Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 49

NUMBER 5

MAY 2011

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 49 (4) 309-390

ISNN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (online)

 

 

CONTENTS

Papers

 

Progesterone prevents corticosterone mediated inhibition of estrous behaviour in rats

313

        B N Madhuranath & H N Yajurvedi

 

 

 

Effect of 8-alkylberberine homologues on erythrocyte membrane

319

        Yang Yong, Ye Xiao-li, Zhang Bao-shun & Li Xue-gang

 

 

 

Telomere instability caused by subtelomeric Y amplification and rearrangements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ku70 tell and ku70 rad50) double mutants

324

        Miguel J Ruiz-Gσmez

 

 

 

Metformin: An effective attenuator of risperidone-induced insulin resistance hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in rats

332

        Adejuwon A Adeneye, Esther O Agbaje & Joseph A Olagunju

 

 

 

Alpha-adrenergic receptor blocking effect of Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) Benth. and Hook f. leaf extract on guinea pig isolated smooth muscle preparations

339

        M Ravindra Kumar, S Ramawamy, M Jayanthi & R Raveendran

 

 

 

Protective effect of aqueous extract of Bombax malabaricum DC on experimental models of inflammatory bowel disease in rats and mice

343

        A G Jagtap, P V Niphadkar & A S Phadke

 

 

 

Anxiolytic effects of Equisetum arvense Linn. extracts in mice

352

        Navdeep Singh, Sarabjit Kaur, P M S Bedi & Divneet Kaur

 

 

 

Effect of low-level laser therapy on experimental wounds of hard palate mucosa in mice

357

        Farahnaz Fahimipour, Mohsen Nouruzian, Morteza Anvari, Mahmood Akhavan Tafti, Mehdimalek Yazdi, Mahsa Khosravi, Zahra Dehghannayeri,

        Shabnam S Sabounchi & Mohammad Bayat

 

 

 

Absence of kin discrimination in cannibalistic Anuran tadpoles of the frog Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin)

362

        Amrapali P Rajput, Bhagyashri A Shanbhag & Srinivas K Saidapur

 

 

 

Antimicrobial activity of protease inhibitor from leaves of Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt.

366

        L Shilpa Satheesh & K Murugan

 

 

 

Contd.

Gas-chromatography and electroantennogram analysis of saturated hydrocarbons of cruciferous host plants and host larval body extracts of Plutella xylostella for behavioural manipulation of Cotesia plutellae

375

        T Seenivasagan & A V Navarajan Paul

 

 

 

Notes and News

 

1st National Conference on Animal, Microbial, Plant Toxins and Snakebite Management (AMPTOX2010)

387

        Aparna Gomes

 

 

 

Book Review

 

Protocols on Algal and Cyanobacterial Research

390

        K Padmasree

 

 

 

Announcement

 

National Conference on Interface of Science and Environment: Emerging Public Health Challenges (scienviron-2011) and 13th Annual National Conference of Society of Science and Environment

312

 

 

——————————

 
Announcement

 

National Conference on

Interface of Science and Environment: Emerging Public Health Challenges (scienviron-2011)

and

13th Annual National Conference of Society of Science and Environment

 

24–26 November 2011, Kolkata

 

Organized by the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata and the All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Kolkata, the focal theme of the conference will be ‘Good Environment Good Health’. Topics to be covered are: (i) Environmental factors on host pathogen interactions, (ii) Carcinogens, (iii) Environment and allergens, (iv) Effect of heavy metals, (v) Veterinary health and environment, (vi) Hospital waste management, (vii) Sound pollution, (viii) Radiation hazards, (ix) Natural products in therapeutics, (x) Plant and microbial products, (xi) The ecosystem and friendly microbes, (xii) Microbial remediation, (xiii) Emergence of microbial drug resistance, (xiv) Host defense against environmental hazards, (xv), Environmental factors affecting psychology, and (xvi) Bioethics and management. For further details, please contact: Prof. Swapna Chaudhuri, Organizing Secretary, scienviron-2011, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine (CSTM), 108 C. R. Avenue Kolkata 700 073. Cell: 09831386832, E-mail: scieniron@gmail.com and cellmolim@gmail.com

 

———————————

 

 

Author Index

Adeneye Adejuwon A

332

Agbaje Esther O

332

Anvari Morteza

357

 

 

Bao-shun Zhang

319

Bayat Mohammad

357

Bedi P M S

352

 

 

Dehghannayeri Zahra

357

 

 

Fahimipour Farahnaz

357

 

 

Gomes Aparna

389

 

 

Jagtap A G

343

Jayanthi M

339

 

 

Kaur Divneet

352

Kaur Sarabjit

352

Khosravi Mahsa

357

Kumar M Ravindra

339

 

 

Madhuranath B N

313

Murugan K

366

 

 

Niphadkar P V

343

Nouruzian Mohsen

357

 

 

Olagunju Joseph A

332

 

 

Padmasree K

390

Paul A V Navarajan

375

Phadke A s

343

 

 

Rajput Amrapali P

362

Ramaswamy S

339

Raveendran R

339

Ruiz-Gómez Miguel J

324

 

 

Sabounchi Shabnam S

357

Saidapur Srinivas K

362

Satheesh L Shilpa

366

Seenivasagan T

375

Shanbhag Bhagyashri A

362

Singh Navdeep

352

 

 

Tafti Mahmood Akhavan

357

 

 

Xiao-li Ye

319

Xue-gang Li

319

 

 

Yajurvedi H N

313

Yazdi Mehdimalek

357

Yong Yang

319

 

 

 

 

 

Keyword Index

a -adrenergic

339

8-alkylberberine homologues (Ber-C8- n )

319

Antagonist

339

Anti-anxiety

352

Antimicrobial activity

366

 

Behaviour

362

Behaviour manipulation

375

Bombax malabaricum

343

 

Cannibalism

362

Cell membrane

319

Chromatography

366

Chromosome stability

324

Cleistanthus collinus

339

Coccinia grandis

366

Colitis

343

Corticosterone

313

Cotesia plutellae

375

Cytotoxicity

366

 

Electroantennogram

375

Equisetum arvense

352

 

 

Estrous behaviour

313

Ethanol extract

352

 

Flight orientation and landing

375

Fluorescence of membrane protein

319

Frog tadpoles

362

 

Gas chromatography

375

Glibenclamide

332

 

Hard palate mucosa

357

Hoplobatrachus tigerinus

362

Hydrocarbons

375

 

Inflammatory bowel disease

343

Insulin resistance

332

 

Kin discrimination

362

 

Lordosis

313

Low-level laser therapy

357

 

Membrane fluidity

319

Metformin

332

Myeloperoxidase

343

 

Plutella xylostella

375

Poisonous

339

Progesterone

313

Protease inhibitors

366

Purification

366

 

Rats

332

Risperidone

332

 

Sedative

352

Stress

313

 

Telomere

324

 

Wind tunnel

375

Wound healing

357

 

Y ¢ amplification

324

Yeast

324

 

 

Correspondent author has been indicated by * sign

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, May 2011 , pp. 313-318

 

 

Progesterone prevents corticosterone mediated inhibition of estrous behaviour
in rats

B N Madhuranath & H N Yajurvedi*

Department of Zoology, University of Mysore , Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006, India

Received 19 February 2010; revised 14 February 2011

Stress induced by application of electric foot shocks (300 ΅A/shock, five shocks per episode, 4 episodes at 1800, 1830, 1900 and 1930 hrs on the proestrus day) to rats at the time of pre-ovulatory progesterone secretion, abolished lordosis and resulted in maximum rejection co-efficient, whereas treatment with a CRF receptor antagonist (a -helical CRF 9-41 ) or metapirone, an inhibitor of corticosterone synthesis, prior to application of the electric foot shocks, resulted in normal lordosis and a significant reduction in rejection coefficient. Further, administration of a single dose of corticosterone (40 ΅g) at 1800 hrs of proestrus caused inhibition of lordosis and resulted in maximum rejection co-efficient. On the other hand, corticosterone + progesterone treatment at 1800 hrs of proestrus resulted in normal lordosis and a significant reduction in rejection coefficient. The facts that stress induced inhibition of lordosis is prevented by CRF receptor antagonist or metapirone and that corticosterone inhibits lordosis indicate that stress induced inhibition of lordosis is mediated by corticosterone. Further, normal display of lordosis by rats treated with corticosterone + progesterone in contrast to its absence in corticosterone alone treated rats suggests that impaired progesterone secretion due to action of corticosterone leads to inhibition of lordosis.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, May 2011 , pp. 319-323

 

 

Effect of 8-alkylberberine homologues on erythrocyte membrane

Yang Yong a *, Ye Xiao-li b , Zhang Bao-shun c & Li Xue-gang c

a Department of Pharmaceutical Science, Huaihua Medical College , Huaihua 418 000, China

b School of Life Science, Southwest University , Chongqing , 400 715, China

c Chemistry Institute of Pharmaceutical Resources , School of Pharmaceutical Science , Southwest
University , Chongqing , 400 715, China

Received 1 November 2010; revised 17 February 2011

8-alkylberberine homologues (Ber-C8- n , where n indicates carbon atom number of gaseous normal alkyl at 8 position, n =0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, or 16) were synthesized and their effects on the hemolysis of rabbit erythrocyte , the fluidity of membrane and the fluorescence of membrane protein were investigated by fluorescence analysis technique. Ber-C8- n with mediate length alkyl (4< n <10) exhibited obvious hemolysis effect on rabbit erythrocyte when their concentration exceed 1.25×10 -4 mol/L , and Ber-C8- 8 displayed the highest hemolysis effect among all tested homologues. All of Ber-C8- n influenced the fluidity of erythrocyte membrane to different extents, which exhibited an obvious dose-effect relationship. The effect of Ber-C8- n on fluidity increased as the length of alkyl chain was elongated and decreased gradually when the alkyl carbon atoms exceeded 8 . The fluorescence of erythrocyte membrane protein was quenched by Ber-C8- n , which showed a similar changing tendency on membrane fluidity. Experiments in vitro suggested that disturbing effects of Ber-C8-n on the conformation and function of membrane protein leaded to the changes of membrane fluidity and stability, and then the membrane was broken down.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, May 2011 , pp. 324-331

 

 

Telomere instability caused by subtelomeric Y' amplification and rearrangements in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( ku70 tel1 and ku70 rad50 ) double mutants

Miguel J Ruiz-Gómez †

Radiobiological Institute, University of Munich . Schillerstr. 42, 80336 Munich , Germany

Received 9 June 2010; revised 26 January 2011

Telomeres solve the end-replication problem. Previous results suggested a relation between Yku70/80 and proteins Tel1 and Rad50 in telomere stabilization. Inactivation of any of these genes lead to a shortening of telomeres, while in ku70 tel1 or ku70 rad50 double mutants a drastic amplification of Y' elements was found. The biological significance of this observation is not clear. To further characterize Y' amplification 25 strains and isolates of S. cerevisiae were analyzed. As expected, amplification was seen in yku70 tel1 and yku70 rad50 double mutants, but not in other strains. The extent of Y' amplification was also tested to determine if excessive numbers of Y' repeats appear. A variation in chromosome lengths within the population of cells has been found. Hybridisation study indicated that chromosomes only increase in length in these double mutants, but never get shorter. A high degree of variability was observed in single cell clones, in spite of their close relationship, indicating that alterations in subtelomeric regions are not stable but occur continuously in these mutants. Therefore, these genes are essential to chromosome stability

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, May 2011 , pp. 332-338

 

 

Metformin: An effective attenuator of risperidone-induced insulin resistance hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in rats

Adejuwon A Adeneye 1,2* , Esther O Agbaje 3 & Joseph A Olagunju 4

1 Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy , University of Kentucky ,
Lexington , KY40536, Kentucky , U.S.A.

2 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences,
Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria

3 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine,
University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos State, Nigeria

4 Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences,
Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria

Received 13 December 2010; revised 17 February 2011

The use of atypical antipsychotics in the clinical management of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders has been associated with the development of insulin resistance. The present study evaluates the possible individual ameliorating effect of single daily oral treatments with 20 mg/kg/day of metformin and 0.1 mg/kg of glibenclamide in two groups of Wistar rats pretreated with 0.2 mg/kg of risperidone for 60 days. Two additional groups of rats were only treated with 0.2 mg/kg of risperidone and 10 mL/kg of distilled water, respectively, also for 60 days. Results showed that oral pre-treatment with metformin significantly attenuated increases in the weight gain pattern, fasting glucose, fasting plasma insulin, serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels that were elevated by risperidone treatment. Metformin also significantly reduced glycosylated hemoglobin concentration, fasting insulin-glucose ratio and fasting insulin resistance index. Conversely, oral pre-treatment with glibenclamide for 60 days did not significantly reduce any of the measured parameters except for glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations. Thus, results of this study showed that 20 mg/kg of metformin effectively ameliorated the development of risperidone-induced insulin resistance and dyslipidemia which was mediated via improvement in insulin resistance. This study provides insight into the therapeutic potential of metformin in preventing risperidone-induced insulin resistance diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, May 2011 , pp. 339-342

 

 

Alpha-adrenergic receptor blocking effect of Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.)
Benth. and Hook f. leaf extract on guinea pig isolated
smooth muscle preparations

M Ravindra Kumar , S Ramaswamy , M Jayanthi * & R Raveendran

Department of Pharmacology, JIPMER, Pondicherry 605 006, India

Received 15 April 2010; revised 10 January 2011

Aqueous extract of C. collinus leaves inhibited norepinephrine induced contraction in guinea pig vas deferens and aortic strip in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of acetylcholine induced contraction in ileum was dose independent. C. collinus extract per se had no effect on isolated guinea pig vas deferens and aortic strip, but inhibited norepinephrine induced contraction in a dose-dependent manner probably by its antagonist action on a-adrenergic receptor. It had inconsistent effect on guinea pig ileum in vitro preparation.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, May 2011 , pp. 343-351

 

 

Protective effect of aqueous extract of Bombax malabaricum DC on experimental models of inflammatory bowel disease in rats and mice

A G Jagtap* & P V Niphadkar

Department of Pharmacology, Bombay College of Pharmacy, Kalina, Mumbai 400 098, India

and

A S Phadke

Centre for Ayurveda and Panchkarma Therapy, Vashi, Navi Mumbai 400 703, India

Received 3 December 2009; revised 11 January 2011

There is little evidence regarding role of B. malabaricum in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); though it is clinically employed as a constituent of a polyherbal preparation for IBD. To establish its role as a monotherapy for IBD, preliminary phytochemical screening of aqueous extract of B. malabaricum (AEBM) was undertaken. Subsequently, its protective effect in indomethacin and iodoacetamide induced colitis in rats (45, 90, 180, 270 mg/kg) and acetic acid induced colitis in mice (65, 130, 250, 500 mg/kg) was assessed. AEBM (270 mg/kg) in indomethacin and iodoacetamide induced colitis significantly reduced the ulcer score and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. AEBM/500 mg/kg dose/significantly reduced the ulcer score and MPO activity in acetic acid induced colitis. The extract (270 mg/kg in rats and 500 mg/kg in mice) was found to be comparable with prednisolone (10 mg/kg) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) (100 mg/kg) used as standard treatments. AEBM provided reduction in edema of the intestinal tissues, ulcer protection and lowering of MPO activity in a dose dependent manner. AEBM (500 mg/kg) significantly reduced colonic and serum TNF-a level when compared with the positive control in acetic acid induced colitis model. The results suggest a protective role of AEBM in IBD.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, May 2011 , pp. 352-356

 

 

Anxiolytic effects of Equisetum arvense Linn. extracts in mice

Navdeep Singh, Sarabjit Kaur * , P M S Bedi & Divneet Kaur

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University , Amritsar 143 005, India

Received 18 March 2010; revised 5 January 2011

The petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CH), ethanol (ETH) and water extracts of E. arvense stems were evaluated for anti-anxiety activity in mice using elevated plus maze model. Ketamine induced hypnosis and actophotometer was used to evaluate sedative effect with various extracts in mice. The results were compared with standard drug diazepam. The ethanolic extract of E. arvense (50 and 100 mg/kg) significantly increased the time-spent and the percentage of the open arm entries in the elevated plus-maze model which was comparable to diazepam. Ethanolic extract (100 mg/kg) prolonged the ketamine-induced total sleeping time and decreased the locomotor activity in mice. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of E. arvense seems to possess anxiolytic effect with lower sedative activity than that of diazepam. The results could be attributed to the flavonoid content of the ethanolic extract.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, May 2011 , pp. 357-361

 

 

Effect of low-level laser therapy on experimental wounds of hard palate
mucosa in mice

Farahnaz Fahimipour

Shahid Beheshti University MC, Tehran , Iran

Mohsen Nouruzian

Department of Anatomy and Biology, Shahid Beheshti University MC, Tehran , Iran

Morteza Anvari .1 , Mahmood Akhavan Tafti .2 & Mehdimalek Yazdi .3

Anatomy 1 , Pathology 2 & Medical Engineering 3 Department
Shahid Sadoghi University of Medical Science, Yazd , Iran

Mahsa Khosravi & Zahra Dehghannayeri

Medical Faculty, Shahid Sadoghi University of Medical Faculty, Yazd , Iran

Shabnam S Sabounchi

Dental Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University MC, Tehran , Iran

and

Mohammad Bayat *

Department of Anatomy and Biology, Medical Faculty, Shahid Beheshti University MC, Tehran 1985717443, Iran

Received 8 November 2010; revised 9 February 2011

Under general anesthesia and sterile conditions, incision wound was induced in the hard palate mucosa of adult male mice. The wounds of groups 1 and 2 were irradiated daily with He-Ne laser at 3 and 7.5 J/cm 2 for 120 and 300 s, respectively, while the incision wound of group 3 not exposed served as controls. On day 3 of injury, the laser-treated wounds contained significantly lower neutrophils than the wounds in the control group. By day 7 after injury, the laser-treated wounds contained significantly more fibroblasts and at the same time contained significantly fewer macrophages. In conclusion, an acceleration of the wound healing process of experimental wounds in the hard palate mucosa of mice at low-level laser therapy with a He-Ne laser at energy densities of 3 and 7.5 J/cm 2 was observed.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, May 2011 , pp. 362-365

 

 

Absence of kin discrimination in cannibalistic Anuran tadpoles of the frog Hoplobatrachus tigerinus (Daudin)

Amrapali P Rajput, Bhagyashri A Shanbhag* & Srinivas K Saidapur

Department of Zoology, Karnatak University , Dharwad 580 003, India

Received 25 October 2010; revised 18 February 2011

Kin discrimination was tested in the cannibalistic H. tigerinus tadpoles to know whether cannibalism is selectively directed towards non-kin members or it is indiscriminate. The association choice tests were conducted using satiated as well as starved subjects with the assumption that they will associate near non-sibs rather than near sibs with the intention of preferentially cannibalizing them. However, test tadpoles, fed or starved showed a random association choice with sibs and non-sibs, as in the end-bias stimulus blank tests. Therefore it is suggested that cannibalistic H. tigerinus tadpoles do not discriminate sibs from non-sibs and cannibalize on both rather indiscriminately.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, May 2011 , pp. 366-374

 

 

Antimicrobial activity of protease inhibitor from leaves of
Cocc inia grandis (L.) Voigt.

L Shilpa Satheesh & K Murugan*

Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Lab, Department of Botany

University College , Thiruvananthapuram 695 034, Kerala , India

Received 14 July 2010; revised 28 December 2010

Antimicrobial activity of protease inhibitor isolated from Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt . has been reported. A 14.3 kDa protease inhibitor (PI) was isolated and purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation (20-85% saturation), sephadex G-75, DEAE sepharose column and trypsin-sepharose affinity chromatography from the leaves of C. grandis . The purity was checked by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. PI exhibited marked growth inhibitory effects on colon cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. PI was thermostable and showed antimicrobial activity without hemolytic activity. PI strongly inhibited pathogenic microbial strains, including Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris , Eschershia coli , Bacillus subtilis and pathogenic fungus Candida albicans , Mucor indicus , Penicillium notatum , Aspergillus flavus and Cryptococcus neoformans . Examination by bright field microscopy showed inhibition of mycelial growth and sporulation. Morphologically, PI treated fungus showed a significant shrinkage of hyphal tips. Reduced PI completely lost its activity indicating that disulfide bridge is essential for its protease inhibitory and antifungal activity. Results reported in this study suggested that PI may be an excellent candidate for development of novel oral or other anti-infective agents.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, May 2011 , pp. 375-386

 

 

Gas-chromatography and electroantennogram analysis of saturated hydrocarbons of cruciferous host plants and host larval body extracts of Plutella xylostella for behavioural manipulation of Cotesia plutellae

T Seenivasagan* & A V Navarajan Paul

Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012, India

Received 12 August 2010; revised 9 December 2010

Saturated hydrocarbons (SHC) of five cruciferous host plants viz., cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, knol khol and Brussels sprout and the larvae of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella reared on these host plants were identified through gas-chromatography. The hydrocarbon profile of host plants and larval body extract of DBM reared on respective host plants revealed a wide variation in quantity as well as quality. Long chain hydrocarbons C 26 -C 30 were detected in all the extracts. In electroantennogram (EAG) studies, SHCs at 10 -3 g dose elicited differential EAG response in the antennal receptors of gravid Cotesia plutellae females. Tricosane (C 23 ) and hexacosane (C 26 ) elicited 10-fold increased EAG response compared to control stimulus. Long chain hydrocarbons C 27 , C 28 and C 29 elicited, 6-7 fold increased responses. The sensitivity of antenna was 4-5 folds for C 25 , C 14 , C 24 , C 15 and C 30 , while the short chain hydrocarbons elicited 2-3 fold increased EAG responses. Dual choice flight orientation experiments in a wind tunnel revealed that the gravid C. plutellae females preferred the odour of C 16 , C 26 , C 29 , C 15, C 21 , C 23 , C 30 , C 27 , C 24 and C 22 as 60-70% females oriented and landed on SHC treated substrate compared to control odour, while the odour of eicosane (C 20 ), pentacosane (C 25 ) and octacosane (C 28 ) were not preferred by the females.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, May 2011, pp. 387-389

 

 

 

 

Notes and News

 

 

  1 st National Conference on Animal, Microbial, Plant Toxins and Snakebite Management   (AMPTOX2010)

Dr. Aparna Gomes

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 49, May 2011, pp. 390

 

Book Review

 

 

  Protocols on Algal and Cyanobacterial Research,