Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 48

NUMBER 11

NOVEMBER 2010

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 48 (11) 1063-1160 (2010)

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

 

CONTENTS

Review Article

 

Gaso-transmitter hydrogen sulphide: Potenital new target in pharmacotherapy

1069

Y K Gupta, A K Dahiya & K H Reeta

 

 

 

Papers

 

Olfactory bulb serotonin level modulates olfactory recognition in neonate rat

1078

C Prisila Dulcy, A Ganesh & K Emmanuvel Rajan

 

 

 

Neo-regeneration of urinary bladder: A desired metaplasia of autologous membrane from rectosigmoid colon containing stem cells of intestinal crypts

1083

B G Matapurkar, A Bhargave, H S Rehan, A K Mondal & V K Ramteke

 

 

 

Gradient of reduced glutathione in the tail of Hemidactylus leschenaultia
(Sauria: Gekkonidae)

1094

P K Mahapatra, N Sarkar, S Das & S K Dutta

 

 

 

132E and V36K double mutation in β2-sheet abrogates amyloid β peptide toxicity

1098

Sarada Subramanian, Pradeep Kumar Mishra & Debashree Bandopadhyay

 

 

 

Effects of IL-18 and IL-10 pre-treatment on the alteration of endogenous cytokines in liver and spleen of mice with experimental endotoxemia

1103

Debolina Nandi, Manoj Kumar Mishra, Anirban Basu & Biswadev Bishayai

 

 

 

Anti-hyperglycemic compound (GII) from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn.) seeds, its purification and effect in diabetes mellitus

1111

Radha Moorthy, K M Prabhu & P S Murthy

 

 

 

Mechanism of anti-diabetic action, efficacy and safety profile of GII purified from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum Linn.) seeds in diabetic animals

1119

Radha Moorthy, K M Prabhu & P S Murthy

 

 

 

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Linn against paracetamol intoxication in rats

1123

Gini C Kuriakose & Muraleedhara G Kurup

 

 

 

Possible role of NO modulators in protective effect of trazodone and citalopram (antidepressants) in acute immobilization stress in mice

1131

Anil Kumar, Ruchika Garg, Vaibhav Gaur & Puneet Kumar

 

 

 

Effects of histidine and N-acetylcysteine in dicolofenac-induced anti-inflammatory response in acute inflammation in rats

1136

Amir Abbas Farshid, Esmaeal Tamaddonfard & Fatere Yahayaee

 

 

 

Differential gene expression during early embryonic development in diapause and
non-diapause eggs of multivoltine silkworn Bombyx mori

1143

Kangayam M Ponnuvel, Geetha N Murthy, Arvind K Awasthi, Guruprasad Rao & Nanjappa B Vijayaprakash

 

 

 

Novel microbial route to synthesize silver nanoparticles using spore crystal mixture of Bacillus thuringiensis

1152

Devendra Jain, Sumita Kachhwaha, Rohit Jain, Garima Srivastava & S L Kothari

 

 

 

Note

 

Immunomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. Extract oncyclophosphamide induced toxicity in mice

1157

Anamika Gupta, Manish K Gautam, Rahul K Singh, M Vijay Kumar, Ch V Rao,
R K Goel & Shampa Anupurba

 

 

 

 

覧覧覧覧覧覧

 

NISCAIR Policy on Plagiarism

 

The system of formal communication in science through publication in primary journals is based on originality and quality of information being the only criteria for publication. However, there have been tendencies to misuse the system and vitiate the process of science communication for personal benefits. One of the ills afflicting science communication is plagiarism. Attempts at plagiarism may range from verbatim, copying of extensive material of other authors, misappropriating results/data of others with minor changes in language/presentation without giving credit to original source, to publish essentially the same information more than once.

As the premier publisher in India of primary scientific journals in various disciplines of science and technology, NISCAIR strongly reiterates its policy of discouraging plagiarism of all kinds. All efforts are made detect and frustrate attempts at plagiarism through editorial screening and rigorous peer review in respect of communications received for publication in NISCAIR publications. Cooperation of the scientific community is sought in our efforts to frustrate all attempts at plagiarism.

In case any attempt to plagiarize is brought to our attention accompanied with convincing evidence, following steps would be taken:

(a)        After consulting the respective Editorial Board Members, authors guilty of plagiarism will be debarred from publishing their papers in NISCAIR journals

(b)        Heads of the departments/institutes of the offending authors will be intimated of such incidences of plagiarism.

(c)        Such incidents of plagiarism will be publicized through the concerned NISCAIR journals in consultation with the respective Editorial Board Members.

 

 

 

Author Index

Anil Kumar

1131

Anupurba Shampa

1157

Awasthi Arvind K

1143

 

 

Bandopadhyay Debashree

1098

Basu Anirban

1103

Bhargave A

1083

Bishayi Biswadev

1103

 

 

Dahiya A K

1069

Das S

1094

Dulcy C Prisila

1078

Dutta S K

1094

 

 

Farshid Amir Abbas

1136

 

 

Ganesh A

1078

Garg Ruchika

1131

Gaurb Vaibhav

1131

Gautam Manish K

1157

Goel R K

1157

Gupta Anamika

1157

 

 

Gupta Y K

1069

 

 

Jain Devendra

1152

Jain Rohit

1152

 

 

Kachhwaha Sumita

1152

Kothari S L

1152

Kumar M Vijay

1157

Kuriakose Gini C

1123

Kurup Muraleedhara G

1123

 

 

Mahapatra P K

1094

Matapurkar B G

1083

Mishra Manoj Kumar

1103

Mishra Pradeep Kumar

1098

Mondal A K

1083

Moorthy Radha

1111,1119

Murthy Geetha N

1143

Murthy P S

1111,1119

 

 

Nandi Debolina

1103

 

 

Ponnuvel Kangayan P

1143

Prabhu K M

1111,1119

Puneet Kumar

1131

 

 

Rajan K Emmanuvel

1078

Ramteke V K

1083

Rao Ch V

1157

Rao Guruprasad

1143

Reeta K H

1069

Rehan H S

1083

 

 

Sarkar N

1094

Singh Rahul K

1157

Srivastava Garima

1152

Subramanian Sarada

1098

 

 

Tamaddonfard Esmaeal

1136

 

 

Vajayaprakash Nanjappa

1143

 

 

Yahayaee Fatere

1136

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Keyword Index

Apoptosis

1069

Adult stem cells

1083

Aggregation

1098

Alzheimer痴 disease

1098

Amelioration

1157

Amyloid b

1098

Analgesia

1131

Antimicrobial activity

1152

Anti-oxidant enzymes

1103

Antioxidants

1123

Anxiety

1131

Aphanizomenon flos-aquae

1123

 

 

Bacillus thuringiensis

1152

Bombyx mori

1143

 

 

Cardiovascular system

1069

Carrageenan

1136

Citalopram

1131

Cyclophosphamide

1157

Cytokine

1103

 

 

5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine

1078

Desired metaplasia

1083

Diabetes mellitus

1111,1119

Diapause

1143

Differential gene expression

1143

 

 

ELISA

1098

 

 

Embryogenesis

1143

Endoderm

1083

Endotoxemia

1103

 

 

Fenugreek

1111,1119

 

 

Gaso-transmitter

1069

GII

1111,1119

 

 

Hemidactylus leschenaultii

1094

Hepatoprotection

1123

Histidine

1136

Hydrogen sulphide

1069

 

 

Immunomodulation

1157

Immunsuppression

1157

Intermittent therapy

1111

Intestinal crypts

1083

 

 

Lipid peroxidation

1131

Lipopolysaccharide

1103

 

Moringa oleifera

1157

Multivoltine

1143

 

 

N-acetylcysteine

1136

Neonate rat

1078

Neo-organo-histo-genesis

1083

Nervous system

1069

 

 

Neurotransmitters

1078

Neutrophil infiltration

1136

Nitric oxide

1131

 

 

Olfactory recognition

1078

Oxidative stress

1131

 

 

Paracetamol

1123

Paw edema

1136

Peptide homologue

1098

Phagocytic index

1157

 

 

Reactive oxygen
 species

1103,1123

Reduced glutathione

1094

 

 

S-adenosy-L-methionine

1069

Serotonin

1078

Spore crystal mixture

1152

 

 

Tail regeneration

1094

Toxicity

1098

Trazodone

1131

Trigonella foemum-
 graecum

1111,1119

 

 

Urinary bladder

1083

 

 

Vaccine

1098

 

Correspondent author has been indicated by * sign

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, November 2010, pp. 1069-1077

 

 

Review Article

 

 

 

Gaso-transmitter hydrogen sulphide: Potential new target in pharmacotherapy

Y K Gupta*, A K Dahiya & K H Reeta

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi 110 029, India

Research in the last two decades has transformed the way hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is perceived from a noxious gas to a gaso-transmitter with a vast potential in pharmacotherapy. H2S is synthesized in various body-systems using the enzymes cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase; either of these being the predominat enzyme in a particular system. H2S may be one of the physiological modulators of blood pressure in humans. The gas relaxes the vascular smooth muscle cells by opening up KATP channels. Moreover, it suppresses the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. H2S may also be contributing in the protection afforded by ischaemia-preconditioning. Testosterone is thought to be responsible for the higher central nervous system level of H2S in males. In the central nervous system, H2S is implicated in Alzheimer痴 disease, epilepsy, stroke and Down痴 syndrome. Insulin secretion is associated with a decrease in the H2S levels. Raised H2S is detrimental in acute pancreatitis as well as in septic shock. Recently, H2S-releasing derivatives of certain drugs have shown promise in protection against gastric ulcer and in inflammatory bowel disease. The beneficial effects of certain sulphur containing herbs like ginseng and garlic may be mediated via H2S. In future, development of specific drugs modulating H2S levels may prove beneficial in varied disorders.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, November 2010, pp. 1078-1082

 

 

 

Olfactory bulb serotonin level modulates olfactory recognition in neonate rat

C Prisila Dulcy, A Ganesh & K Emmanuvel Rajan*

Department of Animal Science, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, India

Received 5 October 2009; revised 11 May 2010

Role of serotonin in olfactory recognition was tested by depleting the olfactory bulb serotonin during postnatal day (PND)1- 4 following administration of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine. Significant difference in the olfactory recognition test was observed during PND5-7; control pups successfully recognized and oriented towards their mother; whereas treated pups failed to recognize their mother odour. Later on, during PND12-14, both group of pups responded equally in the recognition test. Levels of olfactory bulb serotonin were depleted (53.3%) in the treated pups on PND-8, which was restored on PND-14 with only 15% variation. Further analysis demonstrated that depletion of serotonin in olfactory bulb did not affect the normal suckling and weight gain, it only modulates olfactory recognition.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, November 2010, pp. 1083-1093

 

 

Neo-regeneration of urinary bladder: A desired metaplasia of autologous membrane from rectosigmoid colon containing stem cells of intestinal crypts

B G Matapurkar*

Department of Surgery, Lok Nayak Hospital and Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi 110 001, India

A Bhargave

Senior Chief Medical Officer, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi 110 029, India.

H S Rehan

Department of Pharmacology, Lady Harding Medical College, New Delhi 110 001, India

A K Mondal

Department of Pathology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi110 001, India

V K Ramteke

Department. of Surgery, Maulana azad Medical College, New Delhi 110 001, India.

Received 16 October 2006; revised 12 April 2010

The current management of diseases of urinary bladder requiring resection is by augmentation cystoplasty or transplantation of ureters. Transplantation of ureters is associated with morbidity and mortality. Ideal management will be by regenerating urinary bladder in vivo. Neo-regeneration of tissues and organs like abdominal wall, aponeurosis etc., has been attempted and patented. After neo-regeneration of mesoderm tissues and organs, regeneration of urinary bladder (developed from endoderm) was. In vivo surgical techniques were developed in dogs. It is known that the embryonic morphogenesis of urinary bladder is from uro-genital sinus of hind gut. A membrane, containing endoderm stem cells in crypts of recto-sigmoid colon, was surgically isolated and colonized with remnant of urinary bladder wall after extensive resection. Experimental study was performed in dogs, for 60 days to one and a half year. Regeneration of all the layers of tissues of the wall of urinary bladder was observed. The neo-regeneration phenomenon has been recognized as 電esired metaplasia. The regenerated neo tissue/organ on histological examination and cystometry studies was found compatible with normal urinary bladder. The hypothesis, neo-regeneration and desired metaplasia, is discussed

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, November 2010, pp. 1094-1097

 

 

Gradient of reduced glutathione in the tail of Hemidactylus leschenaultii
(Sauria: Gekkonidae)

P K Mahapatra1*, N Sarkar1, S Das1 & S K Dutta2

1P.G. Department of Zoology, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar 751 004, India

2P.G. Department of Zoology, North Orissa University, Baripada 757 003, India

Received 12 June 2009; revised 1 June 2010

A proximo-distal gradient of reduced glutathione (GSH), a non enzymatic antioxidant was observed in the original tails of the lizard, H. leschenaultii. In the regenerating tails, a gradual increase in the level of GSH was noted with tail elongation. In the newly regenerated tails also the level of GSH remained higher in the proximal part than the corresponding distal parts.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, November 2010, pp. 1098-1102

 

 

 

 

I32E and V36K double mutation in ゚2-sheet abrogates amyloid ゚ peptide toxicity

Sarada Subramanian*, Pradeep Kumar Mishra & Debashree Bandopadhyay

Department of Neurochemistry, National Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences, Bangalore 560 029, India

Received 8 February 2010; revised 1 July 2010

Alzheimer痴 disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, wherein, the accumulation of amyloid ゚ (A゚) peptide as cytotoxic oligomers leads to neuropathologic changes. Transgenic mice with brain A゚ plaques immunized with aggregated A゚ have reduced amyloid burden and improved cognitive functions. However, such active immunization in humans led to a small but significant occurrence of meningoencephalitis in 6% AD volunteers due to A゚ induced toxicity. In an attempt to develop safer alternative vaccines, the design of a highly soluble peptide homologous to A゚ (A゚-EK), that has a reduced amyloidogenic potential while maintaining the major immunogenic epitopes of A゚ is reported. More importantly, this homologue has been shown to be non-toxic, as this peptide failed to exert any observable effect on erythrocytes. The results of the present study suggests that immunization with non-toxic A゚ derivative may offer a safer therapeutic approach to AD, instead of using toxic A゚ fibrils.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, November 2010, pp. 1103-1110

 

 

 

 

Effects of IL-18 and IL-10 pre-treatment on the alteration of endogenous cytokines in liver and spleen of mice with experimental endotoxemia

Debolina Nandi1, Manoj Kumar Mishra2, Anirban Basu2 & Biswadev Bishayi1*

1Immunology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, University of Calcutta,

University Colleges of Science and Technology, 92 A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700 009, India

2National Brain Research Center, Manesar, Gurgaon, India

Received 9 July 2009, revised 1 June 2010

Mechanisms of interleukin-18 (IL-18) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced endotoxemia are not clear; their protective role is being investigated so that they may effectively modulate the host cytokine levels during endotoxemia. The aim of the study was to evaluate protective effects of IL-18 and IL-10 in experimentally induced endotoxemia in mice correlating the changes in tissue anti-oxidant enzymes and circulating cytokines. Liver injury was determined by estimation of serum glutamate oxalate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum nitric oxide (NOx), hepatic anti-oxidant enzyme and cytokine content in LPS (250 μg/kg) induced endotoxemic mice receiving either IL-18 (500 ng/mouse) or IL-10 (600 ng/mouse) treatment. Mice (87% of IL-10 treated and 74% of IL-18 treated) survived when administered prior to LPS challenge. Pre-treatment of mice with either IL-10 or
IL-18 followed by LPS, lead to reduction in SGPT and SGOT level, serum NOx, and altered hepatic anti-oxidant enzymes activity and myeloperoxidase activity than the only LPS treated group. Marked reduction in the amounts of LPS-induced hepatic and splenic TNF-α content has been observed after IL-10 pre-treatment. Results suggested that attenuating the induction of TNF-α and IFN-γ and subsequent induction of nitric oxide formation in response to LPS may in part account for efficient protection by IL-18 and IL-10 in the reduction of LPS-induced liver injury.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, November 2010, pp. 1111-1118

 

 

Anti-hyperglycemic compound (GII) from fenugreek (Trigonella
foenum-graecum
Linn.) seeds, its purification and effect in diabetes mellitus

Radha Moorthy1, KM Prabhu2 & PS Murthy3,*

Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences and G.T.B. Hospital, Shahdara, Delhi 110 095, India

Received 22 February 2010; revised 28 June 2010

An anti-hyperglycemic compound named GII was purified from the water extract of the seeds of fenugreek (T. foenum-graecum) and shown to be different from trigonelline and nicotinic acid isolated earlier from the same plant. GII (50 mg/kg body weight, po) reduced blood glucose in glucose tolerance test (GTT) in the sub-diabetic and moderately diabetic rabbits and significantly reduced the area under the curve (AUC) of GTT. Treatment for 7 days of the sub-diabetic rabbits with GII (50 mg/kg body weight, po) improved glucose tolerance without reducing fasting blood glucose (FBG) which was nearly normal. The results suggest that there is no risk of hypoglycemia in near normal animals (may be humans also) with abnormal GTT. Treatment of the moderately diabetic rabbits with GII (100 mg/kg body weight for 3 weeks) reduced FBG to nearly normal value and improved GTT. GII was more effective than the standard drug tolbutamide. Intermittent therapy given on days 15, 1115, 2630 and 5660 to moderately diabetic rabbits leaving in between days without treatment brought down FBG to normal and AUC during GTT was normal. After 15 days treatment with GII (100 mg/kg body weight for 3 weeks) glycosylated hemoglobin came down and insulin increased to normal values in the sub-diabetic, moderately diabetic and severely diabetic rabbits. GII treatment (100 mg/kg body weight for 15 days) brought down all the altered serum lipids
(TC, HDLC, TAG, PLs and FFAs) to normal levels. The results suggest that intermittent therapy, instead of daily therapy is possible and GII has good potential as an oral anti-diabetic drug with intermittent therapy.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, November 2010, pp. 1119-1122

 

 

Mechanism of anti-diabetic action, efficacy and safety profile of GII purified from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum Linn.) seeds in diabetic animals

Radha Moorthyケ, K M Prabhuイ & P S Murthyウ,*

Department of Biochemistry, University College of Medical Sciences and G.T.B. Hospital, Shahdara, Delhi 110 095, India

Received 22 February 2010; revised 28 June 2010

Mechanism of action of GII (100 mg/kg body weight, po for 15 days) purified from fenugreek (T. foenum-graecum) seeds was studied in the sub-diabetic and moderately diabetic rabbits. In the sub-diabetic rabbits it did not change much the content of total lipids, glycogen and proteins in the liver, muscle and heart (glycogen was not studied in the heart). However, in the moderately diabetic rabbits same treatment decreased total lipids more in the liver (21%) than those in the heart and muscle. Total protein content increased (14%) in the liver but negligible change (5-7%) was observed in heart and muscle. Glycogen increased (17%) in the liver but not in the muscle of the moderately diabetic rabbits (glycogen was not estimated in the heart). Among the enzymes of glycolysis, activity of glucokinase was not affected in the liver of both the sub-diabetic and moderately diabetic rabbits. Phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase activity in both sub-diabetic and moderately diabetic rabbits increased (13-50%) indicating stimulation of glycolysis. The activity of gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase of the sub-diabetic rabbits decreased in the liver (15-20%) but not in the kidneys. In the moderately diabetic rabbits after treatment with GII, glucokinase in the liver was not affected much (-9%) but increased well in the muscle (40%). Phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase were moderately increased both in the liver and the muscle (18-23%). The gluconeogenic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase decreased reasonably well in the liver and kidneys (22, 32%). Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase decreased only slightly (10, 9%) in the moderately diabetic rabbits. Thus GII seems to decrease lipid content of liver and stimulate the enzymes of glycolysis (except glucokinase) and inhibit enzymes of gluconeogenesis in the liver of the diabetic especially moderately diabetic rabbits.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, November 2010, pp. 1123-1130

 

 

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae
Linn against paracetamol intoxication in rats

Gini C Kuriakose a & Muraleedhara G Kurup*

Applied Biochemistry, School of Biosciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, India

Received 3 September 2009; revised 21 June 2010

Paracetamol caused liver damage as evident by significant increase in the activities of aspartate and alanine transferases. There were general statistically significant losses in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione transferase and an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the liver of paracetamol treated group compared with the control group. However, treatment with ethanol extract of A. flos-aquae (EEAFA) was able to counteract these effects. Protection offered by silymarin (standard reference drug) seemed relatively greater. The results suggest that EEAFA can act as hepatoprotective agent against paracetamol induced toxicity as an antioxidant.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, November 2010, pp. 1131-1135

 

 

Possible role of NO modulators in protective effect of trazodone and citalopram (antidepressants) in acute immobilization stress in mice

Anil Kumar*, Ruchika Garg, Vaibhav Gaur & Puneet Kumar

Pharmacology division, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,

Panjab University, chandigarh 160014, India

Received 3 December 2009; revised 15 June 2010

Stress is an aversive stimulus which disturbs physiological homeostasis and is reflected on a variety of biological systems. The present study was designed to investigate the nitric oxide mechanism in neuroprotective effect of trazodone and citalopram against acute immobilization-induced behavioral and biochemical alteration in mice. Mice were immobilized for a 6 h. Acute immobilization stress caused anxiety, hyperalgesia, impaired locomotor activity and oxidative damage. Pre-treatment with trazodone and citalopram significantly reversed immobilized stress-induced behavioral and biochemical alterations. L-arginine, pretreatment with trazodone or citalopram significantly reversed their protective effects. However, L-NAME or methylene blue pretreatment with trazodone or citalopram significantly potentiated their protective effects alone. Results suggest the involvement of nitric oxide pathways in the protective effect of trazodone and citalopram against immobilization stress induced behavioral and biochemical alterations

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, November 2010, pp. 1136-1142

 

 

Effects of histidine and N-acetylcysteine on diclofenac-induced anti-inflammatory response in acute inflammation in rats

Amir Abbas Farshid1*, Esmaeal Tamaddonfard2 & Fatere Yahyaee1

1Division of Pathology, Department of Pathobiology, 2Division of Physiology, Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, P.O. Box 1177, Urmia University, Urmia 57153, Iran

Received 16 February 2010; revised 21 June 2010

The intra-plantar injection of carrageenan elicited an inflammatory response characterized by increase of the paw thickness and infiltration of neutrophils in paw tissues. Histidine, n-acetylcysteine and diclofenac decreased paw thickness, and neutrophil infiltration in the paw tissues. The anti-inflammatory effect induced by co-administration of histidine and n-acetylcysteine with diclofenac, was more than that obtained from histidine and n-acetylcysteine administered alone. The results suggested that histidine, n-acetylcysteine and diclofenac produced anti-inflammatory activities by reducing paw edema and neutrophil infiltrationin induced by carrageenan. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase products such as prostaglandins may be involved in the anti-inflammatory effects induced by histidine and n-acetylcysteine.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, November 2010, pp. 1143-1151

 

 

Differential gene expression during early embryonic development in diapause
and non-diapause eggs of multivoltine silkworm Bombyx mori

Kangayam M Ponnuvel*, Geetha N Murthy, Arvind K Awasthi, Guruprasad Rao & Nanjappa B Vijayaprakash

Seribiotech Research Laboratory, Carmelram Post, Kodathi, Bangalore 560 035, India

Received 15 December 2009; revised 21 June 2010

Quantification of the differential expression of metabolic enzyme and heat-shock protein genes (Hsp) during early embryogenesis in diapause and non-diapause eggs of the silkworm B. mori was carried out by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Data analysis revealed that, the phosphofructokinase (PFK) expression started at a higher level in the early stage (6 h after oviposition) in non-diapause eggs, while in diapause induced eggs, it started at a lower level. However, the PFK gene expression in diapause eggs was comparatively higher than in non-diapause eggs. PFK facilitates use of carbohydrate reserves. The lower level of PFK gene expression in the early stage of diapause induced eggs but comparatively higher level of expression than in non-diapause eggs is due to enzyme inactivation via protein phosphorylation during early embryogenesis followed by de-phosphorylation in later stage. The sorbitol dehydrogenase-2 (SDH-2) gene was down regulated in diapause induced eggs up to 24 h and its expression levels in diapause induced eggs coincided with that of PFK gene at 48h in non-diapause eggs. During carbohydrate metabolism, there is an initial temporary accumulation of sorbitol which acts as protectant. The down regulation of SDH-2 gene during the first 24 hours in diapause induced eggs was due to the requirement of sorbitol as protectant. However, since the diapause process culminates by 48 h, the SDH-2 gene expression increased and coincided with that of PFK gene expression. The trehalase (Tre) gene expression was at a lower level in diapause induced eggs compared to non-diapausing eggs. The induction of Tre activity is to regulate uptake and use of sugar by the tissues. The non-diapause eggs revealed maximum expression of GPase gene with major fluctuations as well as an overall higher expression compared to diapause induced eggs. The diapause process requires less energy source which reflects lower activity of the gene. Heat shock protein (Hsp)genes (Hsp20.4, 40, 70, and 90) revealed differential levels of expression in both the eggs at all stages of embryonic development. The present study thus provides an overview of the differential expression levels of metabolic enzyme and Hsp genes in non-diapause and diapause induced eggs of multivoltine silkworm B. mori within 48 h after oviposition, confirming the major role of in early embryogenesis.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, November 2010, pp. 1152-1156

 

 

 

Novel microbial route to synthesize silver nanoparticles using spore crystal mixture of Bacillus thuringiensis

Devendra Jaina, Sumita Kachhwahaa,b, Rohit Jaina, Garima Srivastavaa & S L Kotharia,b, *

aDepartment of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, 302 004, India

bCentre for Converging Technologies, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, 302 004, India

Received 13 January 2010; revised 7 July 2010

Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are often toxic and flammable. In the present study, the spore crystal mixture of Bacillus thuringiensis was used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, XRD and TEM. X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis showed the average particle size of 15 nm and mixed (cubic and hexagonal) structure. This is for the first time that any bacterial spore crystal mixture was used for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Further, these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were found to be highly toxic against different multi drug resistant human pathogenic bacteria.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, November 2010, pp. 1157-1160

 

 

Immunomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. extract on cyclophosphamide induced toxicity in mice

Anamika Gupta1, 2, Manish K Gautam1, 3, Rahul K Singh2,
M Vijay Kumar1, Ch V Rao1
, R K Goel3 &
Shampa Anupurba2*

1Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, National Botanical Research Institute, Rana Pratap Marg,
Lucknow 226 001, India

2Department of Microbiology, 3Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University,
Varanasi 221 005, India

Received 2 December 2009; Revised 11 May 2010

Immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic extract (50%) of M. oleifera leaves (MOE) has been studied in normal and immunosuppressed mice models. Different doses of MOE i.e. 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight of mice were administered orally for 15 days. Cyclophosphamide at a dose of 30 mg / kg body weight was administered orally for the next 3 days. On day 16 and 19, hematological parameters like white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin level (Hb), percent neutrophils and organ weight were recorded. Effect of MOE on phagocytic activity of mice macrophages was determined by carbon clearance test. MOE showed significant dose dependent increase in WBC, percent neutrophils, weight of thymus and spleen along with phagocytic index in normal and immunosuppressed mice. The results indicate that MOE significantly reduced cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppression by stimulating both cellular and humoral immunity.