Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 50

NUMBER 8

AUGUST 2012

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 50 (8) 513-590 (2012)

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

 

CONTENTS

 

Papers

 

 

 

Radiomodulation by Hoechst 33258 against radiation-induced damage in murine splenocytes

517

Zubaida Khatoon & R K Kale

 

 

 

Alterations in ambient salinity and pH lead to modulation of developmental gene expression in Microhyla ornata (Dum駻il and Bibron) and Xenopus laevis (Daudin)

531

Bhagyashri Chougule, Makoto Asashima, Vidya Patwardhan & Surendra Ghaskadbi

 

 

 

Role of complement activation and antibody in the interaction between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human macrophages

542

S Manivannan , V Narayan Rao & V D Ramanathan

 

 

 

Wound healing activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Plagiochila beddomei Steph. thallus in rat model

551

G S Manoj & K Murugan

 

 

 

A promising strain of Streptomyces sp. with agricultural traits for growth promotion and disease management

559

Mansoor Alam, Seema Dharni, Abdul-Khaliq, Santosh Kumar Srivastava, Abdul Samad & Mahesh Kumar Gupta

 

 

 

Alkaline protease production, extraction and characterization from alkaliphilic Bacillus licheniformis KBDL4: A Lonar soda lake isolate

569

Anupama P Pathak & Kshipra B Deshmukh

 

 

 

Response of antioxidative and ethanolic fermentation enzymes in maize seedlings of tolerant and sensitive genotypes under short term waterlogging

577

Vishal Chugh, Anil K Gupta, Maninder S Grewal & Narinder Kaur

 

 

 

Influence of genetic relatedness and shoal size on shoaling preferences in juvenile Puntius sarana subnasutus (Hamilton Valenciennes)

583

  N Jilna Alex & K John Thomas

 

 

Increase in voltage gated potassium currents of human lymphocytes on culture

587

Snekalatha S& Praghalathan Kanthakumar

 

 

Announcement

516

 

 

Retraction

516

 

 

 

Announcement

 

Indo-US Symposium on Industry-Academia Interaction in Diabetes & Cardiovascular Drug Discovery

 

4 and 5 December 2012, Varanasi, India

 

Jointly organised by the Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi and the Indo-US Science & Technology Forum & S-LEARN, in collaboration with the Departments of Cardiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kayachikitsa (Ayurvedic Medicine) and School of Nursing of the Institute of Medical Sciences, the Symposium will be held at Prof. K.N. Udupa Auditorium, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. The topics to be covered in the Symposium are: (a) Cardiovascular dyslipidemia, (b) Inflammation and metabolic syndrome, (c) Non-pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome, (d) Diabetes and its complications, (e) System biology in new drug development for metabolic syndrome, and (f) CAM and alternative medicines for management of metabolic syndrome. For further details please contact: the Organizing Secretary, Prof. Rai Ajit Srivastava, Exec. Director, Esperion Therapeutics, USA, Adjunct Professor, Wayne State University, USA, at asrivastava@esperion.com/ajitsriva@gmail.com or the Co-Organizing Secretary, Prof. Y.B. Tripathi, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India. Telephone: 0091-542-6702171 (O), 2366577 (R), Mobile: 09415694450; E-mail: yaminiok@yahoo.com; yamini30@gmail.com

覧覧覧覧覧

 

Retraction

 

 

Possible involvement of GABAergic mechanism in protective effect of melatonin against sleep deprivation-induced behavior modification and oxidative damage in mice by Anil Kumar, Anant Singh and Puneet Kumar, published in the Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 49, March 2011, pp. 211-218.

It has been brought to the notice of the Editor that earlier to above paper in Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Anil Kumar and Anant Singh have published the same data in Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology [Possible involvement of GABAergic mechanism in protective effect of melatonin against sleep deprivation-induced behaviour modification and oxidative damage in mice, Vol. 23 (4), 2009, pp. 439-448].

 

In view of the above, the article published in Indian Journal of Experimental Biology stands retracted.

 

 

 

Author Index

Abdul-Khaliq

559

Alex N Jilna

583

Asashima Makoto

531

 

 

Chougule Bhagyashri

531

Chugh Vishal

577

 

 

Deshmukh Kshipra B

569

Dharni Seema

559

 

 

Ghaskadbi Surendra

531

Grewal Maninder S

577

 

 

Gupta Anil K

577

Gupta Mahesh Kumar

559

 

 

Kale R K

517

Kanthakumar Praghalathan

587

Kaur Narinder

577

Khatoon Zubaida

517

 

 

Manivannan S

542

Manoj G S

551

Mansoor Alam

559

Murugan K

551

 

 

Narayan Rao V

542

 

 

Pathak Anupama P

569

Patwardhan Vidya

531

 

 

Ramanathan V D

542

 

 

Snekalatha S

587

Samad Abdul

559

Srivastava Santosh Kumar

559

 

 

Thomas K John

583

 

 

Keyword Index

Alkaline protease

569

Altered gene expression

531

Amphibian development

531

Anaerobic metabolism

577

Angiogenic

551

Antioxidant enzymes

517

Antioxidants

577

Bacillus licheniformis

569

 

 

CIMAP-A1

559

Complement

542

Culture

587

 

 

Detergent compatibility

569

 

 

Environmental influence

531

Excision wound

551

 

 

FACS

517

 

 

Gelatinous coating

569

Geranium

559

 

High salinity & low pH

531

Hoechst 33258

517

 

 

Immunoglobulin

542

Incision wound

551

 

 

Juvenile fish

583

 

 

Lonar soda lake

569

Lymphocyte

587

 

 

M. tuberculosis

542

Membrane fluidity

517

 

 

Patch clamp

587

Peroxidative damage

517

Phagocytosis

542

Phytopathogenic fungi

559

Plagiochila beddomei

551

Potassium currents

587

Puntius sarana subnasutus

583

 

 

Radioprotector

517

 

 

S. vinacendrappus

559

Secondary metabolites

551

Shoaling

583

Social preference

583

Streptomyces sp.

559

 

 

Waterlogging

577

Wound healing

551

 

 

Zea mays

577

 

 

 

Correspondent author has been indicated by * sign

 

 

 

Papers

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, August 2012, pp. 517-530

 

 

 

Radiomodulation by Hoechst 33258 against radiation-
induced damage in murine splenocytes

 

Zubaida Khatoon* & R K Kale

Free Radical Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India

Received 21 November 2011; revised 7 May 2012

In this study modulatory effect of Hoechst 33258 on radiation induced membrane related signaling events which ultimately leads to apoptosis has been investigated. Splenocytes from swiss albino mice were irradiated in air at room temperature in a gamma chamber (240 TBq 60Co Model 4000 A) at the dose-rate of 0.052 Gys-1. Membrane lipid peroxidation, fluidity, specific activities of antioxidant enzymes, levels of nitric oxide, glutathione and apoptosis in presence and absence of different concentrations of Hoechst 33258 has been assayed. DNA binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B and activator protein1 was also assayed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Modulatory effect of Hoechst 33258 was examined at 3 and 5 Gy using different concentrations (10, 20 and 30 M). Hoechst 33258 was found to inhibit radiation induced peroxidative damage and fluidity and lowered the level of nitric oxide and apoptosis - as evident by DNA ladder assay and FACS, indicating free radicals scavenging potential. Dot plot diagramme clearly showed that 30 オM Hoechst 33258 caused 14% and 19% decrease in apoptotic cells at 3 Gy and 5 Gy of radiation respectively (compared to irradiated control group). Further DNA binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B and activator protein1 was also inhibited but the antioxidant potential of the cells was enhanced. These findings support that Hoechst 33258 protects the cell from undergoing apoptosis. Hoechst 33258 may have interacted and has an ability to protect splenocytes against radiation induced apoptosis through modulation of membrane-related signaling events and antioxidant status.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, August 2012, pp. 531-541

 

 

Alterations in ambient salinity and pH lead to modulation of developmental gene expression in Microhyla ornata (Dum駻il and Bibron) and Xenopus laevis (Daudin)

Bhagyashri Chougule1, Makoto Asashima2, Vidya Patwardhan1 & Surendra Ghaskadbi1, *

1Division of Animal Sciences, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune 411 004, India

2Department of Life Sciences (Biology), Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan

Received 16 February 2012; revised 24 May 2012

Naturally fertilized Microhyla ornata and Xenopus laevis embryos at dorsal lip of blastopore stage were exposed to
0.3, and 0.6% sodium chloride for high salinity treatment and dilute hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide for treatment with low and high pH, respectively.
After treatment for different durations, embryos were studied morphologically and using in situ hybridization with selected genes important for normal development and for coping with environmental stress. Altered salinity and pH caused defects in axis formation and neural tube closure, delay in hatching, abnormal swimming of tadpoles and even developmental arrest. This was accompanied by significant decrease in the expression of selected development-regulating genes like goosecoid (required for gastrulation movements), brachyury (mesodermal marker gene), noggin (involved in neural induction), NCAM (required for neural cell adhesion) and MyoD (essential for muscle development), and considerable increase in the transcription of stress response genes hsp30 and hsp70. Altering the expression of embryonic genes could be one of the mechanisms through which environmental factors influence development of amphibian embryos.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, August 2012, pp. 542-550

 

 

Role of complement activation and antibody in the interaction between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human macrophages

S Manivannan*, V Narayan Rao & V D Ramanathan

Department of Clinical Pathology, Tuberculosis Research Centre (ICMR), Chetpet, Chennai 600 031, India

Received 16 December 2011; revised 1 May 2012

Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antibodies possess immunomodulatory effects during tuberculosis infection. Prior sensitization to environmental mycobacteria is known to suppress immune responses against BCG and M. tuberculosis. Mycobacteria-induced antibodies can influence events such as complement activation and phagocytosis during infectious process. In the present study role of anti-M. tuberculosis IgG (anti-M. tb IgG) antibody during interaction between M. tuberculosis and human macrophages mediated through complement has been examined in vitro. Anti-M. tb IgG antibody significantly enhanced complement activation by M. tuberculosis. Phagocytosis of M. tuberculosis by macrophages increased significantly in the presence of complement and/or antibody. Moreover, antibody enhanced phagocytosis in the presence of complement. Addition of antibody alone or in combination with complement also augmented intracellular viability of bacilli within macrophages. Results of this study showed that anti-mycobacterial antibody enhances complement activation and anti-M. tb IgG antibody probably modulates effects of complement during early stages of tuberculosis infection.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, August 2012, pp. 551-558

 

 

Wound healing activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of
Plagiochila beddomei Steph. thallus in rat model

G S Manoj & K Murugan*

Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Botany,

University College, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 034, India

Received 28 November 2011; revised 24 April 2012

Wound healing occurs as a fundamental response to tissue injury. Polyphenols are considered to be principle constituent to promote wound healing. Plagiochila beddomei was applied clinically by Paliyar tribes of Madurai district to treat intractable wounds. To validate the ethnotherapeutic claims of the plant in skin diseases, the effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts from P. beddomei on wound healing as well as angiogenesis was studied. 7th day and 10th day after excision wounds creation, the percent wound contraction of the extracts group was higher than that of Madecassol (reference drug) group. On 3rd, 7th and 10th day after wounds creation, the wound healing quality of the extracts group was better than that of Madecassol group on terms of granulation formation and collagen organization. On 3rd day after wounds creation, the micro vessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor expression of methanolic extracts group was higher than that of Madecassol group. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins and phenols. The results show that P. beddomei extract has potent wound healing property probably resulting from the remarkable angiogenic activity.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, August 2012, pp. 559-568

 

 

A promising strain of Streptomyces sp. with agricultural traits for growth promotion and disease management

Mansoor Alam1*, Seema Dharni1, Abdul-Khaliq1, Santosh Kumar Srivastava2, Abdul Samad1 & Mahesh Kumar Gupta3

Department of Plant Pathology, 1Analytical Chemistry and 3Biotechnology, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal & Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), Lucknow 226 015, India

Received 6 January 2012; revised 1 June 2012

A bacterial strain, Streptomyces sp. CIMAP- A1 was isolated from Geranium rhizosphere and identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular characters (16S rDNA gene sequence). Phylogenetically, it was found most closely related to S. vinacendrappus, strain NRRL-2363 with 99% sequence similarity. The strain had potential antagonistic activity (in vitro) against wide range of phytopathogenic fungi like Stemphylium sp., Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Colletotrichum spp., Curvularia spp., Corynespora cassicola and Thielavia basicola. The extracellular secondary metabolites produced by the strain in the culture filtrates significantly inhibited the spore germination, growth of germ tube of the germinated spores and radial growth of Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum acutatum, Curvularia andropogonis and Fusarium moniliforme. The extraction of culture filtrate with solvents and purification by following VLC and PTLC methods always yielded a 10th fraction antifungal compound showing activity against wide range of phytopathogenic fungi. The strain was able to produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid. The strain was found to enhance the growth and biomass production of Geranium. It increased 11.3% fresh shoot biomass of Geranium and 21.7% essential oil yield.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, August 2012, pp. 569-576

 

 

Alkaline protease production, extraction and characterization from alkaliphilic Bacillus licheniformis KBDL4: A Lonar soda lake isolate

Anupama P Pathak* & Kshipra B Deshmukh

School of Life Sciences, SRTM University, Nanded 431 606, India.

Received 23 December 2011; revised 28 March 2012

A bacterium producing an alkaline protease was isolated from the Lonar soda lake, Buldhana district
(19ー58' N; 76ー31' E), Maharashtra, India. The most appropriate medium for the growth and protease production was composed of (g/L): casein 10; yeast extract 4; KH2PO4 0.5, K2HPO4 0.5 and CaCl2 0.5. The enzyme showed maximum activity with and without 5 mM Ca2+ at 70 and 60 oC, respectively. The enzyme retained 40 and 82% of its initial activity after heating for 60 min at 60 oC, in absence and presence of 5 mM CaCl2 respectively. The enzyme remained active and stable at pH 8-12, with an optimum at pH 10. The enzyme showed stability towards non-ionic and anionic surfactants, and oxidizing agents. It also showed excellent stability and compatibility with commonly used laundry detergents. Wash performance analysis revealed that enzyme could effectively remove blood stains. It also showed decomposition of gelatinous coating on X- ray film.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, August 2012, pp. 577-582

 

 

Response of antioxidative and ethanolic fermentation enzymes in maize seedlings of tolerant and sensitive genotypes under short term waterlogging

Vishal Chugh1, Anil K Gupta1,*, Maninder S Grewal2 & Narinder Kaur1

Department of 1Biochemistry and 2Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 004, India

Received 30 August 2011; revised 14 May 2012

Fifteen days old seedlings of waterlogging tolerant (Parkash) and sensitive (Paras) maize genotypes were subjected to short term waterlogging (18 h) under field conditions. Activities of various antioxidative and anaerobic metabolism enzymes were investigated in leaf and root tissues. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased in leaf tissue while glutathione reductase (GR) activity was enhanced in leaf as well as root in both the genotypes. However, tolerant genotype had better induction capability of SOD and GR in roots in comparison with sensitive genotype. Catalase activity increased in roots of both genotypes. Waterlogging caused strong induction in alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the roots of Paras and Parkash under stress conditions. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased only in roots of Parkash in response to waterlogging. In comparison with sensitive genotype, the tolerant genotype had low H2O2 and malondialdehyde content in roots under stress conditions. The present studies suggested that tolerant genotype had a greater protective ability due to higher induced activities of antioxidant and ethanolic fermentation systems than Paras.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, August 2012, pp. 583-586

 

 

Influence of genetic relatedness and shoal size on shoaling preferences in juvenile Puntius sarana subnasutus (Hamilton Valenciennes)

N Jilna Alex* & K John Thomas

Animal Behaviour and Wetland Research Laboratory, Christ college, Irinjalakuda 680 125, India

Received 1 July 2011; revised 8 May 2012

When presented with stimulus shoals of siblings and conspecifics in equal number, P. sarana subnasutus were able to discriminate their siblings and preferred to associate with them. Given a choice between large shoal and a small shoal consisting of siblings, the juvenile fish preferred to associate with larger stimulus group to the smaller one. However, juveniles traded off their preference for sibling shoal with large non-sibling conspecific stimulus group, regardless of the possible benefits gained from associating with sibling shoals. The results reveal the ability of fish to discriminate their siblings during their early developmental stage and the overriding influence shoal size in the context of shoaling preference in P. sarana subnasutus.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, August 2012, pp. 587-590

 

 

Increase in voltage gated potassium currents of human lymphocytes on culture

Snekalatha S* & Praghalathan Kanthakumar

Department of Physiology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, 632 002, India

Received 29 February 2012; revised 24 May 2012

Voltage gated potassium channels present in T lymphocytes play an important role during lymphocyte activation. Though an increase in potassium currents has been reported in activated lymphocytes, changes in potassium currents in culture without activation by antigen or mitogen has not been reported. The peak potassium current densities on day 1 and day 5 of culture have been compared in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were separated by density gradient centrifugation. Lymphocytes were separated from PBMCs by negative selection using anti-CD14 coated magnetic beads and cultured under appropriate conditions without antigenic or mitogenic stimulation. Lymphocytes were patched on day 1 or day 5 of culture. Voltage gated potassium currents were recorded by whole cell patch clamp technique using a depolarizing protocol. The mean of peak current densities recorded at +60 mV on day 1 of culture was 228.12ア 89.39 pA/pF (n=7) and on day 5 of culture was 468.96 ア 192.07 pA/pF (n=7). The difference between the current densities on day 1 and day 5 was found to be significant. Change in electrophysiological characteristics can lead to functional changes in the lymphocytes and this should be considered when culturing lymphocytes in vitro for research and clinical use.