Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 50

NUMBER 11

NOVEMBER 2012

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 50 (11) 749-832 (2012)

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Papers

 

Olfactory tract transection in neonatal rats: Evidence for Mitral cell regeneration and restoration of functional connectivity with its targets

755

S P Anil, T R Laxmi, Bindu M Kutty & T R Raju

 

 

 

Olfactory tract transection reveals robust tissue-level plasticity by cellular numbers and neurotrophic factor expression in olfactory bulb

765

Mansoor Ali Khan BM, Sunil Thomas, Jitendra Kumar Sinha, Phalguni Anand Alladi, Ravi V & T R Raju

 

 

 

Chronic fluoxetine treatment affects gene expression of catecholamine enzymes in the heart of depression model rats

771

Natasa Spasojevic, Predrag Jovanovic & Sladjana Dronjak

 

 

 

Antiobesity effect of Safoof Mohazzil, a polyherbal formulation, in cafeteria diet induced obesity in rats

776

Pooja Gupta, Jogender Mehla & Yogendra Kumar Gupta

 

 

 

Nanoemulsified ethanolic extract of Pyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn ameliorates CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats

785

V Deepa, R Sridhar, A Goparaju, P Neelakanta Reddy & P Balakrishna Murthy

 

 

 

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective action of Asparagus racemosus Willd. root extracts

795

S R Acharya, N S Acharya, J O Bhangale, S K Shah & S S Pandya

 

 

 

Virgin coconut oil improves hepatic lipid metabolism in rats膨ompared with copra oil, olive oil and sunflower oil

802

S Arunima & T Rajamohan

 

 

 

An efficient in vitro regeneration protocol for a natural dye yielding plant, Strobilanthes flaccidifolious Nees., from nodal explants

810

Chitta Ranjan Deb & T Arenmongla

 

 

 

Enhanced rosmarinic acid production in cultured plants of two species of Mentha

817

Debleena Roy & Sandip Mukhopadhyay

 

 

 

Cloning and expression of a small heat and salt tolerant protein (Hsp22) from Chaetomium globosum

826

Rashmi Aggarwal, Sangeeta Gupta, Sapna Sharma, Sagar Banerjee &
Priyanka Singh

 

 

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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology in Open Access Mode

 

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology (IJEB) is now an open access journal in the repository, NISCAIR Online Periodicals Repository (NOPR) [http://nopr.niscair.res.in].

Full text of all articles published in IJEB from 2006 onwards can now be accessed at NOPR in the open access mode. Papers in the current issue shall be uploaded immediately. Papers published in earlier years shall be added soon.

NOPR is based on DSpace, a digital repository software, and allows document browsing, document searching and various search options like title, author name, keywords, year,
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Editor痴 Note

 

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology is covered in the following international abstracting and indexing services:

 

Science Citation Index ExpandedTM

PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov/)

MEDLINE

BIOSIS

Chemical Abstracts Service

Excerpta Medica

Informascience

Refrativnyi Zhurnal

Zoological Records

 

 

 

 

Author Index

Acharya N S

795

Acharya S R

795

Aggarwal Rashmi

826

Alladi Phalguni Anand

765

Anil S P

755

Arenmongla T

810

Arunima S

802

 

 

Banerjee Sagar

826

Bhangale J O

795

BM Mansoor Ali Khan

765

 

 

Deb Chitta Ranjan

810

Deepa V

785

Dronjak Sladjana

771

 

 

Goparaju A

785

Gupta Pooja

776

Gupta Sangeeta

826

Gupta Yogendra Kumar

776

 

 

Jovanovic Predrag

771

 

 

Kutty Bindu M

755

 

 

Laxmi T R

755

 

 

Mehla Jogender

776

Mukhopadhyay Sandip

817

Murthy P Balakrishna

785

 

 

Pandya S S

795

 

 

Rajamohan T

802

Raju T R

755,765

Reddy P Neelakanta

785

Roy Debleena

817

 

 

Shah S K

795

Sharma Sapna

826

Singh Priyanka

826

Sinha Jitendra Kumar

765

Spasojevic Natasa

771

Sridhar R

785

 

 

Thomas Sunil

765

 

 

V Ravi

765

 

 

 

 

Keyword Index

Antidepressant

771

Antioxidant activity

795

Apolipoproteins

802

Asparagus racemosus

795

 

 

Bile acids

802

 

 

Cafeteria diet

776

Catecholamine enzymes


771

CCl4

795

Chaetomium globosum

826

 

 

Depression

771

Diet induced obesity

776

 

 

Gene cloning

826

Gene expression

771

 

 

Heart

771

Hepatoprotection

795

Hepatoprotective activity


785

Herbal

776

Insulin

776

 

 

Leptin

776

Lipid levels

802

Lipogenic enzymes

802

Lipoprotein lipase

802

Local field potentials

755

 

 

Mentha

817

Micropropagation

810,817

Mitral cells

755,765

 

 

Nanoemulsion

785

Natural dye yielding plant


810

Neuroregeneration

765

Neurotrophic factors

765

Nodal explants

810

 

 

Olfactory bulb

765

Olfactory tract transaction


755,765

Olive oil

802

Phenylalanine

817

Phyllanthus amarus

785

Piriform cortex

755

 

 

Real-time PCR

765

Regeneration

755

Rosmarinic acid

817

 

 

Safoof Mohazzil

776

Small heat shock protein


826

Sodium alginate

785

Stress tolerance

826

Strobilanthes flaccidifolious


810

 

 

Tissue culture

810

Tyrosine

817

 

 

Unani medicin

776

 

 

Virgin coconut oil

802

 

 

 

 

Correspondent author has been indicated by * sign

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, November 2012, pp. 755-764

 

 

Olfactory tract transection in neonatal rats: Evidence for Mitral cell regeneration and restoration of functional connectivity with its targets

S P Anil1, T R Laxmi2, Bindu M Kutty & T R Raju*

Department of Neurophysiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS),
Hosur Road, PB No. 2900, Bangalore 560 029, India

Received 14 May 2012; revised 9 August 2012

Central Nervous System (CNS) regeneration and repair mechanism are two important aspects of functional recovery in the adult central nervous system following brain and spinal cord injury. Following olfactory tract transection in neonatal rats, functional connectivity between the olfactory bulb and the piriform cortex gets re-established by 120 days. The recovery of the dendritic morphology was associated with the synchronized oscillatory activity between olfactory bulb and piriform cortex. Mitral cells which were regenerated after the transection showed profuse branching, indicative of their undifferentiated state. However, normal dendritic morphology could be seen by 120 days after olfactory tract transection. These results thus provide a supportive evidence for the restoration of the functional connections between the olfactory bulb and the piriform cortex at 120 days.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, November 2012, pp. 765-832

 

 

Olfactory tract transection reveals robust tissue-level plasticity by
cellular numbers and neurotrophic factor expression in olfactory bulb

Mansoor Ali Khan BM1, Sunil Thomas1, Jitendra Kumar Sinha1, Phalguni Anand Alladi1,
Ravi V2 & T R Raju1*

Departments of 1Neurophysiology and 2Neurovirology,

National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Hosur Road,

Bangalore 560029, India

Received 14 May 2012; revised 17 August 2012

Nervous system lesions are characterized by the loss of neuronal numbers and types. The neurotrophic factor levels in an injured tissue reflect their potential for regeneration. This hypothesis was investigated in olfactory bulb (OB), where olfactory tract was surgically transected disrupting neuronal migration and turnover. The effects were followed with quantification of mitral cells and three neurotrophic factors mRNA levels for 6 weeks. The neuronal numbers decreased by 3rd- and 4th-week in transected OBs followed by their restoration, comparable with that of controls at 5th- and 6th-week. The endogenous levels of three neurotrophic factors (brain derived neurotrophic factor, insulin growth factor-1 and fibroblast growth factor-2) using qPCR showed increase at 2nd-week by 136-, 8- and 2-fold respectively. Also, there was a significant increase in specific neurotrophic factors at 5th-week and 6th-weeks. The results propose a temporal link between deployment of neurotrophic factors and the plausible restorative events for mitral cell numbers in OB.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, November 2012, pp. 771-775

 

 

Chronic fluoxetine treatment affects gene expression of catecholamine enzymes in the heart of depression model rats

Natasa Spasojevic*, Predrag Jovanovic & Sladjana Dronjak

Laboratory for Molecular Biology and Endocrinology, Institute of Nuclear Sciences 天inca,
University of Belgrade, 11 000 Belgrade, Serbia

Received 27 April 2012; revised 3 August 2012

Depression is associated with increased risk of coronary heart diseases. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been proved to be very effective in normalizing symptoms of depression, but the data on possible influence of these drugs on cardiovascular function is controversial. Applying Taqman RT-PCR assay, the effect of chronic treatment with a SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine has been investigated on gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in all four heart chambers of rats with signs of depression. Depression was induced by exposing the animals to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine-゚-hydroxylase (DBH) mRNA levels were decreased both in right and left atria, while phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) mRNAs were increased in left atria and both ventricles of depression model rats. Fluoxetine elevated gene expression of TH and DBH in atria, but did not influence this process in the ventricles. Also, this antidepressant did not express a significant effect on the level of PNMT mRNA both in atria and ventricles. These results indicate that fluoxetine acted stimulating noradrenaline synthesis in the heart, which could lead to increased risk of heart disease.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, November 2012, pp. 776-784

 

 

Antiobesity effect of Safoof Mohazzil, a polyherbal formulation,
in cafeteria diet induced obesity in rats

Pooja Gupta, Jogender Mehla & Yogendra Kumar Gupta*

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 029, India

Received 19 March 2012; revised 6 August 2012

Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions all over the world yet it lacks adequate treatment. Most of the drugs have failed either due to ineffectiveness or adverse effects. Complementary and alternative system of medicine is being used since ancient times. However, many of them have not been tested for efficacy and safety using modern scientific methods. Therefore, the antiobesity effect of Safoof Mohazzil, a polyherbal formulation, was evaluated in cafeteria diet induced obesity in female Sprague Dawley rats. Animals weighing 100150 g were divided into four groups (n=8) i.e. standard pellet diet, cafeteria diet control, cafeteria diet + Safoof Mohazzil and standard pellet diet plus Safoof Mohazzil. The formulation was administered orally at a dose of 1 g/kg/day for 14 weeks. At the end of study, cafeteria diet significantly increased body weight, Lee痴 index, lipid profile (cholesterol and triglycerides), insulin and leptin levels as compared to standard pellet diet control group. Fourteen week treatment with Safoof Mohazzil significantly prevented the increase in body weight, Lee痴 index, lipid profile, insulin and leptin levels as compared to cafeteria diet control group without affecting food and water intake. Safoof Mohazzil had no adverse effect on hepatic transaminases, locomotor activity and motor coordination. The study provides evidence for antiobesity effect of Safoof Mohazzil.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, November 2012, pp. 785-794

 

 

Nanoemulsified ethanolic extract of Pyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn ameliorates CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats

V Deepa1*, R Sridhar1, A Goparaju2, P Neelakanta Reddy3 & P Balakrishna Murthy4

1Department of Biotechnology, 2Department of Statistics &
4Department of Toxicology, International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology,
Kanchipuram District, Padappai 601 301, India, 3Bio-organic Chemistry Laboratory,
CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute, Adayar, Chennai 600 020, India

Received 4 November 2011; revised 27 August 2012

Phyllanthus amarus (PA) is commonly used in traditional medicine for hepatoprotectivity. The major limitation is that, treatment requires a large quantity of herbal extract for a longer duration. Aim of the present study was to encapsulate ethanolic plant extract for sustained release of constituents in intestine and facilitate maximum absorption. The efficacy was compared for the hepatoprotective activity of nanoencapsulated ethanolic extract of P. amarus (NPA) and PA in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxic male rats. Based on total phenol content (TPC), the loading efficiency of nanocapsules was 89% (pH 7.0) and optimum concentration was 2:18 (mg/mL) for plant extract: olive oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed a spherical morphology, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) identified mean particle diameter as 213 nm and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed that the phytoconstituents were stable. An oral dose of NPA (20 mg/kg body wt.) showed a better hepatoprotective activity than PA (100 mg/kg body wt.) and also repeated dose oral toxicity proved to be safe. These biochemical assessments were supported by rat biopsy examinations. In conclusion, the nanoemulsification method may be applied for poor water-soluble ethanolic herbal extracts to reduce the dosage and time.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, November 2012, pp. 795-801

 

 

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective action of Asparagus racemosus
Willd. root extracts

S R Acharyaa*, N S Acharyaa, J O Bhangalea, S K Shahb & S S Pandyac

aDepartment of Pharmacognosy, Institute of Pharmacy, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, 382 481, India

bDepartment of Pharmacology, Sardar Patel College of Pharmacy, Anand, 388 315, India

cCollege of Pharmacy, Rampura, 389 340, India

Received 20 April 2012; revised 17 August 2012

The antioxidant activities of the crude hydro-alcoholic extract (CE) and its four fractions viz. methanol (MF), ethyl acetate (EF), n-Butanol (BF), and precipitated aqueous (PAF) of A.racemosus roots tested decreased in the order of EF > MF > CE > BF > PAF when investigated by DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Under iron induced lipid peroxidation almost similar results were observed except that the activity was more in PAF than BF. Hepatoprotective activity of the extracts was also demonstrable in vivo by the inhibition of砲Cl4 induced formation of lipid peroxides in the liver of rats by pretreatment with the extracts. CCl4吠nduced hepatotoxicity in rats, as judged by the raised serum enzymes viz. glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total and direct bilirubin as well as oxidant enzyme viz. malon dialdehyde were prevented, while antioxidant enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase were elevated by pretreatment with the extracts, demonstrating the potent hepatoprotective action of the roots of A. racemosus.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, November 2012, pp. 802-816

 

 

Virgin coconut oil improves hepatic lipid metabolism in rats膨ompared with
copra oil, olive oil and sunflower oil

 

S Arunima & T Rajamohan*

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, 695 581, India

Received 14 February 2012; revised 14 August 2012

Effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on lipid levels and regulation of lipid metabolism compared with copra oil (CO), olive oil (OO), and sunflower oil (SFO) has been reported. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed different oils at 8% level
for 45 days along with synthetic diet. Results showed that VCO feeding significantly lowered (P<0.05) levels of
total cholesterol, LDL+ VLDL cholesterol, Apo B and triglycerides in serum and tissues compared to rats fed CO, OO and SFO, while HDL-cholesterol and Apo A1 were significantly (P<0.05) higher in serum of rats fed VCO than other
groups. Hepatic lipogenesis was also down regulated in VCO fed rats, which was evident from the decreased activities of enzymes viz., HMG CoA reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme.
In addition, VCO significantly (P<0.05) increased the activities of lipoprotein lipase, lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase and enhanced formation of bile acids. Results demonstrated hypolipidemic effect of VCO by regulating the synthesis
and degradation of lipids.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, November 2012, pp. 810-816

 

 

An efficient in vitro regeneration protocol for a natural dye yielding plant, Strobilanthes flaccidifolious Nees., from nodal explants

Chitta Ranjan Deb* & T Arenmongla

Department of Botany, Nagaland University, Lumami 798 627, India

Received 4 October 2011; revised 9 August 2012

Adventitious shoot buds formation from axillary buds of nodal segments of S. flaccidifolious was achieved on MS medium containing sucrose (3%, w/v), and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA; 3 オM) and benzyl adenine (3 オM) in combination. The nodal segments were primed on 賎rowtak Sieve for 48 h on MS medium containing sucrose (2%), polyvinyl pyrollidone (200 mgL-1) as antioxidant. About 80% of primed nodal segments responded positively and formed ~12 adventitious shoot buds per explants from explants collected during October-November months of every year. The shoot buds converted into plantlets on MS medium containing sucrose (3%) and kinetin (3 オM) where ~7 micro shoots developed per subculture after 8 weeks of culture. The regenerated micro shoots induced average 14 roots/ plant on medium containing NAA (3 オM). The regenerates were hardened for 6-7 weeks on medium with スMS salt solution and sucrose (2%) under normal laboratory condition before transferring to potting mix. About 70% transplants survived after two months of transfer.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, November 2012, pp. 817-825

 

 

Enhanced rosmarinic acid production in cultured plants of two species of Mentha

Debleena Roy & Sandip Mukhopadhyay*

Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta,

35, Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019, India

Received 7 March 2012; revised 7 August 2012

In the present investigation an attempt has been made to enhance rosmarinic acid level in plants, grown in vitro, of
2 species of Mentha in presence of 2 precursors in the nutrient media during culture. For in vitro culture establishment and shoot bud multiplication, MS basal media were used supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of different growth regulator like NAA (α-napthaleneacetic acid), BAP (6-benzylaminopurine). The medium containing NAA (0.25 mg/L) and BAP (2.5 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot formation (average 58.0 numbers of shoots) per explant for Mentha piperita L. and the medium containing BAP (2.0 mg/L) gave the highest potentiality of shoot (average 19.2 numbers of shoots) formation per explant for Mentha arvensis L. The complete plants were regenerated in above mentioned media after 8 weeks of subculture. For in vitro enhancement of rosmarinic acid production, the 2 precursors tyrosine (Tyr) and phenylalanine (Phe) were added in the nutrient media at different levels (0.5 mg/L to 15.0 mg/L). Tyrosine was found to be very effective for augmenting rosmarinic acid content in Mentha piperita
L. It nearly increased the production up to 1.77 times. In case of Mentha arvensis L., phenylalanine significantly affected the production of rosmarinic acid and the production was nearly 2.03 times more than the control. No significant increase in biomass was observed after addition of these precursors indicating that the added amino acids acting as precursors for rosmarinic acid synthesis were readily utilized in producing rosmarinic acid without promoting growth. Total protein profile also revealed the presence of a specific band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 50, November 2012, pp. 826-832

 

 

Cloning and expression of a small heat and salt tolerant protein (Hsp22) from Chaetomium globosum

Rashmi Aggarwal*, Sangeeta Gupta, Sapna Sharma, Sagar Banerjee & Priyanka Singh1

Fungal Molecular Biology Laboratory, Division of Plant Pathology, 1Advance Centre of Virology,
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012, India

Received 9 March 2012; revised 14 August 2012

The present study reports molecular characterization of small heat shock protein gene in Indian isolates of
Chaetomium globosum, C. perlucidum, C. reflexum, C. cochlioides and C. cupreum. Six isolates of C. globosum and other species showed a band of 630bp using specific primers. Amplified cDNA product of C. globosum (Cg 1) cloned and sequenced showed 603bp open reading frame encoding 200 amino-acids. The protein sequence had a molecular mass of 22 kDa and was therefore, named Hsp22. BlastX analysis revealed that the gene codes for a protein homologous to previously characterized Hsp22.4 gene from C. globosum (
AAR36902.1, XP 001229241.1) and shared 95% identity in amino acid sequence. It also showed varying degree of similarities with small Hsp protein from Neurospora spp. (60%), Myceliophthora sp. (59%), Glomerella sp. (50%), Hypocrea sp. (52%), and Fusarium spp. (51%). This gene was further cloned into pET28a (+) and transformed E. coli BL21 cells were induced by IPTG, and the expressed protein of 30 kDa was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The IPTG induced transformants displayed significantly greater resistance to NaCl and Na2CO3 stresses.