Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 49

NUMBER 3

MARCH 2011

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 49 (3) 163-240 (2011)

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

 

CONTENTS

 

Papers

 

Non-genomic effect of L-triiodothyronine on calmodulin-dependent synaptosomal

 

        protein phosphorylation in adult rat cerebral cortex

169

            Pradip K Sarkar, Jason J Morris & Joseph V Martin

 

 

 

Schwann cells promote neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion neurons through

 

            secretion of nerve growth factor

177

            Jianguo Hu, Jiansheng Zhou, Xingwu Li, Fengchao Wang & Hezuo

 

 

 

Effects of quinazolinones on Balb/C mice embryonic livers

183

            Maryam Shams Lahijani, Dariush Minaei-Tehrani, Hadis Gholipour &

             Masumeh Nohehkhan

 

           

 

 

 

Alleviation of lindane induced toxicity in testis of Swiss mice (Mus musculus)

 

            by combined treatment with vitamin C, vitamin E and α- lipoic acid

191

            Girima Nagda & Devendra Kumar Bhatt

 

 

 

Interaction of Semecarpus anacardium L. with propranolol against isoproterenol

 

            induced myocardial damage in rats

200

            Manodeep Chakraborty & Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin Asdaq

 

 

 

Partial role of nitric oxide in infarct size limiting effect of quercetin and rutin

 

            against ischemia-reperfusion injury in normal and diabetic rats

207

            Siva Reddy Challa, Annapurna Akula, Sushmitha Metla &

            Pasumarthy N V Gopal

 

 

 

Possible involvement of GABAergic mechanism in protective effect of melatonin

 

            against sleep deprivation–induced behavior modification and oxidative

 

            damage in mice [RETRACTED ARTICLE]

211

            Anil Kumar, Anant Singh & Puneet Kumar

 

 

 

Cholesterol-lowering effect of non-viscous soluble dietary fiber NUTRIOSE®6

 

            in moderately hypercholesterolemic hamsters

219

            Christine Juhel, Fredéric Tosini, Marlène Steib, Daniel Wils,

            Laetitia Guerin-Deremaux, Denis Lairon & Louis Cara

 

 

 

Antibacterial activity of metabolite produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa strain

 

            HKA-15 against Xanthomonas campestris pv. Phaseoli

229

            V Mageshwaran, Suresh Walia, V Govindasamy & K Annapurna

 

 

 

Photoperiod influences endogenous indoleamines in cultured green alga

 

            Dunaliella bardawil

234

            A Ramakrishna, C Dayananda, P Giridhar, T Rajasekaran & G A Ravishankar

 

 

 

 

 


Announcement

 

Indian Council of Medical Research

ICMR International Fellowships for Biomedical Researchers/Scientists

Year 2011-12

 

  Applications are invited from the Indian biomedical young/senior scientists for the international fellowships for the year 2011-12. Aim of the fellowships is that the Indian Biomedical Researchers/Scientists working in the core health sectors are exposed to latest international advancements in knowledge to understand disease process and find strategies for its prevention and cure. They will be provided financial support by ICMR for international exposure. Number of fellowships for Young scientists (below 45 years of age) is 12; and for Senior scientists (below 55years of age) is 6. Duration of fellowship is 3-6 months for Young scientists; and 10-15 days for Senior scientists. Last date of receipt of applications is 15th March, 2011. For details and format of application, log on to ICMR website: http://www.icmr.nic.in. For further information, contact Dr Harpreet Sandhu, Scientist D, International Health Division, Indian Council of Medical Research, V. Ramalingaswami Bhawan, Post Box No.4911, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi-110029, India (Telephone no. 26589492; E-mail ID: sandhuh@icmr.org.in).

 

 

 

Author Index

Akula Annapurna

207

Annapurna K

229

Asdaq Syed Mohammed

 

 

 

Basheeruddin

200

Bhatt Devendra Kumar

191

 

 

Cara Louis

219

Chakraborty Manodeep

200

Challa Siva Reddy

207

 

 

Dayananda C

234

 

 

Gholipour Hadis

183

Giridhar P

234

Gopal Pasumarthy N V

207

Govindasamy V

229

Guerin-Deremaux Laetitia

219

 

Hu Jianguo

177

 

 

Juhel Christine

219

 

 

Kumar Anil

211

Kumar Puneet

211

 

 

Lahijani Maryam Shams

183

Lairon Denis

219

Li Xingwu

177

Hezuo

177

 

 

Mageshwaran V

229

Martin Joseph V

169

Metla Sushmitha

207

Minaei-Tehrani Dariush

183

Morris Jason J

169

 

 

Nagda Girima

191

Nohehkhan Masumeh

183

 

 

Rajasekaran T

234

Ramakrishna A

234

Ravishankar G A

234

 

 

Sarkar Pradip K

169

Singh Anant

211

Steib Marlène

219

 

 

Tosini Fredéric

219

 

 

Walia Suresh

229

Wang Fengchao

177

Wils Daniel

219

 

 

Zhou Jiansheng

177

 

 

 

 

Keyword Index

Adult rat brain

169

Antibacterial activity

229

Anxiety

211

 

 

Biocontrol

229

Brain

169

 

 

Ca2+/calmodulin

169

Cardioprotection

200,207

Carotenoids

234

Cholesterol absorption

219

 

 

Dietary fiber

219

Dorsal root ganglia

177

Dunaliella bardawil

234

 

 

Electocardiographic parameters

200

Embryonic liver

183

 

 

Hypercholesterolemia

219

 

 

Indoleamines

234

 

 

Infarct size

207

Isoproterenol

200

 

 

Lindane toxicity

191

Lipid

219

α-Lipoic acid

191

Locomotor activity

211

 

 

Melatonin                                

211,234

 

 

Nerve growth factor

177

Neurite outgrowth

177

Nitric oxide

207

NUTRIOSE®6

219

 

 

Oxidative stress

211

 

 

Paenibacillus polymyxa

229

Peptide antibiotic

229

Propranolol

200

Protein phosphorylation

169

 

 

Quercetin

207

Quinazolinones

183

 

 

Reperfusion injury

207

 

 

Schwann cells

177

Semecarpus anacardium

200

Serotonin

234

Sleep deprivation

211

 

 

Teratogen

183

Testis

191

L-Triiodothyronine

169

 

 

Vitamin C

191

Vitamin E

191

 

 

Xanthomonas campestris pv.

 

phaseoli

229

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, March 2011, pp. 169-176

 

 

 

Non-genomic effect of L-triiodothyronine on calmodulin-dependent synaptosomal protein phosphorylation in adult rat cerebral cortex

Pradip K Sarkar1,2*, Jason J Morris2 & Joseph V Martin2,3

1Department of Basic Sciences, Parker College of Chiropractic, 2500 Walnut Hill Lane, Dallas, Texas 75229, USA

2Department of Biology, 3Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Rutgers University, 315 Penn Street, Camden,
New Jersey 08102, USA

Received 30 June 2010; revised 5 December 2010

The present study was undertaken to examine calmodulin-dependent effect of thyroid hormones (THs) on synaptosomal protein phosphorylation in mature rat brain. Effect of L-triiodothyronine (L-T3) on in vitro protein phosphorylation was measured in a hypotonic lysate of synaptosomes prepared from adult male rat cerebral cortex, incubated in presence and absence of calcium ion (Ca2+) and calmodulin. L-T3 significantly enhanced incorporation of 32P into synaptosomal proteins as compared to basal level of phosphorylation in the presence of Ca2+ and calmodulin. Under these conditions, increase in protein phosphorylation was 47, 74 and 52% for 10 nM, 100 nM and 1 µM L-T3, respectively. Chelation of Ca2+ using ethylene glycol-bis (2‑aminoethylether)-N, N, N’, N’-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) inhibited the effects of Ca2+/calmodulin on TH-stimulated protein phosphorylation levels. This study suggests that a high proportion of L-T3-stimulated protein phosphorylation involves Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent pathways in adult rat cerebrocortical synaptosomes.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, March 2011, pp. 177-182

 

 

Schwann cells promote neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion neurons through secretion of nerve growth factor

Jianguo Hu1,2, Jiansheng Zhou1, Xingwu Li2, Fengchao Wang2 & Hezuo1,3*

1Anhui Key Laboratory of Tissue Transplantation

The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, 287 Changhuai Road

Bengbu 233004, P. R. China

2Department of Clinical Laboratory Science

The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, 287 Changhuai Road

Bengbu 233004, P. R. China

3Central Laboratory

The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, 287 Changhuai Road

Bengbu, Anhui 233004, P. R. China

Received 5 July 2010, revised 7 December 2010

The transplantation of Schwann cells (SCs) could successfully promote axonal regeneration. This is likely to attribute to the adhesion molecules expression and growth factors secretion of SCs. But which factor(s) play a key role has not been precisely studied. In this study, an outgrowth assay using dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neuron-SC co-culture system in vitro was performed. Co-culture of SCs or application of SC-conditioned medium (CM) substantially and significantly increased DRG neurite outgrowth. Further, nerve growth factor and NGF receptor (TrkA) mRNA were highly expressed in Schwann cells and DRG neuron, respectively. The high concentration of NGF protein was detected in SC-CM. When K-252a, a specific inhibitor of NGF receptor was added, DRG neurite outgrowth was significantly decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. These data strongly suggest that SCs play important roles in neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons by secreted NGF.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, March 2011, pp. 183-190

 

 

Effects of quinazolinones on Balb/C mice embryonic livers

Maryam Shams Lahijani*, Dariush Minaei-Tehrani, Hadis Gholipour & Masumeh Nohehkhan

Developmental Biology, Animal Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid-Beheshti University
(SBU), G C, Tehran, Iran

Received 8 February 2010; revised 9 December 2010

Heterocyclic compounds such as quinazolinones have variety of biological and pharmacological properties (anticancer, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antimalaria, etc.). Effects of two new quinazolinones viz., 4(3H)-quinazolinone-2-propyl-2-phenylethyl (QPPE) and 4(3H)quinazolinone-2-ethyl-2-phenylethyl (QEPE) were investigated on Balb/C mice embryos livers—the major organ of metabolism and detoxification of drugs and toxins. Histological and pathological studies demonstrated QPPE and QEPE as producers of toxic metabolites after biotransformation, creating necrosis, fatty changes, increase in the number of band cells, hepatocytes’ diameters and alkaline phosphatase, in addition to sinusoid dilation, hemorrhages and hyperemia. Transmission electron micrographs showed lipid droplets in hepatocytes’ cytoplasm, necrosis, vacuolization, cytoplasm disintegration, disfigured and swollen mitochondria, irregular and abnormal nuclei, nuclei with heterochromatin, condensed chromatins, myelin figures and autophages in injured hepatocytes. In conclusion, QPPE and QEPE make toxic components after biotransformation injuring membranes and creating inflammatory reactions. They also disturb metabolism of lipids pathways and cause the appearances of lipid droplets in hepatocytes.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, March 2011, pp. 191-199

 

 

Alleviation of lindane induced toxicity in testis of Swiss mice (Mus musculus) by combined treatment with vitamin C, vitamin E and α- lipoic acid

Girima Nagda* & Devendra Kumar Bhatt

Cancer Biology and Toxicology Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University College of Science,
M L Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313 001, India

Received 3 May 2010; revised 7 December 2010

Mitigation of lindane induced toxicity in testis of Swiss mice by combined treatment with vitamin C, vitamin E and α-lipoic acid has been evaluated. Male healthy mice (40), 8-10 weeks old were randomly selected and divided into 4 groups, control (C); lindane (L); antioxidant (A) and antioxidant plus lindane (A+L). Group C animals were administered only the vehicle (olive oil); in group L lindane was administered orally at a dose of 40 mg/kg body wt.; in group A combination of antioxidants at a dose of 125 mg/kg body wt.(vitamin C: 50 mg/kg body wt., vitamin E: 50 mg/kg body wt. and α-lipoic acid: 25 mg/kg body wt.) was administered orally; in group A+L both antioxidants (125 mg/kg body wt.) and lindane
(40 mg/kg body wt.) were administered at their respective doses. In group A+L antioxidants were administered 1 h prior to lindane administration. All treatments were continuously given for 60 days. Histopathological changes due to lindane intoxication indicated shrunken and distorted seminiferous tubules, sparse Leydig cells and blood vessels and atrophy in the tissue. The testis weight also decreased significantly. Lindane treated group showed increased lipid peroxidation, whereas glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and protein were significantly decreased compared to control. Lindane induced damage was minimized by administration of antioxidants. Results suggest that combined pretreatment with antioxidants can alleviate the damage caused to testis by lindane.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, March 2011, pp. 200-206

 

 

Interaction of Semecarpus anacardium L. with propranolol against isoproterenol induced myocardial damage in rats

Manodeep Chakraborty & Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin Asdaq*

Department of Pharmacology, Krupanidhi College of Pharmacy, Varthur Hobli,
Chikkabellandur Village, Carmalaram Post, Bangalore 560 035, India

Received 19 March 2010; revised 10 November 2010

With a view to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of ethanolic extract of S. anacardium nut and the possible interaction with propranolol against isoproterenol induced myocardial damage in rats, female Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated with propranolol (10 mg/kg for 7 days), low and high doses of S. anacardium (100 and 500 mg/kg for 21 days) and their combination orally and subsequently subjected to isoproterenol administration (150 mg/kg, sc) for two consecutive days. The influence of prophylactic treatment was analysed by quantification of biomarkers and antioxidants, electocardiographic parameters and histopathological observations. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine phosphokinase-MB were reduced in serum and raised in heart tissue with concurrent elevation in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities as well as reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive species levels significantly in all treated groups compared to isoproterenol group. Similarly, electrocardiographic changes were restored to normalcy in all treated groups. To conclude, combination of high dose of S. anacardium with propranolol was found to be most effective in alleviating the abnormal conditions induced by isoproterenol.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, March 2011, pp. 207-210

 

 

Partial role of nitric oxide in infarct size limiting effect of quercetin and rutin against ischemia-reperfusion injury in normal and diabetic rats

Siva Reddy Challa*, Annapurna Akula, Sushmitha Metla & Pasumarthy N V Gopal

Department of Pharmacology, University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003, India

Received 29 June 2010; revised 20 December 2010

Reperfusion injury is remarkable clinical issue that needs to be resolved as ischemia-reperfusion is a common phenomenon encountered in numerous clinical situations. The present communication report the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in cardioprotection offered by flavonoids (rutin and quercetin) against myocardial ischemia reperfusion. Rutin produced better cardioprotection than quercetin in normal and diabetic rats. The observed cardioprotection offered with quercetin and rutin was partially abolished by prior administration of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME (N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) in both normal and diabetic rats. L-NAME abolished the cardioprotective actions of rutin more strongly than the cardioprotective actions of quercetin. However, mechanistic study with NOS inhibitor implied the possible partial role of nitric oxide in infarct size limiting effect of quercetin and rutin

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, March 2011, pp. 211-218

 

 

Possible involvement of GABAergic mechanism in protective effect of melatonin against sleep deprivation–induced behavior modification and oxidative damage in mice [RETRACTED ARTICLE]

Anil Kumar*, Anant Singh & Puneet Kumar

Pharmacology division, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,

Panjab University, chandigarh 160 014, India

Received 18 May 2010; revised 19 November 2010

Sleep deprivation for 72 h caused anxiety like behavior, weight loss, impaired locomotor activity and oxidative damage as indicated by increase in lipid peroxidation, nitrite level and depletion of reduced glutathione and catalase activity in sleep deprived mice brain. Treatment with melatonin (5 and 10 mg/kg, ip) significantly improved locomotor activity, weight loss and antianxiety effect as compared to control (sleep deprived). Biochemically, melatonin treatment significantly restored depleted reduced glutathione, catalase activity, attenuated lipid peroxidation and nitrite level as compared to control (72 h sleep-deprived) animals. A combination of flumazenil (0.5 mg/kg, ip) and picrotoxin (0.5 mg/kg, ip) with lower dose of melatonin (5 mg/kg, ip) significantly antagonized the protective effect of melatonin. However, combination of muscimol (0.05 mg/kg, ip) with melatonin (5 mg/kg, ip) potentiated protective effect of melatonin as compared to their effect per se. The results suggest that melatonin may produce its protective effect by involving GABAergic system against sleep deprivation-induced anxiety like behavior and related oxidative damage.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, March 2011, pp. 219-228

 

 

Cholesterol-lowering effect of non-viscous soluble dietary fiber NUTRIOSE®6 in moderately hypercholesterolemic hamsters

Christine Juhel1,* Fredéric Tosini1, Marlène Steib1, Daniel Wils2, Laetitia Guerin-Deremaux2, Denis Lairon3 & Louis Cara1

1Avantage Nutrition, 116 chemin des Sables Jaunes, F-13012 Marseille, France

2 Roquette Frères, F-62080 Lestrem, France

3 INSERM, 476 (Nutrition Humaine et Lipides), INRA, 1260, Marseille; Université de la Méditerranée Aix-Marseille 2, Faculté de Médecine, IPHM-IFR 125, 27, Marseille, F-13385 France

Received 11 May 2010; revised 1 November 2010

NUTRIOSE®6 is a new wheat starch-based low-digestible carbohydrate. This study investigated the effect of this soluble non-viscous fiber on cholesterol metabolism. Hamsters fed with 0.25% cholesterol-enriched diet (CHO) were given graded amounts of NUTRIOSE®6, i.e. 0% (cellulose, CHO), 3% (N3), 6% (N6) or 9% (N9) (w:w). As compared to CHO diet, 9% NUTRIOSE®6 significantly lowered plasma and LDL cholesterol by 14.5 and 23.8%, respectively. The LDL-cholesterol lowering effect was also significant with the 6% dose (-21.4%). NUTRIOSE®6 diets prevented hepatic cholesterol accumulation (-10 to -20%) and significantly decreased bile cholesterol (-47 to -68%) and phospholipids (-30 to -45%) concentrations. The 9% NUTRIOSE®6 diet significantly decreased the rate of dietary cholesterol absorption (-25%) and markedly stimulated faecal neutral sterol (+81%) and bile salts (+220%) excretion. No significant change in cholesterol 7-a-hydroxylase or LDL-receptor activities was observed whereas 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase activity was reduced by 29%. Reduced cholesterol and bile salt absorptions and lowered cholesterol synthesis are likely mechanisms underlying the cholesterol lowering effect of NUTRIOSE®6. Results suggest the use of NUTRIOSE®6 as a new dietary cholesterol-lowering agent that should be tested in humans as treatment and evenly prevention of mild hypercholesterolemia.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, March 2011, pp. 229-233

 

 

Antibacterial activity of metabolite produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa strain HKA-15 against Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli

V Mageshwaran1*, Suresh Walia2, V Govindasamy3 & K Annapurna3

1Chemical and Biochemical Processing Division, CIRCOT, Adenwala Road,
Matunga, Mumbai 400 019, India

2Division of Agricultural Chemicals, Indian Agricultural Research Institute,

Pusa Campus, New Delhi 110 012, India

3Division of Microbiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute,

Pusa Campus, New Delhi 110 012, India

Received 13 May 2010; revised 28 October 2010

An antibacterial metabolite extracted from Paenibacillus polymyxa HKA-15 showed strong inhibition against Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli strains CP-1-1 and M-5. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of crude extract against strains CP-1-1 and M-5 was found to be 1.7 mg/ml and 1.52 mg/ml, respectively. In UV-Vis range, the absorption peak of crude extract was maximum at 240 nm. The compound is resilience to wide range of temperature, pH, surfactants and organic solvents. The complete loss of activity was observed when crude metabolite was treated with pepsin (400 unit / ml). Characterization of crude metabolite suggested its hydrophobic and peptide nature. Inhibition of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli by peptide like metabolite produced by Paenibacillus polymyxa strain HKA-15 under in vitro conditions showed ecological and biotechnological potential of strain HKA-15 to control common blight disease in beans.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, March 2011, pp. 234-240

 

 

Photoperiod influences endogenous indoleamines in cultured green alga Dunaliella bardawil

A Ramakrishna, C Dayananda, P Giridhar*, T Rajasekaran & G A Ravishankar

Plant Cell Biotechnology Department, Central Food Technological Research Institute, (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) Mysore 570 020, India.

Received 20 July 2010; revised 26 November 2010

Effect of light intensity and photoperiod on growth, indoleamines and carotenoid production was studied in unicellular green algae D. bardawil. Maximum biomass and carotenoid contents were found when cultures were grown in light (intensity of 2.0 Klux) at a photoperiod of 16/8h light and dark cycle. There was a profound influence of tested photoperiod conditions of light:dark viz. 8:16, 10:14, and 12:12 hr, continuous light on indoleamines (SER and MEL) production as estimated by HPLC and confirmed by mass spectral data obtained from LC-MS-ESI studies. Serotonin level increased from 908 to 1765 pg/g fresh wt with increase in light duration and melatonin level increased from 267 to 584 pg/g fresh wt during increase in dark phase. Carotenoids production was high in continuous light than other tested conditions.