Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 49

NUMBER 10

OCTOBER 2011

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 49 (10) 717-798 (2011)

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

 

 

CONTENTS

 

Review Articles

 

 

 

Dynamic life of a skin keratinocyte: An intimate tryst with the master regulator p63

721

Rose-Anne Romano & Satrajit Sinha

 

 

 

Tocotrienols: The lesser known form of natural vitamin E

732

Viren Patel, Cameron Rink, Savita Khanna & Chandan K Sen

 

 

 

Papers

 

 

 

Spirulina platensis protects neurons via suppression of glial activation and peripheral sensitization leading to restoration of motor function in collagen-induced arthritic rats

 

 

739

Nisha Patro, Arpita Sharma, Keerti Kariaya & Ishan Patro

 

 

 

Insulin resistance mediated biochemical alterations in eye lens of neonatal streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat

 

749

P Suryanarayana, Madhoosudan A Patil & G Bhanuprakash Reddy

 

 

 

Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative attribute of hydroethanolic extract of Butea monosperma (Lam.) seeds and its active constituents

 

756

Nidhi Sharma & Veena Garg

 

 

 

Antioxidant and gastroprotective activities of Andrographis paniculata
(Hempedu Bumi)
in Sprague Dawley rats

 

767

S Q Wasman, A A Mahmood, Lee Suan Chua, Mohammed A Alshawsh &
S Hamdan

 

 

 

Novel substrate (algal protein) for cultivation of Rhodospirillum rubrum

773

T M Vatsala, R Rekha & R Srividhya

 

 

 

Non-exhaustive test for aerobic capacity determination in running rats

781

F B Manchado-Gobatto, C A Gobatto, RVL Contarteze & M A R Mello

 

 

 

Effect of mating and parasitism regimes on progeny production and sex-ratio of Campoletis chlorideae Uchida

 

786

M K Dhillon& H C Sharma

 

 

 

Note

 

Sodium selenite attenuated cisplatin-induced toxicity in rats: Role of electrolytes homeostasis

 

791

Shafaq Noori & Tabassum Mahboob

 

 

 

Book Reviews

 

 

 

Quality standards of Indian medicinal plants

795

H B Singh

 

 

 

Indian medicinal plants

797

M A A Khan

 

 

 

Announcements

 

12th Indo-US Cytometry Workshop; 2nd International Conference on Stem Cells and Cancer (ICSCC-2011):Proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis

 

720

 

覧覧覧覧覧蘭

Announcements

 

12th Indo-US Cytometry Workshop (www.cytometryworkshops.com)

1416 October 2011

Manipal Life Sciences Centre, Manipal University, India

 

The workshop will include: lectures on basic flow cytometry, wet lab experiments, and tutorials. The resource persons are drawn from expertise in India and US. Graduate students, post-doctoral researchers and young faculty members are requested to apply along with their bio-data to: Dr. K. Satyamoorthy, Director, Manipal Life Sciences Center, Planetarium Complex, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104, India. Telephone: +91 820 2922702; Fax: +91 820 2571919;
E-mail: mlsc@manipal.edu; Web:
http://www.manipal.edu/Research/Pages/Conferences.aspx

 

覧覧覧覧覧蘭

 

2nd International Conference on Stem Cells and Cancer (ICSCC-2011):

Proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis

1518 October 2011

Yashada Auditorium, Baner Road, Pune, India

 

The conference will cover basic and applied research on proliferation, differentiation and& apoptosis of stem and cancer cells, hematopoietic stem cells, embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, cardiac and neuronal stem cells, epigenetic regulation of cancer and stem cells, cancer stem cells, stem cell therapy, clinical trials on using stem cells and monoclonal antibodies, anti-cancer drugs, commercialization of stem cell technologies and biologics/biosimilars for cancer and other disease treatment. For details and online registration visit www.eregnow.com/?icscc2011 or contact Prof. Dr. Sheo Mohan Singh (& Prof. Dr. Christian Buske, Germany), Organizer, 2nd International Conference on
Stem Cells and Cancer (ICSCC-2011), Pune, India. Telephone: +91-9545089202;
E-mail: icscc2011@gmail.com;
http://www.stemcells.org.in/?page_id=37

 

覧覧覧覧覧

 

Author Index

Alshawsh Mohammed A

767

 

 

Chua Lee Suan

767

Contarteze R V L

781

 

 

Dhillon M K

786

 

 

Garg Veena

756

Gobatto C A

781

 

 

Hamdan S

767

 

 

Kariaya Keerti

739

Khanna Savita

732

Mahboob Tabassum

791

Mahmood A A

767

Manchado-Gobatto F B

781

Mello M A R

781

 

 

Noori Shafaq

791

 

 

Patel Viren

732

Patil Madhoosudan A

749

Patro Ishan

739

Patro Nisha

739

 

 

Reddy G Bhanuprakash

749

Rekha R

773

Rink Cameron

732

Romano Rose-Anne

721

 

 

Sen Chandan K

732

Sharma Arpita

739

Sharma H C

786

Sharma Nidhi

756

Sinha Satrajit

721

Srividhya R

773

Suryanarayana P

749

 

 

Vatsala T M

773

 

 

Wasman S Q

767

 

 

Keyword Index

Algal protein substrate

773

Andrographis paniculata

767

Animal models

749

Antihyperglycemic

756

Antioxidant

767

Antioxidation

756

Arteriogenesis

732

 

 

Blood lactate

781

Butea monosperma

756

 

 

Campoletis chlorideae

786

Cataract

749

Cisplatin

791

Collagen-induced arthritis

739

Courtship behaviour

786

Critical load

781

 

 

Diabetes

749

Double bouts exercise test

781

 

 

Electrolytes homeostasis

791

Ethanol

767

Eye lens

749

Hair follicles

721

Helicoverpa armigera

786

Histology

767

 

 

Insulin resistance

749

 

 

Keratinocyte

721

 

 

Laccijalaric ester-1

756

 

 

Maximal lactate steady state

781

Microgila

739

MMP2

732

 

 

Na+K+ ATPase

791

Neuroprotection

732

Neuroprotection

739

DNp63

721

 

 

Oviposition behaviour

786

 

 

p53

721

Parasitoid

786

Peptic ulcer

767

Phototropic bacteria

773

Phycocyanin

773

Phycocyanobilin

773

Progeny production

786

Protease

773

 

 

Rhodospirillum rubrum

773

Running

781

 

 

Sex-ratio

786

Skin

721

Sodium selenite

791

Spinal cord

739

Spirulina platensis

739

 

 

TIMP 1

732

Tocotrienols

732

Transcription

721

Transgenic animal models

721

Triterpene

756

 

 

Vitamin E

732

 

 

 

Correspondent author has been indicated by * sign

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol.49, October 2011, pp 721-731

 

 

Review Articles

 

 

Dynamic life of a skin keratinocyte: An intimate tryst with the
master regulator p63

Rose-Anne Romano & Satrajit Sinha*

Department of Biochemistry, Center for Excellence in Bioinformatics and Life Sciences,
State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14203

 

Skin keratinocytes form a tightly knit and layered epithelium at the surface of the body protecting the body from the outside environment. The formation and maintenance of skin epidermis is governed by dynamic and well-coordinated processes of cell proliferation, differentiation, and self-renewal. Such important cell fate decisions are made possible in part by transcription factors, which activate and repress unique sets of genes in a temporal and spatial pattern. The Tp63 gene encodes for multiple isoforms for one such transcription factor that serves as a key regulator of epidermal development and differentiation. The crucial function of p63 is epitomized by the phenotype of p63 knockout mice in the absence of p63, there is a profound block in the development of skin epidermis and all related appendages such as hair follicles. Human syndromes resulting from Tp63 gene mutations phenocopy the p63 knockout phenotype, highlighting the evolutionarily conserved function of this factor in epithelial biology. Although the function of p63 as an important hub in transcriptional and signaling networks of keratinocytes is well established, the underlying molecular mechanisms of p63 action is continually redefined with the development of new genetic models and more extensive biochemical analysis. In this review the biological role of ΔNp63, the predominant isoform that is expressed in skin keratinocytes has been described. Results from transgenic animal models that have shed new information on the function of ΔNp63 in the epidermis and hair follicles have been discussed. Further, the molecular mechanisms that maintain the fine-tuned expression of ΔNp63 in skin keratinocytes are also described.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol.49, October 2011, pp 732-738

 

 

Tocotrienols: The lesser known form of natural vitamin E

Viren Patel1, Cameron Rink2, Savita Khanna2 & Chandan K Sen2*

1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Surgery, Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute,
The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210

A recent and growing body of research has shown that members of this vitamin E family posses unique biologic functions. Tocotrienols have garnered much of this recent attention, and in particular a-tocotrienol has been shown to be the most potent neuroprotective form of vitamin E. Protection exclusively mediated through tocotrienols has been arbitrated to many mechanisms including inhibition of 12-LOX, c-Src, PLA2 and through up-regulation of MRP1. Further, tocotrienols have recently been shown to induce arteriogenesis through induction of TIMP1 and decreased activation of MMP2. However, the unique therapeutic potential of tocotrienols is not limited to neuroprotection. Tocotrienols have been shown to have molecular targets including: apoptotic regulators, cytokines, adhesion molecules, enzymes, kinases, receptors, transcription factors, and growth factors. In spite of this large and unique therapeutic potential, scientific literature on tocotrienols only accounts for approximately 1% of vitamin E research. Given the potential of tocotrienols and relatively scant literature, further investigation is warranted.

 

Papers

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol.49, October 2011, pp 739-748

 

 

Spirulina platensis protects neurons via suppression of glial activation
and peripheral sensitization leading to restoration of motor function
in collagen-induced arthritic rats

Nisha Patro, Arpita Sharma, Keerti Kariaya & Ishan Patro*

School of Studies in Neuroscience, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, India

Received 11 April 2011; revised 11 July 2011

Spirulina platensis treatment (400 mg kg-1 for 25 days) effectively suppressed peripheral sensitization via modulation of glial activation and improved motor coordination and restoration of functional motor activity in collagen-induced arthritic rats. Spirulina treatment also resulted in an appreciable reduction of the NF200 accumulation in the spinal cord neurons of arthritic rats. This is indicative of neuroprotective action of S. platensis against glutamate excitotoxicity-induced central sensitization produced by the peripheral joint inflammation in the collagen-induced arthritis. The results suggest that effects of S. platensis may be due to its counter regulation of spinal glial activation and could be a potential strategy for the treatment of arthritis.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol.49, October 2011, pp 749-755

 

 

Insulin resistance mediated biochemical alterations in eye lens of neonatal streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat

P Suryanarayana*, Madhoosudan A Patil & G Bhanuprakash Reddy

Biochemistry Division, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad 500 604, India

Received 12 January 2011; revised 29 June 2011

Cataract, the leading cause of blindness worldwide, is associated with many risk factors including diabetes. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) states are associated with pre-diabetes and insulin resistance. This condition subsequently leads to the development of type-2 diabetes. Epidemiological studies indicated that not only diabetes but IGT/IFG will also lead to the development of microvascular disorders and cataract. However, there are no studies on the mechanism of insulin resistance induced changes in the eye lens. In the present study, IGT/IFG-induced changes in lens using neonatal-streptozotocin (nSTZ) rat model have been investigated. Though, nSTZ rats showed the signs of IGT and insulin resistance starting from two months old, they did not develop cataract even at the age of 8-months. However, biochemical analysis indicates a three-fold increase in sorbitol levels in nSTZ lens upon prolonged (6-months) IGT and insulin resistance. Also there was an increase in lipid peroxidation and alterations in antioxidant enzymes. Results of this study showed that activation of polyol pathway and increased oxidative stress, commonly associated with long-term complications of diabetes, have been observed in eye lens due to prolonged IGT and insulin resistance which may lead to cataract.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol.49, October 2011, pp 755-766

 

 

Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative attribute of hydroethanolic extract of Butea monosperma (Lam.) seeds and its active constituents

Nidhi Sharma & Veena Garg*

Department of Bioscience & Biotechnology, Banasthali University, Banasthali 304 022, India

Received 27 April 2011; revised 25 July 2011

Treatment of diabetic mice with glibenclamide and crude extract (BE) significantly declined the FBG content. However, amongst the 6 isolated compounds, 3 compounds (C1, C4 and C6) appreciably subsided the exaggerated level of FBG. Simultaneously, glibenclamide, BE, C4 and C6 treatment markedly enhanced the hepatic glycogen content as compared to diabetic control group. Administration of crude extract, C4, C5 and C6 also exerted a protective effect on the declined activity of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px in the three tissues. However, all the herbal treatments produced a pronounced escalation in GSH content. Contrarily the elevated level of hepatic, pancreatic and renal TBARS monitored in diabetic animals was significantly diminished in treated groups of animals. Alloxan administration severely deteriorated the structure of liver and pancreas of diabetic mice, which was found to be restored to a certain extent in glibenclamide, BE and C6 treated animals. Identification of the most potent antihyperglycemic compound C6 by HPLC confirmed its triterpene nature. C6 was then further characterized via various spectroscopic methods (IR, NMR and Mass) that revealed its similarity with laccijalaric ester-I, a triterpene present in soft resin of B. monosperma seeds.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol.49, October 2011, pp 767-772

 

 

Antioxidant and gastroprotective activities of Andrographis paniculata
(Hempedu Bumi) in Sprague Dawley rats

S Q Wasman1*, A A Mahmood2, Lee Suan Chua3, Mohammed A Alshawsh2 & S Hamdan1

1Department of Biological Science, Faculty of Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Teknologi Malaysia, 81310,
UTM Skudai, Johor, Malaysia

2Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

3Metabolites Profiling Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Pilot Plant, University Technology Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai,
Johor, Malaysia

Received 14 January 2011; revised 5 July 2011

Antioxidant and gastroprotective activities of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata leaves in rats have been reported. Sprague Dawley rats, 6 per group were used and rats in groups 1 to 6 were pretreated with (0.25% w/v) carboxymethyl cellulose (negative control, 5 ml/kg), 20 mg/kg omeprazole (positive control), (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) of aqueous leaf extracts (APLAE) and (250 and 500 mg/kg) of ethanol leaf extracts (APLEE) respectively. Animals were orally administered with 95% ethanol (5 ml/kg) 60 min after their pretreatments. Rats were sacrificed 1 h after treatment and gastric contents were collected to measure pH and mucous weight. Stomach was analyzed for gross and histological changes. Ulcer control group showed extensive lesions of gastric mucosal layer, whereas rats pretreated with omeprazole, 250 and 500 mg/kg of APLAE showed significant and dose dependent reduction in gastric lesions with increased pH and mucus content of stomach. Rats pretreated with 250 or 500 mg/kg of APLEE showed significantly better inhibition of gastric mucosal lesions. Further, the in vitro antioxidant studies using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay showed that ethanol extracts have superior free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value = 10.9 than aqueous extracts with IC50 value = 24.65. Results of this study showed that pretreatment with ethonolic extract of A. paniculata ethanolic provided significant protection against gastric ulcer by regulating of pH, mucous production and antioxidant property.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol.49, October 2011, pp 773-780

 

 

Novel substrate (algal protein) for cultivation of Rhodospirillum rubrum

T M Vatsala*, R Rekha & R Srividhya

Hydrolina Biotech (Pvt) Ltd, TICEL Biopark, Taramani, Chennai 600 113, India

Received 20 October 2010; revised 9 July 2011

Rhodospirillum rubrum was grown under light anaerobic conditions with phycocyanin (C-pc) extracted from Spirulina platensis as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. When grown under these conditions cellular components like lipids, carbohydrates, protein, carotenoids, bacteriochlorophyll were similar to the one grown with malic acid and ammonium chloride. Growth of R. rubrum increased with increase in concentration of C-pc (200 to 1000 mg/l). R. rubrum also utilized C-pc under dark anaerobic condition. With both malic acid and C-pc as carbon sources C-pc was consumed only after exhaustion of malic acid under light anaerobic condition. No aberration of cell morphology was seen under scanning electron microscope (SEM). R. rubrum utilized both phycocyanobilin and phycoprotein individually as well as in combination. When grown with 1000 mg/l of phycoprotein 450 mg/l of biomass was obtained, and with combination of phycocyanobilin (75 mg/l) and phycoprotein (925 mg/l) 610 mg/l of biomass was obtained. Phycocyanobilin alone did not inhibit the growth of R. rubrum. Utilization of C-pc with protease like activity was observed in plate assay. Protease like activity was also observed as zones around the colonies in plates containing sterilized casein, gelatin and filter sterilized bovine serum albumin. No amino acids were detected in the supernatant when analyzed with ninhydrin. Extracellular protease like activity was highest when C-pc was used as substrate (2.8 U/ml). Intracellular protease like activity was not detected in cell free extracts.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol.49, October 2011, pp 781-785

 

 

Non-exhaustive test for aerobic capacity determination in running rats

FB Manchado-Gobatto1, CA Gobatto2, RVL Contarteze3 & MAR Mello3

1Faculty of Health Sciences - Methodist University of Piracicaba - UNIMEP, Piracicaba, Brazil.

2 Faculty of Applied Sciences, State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil.

3Department of Physical Education, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Rio Claro, Brazil.

Received 24 February 2011; revised 27 June 2011

A simple and applicable method for non-exhaustive aerobic evaluation in running rats is described. Wistar rats were submitted to running test at different velocities (10, 15, 20, 25 m/min) with 48 h recovery among them. At each velocity, the rats ran two bouts of 5 min with 2 min of rest between bouts. Blood samples were collected at the end of each bout for lactate determination. For each intensity, delta lactate was calculated and using deltas obtained by four tests, an individual linear interpolation was plotted. The y-intercept of linear interpolation was the 渡ull delta lactate equivalent to the critical velocity (CV). To verify the lactate stabilization at CV, the animals were submitted to 25 min of continuous exercise
(15, 20, 25 m/min), with blood collection every 5 min. The estimated CV was 16.6ア0.7 m/min, with significant linear regressions (R=0.90ア0.03). The rats presented maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) at 3.9ア0.4 mmol/L, at 20 m/min. The CV was less than MLSS but significantly correlated with this parameter (r=0.78). This non-exhaustive test seems to be valid for the aerobic evaluation of sedentary rats and this protocol underestimates the MLSS in 20%. This test seems to be the interesting method for the evaluation of rats submitted to acute exercise or physical training.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol.49, October 2011, pp 786-790

 

 

Effect of mating and parasitism regimes on progeny production and sex-ratio of Campoletis chlorideae Uchida

M K Dhillon* & H C Sharma

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru 502 324, India

Received 25 April 2011; revised 20 June 2011

The ichneumonid parasitoid, C. chlorideae is an important natural enemy of pod borer/bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) in different agro-ecosystems. The sex-ratio of parasitoids has an important bearing on the population build up of the natural enemies for biological control of insect pests. Therefore, the present studies were conducted to gain an understanding of the influence of mating behaviour and abundance of the insect host on fecundity and sex-ratio of the parasitoid, C. chlorideae. There was no significant influence of number of matings and abundance of the insect host on cocoon formation, adult emergence, and larval and pupal periods of C. chlorideae. However, fecundity and female longevity were significantly influenced by mating and abundance of the insect host. There was a significant and positive correlation
(r = 0.84**) between longevity and fecundity of C. chlorideae females. The unmated C. chlorideae females produced only males. Nearly 20% of the females that had mated twice were able to parasitize the H. armigera larvae successfully. The sex-ratio of the progeny from females that had mated twice was male biased. Females mated with males from the unmated females produced significantly less numbers of females than those mated with males from the fertilized females, indicating genetic regulation of sex-ratio in C. chlorideae.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol.49, October 2011, pp 791-794

 

 

Notes

 

Sodium selenite attenuated cisplatin-induced toxicity in rats: Role of electrolytes homeostasis

Shafaq Noori* & Tabassum Mahboob

Biophysics Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, 75270, Pakistan

Received 22 February 2011; revised 25 July 2011

Sodium selenite (1 mg/kg body weight, ip) for 10 consecutive days treatment showed marked increase in intra-erythrocytes K+ and plasma Na+ level while slight increase in Na+ K+ ATPase level. No mortality was observed at this dose of sodium selenite. However, sodium selenite pretreatment partially restored the Na+ K+ ATPase and intra-erythorcytes and plasma sodium level, while completely restored the intra-erythrocytes K+ and plasma Mg2+ level. No change was observed in plasma Ca2+ level. Thus sodium selenite successively attenuated the Cisplatin-induced electrolytes alterations and toxicity by exerting the stress response of sodium.

 

Book Reviews

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol.49, October 2011, pp 795-796

 

 

Quality standards of Indian medicinal plants

H. B. Singh

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol.49, October 2011, pp 797-798

 

 

Indian medicinal plants

M A A Khan