jia-Hai Ma 1, # , Xiu-Min Zhang 3 , Xiao-Jun Huang 1 , Xin-Wei Yang 3 & Yan-Fang Sui 3, *

1 Center of Teaching Experiment, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an,
Shaanxi Province 710032, P. R. China

2 Department of Anesthesiology, Yuhuangding Hospital , Yantai , Shandong Province 264000, P. R. China

3 State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pathology, Xi Jing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University,
Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710032, P. R. China

Received 18 March 2009; revised 21 October 2009

Melanoma antigen-encoding gene 3 (MAGE-3) is an ideal candidate for a tumor vaccine although its potency need to be increased. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) represents a potential approach for increasing the potency of DNA vaccines . In the present study, a fusion DNA vaccine composed of Mycobacterium tuberculosis HSP70 and MAGE-3 was constructed and used to immunize C57BL/6 mice against B16 or B16-MAGE-3 tumor cells. The results show that the HSP70-MAGE-3 fusion DNA vaccine enhanced the frequency of MAGE-3-specific cytotoxic T-cells as compared to the MAGE-3 DNA vaccine or the HSP70/MAGE-3 cocktail DNA vaccine ( P <0.05). In conclusion, the results indicate that the HSP70-MAGE-3 fusion DNA vaccine can strongly activate MAGE-3 specific cellular immunological reactions and thus significantly inhibit the growth of B16-MAGE-3 tumors, improving the survival of tumor-bearing mice , and the HSP70-MAGE-3 fusion DNA vaccine has a significant therapeutic effect on the tumors that express MAGE-3 antigens.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 48, May 2010, pp. 444-452

 

 

Noggin induces human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into neural and photoreceptor cells

Yu X. Tao a , Hai W. Xu a , Zheng Q. Yin*& Thomas FitzGibbon a

a Southwest Hospital / Southwest Eye Hospital, Chongqing Institute of Retina,
Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, P. R. China

Received 6 November 2009; revised 8 February 2010

The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of noggin on neuronal differentiating potential of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) in vitro so as to provide a means of alleviate retinal degeneration. A green fluorescent protein-tagged noggin gene was transferred into adult hBMMSCs or induce hBMMSCs with classical inducer, epidermal growth factor(EGF) . Neurons were observed as early as 48 h after transduction of hBMMSCs with a noggin adenoviral vector. Differentiation peaked by 10 days in culture, and t hese differentiated cells expressed multiple markers including rhodopsin (18.4 ± 1.5% of cells), chx10 (4.8 ± 0.6%), nestin (4.2 ± 0.8%), and Nrl (3.7 ± 0.4%), as verified by immunofluorescence staining. Noggin-transduced cells produced more photoreceptor cells than non-transduced cells, suggesting that noggin has the ability to induce hBMMSCs to trans-differentiate into photoreceptor cells. In contrast , induction with EGF for 10 days led to lower levels of rhodopsin and chx10, and undetectable levels of Nrl and Nestin. These findings suggested noggin-transduced hBMMSCs produced more photoreceptor cells than EGF–induced cells. It is suggested that the present protocol has application in cell replacement therapy for patients suffering from photoreceptor cell loss.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 48, May 2010, pp. 453-465

 

 

Effect of dihydrotestosterone on gastrointestinal tract of male
Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice

Sritulasi Karri a *, Veronica Acosta-Martinez b & Gopalakrishnan Coimbatore c

a Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Centre, Lubbock , TX 79430 , USA

b USDA-ARS, Cropping Systems Research Laboratory, Lubbock , TX 79415 , USA

c The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University , Lubbock , TX , 79416 , USA

Received 18 June 2009; revised 29 January 2010

The cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still unknown. While research contributions identifying brain as locus of the disease is growing, evidence of severely impaired gastrointestinal (GI) functions with ageing too is accumulating, there is an equal dearth of information on GI tract in AD condition. The aim of this study was to assess the molecular, histological, morphological and microflora alterations of GI tract in male Alzheimer's transgenic mice. The present study also investigates the effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment (1 mg/kg) on AD mice. Histoarchitecture data revealed a significant decrease in the villi number, muscular layer thickness, villi length, width, crypt length, enterocyte length and nuclei length. A shift in colon feces microbial community composition was observed by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression levels in intestine significantly increased in AD mice revealing its toxicity. DHT treatment attenuated the effect caused by AD on GI morphometrics, APP expression and colon micro flora population. These results for the first time reveal the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of GI tract in male Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 48, May 2010, pp. 466-473

 

 

Effect of anti-depressants on neuro-behavioural consequences following impact accelerated traumatic brain injury in rats

Radhakrishnan Mahesh, Dilip Kumar Pandey*, Shruti Katiyar, Gaurav Kukade,
Shruti Viyogi & Anjuman Rudra

Department of Pharmacy, FD-III, Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani 333 031, India

Received 21 April 2009; revised 4 January 2010

Disruption of normal neuronal networks and neurotransmitters like serotonin and norepinephrine levels in post traumatic brain injury (TBI) are observed to be the primary causative agent for depression/anxiety. This communication reports the efficacy of various classes' anti-depressants in the treatment of depression/anxiety following TBI in rats. Chronic treatment with anti-depressants (escitalopram and venlafaxine) leads to improvement in the depressive/anxiogenic -like behaviour in the TBI rat and corroborates the notion of the involvement of serotonin and norepinephrine in the behavioural consequences of post-TBI. Chronic treatments with escitalopram and venlafaxine significantly reversed the effect of TBI as compared to vehicle-treated TBI group. The results showed a quantitative battery of neuro-behavioural functional assessments that correlates with neuronal damage following traumatic brain injury.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 48, May 2010, pp. 474-478

 

 

 

Hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. affords protection against PTZ-induced seizures, oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in rats

Mahaveer Golechha, Jagriti Bhatia* & Dharamvir Singh Arya

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, India

Received 12 August 2009; revised 25 January 2010

The cognitive impairment seen in epileptics may be a consequence of either the underlying epileptogenic process alone or it could manifest on account of the use of antiepileptic drugs that cause cognitive impairment as an adverse effect or both. Thus, there is a need for drugs that can suppress epileptogenesis without contributing to or , if possible, by acting to prevent the development of cognitive impairment. Emblica officinalis , an Indian medicinal plant, has marked antioxidant property. The effect of seven days pretreatment of 300, 500 and 700 mg/kg doses of hydroalcoholic extract of E . officinalis (HAEEO) administered intraperitoneally to rats was evaluated on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizures, cognitive deficit and oxidative stress markers viz malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione. The 500 and 700 mg/kg ip doses of HAEEO completely abolished the generalized tonic seizures and also improved the retention latency in passive avoidance task. Further, HAEEO dose-dependently ameliorated the oxidative stress induced by PTZ. These findings suggest the potential of HAEEO to be used as an adjuvant to treatment with antiepileptic drugs.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 48, May 2010, pp. 479-485

 

 

Effect of Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy . and Asparagus racemosus Willd on learning and memory in young and old mice: A comparative evaluation

Komal Sharma a , Maheep Bhatnagar*, & S K Kulkarni b

a B.N. PG College of Pharmacy , Udaipur 313 001, India

* Department of Zoology, University College of Science, M.L. Sukhadia University , Udaipur 313 001, India

and

b Pharmacology Division, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,

Punjab University , Chandigarh 160 014, India

Received 21 April 2009; revised 19 January 2010

A dose dependent enhancement of memory was observed with A. racemosus and C. pluricaulis treatment as compared to control group when tested on second day. A. racemosus and C. pluricaulis at the dose of 200 mg/kg, po showed significantly higher percent retentions, than piracetam. Multiple treatment with A. racemosus and C. pluricaulis for three days also demonstrated significant dose dependent increase in percent retentions as compared to control group. The effect was more prominent with C. pluricaulis as compared with piracetam and A. racemosus . A significantly lower percent retention in aged mice was observed as compared to young mice. Aged mice (18-20 months) showed higher transfer latency (TL) values on first and second day (after 24 h) as compared to young mice, indicating impairment in learning and memory. Pretreatment with A. racemosus and C. pluricaulis for 7 days enhanced memory in aged mice, as significant increase in percent retention was observed. Significantly higher retention was observed with C. pluricaulis (200 mg/kg; po) as compared with piracetam (10 mg/kg/; po). Post-trial administration of C.pluricaulis and A. racemosus extract demonstrated significant decrease in latency time during retention trials. Hippocampal regions associated with the learning and memory functions showed dose dependent increase in AChE activity in CA 1 with A. reacemosus and CA3 area with C. pluracaulis treatment. The underlying mechanism of these actions of A. racemosus and C. pluricaulis may be attributed to their antioxidant, neuroprotective and cholinergic properties.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 48, May 2010, pp. 486-493

 

 

Cysteine rich cyanopeptide b 2 from Spirulina fussiformis exhibits plasmid DNA pBR322 scission prevention and cellular antioxidant activity

H Madhyastha* & T M Vatsala †

A M M Murugappa Chettiar Research Center , Chennai 600 113, India

Received 28 July 2009; revised 16 December 2009

 

Isolation of three different active peptides from C-phycocyanin (C-pc) b chain of S. fussiformis and their biological properties are reported. Phycocyanin peptide ß fraction 2 (cyanopeptide ß 2) facilitated both antioxidant and plasmid DNA strand scission prevention activity due to higher cysteine moieties in the isolated peptide. The peptide significantly scavenged the free radicals like 1-1,-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl and ferric reducing ability of plasma, increased the absorbance values in reducing power and also showed the higher trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values in total reactive antioxidant potentials assay. Cyanopeptide b 2 also inhibited reactive oxygen species induced DNA pBR322 damage in dose dependent manner along with free radical scavenging properties suggesting the role in the DNA integrity which is also evident by DNA binding activity of peptide. In addition, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was dose dependent (10 and 20 ng/ml) and significantly quenched by cyanopeptide b 2 in human fibroblast cell line TIG 3- 20. In vitro cell scratch injury assay demonstrated the capacity of cyanopeptide b 2 in cell migration in to wounded area suggesting fibroblast proliferation and migration. The results suggest that cyanopeptide b 2 can be a free radical scavenger and effective peptide for future biomedical applications like wound healing, atherosclerosis, cell redox potential and hypoxia.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 48, May 2010, pp. 494-498

 

 

Anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-lipidperoxidant
effects of Cassia occidentalis Linn.

G Sreejith 1 , P G Latha* 2 , V J Shine 2 , G I Anuja 2 , S R Suja 2 , S Sini 2 , S Shyamal 2 ,
S Pradeep 2 , P Shikha 2 & S Rajasekharan 2

1 Malankara Catholic College, Mariagiri, Kaliakkavilai 629 153, India

2 Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram 695 562, India

Received 19 May 2009; revised 11 December 2009

Cassia occidentalis Linn. mast cell degranulation at a dose of 250 mg/kg, showed dose dependent stabilizing activity towards human RBC, with is widely used in traditional medicine of India to treat a number of clinical conditions including allergy and inflammatory manifestations. In the present study anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of C. occidentalis whole plant ethanolic extract (CO) was investigated. Effects of CO on rat mast cell degranulation inhibition and human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization were studied in vitro following standard methods. The anti lipidperoxidant effects of CO were also studied in vitro . Effect of CO on carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema inhibition was also assessed. CO significantly decreased maximum protection of 80.8% at 15 µg/ml. The extract also caused significant reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of murine hepatic microsomes at 100 µg/ml (56%) and significantly reduced carrageenan induced inflammation in mice at a dose of 250 mg/kg. Results of the present study indicated that CO inhibited mast cell degranulation, stabilized HRBC membrane thereby alleviating immediate hypersensitivity besides showing anti oxidant activity.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 48, May 2010, pp. 499-502

 

 

Effect of Cyclea peltata Lam. roots aqueous extract on glucose levels, lipid profile, insulin, TNF-a and skeletal muscle glycogen in type 2 diabetic rats

H Kirana & B P Srinivasan*

Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (DIPSAR), Sector-III, Pushp Vihar, New Delhi 110017, India

Received 4 November 2009; revised 14 January 2010

In view of multi-dimensional activity of plant drugs beneficial to complex disorders like diabetes, the present study has been undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of C. peltata roots on serum glucose, lipid profile, insulin, inflammatory marker namely tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-a and muscle glycogen in type 2 diabetic rats. Aqueous extract of C. peltata at 40 and 60 mg/kg dose significantly decreased both the fasting and postprandial blood glucose of type 2 diabetic rats; 60 mg/kg dose having more pronounced effect on hyperglycemia. An enhanced insulin levels by the aqueous extract is primary for its glucose and lipid lowering activity. The extract significantly decreased the elevated TNF-a in type 2 diabetic rats. The extract at 40 and 60 mg/kg dose increased the glycogen levels in skeletal muscle by 58 and 60% respectively. Improved glycogen in peripheral tissue such as skeletal muscle indicates the ability of plant drug to combat insulin resistance of type 2 diabetes.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 48, May 2010, pp. 503-510

 

 

Effect of carnitine supplementation on mitochondrial enzymes in liver and
skeletal muscle of rat after dietary lipid manipulation and physical activity

Jyothsna Karanth & K Jeevaratnam 1 *

Biochemistry and Nutrition Discipline, Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore 570 011, India

Received 25 September 2009; revised 14 December 2009

Effect of carnitine supplementation in enhancing fat utilization was investigated by looking into its effects on mitochondrial respiratory enzymes activity in liver and muscle as well as on membrane fatty acid profile in rats fed with hydrogenated fat (HF) and MUFA-rich peanut oil ( PO ) with or without exercise . Male Wistar rats were fed HF-diet
(4 groups, 8 rats in each group) or PO-diet (4 groups, 8 rats in each group), with or without carnitine for 24 weeks. One group for each diet acted as sedentary control while the other groups were allowed swimming for 1 hr a day, 6 days/week, for 24 weeks. T he PO diet as well as exercise increased the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, NADH dehydrogenase, NADH oxidase, cytochrome C reductase, cytochrome oxidase , while carnitine supplementation further augmented the oxidative capacity of both liver and muscle significantly by enhancing the activity of carnitine palmitoyl transferase and the respiratory chain enzymes. These effects can be attributed to the enhanced unsaturated fatty acids in phospholipids of mitochondria and may be due to increased fluidity of the membrane in these rats. Results of this study show a significant health promoting effects of carnitine supplementation which could be further augmented by regular exercise.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 48, May 2010, pp. 511-517

 

 

Racial divergence of a rare laboratory evolved centromeric fission Cytorace of nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila

Thongatabam Bijaya & Nallur B Ramachandra*

Unit on Evolution and Genetics, Drosophila Stock Centre, Department of Studies in Zoology, University of Mysore,
Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006, India

Received 21 October 2009; revised 14 January 2010

Fissioncytorace- 1, a member of the nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila is an evolutionary product of centric fission, which had occurred in the chromosome X3 of Cytorace 1, a hydridization product of Drosophila nasuta nasuta male (2n=8) and Drosophila nasuta albomicans female (2n=6). Cytorace 1 (males 2n=7; females 2n=6) has inherited this chromosome from its D. n. albomicans parent. The chromosome X3 of D. n. albomicans is a derivative of a centric fusion between the acrocentric chromosome 3 and the chromosome X of D. n. nasuta . The Fissioncytorace-1 has crossed 200 generations from the time of its evolution in the laboratory environment. When this centromeric fission race was subjected to some of the morphophenotypic and fitness assessment to find its overall population fitness showed, increased body size, sternopleural bristle, ovarioles, lifetime fecundity and fertility with reduced interspecific competitive ability and hatching success when compared with its parent (Cytorace 1). These results suggest that the hybrid races must have encountered an early event of recombinational raciation during their evolution in the laboratory environment, which is a unique observation in animal system illustrating the increase in the tempo of evolution after the event of hybridization.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 48, May 2010, pp. 518-523

 

 

Enhancement of magnetotactic bacterial yield in a modified MSGM medium without alteration of magnetosomes properties

Srikanya Kundu * & Gauri R Kulkarni

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Physics, University of Pune , Pune 411 007, India

Received 26 June 2009; revised 8 December 2009

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum (MS-1) were successfully grown in modified magnetic spirillum growth medium (MSGM) at normal laboratory environment. About five-time increase in the bacterial yield was achieved in the modified MSGM medium without compromising their magnetosomes properties. Transmission electron and scanning electron microscopy (TEM & SEM) were used for morphological study of MTB. Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques, respectively, were used to elucidate the phase and magnetization in the bacterially synthesized magnetosomes. These studies were important to cross-check the morphology of magnetosomes, as the formation of magnetosomes was highly sensitive to environmental conditions.

 

 

Book Review

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol 48, May 2010, pp. 524

 

 

Animal Cell Technology

Sukh Mahendra Singh