Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 48

NUMBER 10

OCTOBER 2010

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 48 (10) 951-1062 (2010)

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

 

CONTENTS

 

Special issue on Microwave Effects on Biological Systems and Nanoscience

 

Foreword

 

Narendra Pal Singh & Henry C Lai

953

Vikram Kumar

954

 

 

Preface

 

Jitendra Behari

955

 

 

Review Article

 

Biological responses of mobile phone frequency exposure

959

Jitendra Behari

 

 

 

Papers

 

Effect of magnetic field on food and water intake and body weight of spinal cord
injured rats

982

Suneel Kumar, Suman Jain, Jitendra Behari, Valery D Avelev & Rashmi Mathur

 

 

 

Mobile phone usage and male infertility in Wistar rats

987

Kavindra Kumar Kesari, Sanjay Kumar & Jitendra Behari

 

 

 

Localization and characterization of tissue changes by laser backscattering imaging and Monte Carlo simulation

993

P S Pandain & Megha Singh

 

 

 

Dielectric studies of wheat in powder form at microwave frequencies

1002

Kavita Sharma, Ritu Jain, Nidhi Bhargava, Ritu Sharma & K S Sharma

 

 

 

Overview (Nanoscience)

 

Principal of nanoscience: An overview

1008

Jitendra Behari

 

 

 

Mini Review

 

Scope of atomic force microscopy in the advancement of nanomedicine

1020

Srinivasan Ramachandran & Ratnesh Lal

 

 

 

Papers

 

Interaction of soot derived multi-carban nanoparticles with lung surfactants and their possible internalization inside alveolar cavity

1037

Pradip Kumar & H B Bohidar

 

Co-polymeric hydrophilic nanospheres for drug delivery: Release kinetics, and
cellular uptake

1043

Anita Kamra Verma, A Chanchal & A Maitra

 

 

 

Development of transducer matrices based upon nanostructured conducting polymer for application in biosensors

1053

Deepshikha & Tinku Basu

 

 

 

 

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Editor痴 Note

 

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology is covered by the following international abstracting and indexing services:

 

Science Citation Index ExpandedTM

PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov/)

MEDLINE

BIOSIS

Chemical Abstracts Service

Excerpta Medica

Informascience

Refrativnyi Zhurnal

Zoological Records

 

 

 

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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology in Open Access Mode

 

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology (IJEB) is now an open access journal in the repository, NISCAIR Online Periodicals Repository (NOPR) [http://nopr.niscair.res.in].

Full text of all articles published in IJEB from 2006 onwards can now be accessed at NOPR in the open access mode. Papers in the current issue shall be uploaded immediately. Papers published in earlier years shall be added soon.

NOPR is based on DSpace, a digital repository software, and allows document browsing, document searching and various search options like title, author name, keywords, year,issue, etc.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, October 2010 , pp. 953

 

 

FOREWORD

 

 

Mobile phone, wireless communication devices, and electrical appliances are now an essential part of human life. A consequence is that we are constantly being emerged in an ever increasing ocean of nonionizing electromagnetic fields. There are concerns that exposure to these fields in the public and occupational environments could lead to harmful health effects. Therefore, there is an urgent need to unveil these effects and to understand the mechanisms that mediate them. On the other hand, there are also indications that these fields can be used to benefit mankind, e.g., in medical treatments and diagnosis. MRI is a notable diagnostic tool that has benefited millions of patients.

 

Indian researchers have traditionalyl played an important role in electromagnetics. Most notably, Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose
( 18581937) pioneered the science of wireless communication, arguably years before Guglielmo Marconi. Bose wrote in 1894 in a Bengali paper, the Adrisya Alok (Invisible Light), 典he invisible light can easily pass through brick walls, buildings etc. Therefore, messages can be transmitted by means of it without the mediation of wires. His 舛oherer' (a Hertzian wave receiver or detector) is the fore-runner of the modern mobile phone. Bose also went on to study the action of microwaves in plant tissues and cell membrane potential. That makes him a pioneer in bioelelctromagnetics.

 

From these early days of exciting development of the science of electromagnetics, Indian researchers have constantly been contributing to the understanding of the physics and biological effects of nonionizing electromagnetic fields, as exemplified by the articles published in this special issue of the Indian Journal of Experimental Biology . Significantly, Professor Jitendra Behari and his colleagues have uniquely contributed to this area of science with studies on the chronic and subchronic low-intensity exposure effects, of which little information is available and data are urgently needed in order to understand the biological and health effects of daily exposure to these fields in humans.

 

 

Dr Narendra Pal Singh

Dr Henry C. Lai

Department of Bioengineering,

University of Washington ,

Seattle , WA , USA

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, October 2010 , pp. 954

 

 

FOREWORD

 

 

On December 29, 1959, Prof Richard P Feynman, addressed the gathering at an American Physical Society meeting at the California Institute of Technology with the opening remark, "There is plenty of room at the bottom". The talk raised the possibility of direct manipulation of individual atoms. He suggested that the entire Encyclopedia Britannica can one day be written on a pinhead. This vision of the future technology which was later called 'nanotechnology' by Taniguchi lead to the science of designing, producing and using structures and devices from single atoms and molecules.

 

The scope of nanotechnology is mind-boggling and expected to touch every field: medicine, health, aerospace, defense construction, engineering, entertainment, and household. In particular, Nano-biotechnology can make tiny medical devices and sensors for human benefit. Converting sunlight into power, targeting a drug against a single malignant cell, cleaning ponds and creating sensors in the form of a biochip to be inserted in the human body are expected to be some of nanotechnology's landmark breakthroughs. The nanotechnology R&D is truly interdisciplinary. Fields as diverse as biomedical and biotechnology, material science, optoelectronics, energy and the environment, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and microelectronics overlap.

As nanotech moves from research to commercialization, there is need to have standards regulatory policies. Most of the advanced countries such as the US , Europe, China , Taiwan and India have taken steps in this direction in order to control potential environmental and health hazards.

Although the field is in its infancy in India , the country is making dedicated efforts to keep pace with global leaders. Initiatives have been taken by the Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India as well as other government funding agencies to sponsor and promote research related to all aspects of nanotechnology. A great demand is perceived for students with training in nanotechnology with opportunities in established industries such as chemicals, pharma-biotech, aerospace, transportation, energy, microelectronics as well as new industries such as nanotechnology materials, coatings and structures (crystal, wires, tubes), nano-biotechnology, nano-electronics, microfluidics.

The conference organized at the Jawaharlal Nehru University during November 2009 was a welcome step towards bringing together scientists and students from different disciplines. I congratulate the organizers for holding the conference. This issue of
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology brings out some of the papers presented at the conference. I am sure it will fulfill an important need of scientists working in this area.

 

 

Prof. Vikram Kumar
Department of Physics &
Centre for Applied Research in Electronics (CARE)
Indian Institute of Technology
New Delhi 110016, India
Telephone: +91 11 26596296

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, October 2010 , pp. 955

 

 

PREFACE

 

It was in the month of July 2009 that the idea to organize a workshop-cum-symposium was conceived. The executive meeting of the Microwave Application Society of India (MASI) endorsed the concept to hold a workshop-cum-symposium on 溺icrowave: Principles and applications and 哲anoscience: Theory and applications. Efforts were made to bring about a collection of various issues relating to bioelectromagnetics and nanoscience.

After a successful meet and encouragement from authors and the members of the advisory committee, the issue is now in open. The papers presented at the workshop-cum-symposium have been divided into two parts are

 

•  those dealing with electromagnetic field exposure to biological system concerning biological effects and therapeutic use, and secondly

•  nanoscience basics and applications

 

The issue of EMF- biointeraction is far from resolved, the introduction of mobile phone in day-to-day use has added to the enormity of the situation. This goes beyond the known laws of physics and biology and appears to be leading to new dimensions of low and ultralow frequency effects and phenomena. First part is a point in that direction.

The second part is an effort to introduce nanoscience in the arena of biology where efforts have been made to introduce the subject beginning with the first principles. To bring about the completeness of the symposium programme, the present special issue has been brought out on current trends in environmental biology. A composite assimilation of the two apparently dissimilar issues converging into a single theme has been achieved by contributions in an area of vast overlap.

I thank all the contributors for enthusiastically responding to our request of keeping to the time, and the assistance of our group scientists, Mr. Kavindra Kr. Kesari and Mr. Sanjay Kumar for help in organizing the manuscripts. The help of Prof. H.B. Bohidar and Prof. D.C. Dubey in reviewing some of the scripts is thankfully acknowledged. The articles are chosen with an aim to address to a very wide section of researchers in the related areas. The guest editor will consider his efforts rewarded if the issue fills the much observable gap in this area of emerging interest. Last but not the least, the co-operation and assistance of editorial team of the Indian Journal of Experimental Biology in organizing the articles and supporting the effort are thankfully acknowledged.

 

 

Dr Jitendra Behari

(Guest Editor)

School of Environmental Sciences

Jawaharlal Nehru University

New Delhi 110 067, India

jbehari@hotmail.com

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, October 2010 , pp. 959-981

 

 

Review Article

 

 

Biological responses of mobile phone frequency exposure

Jitendra Behari

Bioelectromagnetics Laboratory, School of Environmental Sciences
Jawaharlal Nehru University , New Delhi 110 067, India

Existence of low level electromagnetic fields in the environment has been known since antiquity and their biological implications are noted for several decades. As such dosimetry of such field parameters and their emissions from various sources of mass utilization has been a subject of constant concern. Recent advancement in mobile communications has also drawn attention to their biological effects. Hand held children and adults alike generally use mobile sources as cordless phones in various positions with respect to the body. Further, an increasing number of mobile communication base stations have led to wide ranging concern about possible health effects of radiofrequency emissions. There are two distinct possibilities by which health could be affected as a result of radio frequency field exposure. These are thermal effects caused by holding mobile phones close to the body and extended conversations over a long period of time. Secondly, there could be possibly non thermal effects from both phones and base stations whereby the affects could also be cumulative. Some people may be adversely affected by the environmental impact of mobile phone base stations situated near their homes, schools or any other place. In addition to mobile phones, appliances like microwave oven etc are also in increasing use. Apart from the controversy over the possible health effects due to the non-thermal effect of electromagnetic fields the electromagnetic interaction of portable radio waves with human head needs to be quantitatively evaluated. Relating to this is the criteria of safe exposure to the population at large. While a lot of efforts have gone into resolving the issue, a clear picture has yet to emerge. Recent advances and the problems relating to the safety criteria are discussed.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, October 2010 , pp. 982-986

Papers

 

 

Effect of magnetic field on food and water intake and body weight of
spinal cord injured rats

Suneel Kumar, Suman Jain, Jitendra Behari 1 , Valery D Avelev 2 & Rashmi Mathur*

Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi 110 029, India

1 School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi 110 067, India

2 Pavlov Institute of Physiology , Russian Academy of Science, 6, St. Petersburg , Russia

Chronic (2h/d × 8 weeks) exposure to magnetic field (MF; 50 Hz, 17.9 µT) in complete spinal cord (T13) transected rats restored food intake (FI), water intake (WI) and body weight (BW) which were decreased in the spinal cord injured rats. The results suggest a significant beneficial effect of chronic exposure to magnetic field of paraplegic rats.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, October 2010 , pp. 987-992

 

 

Mobile phone usage and male infertility in Wistar rats

Kavindra Kumar Kesari, Sanjay Kumar & Jitendra Behari*

Bioelectromagnetic Laboratory, School of Environmental Sciences

Jawaharlal Nehru University , New Delhi 110 067, India

A significant decrease in protein kinase C and total sperm count along with increased apoptosis were observed in male Wistar rats exposed to mobile phone frequencies (2 h/day × 35 days at 0.9 W/kg specific absorption rate). The results suggest that a reduction in protein kinase activity may be related to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under microwave field exposure. Decrease in sperm count and an increase in apoptosis may be causative factor due to mobile radiation exposure leading to infertility.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, October 2010 , pp. 993-1001

 

 

Localization and characterization of tissue changes by laser backscattering imaging and Monte Carlo simulation

P S Pandian 1 & Megha Singh 2 *

1 Biomedical Engineering Division, Indian Institute of Technology Madras , Chennai 600 036, India

2 Center for Biomedical Engineering, S. G. N. Educational Foundation, # 12, III Street, Park Avenue, Chennai 600 042, India

Laser backscattering from biological tissues depends on their composition and blood flow. The onset of the tissue abnormalities is associated with the change in composition at a specific location which may affect laser backscattering. The objective of the present work is to detect the compositional changes in tissue-equivalent phantom of fat, prepared by mixing paraffin wax with wax colors, and to characterize these in terms of their optical parameters. For this purpose these phantoms are scanned by a multi-probe non-contact automatic laser scanning system and images of the normalized backscattered intensity (NBI) are constructed. By scanning the background subtracted image of the phantom the location of the abnormality and its size from the full width at half maximum (FWHM) are determined. The data obtained by ultrasonic technique for localization of the abnormalities are in agreement with that as obtained by the present method. The optical parameters of the abnormality are obtained by matching the measured surface profiles of the abnormality with that of the profile obtained by Monte Carlo simulation. This analysis shows the possibility of detection of changes at the onset stage in tissues as required for planning of the photodynamic therapy.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, October 2010 , pp. 1002-1007

 

 

Dielectric studies of wheat in powder form at microwave frequencies

Kavita Sharma 1 , Ritu Jain 1 , Nidhi Bhargava 1 , Ritu Sharma 2 & K S Sharma 1 *

1 Department of Physical Sciences, International College for Girls, The IIS University,
Gurukul Marg, Mansarovar, Jaipur 302 020, India

2 Department of Electronics, Malviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur 302 017, India

Dielectric constant and loss factor of Raj-4120 variety of Indian wheat were determined in powder form (grain size
125 to 150 µ) at room temperature. Microwaves at three different frequencies were employed in C-band, X-band and
Ku-band respectively for investigating frequency dependence of dielectric parameters of the sample. Bulk dielectric values of the sample were determined by employing the dielectric mixture relations, such as, half power mixture equation, Landau and Lifshitz, Looyenga equation etc.

 

Overview

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, October 2010 , pp. 1008-1019

 

 

 

Principles of nanoscience: An overview

Jitendra Behari

School of Environmental Science, Jawaharlal Nehru University , New Delhi 110 067, India

 

The scientific basis of nanotechnology as envisaged from the first principles is compared to bulk behavior. Development of nanoparticles having controllable physical and electronic properties has opened up possibility of designing artificial solids. Top down and bottom up approaches are emphasized. The role of nanoparticle (quantum dots) application in nanophotonics (photovoltaic cell), and drug delivery vehicle is discussed. Fundamentals of DNA structure as the prime site in bionanotechnological manipulations is also discussed. A summary of presently available devices and applications are presented.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, October 2010 , pp. 1020-1036

Mini Review

 

Scope of atomic force microscopy in the advancement of nanomedicine

Srinivasan Ramachandran* & Ratnesh Lal*

Departments of Bioengineering, and Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

University of California at San Diego , La Jolla , CA , 92093-0412 USA

 

One of the most exciting fields of current research is nanomedicine, but its definition and landscape remains elusive due to its continuous expansion in all directions and thus constantly eroding its boundaries and defying definitions. This lack of conceptual framework and confusing definitions was a hurdle for policy makers to enunciate credible goals and allocate resources for the advancement of the field. In this mini review, we have provided a broad framework of nanomedicine which defines its elusive landscape, and we hope this framework will accommodate its explosive growth in the future. Also, we have highlighted the role and scope of atomic force microscopy techniques in the advancement of nanomedicine. For improving health care of all that eventually would require successful intervention at fundamental biological processes, the importance of understanding the structure-function relationship of biomolecules cannot be over emphasized. In this context, AFM and its variants play a pivotal role in contributing towards the nanomedicine knowledge-base that is required for fruitful developments in nano-diagnostics and nano-therapeutics.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, October 2010 , pp. 1037-1042

Papers

 

 

Interaction of soot derived multi-carbon nanoparticles with lung surfactants and their possible internalization inside alveolar cavity

Pradip Kumar & H B Bohidar*

Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites Laboratory, School of Physical Sciences

Jawaharlal Nehru University , New Delhi 110 067, India

 

A systematic investigation of interaction of multi-carbon nanoparticles, obtained from soot, with dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), a clinical pulmonary phospholipid surfactant, sold under trade name 鉄urvanta, was undertaken to establish a model for internalization of these nanoparticles inside alveolar cavity. In vitro experiments were carried out to establish the phospholipid assisted dispersion mechanism of carbon nanoclusters (size » 150 nm, zeta potential » -15 mV) in water. Results obtained from an array of experimental methods, like dynamic laser light scattering, electrophoresis, UV-absorption spectroscopy, surface tension studies and transmission electron microscopy, revealed that the carbon nanoparticles interacted with DPPC predominantly via hydrophobic interactions. Selective surface adsorption of DPPC molecules on nanoparticle surface was found to be strongly dependent on the concentration of the phospholipid. DPPC, a gemini surfactant, formed a rigid monolayer around the carbon nanocluster even at nanomolar concentration and provided excellent stability to the dispersion. Based on the experimental data it is proposed that the free-energy gain involved in the hydrophobic interactions will facilitate the internalization of these nanoparticles on the inner wall of the alveolar cavity.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, October 2010 , pp. 1043-1052

 

 

Co-polymeric hydrophilic nanospheres for drug delivery: Release kinetics, and cellular uptake

Anita Kamra Verma*, A Chanchal & A Maitra

Nano-Biotech Laboratory, Kirori Mal College , University of Delhi , Delhi 110 007, India
Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi 110 007, India

Nanobiotechnology focuses on the biological effects and applications of nanoparticles that include nano-safety, drug encapsulation and nanotherapeutics. T he present study focuses on hydrophilic nanospheres of copolymers
N-isopropylacrylamide [NIPAAM] and vinyl pyrrolidone [VP], encapsulating a bioactive derivative of 5-fluorouracil-hexyl-carbamoyl fluorouracil (HCFU). The size of the nanospheres was ~58 nm and the surface charge measured was
-15.4 mV . Under optimal conditions, the yield was >80%, and the drug loading was 2% . The entrapment efficiency was ~75%. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the entrapped HCFU was present in an amorphous state, which has higher water solubility compared with the crystalline state. Slow drug release from nano spheres was observed in PBS and serum, with ~80% released at 37 ° C after 72 h. The HCFU loaded polymeric nanospheres have been found to be stable in whole blood having negligible RBC toxicity. Cytotoxicity in Mia-Paca 3, pancreatic cancer cell line was done in a
24-72 h assay. D
ose dependant cytotoxicity was observed when incubated with various concentrations of HCFU loaded polymeric nanospheres while HCFU per se (<1 m g) showed 90% toxicity within 24 h.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 48, October 2010 , pp. 1053-1062

 

 

Development of transducer matrices based upon nanostructured conducting polymer for application in biosensors

Deepshikha 1 & Tinku Basu 2*

1 Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida 201 303, India

2 Amity Institute of Nanotechnology , Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida 201303, India

 

The nanostructured polyaniline (NSPANI) and its gold nano composite (GNP) with controlled size distribution were developed using structure directing agents (SDA). The nano structure of polyaniline were investigated by UV-Visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), fourrier transform spectroscopy (FTIR) , X-ray crystallography and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) etc. These characterization techniques reveal the spherical shape of polyaniline nanoparticles and size in the range of 7-50 nm depending on the type of dopant and nature of SDA . In general, these NSCP colloidal solutions are highly stable. UV-Visible spectra show mainly two peaks at 360-430 nm and at 780-870 nm . The bathochromic shift of the UV-Visible bands as compared to bulk polyaniline, reflect high DC conductivity. TEM and DLS results demonstrate the formation of nanostructure with narrow size distribution. Due to remarkable properties of, it is used as an efficient transduction matrice for the development of highly sensitive, reproducible, stable optical cholesterol and H 2 O 2 biosensors having wide range of linearity and low Km values.