Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 50

NUMBER 2

FEBRUARY 2012

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 50 (2) 89-172 (2012)

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Papers

 

 

 

In silico analysis of peptide binding features of HLA-B*4006

93

Nikhil S Gadewal & Narendra N Joshi

 

 

 

Effect of L-deprenyl treatment on electrical activity, Na+, K+ ATPase, and protein kinase C activities in hippocampal subfields (CA1 and CA3) of aged rat brain

101

Rameshwar Singh, Monika Mishra, Sangeeta Singh & Deepak Sharma

 

 

 

Cold stress interaction on organophosphate insecticide poisoning: Age-related assessment in rat cerebral cortex

110

Annappa Poojary & P Mahaboob Basha

 

 

 

Anti-apoptotic potential of gymnemic acid phospholipid complex pretreatment in Wistar rats with experimental cardiomyopathy

117

Rahila Ahmad Pathan, Uma Bhandari, Saleem Javed & Tapas C Nag

 

 

 

Curcumin increases vasodilatory effect of cilostazol in diabetic rat aorta

128

K E Nurullahoğlu-Atalik, N Okudan , M Belviranli, H Gökbel & L Şimşek

 

 

 

Progression of early phase diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: Evaluation of various kidney-related parameters

133

G Kiran, C D Nandini, H P Ramesh & P V Salimath

 

 

 

Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris linn on liver and kidney in cadmium intoxicated  rats

141

G Dhana Lakshmi, P Ravi Kumar, K Bharavi, P Annapurna, B Rajendar, Pankaj T Patel,
C S V Satish Kumar & G S Rao

 

 

 

Development and neurobehavioural toxicity study of arsenic on rats following
gestational exposure

147

D N Gandhi, G M Panchal & K G Patel

 

 

 

Influence of mating histories and age on female remating behaviour in a few closely related species of Drosophila nasuta subgroup

156

B Shruthi, Chayakumari, K Ravi Ram & S R Ramesh

 

 

 

Regeneration of plantlets from mature embryo calli of Western Ghats land race cultivar of rice, Oryza sativa L.

164

A U Gnanesh, V Krishna, R Shashi Kumar, Venkatesh, S R Santosh Kumar & H E Shashidhar

 

 

 

 

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Announcement

 

 

National Workshop on Computational Systems Biology and Dose Response Modeling

2–4 March 2012, Tiruchirappalli

 

            Jointly sponsored by The Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, USA, Doerenkamp-Zbinden Foundation, Switzerland and the Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science & Technology, Government of India, and organized by the Mahatma Gandhi–Doerenkamp Center (MGDC), Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, the lectures and exercises in the workshop will cover following topics: (i) Computational dose response modeling—background, (ii) Network motifs in quantitative cell signaling and dose response, (iii) Binary decision-making in biological systems: positive feedback, bi-stability, irreversibility, and cellular memory, (iv) MAPK-mediated ultrasensitivity and bi-stability, (v) Cellular homeostasis, stress response and adaptation, (vi) Stochastic gene expression, its biological function, and implication for dose response, and (vii) Exercises on the Berkeley Madonna® software program (accompanying each lecture). For details, please contact Dr M A Akbarsha, Convener, National Workshop CSBDRM, Mahatma Gandhi–Doerenkamp Center, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024. Telephone/Fax: 0431–2407117; e-mail: mgdcaua@yahoo.in, or visit the website: www.mgdcaua.org

 

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Editor’s Note

 

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology is covered by the following international abstracting and indexing services:

 

Science Citation Index ExpandedTM

PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov/)

MEDLINE

BIOSIS

Chemical Abstracts Service

Excerpta Medica

Informascience

Refrativnyi Zhurnal

Zoological Records

———————————————

 

 

Author Index

Annapurna P

141

 

 

Basha P Mahaboob

110

Belviranli M

128

Bhandari Uma

117

Bharavi K

141

 

 

Chayakumari

156

 

 

Gadewal Nikhil S

93

Gandhi D N

147

Gnanesh A U

164

Gökbel H

128

 

 

Javed Saleem

117

Joshi Narendra N

93

 

 

Kiran G

133

Krishna V

164

Kumar C S V Satish

141

Kumar P Ravi

141

Kumar R Shashi

164

Kumar S R Santosh

164

 

 

Lakshmi G Dhana

141

 

 

Mishra Monika

101

 

 

Nag Tapas C

117

Nandini C D

133

Nurullahoğlu-Atalik K E

128

 

 

Okudan N

128

 

 

Panchal G M

147

Pankaj T Patel

141

Patel K G

147

Pathan Rahila Ahmad

117

Poojary Annappa

110

 

 

Rajendar B

141

Ram K Ravi

156

Ramesh H P

133

Ramesh S R

156

Rao G S

141

 

 

Salimath P V

133

Sharma Deepak

101

Shashidhar H E

164

Shruthi B

156

Şimşek L

128

Singh Rameshwar

101

Singh Sangeeta

101

 

 

Venkatesh

164

 

 

Keyword Index

Ageing

101

Aorta

128

Apoptosis

117

Arsenic

147

 

 

Binding free energy

93

 

 

Cadmium

141

Callus

164

Cardiomyopathy

117

Cerebral cortex enzymes

110

Chlorpyrifos

110

Cilostazol

128

Cold stress

110

Copulation duration

156

Curcumin

128

 

 

Development

147

Diabetes

128,133

Diabetic nephropathy

133

Docking

93

 

 

Doxorubicin

117

Drosophila nasuta subgroup

156

 

 

Female remating

156

 

 

Gestational exposure

147

Glycosaminoglycans

133

Gymnemic acid phospholipid complex

117

 

 

Hippocampus

101

HLA-B*4006

93

Homology-modeling

93

 

 

Kidney

141

 

 

L-deprenyl

101

Liver

141

 

 

Microalbuminuria

133

Multiple unit action potentials

101

 

 

Na+, K+-ATPase

101

Neurobehavioural endpoints

147

 

 

Oryza sativa

164

Oxidative stress

117

 

 

Plantlet regeneration

164

Promiscuous

93

Protein kinase C

101

 

 

Rats

141

Reproductive isolation

156

 

 

Sexual selection

156

 

 

Teratology

147

Tribulus terrestris

141

Type IV collagen

133

 

 

 

Correspondent author has been indicated by * sign

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, February 2012, pp. 93-100

 

 

In silico analysis of peptide binding features of HLA-B*4006

Nikhil S Gadewal1,2 & Narendra N Joshi2,*

1Bioinformatics Centre (BTIS), Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer,
Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, 410210, India

2Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer, Tata Memorial Centre,
Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, 410210, India.

Received 23 August 2011

HLA-B*4006 is the most common allele amongst Indians. It belongs to the ‘HLA-B44 supertype’ family of alleles that constitute an important component of the peptide binding repertoire in populations world over. Its peptide binding characteristics remain poorly examined. The amino acid sequence and structural considerations suggest a small, poorly hydrophobic ‘F’ pocket for this allele that may adversely affect the interaction with the C terminal residue of the antigenic peptide. Contribution of auxiliary anchor residues (P3) of the peptide has also been indicated. To examine these aspects by in silico analysis, HLA-B*4001, 4002, and 4006 alleles were modeled using HLA-B*4402 as a template. Eleven peptides, known to bind alleles of this family, were used for docking and molecular dynamics studies. Interaction between the amino group (main-chain) of P3 residue and Tyr99 of the alleles was seen in majority of peptide-complexes. Hydrophobic interactions between Tyr7 and Tyr159 with N terminal residues of the peptide were also seen in all the complexes. Replacement of Trp95 by leucine in HLA-B*4006 resulted in reduction of binding free energy in 8 out of 9 complexes. In summary, the analysis of the modeled structures and HLA-peptide complexes strongly supports the adverse effect of Trp95 at pocket F and the possible role of the third residue of the antigenic peptide as an auxiliary anchor in HLA-B*4006 peptide complexes. In the light of suggested promiscuous peptide binding pattern and association with risk for tuberculosis/HIV for this allele, the ascertainment of the predicted effects of Trp95 and role of P3 residue as an auxiliary anchor by this preliminary in silico analysis thus helps define direction of the further studies.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, February 2012, pp. 101-109

 

 

Effect of L-deprenyl treatment on electrical activity, Na+, K+ ATPase, and  protein kinase C activities in hippocampal subfields (CA1 and CA3) of aged rat brain

Rameshwar Singha, Monika Mishraa, Sangeeta Singhb & Deepak Sharmaa*

a School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India

b Department of Zoology, Bareilly College, Bareilly 243 001, India.

Received 26 May 2011; revised 19 September 2011

L-deprenyl is considered to protect against age-related cognitive deficits by improving long-term learning/memory in the aged brain. The CA1 and CA3 hippocampal areas are the sites at which initial learning and memory processes occur. Chronic deprenyl treatment significantly augmented the basal electrical firing rate (multiple-unit action potentials), and Na+, K+-ATPase and protein kinase C activities of both CA1 and CA3 indicating that the drug increased the excitability of CA1 and CA3. The increase, however, was much greater in CA1 than in CA3 suggesting that deprenyl can improve longer term learning in aged animals by its excitability-enhancing action in CA1. The drug also countered the ageing-related loss of hippocampal protein kinase C activity.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, February 2012, pp. 110-116

 

 

Cold stress interaction on organophosphate insecticide poisoning: Age-related assessment in rat cerebral cortex

Annappa Poojary & P Mahaboob Basha*

Department of Zoology, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560 056, India

Received 6 June 2011; revised 15 December 2011

The present study was undertaken to identify the nature of the interactive effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and cold stress (15° and 20°C) on the activities of acetyl cholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), Na+, K+-ATPase and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the cerebral cortex of 1 week, 3 weeks and 3 months of age. The results indicated an interaction of CPF with age of animal and cold exposure resulting in marked decrease in the activity levels of AChE, ChAT, Na+, K+-ATPase, followed by increased MDA levels. Overall, the effects of co-exposure of cold stress and CPF were appreciably different from either of the exposures. However, synergistic-action of CPF and cold stress at 15°C showed a greater inhibition of AChE, ChAT, and Na+, K+-ATPase in comparison with CPF or cold stress alone and together at 20°C. The results reveal that young animals are markedly more sensitive to interactive effects of CPF and cold stress than adults.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, February 2012, pp. 117-127

 

 

Anti-apoptotic potential of gymnemic acid phospholipid complex pretreatment in Wistar rats with experimental cardiomyopathy

Rahila Ahmad Pathan1, Uma Bhandari2, *, Saleem Javed3 & Tapas C Nag3

1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University, New Delhi 110 062, India

2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Hamdard University, New Delhi 110 062, India

3Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 029, India

Received 8 February 2011; revised 2 September 2011

Cardiomyocyte apoptosis in heart failure has been the topic of research in many recent studies. In the present investigation, the potential cardioprotective effect of gymnemic acid phospholipid complex (GPC) on myocardial apoptosis and cardiac function was studied in doxorubicin (DOX; 30 mg/kg/ip/single dose)-induced cardiomyopathy model in rats. Doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy was evidenced by significant hemodynamic changes (increased systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure and heart rate), decreased heart weight to body weight ratio, increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Ca2+ levels and decrease in myocardial Na+/K+ ATPase levels along with caspase-3 activation. A marked reduction in glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase levels along with increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acids (TBARS) were also observed in rat myocardium. In addition, DNA laddering observed on agarose gel electrophoresis and cardiac histopathology study further supplemented myocardial apoptosis. Pre-treatment with GPC significantly reduced DOX-induced cardiac toxicity, including improvement of hemodynamic variables and heart weight to body weight ratio, decreased serum Ca2+ level and LDH levels, myocardial caspase-3 levels, increased Na+/K+ ATPase levels and decreased myocardial TBARS levels and elevated antioxidant enzymes as compared to pathogenic control group. Further, the anti-apoptotic effect of GPC was verified by prevention of internucleosomal DNA laddering on agarose gel electrophoresis and attenuation of histopathological perturbations by doxorubicin. These observations demonstrate that GPC might serve as a cardioprotective formulation in DOX-induced cardiomyopathy in rats.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, February 2012, pp. 128-132

 

 

Curcumin increases vasodilatory effect of cilostazol in diabetic rat aorta

K E Nurullahoğlu-Atalık1*, N Okudan2 , M Belviranlı2, H Gökbel2 & L Şimşek2

Department of 1Pharmacology and 2Physiology, Faculty of Meram Medicine, University of Selçuk, Konya, 42080, Turkey

Received 16 May 2011; revised 1 December 2011

Increased generation of oxidants and (or) reduced endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms are associated with the etiology of diabetic vascular complications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether curcumin supplementation increases the vasodilatory effect of cilostazol in streptozotocin induced diabetic rat aorta. Cumulative addition of cilostazol caused concentration-dependent relaxations of thoracic aorta rings. The sensitivity and the maximal response to cilostazol were significantly higher in control than those in diabetic animals. Treatment with curcumin in control rats increased the sensitivity to cilostazol. Further, in aortic rings from diabetic rats treated with curcumin, the responses to cilostazol were significantly increased in comparison to the response in aorta from untreated diabetic rats. It can be conclude, that curcumin increases the cilostazol-induced vasodilation in diabetic rat aorta.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, February 2012, pp. 133-140

 

 

Progression of early phase diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced
diabetic rats: Evaluation of various kidney-related parameters

G Kiran, CD Nandini, HP Ramesh & PV Salimath*

Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI), Mysore 570 020, India

Received 23 August 2011; revised 15 November 2011

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the serious secondary complications of diabetes, which results in end-stage renal failure. Reports on the progressive nature of early phase DN especially with respect to kidney parameters such as kidney weight, type IV collagen excretion, total kidney and urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are few. This work was undertaken to determine systematically the progression of early phase DN in relation to various kidney-related parameters for a period of four months. Experimentally-induced diabetic rats were grouped based on fasting blood glucose levels. Various basic and kidney-related parameters such as kidney weight, microalbuminuria, urinary excretion of GAGs and type IV collagen, total kidney GAGs, histopathology, glomerular area and glomerular volume were examined in control and diabetic rats. There was a progressive increase in fasting blood sugar, urine sugar, kidney weight, microalbuminuria, urine glycosaminoglycans, urine type IV collagen, glomerular area and glomerular volume but there was a progressive decrease in kidney glycosaminoglycans. Glomerular sclerotic condition was aggravated with the increase in duration of diabetes from 1 to 4 months. Onset of DN in rats begins subtly after one month of diabetes but gets vitiated and more pronounced at the end of four months.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, February 2012, pp. 141-146

 

 

Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris linn on liver and kidney in cadmium intoxicated rats

G Dhana Lakshmi1, P Ravi Kumar1, K Bharavi1*, P Annapurna2, B Rajendar1, Pankaj T Patel1,
C S V Satish Kumar1 & G S Rao1

Department of 1Pharmacology & Toxicology and 2Veterinary Pathology, NTR College of Veterinary Science,
Gannavaram 521 102, India

Received 18 May 2011; revised 14 December 2011

Administration of cadmium (Cd) significantly increased the peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls along with significant decrease in antioxidant markers such as super oxide dismutase and reduced glutathione in liver and kidney tissues. Cadmium also caused a significant alteration in hepatic and renal functional markers in serum viz. total protein, albumin, alanine transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Prominent pathological changes observed in liver were severe vascular and sinusoidal congestion with diffuse degenerative changes and mononuclear infiltration into peripheral areas, while the kidney showed vascular and glomerular congestion, cloudy swelling of tubular epithelium. Co-administration of ethonolic extract of T. terrestris or vitamin E along with Cd significantly reversed the Cd induced changes along with significant reduction in Cd load.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, February 2012, pp. 147-155

 

 

Developmental and neurobehavioural toxicity study of arsenic on rats following gestational exposure

D N Gandhi1, G M Panchal1 & K G Patel2

Department of 1Neurobehavioral Toxicology and 2Endocrinology, National Institute of Occupational Health (ICMR),
Meghaninagar, Ahmedabad 380 016, India

Received 24 February 2011; revised 22 November2011

To characterize developmental and behavioral alterations induced by arsenic exposure, Albino rats were exposed to arsenic (0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 mg/kg/day/po) from gestation day 8 to till parturition and the offspring were observed over the first 3 postnatal weeks, until they were weaned on post-natal day (PND) 21. Once the pups were delivered (PND0), the treatment was discontinued. All pups were assessed for physical development, reflex development, strength and motor coordination from standard neurobehavioural developmental test batteries beginning on PND1. Gestational administration of arsenic at tested dose levels, showed no significant changes in the day of appearance of eye opening, startle reflex, negative geotaxis and spontaneous alteration performance in comparison to the control group. The number of live fetuses, mean fetal body weight and percentages of resorptions or malformations per litter were not affected by arsenic exposure. No treatment-related malformations or developmental variations were noted at any exposure level, suggesting that arsenic exposure at this dose level did not adversely affect behavioural endpoints of developmental toxicity.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, February 2012, pp. 156-163

 

 

Influence of mating histories and age on female remating behaviour in a few closely related species of Drosophila nasuta subgroup

B Shruthi1, Chayakumari1#, K Ravi Ram2 & S R Ramesh1*

1Unit on Evolution and Genetics, Department of Studies in Zoology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006, India

2Embryotoxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow 226 001, India

Received 10 March 2011; revised 26 September 2011

Female remating with more than one male leads to coexistence of sperm from different males in the same female, thus creating a selection pressure on sperm. To understand the extent of divergence in the reproductive behaviour among closely related species, in the present study, the influence of first mating histories like mating latency, duration of copulation and age of flies have been analysed on female remating behaviour in closely related Drosophila nasuta subgroup species with varying levels of reproductive isolation. The time taken for the once mated females to remate varied from 7 days in D. s. sulfurigaster to 19 days in D. s. neonasuta after first mating. The female remating frequency varied from a minimum of 29% in D. s. neonasuta to a maximum of 95% in D. s. sulfurigaster. The younger flies, which had remating latency of three times less than aged flies, show 100% remating frequency. In addition, it was observed that the duration of copulation in the first mating influences the remating behaviour among the nasuta subgroup members. The results revealed that D. nasuta subgroup members despite being closely related differ in their reproductive behaviour.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, February 2012, pp. 164-170

 

 

Regeneration of plantlets from mature embryo calli of Western Ghats land race cultivar of rice, Oryza sativa L.

A U Gnanesh1, V Krishna1,*, R Shashi Kumar1, Venkatesh1, S R Santosh Kumar1 & H E Shashidhar2

 

1P.G. Department of Studies and Research in Biotechnology and Bioinformatics,

Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta 577 451, India

and

2Department of Biotechnology, University of Agricultural Science, GKVK, Bangalore 600 065, India

Received 28 April 2011; revised 16 December 2011

The Malnad region located in the Western Ghats of Karnataka is known for the cultivation of indigenous rain fed land race cultivar of rice. The present study was to investigate the callogenic and caulogenic potentialities of the two indigenous rice cultivar namely Karimundaga and Kanadatumba using dehusked mature embryo explants. For callus and shoot bud differentiation, the explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2,4-D (1–3 mg/L), IAA (1–2 mg/L), Kn (1–4 mg/L) and BAP (1–4 mg/L). The morphogenic potentialities of the two rice cultivar differed in texture of callus. In both the cultivar callogenic frequency was optimized at 1 mg/L 2,4-D concentration, it was 94% in Karimundaga and 58% in Kanadatumba. Supplementation of IAA either alone (1–2 mg/L) or in combination with Kn or BAP at 1 to 4 mg/L concentration of each induces shoot bud differentiation from the calli. In the cultivar Karimundaga caulogenic frequency was highest (10.60±2.55) at 1.0 mg/L IAA and 4.0 mg/L BAP concentration. While in the cultivar Kanadatumba highest number of shoot buds (7.90±2.69) was differentiated at 1.0 mg/L IAA and 4.0 mg/L Kn concentration. The calli derived regenerants were successfully acclimatized in the greenhouse and agro-morphological variations were evaluated. The growth characteristics and yield related parameters exhibited by in vitro plants were lower than the in vivo plants.