Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 49

NUMBER 6

JUNE 2011

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 49 (6) 391-474 (2011)

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

 

 

CONTENTS

Review Articles

 

 

 

Stem cell therapies for type 1 diabetes mellitus

395

Julio C Voltarelli, Carlos E B Couri, Maria C Rodrigues, Daniela A Moraes,
Ana-Beatriz P L Stracieri, Fabiano Pieroni, George Navarro, Angela M O Leal
& Belinda P Simoes

 

 

 

Islet-specific microRNAs in pancreas development, regeneration and diabetes

401

M V Joglekar, V S Parekh & A A Hardikar

 

 

 

Cellular reprogramming of somatic cells

409

Huseyin Sumer, Jun Liu & Paul J Verma

 

 

 

Papers

 

 

 

Radioiodide uptake and sodium iodide symporter expression in breast carcinoma

416

Archana A Damle, Archana A Narkar & Rajendra A Badwe

 

 

 

No effect of low-level lasers on in vitro myoblast culture

423

Raquel A Mesquita-Ferrari, Rafael Ribeiro, Nadhia H C Souza, Camila A A Silva, Manoela D Martins, Sandra K Bussadori & Kristianne P S Fernandes

 

 

 

Differential gene expression in pepper (Capsicum annuum) exposed to UV-B

429

Yan Lai, Bo Xu, Li He, Ming Lin, Lei Cao, Shaoliang Mou, Yang Wu & Shuilin He

 

 

 

Sorbitan ester noisomes for tropical delivery of rofecoxib

438

Malay K Das & Narahari N Palei

 

 

 

Sub-chronic diclofenac sodium induced alterations of alkaline phosphatase activity in serum and skeletal muscle of mice

446

Shalini Chouhan & Sushma Sharma

 

 

 

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of Suaeda maritima (L.) Dumort ethanolic extract on concanavalin-A induced hepatotoxicity in rats

455

S Ravikumar, M Gnanadesigan, S Jacob Inbaneson & A Kalaiarasi

 

 

 

Anti-ulcerogenic and proton pump (H+, K+ ATPase) inhibitory activity of Kolaviron from Garcinia kola Heckel in rodents

461

Samuel A Onasanwo, Neetu Singh, Samuel B Olaleye & Gautam Palit

 

 

 

In silico designing of insecticidal small interfering RNA (siRNA) for Helicoverpa armigera control

469

Meenakshi Choudhary & Shakti Sahi

 

 

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NISCAIR痴 Policy on Plagiarism

 

The system of formal communication in science through publication in primary journals is based on originality and quality of information being the only criteria for publication. However, there have been tendencies to misuse the system and vitiate the process of science communication for personal benefits. One of the ills afflicting science communication is plagiarism. Attempts at plagiarism may range from verbatim, copying of extensive material of other authors, misappropriating results/data of others with minor changes in language/presentation without giving credit to original source, to publish essentially the same information more than once.

As the premier publisher in India of primary scientific journals in various disciplines of science and technology, NISCAIR strongly reiterates its policy of discouraging plagiarism of all kinds. All efforts are made detect and frustrate attempts at plagiarism through editorial screening and rigorous peer review in respect of communications received for publication in NISCAIR publications. Cooperation of the scientific community is sought in our efforts to frustrate all attempts at plagiarism.

In case any attempt to plagiarize is brought to our attention accompanied with convincing evidence, following steps would be taken:

(a)            After consulting the respective Editorial Board Members, authors guilty of plagiarism will be debarred from publishing their papers in NISCAIR journals

(b)            Heads of the departments/institutes of the offending authors will be intimated of such incidences of plagiarism.

(c)            Such incidents of plagiarism will be publicized through the concerned NISCAIR journals in consultation with the respective Editorial Board Members.

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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology in Open Access Mode

 

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology (IJEB) is now an open access journal in the repository, NISCAIR Online Periodicals Repository (NOPR) [http://nopr.niscair.res.in].

Full text of all articles published in IJEB from 2006 onwards can now be accessed at NOPR in the open access mode. Papers in the current issue shall be uploaded immediately. Papers published in earlier years shall be added soon.

NOPR is based on DSpace, a digital repository software, and allows document browsing, document searching and various search options like title, author name, keywords, year, issue, etc.

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Author Index

Badwe Rajendra A

416

Bussadori Sandra K

423

 

 

Cao Lei

429

Choudhary Meenakshi

469

Chouhan Shalini

446

Couri Carlos E B

395

 

 

Damle Archana A

416

Das Malay K

438

 

 

Fernandes Kristianne P S

423

 

 

Gnanadesigan M

455

 

 

Hardikar A A

401

He Li

429

He Shuilin

429

 

 

Inbaneson S Jacob

455

Joglekar M V

401

 

 

Kalaiarasi A

455

 

 

Lai Yan

429

Leal Angela M O

395

Lin Ming

429

Liu Jun

409

 

 

Martins Manoela D

423

Mesquita-Ferrari Raquel A

423

Moraes Daniela A

395

Mou Shaoliang

429

 

 

Narkar Archana A

416

Navarro George

395

 

 

Olaleye Samuel B

461

Onasanwo Samuel A

461

 

 

Palei Narahari N

438

Palit Gautam

461

Parekh V S

401

Pieroni Fabiano

395

Ravikumar S

455

Ribeiro Rafael

423

Rodrigues Maria C

395

 

 

Sahi Shakti

469

Sharma Sushma

446

Silva Camila A A

423

Simoes Belinda P

395

Singh Neetu

461

Souza Nadhia H C

423

Stracieri Ana-Beatriz P L

395

Sumer Huseyin

409

 

 

Verma Paul J

409

Voltarelli Julio C

395

 

 

Wu Yang

429

 

 

Xu Bo

429

 

 

Keyword Index

Acute toxicity

455

Alkaline phosphatase

446

Anti-secretory

461

 

 

Breast cancer

416

 

 

C2C12 cells

423

Capcab

429

Capsicum annuum

429

CDNA-AFLP

429

Cell proliferation

423

Concanavalin-A

455

Cotton bollworm

469

Cyto-protection

461

 

 

Diabetes

401

Diabetes mellitus

395

Diclofenac

446

 

 

Epigenetic reprogramming

409

 

 

Garcinia kola

461

Gastrocnemius

446

Gene regulation

401

Gene silencing

469

H+, K+ -ATPase

461

Hepatoprotective

455

Hormones

469

HSCT

395

 

 

Immunosupression

395

IPM

469

Islet apoptosis

401

 

 

Kolaviron

461

 

 

Lineage-specific reprogramming

409

Lipid film hydration technique

438

Low-level lasers

423

 

 

microRNA

401

Myoblasts

423

 

 

Niosomal gel

438

Niosomes

438

Nuclear reprogramming

409

 

 

Omeprazole

461

Pancreas

401

Peptic ulcer

461

Pluripotency

409

 

 

Radioiodide

416

RNAi

469

Rofecoxib

438

RT-PCR

416

 

 

Salt marsh

455

Serum

446

Sodium iodide symporter

416

Somatic cell

409

Stem cell

395

Stem cell

409

Suaeda maritime

455

Sub-chronic

446

 

 

TDF

429

Topical delivery

438

 

 

UV-B

429

 

 

 

Correspondent author has been indicated by * sign

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, June 2011, pp. 395400

 

 

Review Articles

 

Stem cell therapies for type 1 diabetes mellitus

Jlio C Voltarelli1*, Carlos E B Couri1, Maria C Rodrigues1, Daniela A Moraes1, Ana-Beatriz P L Stracieri,
Fabiano Pieroni1, George Navarro1, Angela M O Leal2 & Belinda P Simes1

1Department of Clinical Medicine, Ribeir縊 Preto School of Medicine, University of S縊 Paulo, Brazil,
2Department of Medicine, Federal University of S縊 Carlos, Brazil

The present review discusses the use of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM 1). It has been observed that high dose immunosuppression followed by HSCT shows better results among other immunotherapeutic treatments for the disease as the patients with adequate beta cell reserve achieve insulin independence. However, this response is not maintained and reoccurrence of the disease is major a major challenge to use HSCT in future to prevent or control relapse of DM 1.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, June 2011, pp. 401408

 

 

Islet-specific microRNAs in pancreas development, regeneration and diabetes

M V Joglekar1, V S Parekh1 & A A Hardikar1, 2,*

1Stem Cells and Diabetes Section, National Center for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, India

2Diabetes and Pancreas Biology Section, O達rien Institute, Department of Surgery,
The University of Melbourne at St. Vincent痴 Hospital Melbourne, VIC 3065, Australia

Diabetes is a chronic and slowly progressive disease that is presently reaching epidemic proportions in several parts of the world. Multiple aspects including genetic and lifestyle changes have been identified as the key factors leading to the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Although molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of diabetes remain unclear, recent discoveries in understanding post-transcriptional gene regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs) has opened a new area of research. MicroRNAs have been implicated as new players in pathogenesis as well as complications of diabetes. MiRNAs have been shown to be necessary not only during embryonic development of insulin-producing cells, transcription of (pro-)insulin gene and insulin secretion, but also in development of insulin resistance and diabetes. The present review summarizes the findings related to understanding the role of miRNAs in endocrine pancreas development, pancreas regeneration, islet function and diabetes.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, June 2011, pp. 409415

 

 

Cellular reprogramming of somatic cells

Huseyin Sumer, Jun Liu & Paul J Verma*

Centre for Reproduction and Development, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, 27-31 Wright Street,
Clayton VIC 3168, Australia

The process of 祖ell reprogramming can be achieved by somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion with embryonic stem cells, exposure to stem cell extracts, or by inducing pluripotentcy mediated by defined factors giving rise to what are termed induced pluripotent stem cells. More recently, the fate of a somatic cell can be directly induced to uptake other cell fates, termed lineage-specific reprogramming, without the need to de-differentiate the cells to a pluripotent state. In this review we will describe the different methods of reprogramming somatic cells.

 

Papers

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, June 2011, pp. 416422

 

 

Radioiodide uptake and sodium iodide symporter expression in breast carcinoma

Archana A Damle1, Archana A Narkar1 & Rajendra A Badwe2

1Radiation Medicine Centre (BARC), c/o Tata Memorial Centre Annexe, Jerbai Wadia Road,

Parel, Mumbai 400 012, India

2Surgical Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Ernest Borges Marg, Parel, Mumbai 400 012 India

Received 15 December 2010; revised 18 February 2011

Breast cancer is a common malignancy in women all over the world and novel therapeutic approaches are required for the treatment of patients who become refractory to conventional therapies. Thyroid cancer is being treated successfully with radioiodine since many years. The iodide is transported inside the thyroid epithelial cell via sodium iodide symporter (NIS) which is a trans-membrane protein. The present study was aimed to explore the uptake of radioiodide (RAI) and the expression of NIS in breast tissues of invasive ductal carcinoma patients. Breast tissues from tumor region (Tu-Br) as well as corresponding normal region (N-Br) were collected from patients of invasive ductal carcinoma. In vitro RAI uptake, its efflux and NIS expression were studied. The uptake of RAI (1.98ア1.75 105 cpm/g) in Tu-Br was significantly higher as compared to that observed in N-Br (0.31ア0.27 105 cpm/g) and fast efflux was observed in the tissue samples. NIS gene expression was positive in 41.66% (10/24) samples of Tu-Br. None of the N-Br samples expressed NIS gene. In 14 samples of Tu-Br, RAI uptake as well as NIS expression was studied. In 50% of these Tu-Br samples RAI uptake as well as of NIS gene expression was positive. The results indicate that RAI uptake is significantly higher in breast tumor tissues as compared to their normal counterpart and in future radioiodine may be an important agent for treatment of breast cancer.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, June 2011, pp. 423428

 

 

No effect of low-level lasers on in vitro myoblast culture

Raquel A Mesquita-Ferrari*, Rafael Ribeiro, Nadhia H C Souza, Camila A A Silva, Manoela D Martins,
Sandra
K Bussadori & Kristianne P S Fernandes

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Nove de Julho University, S縊 Paulo, Brazil

Received 19 May 2010; revised 14 February 2011

Effects of phototherapy using low-level lasers depend on irradiation parameters and the type of laser used. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of phototherapy on the proliferation of cultured C2C12 myoblasts under different nutritional conditions using low-level GaAlAs and InGaAlP lasers with different parameters and incubation periods. C2C12 cells cultured in regular and nutrient-deficient medium were irradiated with low-level GaAlAs (780 nm) and InGaAlP (660 nm) lasers with energy densities of 3.8, 6.3 and 10 J/cm2, and 3.8, 10 and 17.5 J/cm2, respectively. Cell proliferation was assessed 48 and 72 h after irradiation by MTT assay. There were no significant differences in cell proliferation between laser-treated myoblasts and control cultures for any of the parameters and incubation periods. Further studies are necessary to determine the correct laser parameters for optimizing the biostimulation of myoblasts.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, June 2011, pp. 429437

 

 

Differential gene expression in pepper (Capsicum annuum) exposed to UV-B

Yan Lai1,a, Bo Xu1,2,a, Li He3, Ming Lin4, Lei Cao5, Shaoliang Mou1, Yang Wu3 & Shuilin He1,*

1 School of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, 350002 Fuzhou, China

2 Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 361021 Xiamen, China

3 School of Life Sciences, Jinggangshan University, 343009 Jian, China

4 Supply and Marketing Cooperatives of Fujian Province, 350003 Fuzhou, China

5 Zhangzhou Agricultural Vocation School, 363000 Zhangzhou, China

Received 23 December 2010

In the present paper, complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) was used to examine and identify differentially expressed genes in Capsicum annuum exposed to UV-B irradiation. Around 4000 transcript derived fragments (TDFs) were visualized and in total 183 TDFs were isolated, sequenced and analyzed by Blast 2 go. Among these TDFs, 84 of them showed homology to known genes. There were 43 TDFs showing up-regulated expression, 24 TDFs showing down-regulated expression and 27 TDFs showing both up-regulated and down-regulated expression, respectively. Some of these TDFs were found to be in response/related to UV-B stress, including carbonic anhydrase, calcium-dependent protein, thionin-like protein, bzip protein and so on. In particular, chlorophyll a/b binding protein (Capcab) responding to UV-B stress was cloned. It was concluded that Capcab could play a protective role in plant anti-UV-B and maintaining photosynthetic rate under UV-B stress.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, June 2011, pp. 438445

 

 

Sorbitan ester niosomes for topical delivery of rofecoxib

Malay K Das* & Narahari N Palei

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dibrugarh University, Dibrugarh 786 004, India

Received 29 March 2010; revised 22 February 2011

The aim of the present investigation is to encapsulate rofecoxib in niosomes and incorporate the prepared niosomes into dermal gel base for sustained therapeutic action. Niosomes were prepared by lipid film hydration technique and were analyzed for size, entrapment efficiency and drug retention capacity. Niosomal vesicles were then incorporated into blank carbopol gel to form niosomal gel. The in vitro permeation study across pig skin was performed using Keshary-Chien glass diffusion cell. The size and entrapment efficiency of the niosomal vesicles increased with gradual increase in HLB value of nonionic surfactants used. Maximum drug entrapment was observed with Span 20 with HLB value of 8.6 and drug leakage from vesicles was less at refrigerated condition than at the room temperature. Higher proportion of cholesterol made the niosomal formulation more stable with high drug retention properties. The niosomal gel showed a prolong drug release behavior compared to plain drug gel. Differential scanning calorimetric study of drug loaded gel and pig skin after permeation study confirmed inertness of carbopol gel base toward rofecoxib and absence of drug metabolism in the skin during permeation study, respectively. The niosomal formulations were successfully prepared by lipid film hydration technique using cholesterol and Span as nonionic surfactant. Presence of cholesterol made niosomes more stable with high drug entrapment efficiency and retention properties. The lower flux value of niosomal gel as compared to plain drug gel across pig skin assured the prolong drug release behavior with sustained action.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, June 2011, pp. 446454

 

 

Sub-chronic diclofenac sodium induced alterations of alkaline phosphatase activity in serum and skeletal muscle of mice

Shalini Chouhan & Sushma Sharma*

Department of Biosciences, H P University, Summer Hill, Shimla 171 005, India

Received 29 June 2010; revised 1 March 2011

The present study has been carried on changes in activity of alkaline phosphatase in serum and gastrocnemius muscle of mice after sub-chronic use of diclofenac. Mice in experimental group received diclofenac (10 mg/kg body wt /day) for 30 days while control group received normal saline. Alkaline phosphatase was assayed in muscle and serum and its activity was localized histochemically in muscle. Results showed that diclofenac induced changes in specific activity of alkaline phosphatase at different periods of treatment variably compared to control group. Specific activity of alkaline phosphatase decreased significantly in gastrocnemius initially (48.74%), increased thereafter (132.96%) and slight decrease (13.97%) was noticed after 30 days. In serum, the specific activity of alkaline phosphatase decreased slightly after 10 days (18.78%), increased in the middle of the treatment period (132.04%) as well as showed increase (109.09%) compared to control group after 30 days stage of investigation. These findings were also confirmed by electrophoretic studies in muscle.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, June 2011, pp. 455460

 

 

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of Suaeda maritima (L.) Dumort ethanolic extract on concanavalin-A induced hepatotoxicity in rats

S Ravikumar*, M Gnanadesigan, S Jacob Inbaneson & A Kalaiarasi

School of Marine Sciences, Department of Oceanography and Coastal Area Studies, Alagappa University, Thondi Campus,
Thondi 623 409, Tamil Nadu, India

Received 12 May 2010; Revised 16 March 2011

Hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties of Suaeda maritima (L.) Dumort on concanavalin-A induced stress in Wistar albino rats have been reported. Rats were administered with ethanolic extract of Suaeda maritima at the concentration of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg of body wt. for 9 days and concanavalin-A was administrated (iv) 12 mg/kg on 9th day. Rats in concanavalin-A administered group showed elevated levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilurubin. Pretreatment of rats with ethanolic extract (300 mg/kg) significantly reduced these serum parameters compared to concavalin-A administered group. Histopathological examination of liver sections showed that, normal liver architecture was disturbed by hepatotoxin intoxication. The extract treated group and silymarin treated group retained the normal cell architecture, although less visible changes were observed. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of triterpenioids and may be responsible for the hepatoprotective activity. The LD50 was calculated as 3 g/kg of the body weight. IC50 values of hydroxyl (52.21ア1.32mg/ml) and nitric oxide radicals (09.14ア0.94 mg/ml) scavenging results showed comparable activity with vitamin-C. Results of this study may be useful for the development of herbal medicine from Suaeda maritima for the treatment of hepatitis.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, June 2011, pp. 461468

 

 

Anti-ulcerogenic and proton pump (H+, K+ ATPase) inhibitory activity of Kolaviron from Garcinia kola Heckel in rodents

Samuel A Onasanwo1,2,*, Neetu Singh2, Samuel B Olaleye1 & Gautam Palit2

1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine,
University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

2Division of Pharmacology, Central Drug Research Institute (CSIR), Lucknow 226 001, India

Received 9 August 2010; revised 2 March 2011

Anti-ulcer potential and proton pump inhibitory activity of kolaviron (KV) isolated from Garcinia kola Heckel has been evaluated using different ulcer models. Cold-restraint (CRU), aspirin (ASP), alcohol (AL), pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models were used to assess anti-ulcerogenic activity of KV in rats. Effects of KV on gastric juice for free and total acidity, peptic activity and mucin secretion were also evaluated. The H+, K+-ATPase activity was assayed in gastric microsomes, spectrophotometrically. Results of this study showed that KV (200 mg/kg) reduced the incidence of ulcers in CRU (69.0%), PL (67.6%), ASP (68.6%) and AL (51.5%). Reductions were also observed in free acidity (32.6%), total acidity (56.2%) and peptic activity (35.4%) with increase in mucin secretion by 40.1%. KV inhibited the H+,K+-ATPase activity with IC50 of 43.8 オg/ml compared with omeprazole with IC50 of 32.3 オg/ml. KV showed both cyto-protective and anti-secretory potentials against peptic ulcer models, and a proton pump inhibitory activity. KV may emerge as a potent anti-ulcer compound.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, June 2011, pp. 469474

 

 

In silico designing of insecticidal small interfering RNA (siRNA) for
Helicoverpa armigera control

Meenakshi Choudhary1# & Shakti Sahi2*

1National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR), 22 Sham Nath Marg, Delhi 110 054, India

2School of Biotechnology, Gautam Buddha University, Greater Noida 201308, India

Received 24 December 2010; revised 11 March 2011

Helicoverpa armigera, a polyphagous lepidopteron insect pest causes severe yield loss in cotton, legumes, tomato, okra and other crops. Application of chemical pesticides although effective, has human health and environmental safety concerns. Moreover, development of resistance against most of the available pesticides is compelling to look for alternative strategies. Adoption of Bt transgenic crops have resulted in reduction in pesticide consumption and increasing crop productivity. However, sustainability of Bt transgenic crops is threatened by the emergence of insect resistance. In the present study potential insecticidal siRNA were identified in six H. armigera hormonal pathway genes. Out of over 2000 computationally identified siRNA, 16 most promising siRNA were selected that address the biosafety concerns and have high potential of targeted gene silencing. These siRNA will be useful for chemical synthesis, in insect feeding assays and knockdown the target H. armigera hormone biosynthesis, consequently obstructing the completion of insect life cycle. The siRNA have a great potential of deployment to control H. armigera alone as well as with Bt for insect resistance management.