Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 51

NUMBER 8

AUGUST 2013

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 51 (8) 569-680 (2013)

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

CONTENTS

Review Article

 

 

 

Actinobacteriological research in India

573

 

 

Sonashia Velho-Pereira & Nandkumar M Kamat

 

 

 

Papers

 

 

 

Cytotoxic function of gamma delta (γ/δ) T cells against pamidronate-treated cervical cancer cells

597

 

 

Monthon Lertworapreecha, Suthiluk Patumraj, Somchai Niruthisard, Pokrath Hansasuta &
Parvapan Bhattarakosol

 

 

 

Differential microglial and astrocytic response to bacterial and viral infection in the developing hippocampus of neonatal rats

606

 

 

Nisha Patro, Kavita Singh & Ishan Patro

 

 

 

In vitro cytotoxicity testing of new generation oxazaphosphorines against human histiocytic
lymphoma cells

615

 

 

Małgorzata Opydo-Chanek, Lidia Mazur & Marta Stojak

 

 

 

Mollusc C-reactive protein crosses species barrier and reverses hepatotoxicity of lead in rodent models

623

 

 

Sandip Mukherjee, Sarmishtha Chatterjee, Shuvasree Sarkar, Soumik Agarwal, Rakesh Kundu, Sudipta Maitra & Shelley Bhattacharya

 

 

 

Phytomodulatory potential of lycopene from Lycopersicum esculentum against doxorubicin
induced nephrotoxicity

635

 

 

Ashwani Koul, Shubrant & Prachi Gupta

 

 

 

Co-administration of trientine and flaxseed oil on oxidative stress, serum lipids and heart structure in diabetic rats

646

 

 

Ali Rezaei & Esfandiar Heidarian

 

 

Cardioprotective effect of methanolic extract of Marrubium vulgare L. on isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in rats

653

 

 

Keyvan Yousefi, Hamid Soraya, Fatemeh Fathiazad, Arash Khorrami, Sanaz Hamedeyazdan,
Nasrin Maleki-Dizaji & Alireza Garjani

 

 

Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of ethanol extract of stem barks from Zanthoxylum
rhoifolium
Lam. in rats

661

 

 

Edson Santos Ferreira-Filho, Daniel Dias Rufino Arcanjo, Lucas Henrique Porfírio Moura,
José Couras da Silva-Filho, Emanuel Tenório Paulino, Êurica Adélia Nogueira Ribeiro,
Mariana Helena Chaves, Rita de Cássia Meneses Oliveira & Aldeídia Pereira de Oliveira

 

 

Ultrastructural changes and oxidative stress markers in wild and cultivar Sesamum orientale L. following Alternaria sesami (Kawamura) Mohanty and Behera. inoculation

670

 

 

A S Lubaina & K Murugan

 

 

 

Announcement

 

 

 

National Conference on Environmental Impact and Organism Response (NCEIOR–2013)

572

———————————

Announcement

National Conference on Environmental Impact and Organism Response (NCEIOR–2013)

27 and 28 September 2013, Murtizapur, Dist. Akola

Organized by the Department of Zoology, Dr. R. G. Rathod Arts and Science College in collaboration with Indian Association of Aquatic Biologists (IAAB, Hyderabad) and Indian Academy of Environmental Sciences (IAES, Haridwar), the Conference will cover following areas: (i) Environmental Chemistry, (ii) Environmental Geography and Geology, (iii) Air and Water Pollution, (iv) Bioremediation, (v) Aquaculture and Fisheries, (vi) Organic Farming, (vii) Climate change and Global warming, (viii) Innovative Bioremedial Technologies, (ix) Environmental Impact on Biodiversity, (x) Environmental Management and Risk Assessment, (xi) Environmental Health Hazard, (xii) Environmental Pollution and Human Health, and (xiii) Environmental Biotechnology and related topics. For further details, please contact: Dr P M Makode, Convener NCEIOR–2013, Department of Zoology, Dr. R. G. Rathod Arts & Science College, Murtizapur, Dist Akola, India, 444 107. Telephone: 07264-243951; Fax: 07264-243951; Cell: 09420920640,9158460147. E-mail: nceior2013@gmail.com /nceior2013@rediffmail.com; Website: www.rgrcollmzr.org

——————————————

NISCAIR’s Policy on Plagiarism

The system of formal communication in science through publication in primary journals is based on originality and quality of information being the only criteria for publication. However, there have been tendencies to misuse the system and vitiate the process of science communication for personal benefits. One of the ills afflicting science communication is plagiarism. Attempts at plagiarism may range from verbatim, copying of extensive material of other authors, misappropriating results/data of others with minor changes in language/presentation without giving credit to original source, to publish essentially the same information more than once.

As the premier publisher in India of primary scientific journals in various disciplines of science and technology, NISCAIR strongly reiterates its policy of discouraging plagiarism of all kinds. All efforts are made detect and frustrate attempts at plagiarism through editorial screening and rigorous peer review in respect of communications received for publication in NISCAIR publications. Cooperation of the scientific community is sought in our efforts to frustrate all attempts at plagiarism.

In case any attempt to plagiarize is brought to our attention accompanied with convincing evidence, following steps would be taken:

(a)        After consulting the respective Editorial Board Members, authors guilty of plagiarism will be debarred from publishing their papers in NISCAIR journals

(b)       Heads of the departments/institutes of the offending authors will be intimated of such incidences of plagiarism.

(c)        Such incidents of plagiarism will be publicized through the concerned NISCAIR journals in consultation with the respective Editorial Board Members.

 

 

 

Author Index

Agarwal Soumik

623

Arcanjo Daniel Dias Rufino

661

 

 

Bhattacharya Shelley

623

Bhattarakosol Parvapan

597

 

 

Chatterjee Sarmishtha

623

Chaves Mariana Helena

661

 

 

Fatemeh Fathiazad

653

Ferreira-Filho Edson Santos

661

 

 

Garjani Alireza

653

Gupta Prachi

635

 

 

Hamedeyazdan Sanaz

653

Hansasuta Pokrath

597

Heidarian Esfandiar

646

Kamat Nandkumar M

573

Khorrami Arash

653

Koul Ashwani

635

Kundu Rakesh

623

 

 

Lertworapreecha Monthon

597

Lubaina A S

670

 

 

Maitra Sudipta

623

Maleki-Dizaji Nasrin

653

Mazur Lidia

615

Moura Lucas Henrique Porfírio

661

Mukherjee Sandip

623

Murugan K

670

 

 

Niruthisard Somchai

597

 

 

Oliveira Aldeídia Pereira de

661

Oliveira Rita de Cássia Meneses

661

Opydo-Chanek Małgorzata

615

Patro Ishan

606

Patro Nisha

606

Patumraj Suthiluk

597

Paulino Emanuel Tenório

661

 

 

Rezaei Ali

646

Ribeiro Êurica Adélia Nogueira

661

 

 

Sarkar Shuvasree

623

Shubrant

635

Silva-Filho José Couras da

661

Singh Kavita

606

Soraya Hamid

653

Stojak Marta

615

 

 

Velho-Pereira Sonashia

573

 

 

Yousefi Keyvan

653

 

 

Keyword Index

Achatina fulica

623

Actinobacteria

573

Alternaria sesami

670

Antibiotics

573

Anti-hypertensive

661

Antioxidant enzymes

670

Apoptosis

623

Apoptosis and necrosis

615

Appresoria

670

Astrocytes

606

 

 

Biodiversity

573

Bioprospecting

573

 

 

Cardiovascular

661

Cell count

615

Cell viability

615

Cervical cancer

597

C-reactive protein

623

Cytotoxicity

615

 

 

Diabetes

646

Doxorubicin

635

 

 

Electrocardiography

653

Electron microscopy

670

Enzymes

573

 

 

Flaxseed oil

646

 

 

Gamma-delta T cells

597

 

 

Hypertension

661

 

 

Immunotherapy

597

India

573

Infections

606

Isoproterenol

653

Isozyme

670

 

 

Lead toxicity

623

Lipopolysaccharide

606

Liver

623

Lycopene

635

 

 

Marrubium vulgare

653

Microglia

606

Mitochondrial membrane potential

615

Myocardial infarction

653

 

 

Nephrotoxicity

635

 

 

Oxazaphosphorines

615

Oxidative stress

623

Oxidative stress

646

 

 

Pamidronate

597

Phytomodulation

635

Poly I:C

606

Protein banding

670

 

 

Rodents

623

 

 

Serum lipids

646

Sesamum orientale

670

 

 

Trientine

646

 

 

U937 cells

615

 

 

Vasorelaxation

661

 

 

Zanthoxylum rhoifolium

661

 

 

            Correspondent author is marked by *

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, August 2013, pp. 573-596

 

 

Review Article

 

 

Actinobacteriological research in India

Sonashia Velho-Pereira & Nandkumar M Kamat*

Department of Botany, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Goa, 403 206, India

Actinobacteria are important sources of compounds for drug discovery and have attracted considerable pharmaceutical, chemical, agricultural and industrial interests. Actinobacteriological research is still in its infancy in India. Early work on actinobacteria started in the 20th century and mostly focused on studying the diversity, identification and screening for antibiotics, enzymes and enzyme inhibitors. Exploration of diverse habitats for the isolation of actinobacteria, have yielded till date 23 novel species. Screening of actinobacteria for antagonistic activity, has led to the discovery of four novel antibiotics. Research on enzymes mostly covered lipases, amylases, proteases, endoglucanases, α-galactosidases, pectin lyases, xylanases, L-asparaginases, L-glutaminase and cellulases. Research on exploiting actinobacteria for other purposes such as production of enzyme inhibitors, single cell protein, bioemulsifier and biosurfactants is still in the experimental stage. This review compiles the work done in last few years, with an emphasis on actinobacterial diversity and bioprospecting for pharmaceutically important compounds like antibiotics, enzymes and other important applications. The chemical creativity and biotechnological potential of Indian actinobacterial strains are yet to be fully explored. A national strategy is required consistent with the opportunities provided by CBD-Nagoya protocol.

 

 

Papers

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, August 2013, pp. 597-605

 

 

Cytotoxic function of gamma delta (g/d) T cells against pamidronate-
treated cervical cancer cells

Monthon Lertworapreecha1, Suthiluk Patumraj2, Somchai Niruthisard3,

Pokrath Hansasuta4 & Parvapan Bhattarakosol4,*

1Interdisciplinary Program of Medical Microbiology, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University,
Bangkok 10330, Thailand

Department of 2Physiology, 3Gynecology, 4Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Rama 4 Road, Bangkok 10330, Thailand

Received 15 May 2012; revised 8 February 2013

The cytotoxic function of polyclonal expanded g/d T cells against pamidronate-treated cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo were determined. The g/d T cells were isolated and purified from PBMCs by using miniMACS and were later treated with 10 μM pamidronate. The expansion of g/d T cells was 15 times more than the non-stimulated cells. Among the expanded g/d T cells, 47% were Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells with a purity of 87%. Analyzing the cytotoxic function of g/d T cells against 3 cervical cancer cells in vitro by LDH cytotoxicity test revealed that the killing efficacy increased if the cervical cancer cells (HeLa, SiHa and CaSki) were pretreated with pamidronate. The presence of CD107 on g/d T cells indicated the degranulation of perforin and granzyme pathway is one of the mechanisms used by the g/d T cells to kill cancer cells. The killing ability of g/d T cells against cancer cells in vivo was preliminary assessed by using mouse baring HeLa cells. The results demonstrated that g/d T cells induce apoptosis in tumor cells. Our study supports the usefulness of g/d T cells in future development of immunotherapy for cervical cancer.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, August 2013, pp. 606-614

 

 

Differential microglial and astrocytic response to bacterial and viral infection in the developing hippocampus of neonatal rats

Nisha Patro1, Kavita Singh1 & Ishan Patro1,2,*

Schools of Studies in 1Neuroscience and 2Zoology, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, India

Received 8 January 2013; revised 25 April 2013

Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C; 5 mg/kg body weight, ip) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.3 mg/kg
body weight, ip) induced microglial and astrocytic activation in Sprague Dawley rats. Higher microglial and astrocytic activities were noticed in Poly I:C infused rats throughout the hippocampus till postnatal day 21 with a comparatively weaker response in LPS group. However, LPS induced inflammation persisted even after postnatal day 21, indicating thereby, that the Poly I:C (viral mimic) produces an acute inflammation, while LPS (bacterial endotoxin) produces chronic inflammation when exposed during early neonatal life.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, August 2013, pp. 615-622

 

 

In vitro cytotoxicity testing of new generation oxazaphosphorines
against human histiocytic lymphoma cells

Małgorzata Opydo-Chanek, Lidia Mazur* & Marta Stojak

Department of Experimental Hematology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387 Cracow, Poland

Received 26 March 2013

Oxazaphosphorines belong to a group of alkylating agents. Mafosfamide cyclohexylamine salt (D-17272), 4-hydro-peroxy-cyclophosphamide (D-18864) and glufosfamide (D-19575, β-D-glucose-isophosphoramide mustard) are new generation oxazaphosphorines. The objective of the present study was to compare the cytotoxic action of these oxazaphosphorine compounds against human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells. The chemical structures of the oxazaphosphorines were responsible for the different responses of U937 cells. The cytotoxic effects of D-17272, D-18864, and D-19575 on U937 cells depended on the agent tested, its dose, and the time intervals after the oxazaphosphorine application. Among the oxazaphosphorine agents, D-18864 appeared to be the most cytotoxic, and D-19575 was characterized by the lowest cytotoxicity. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of the oxazaphosphorines were strongly associated with their cell death inducing potential.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, August 2013, pp. 623-634

 

 

Mollusc C-reactive protein crosses species barrier and reverses hepatotoxicity of lead in rodent models

Sandip Mukherjee1, Sarmishtha Chatterjee1, Shuvasree Sarkar1, Soumik Agarwal1#, Rakesh Kundu2,
Sudipta Maitra3 & Shelley Bhattacharya1
*

1Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, 2Molecular Endocrinology Laboratory, 3Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory,
Department of Zoology, Centre for Advanced Studies, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235, India

Received 11 February 2013; revised 2 May 2013

Achatina fulica C-reactive protein (ACRP) reversed the toxic effects of lead nitrate both in vivo in mice and in vitro in rat hepatocytes restoring the basal level of cell viability, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and superoxides. Cytotoxicity was also significantly ameliorated in rat hepatocytes by in vitro pre-treatments with individual subunits
(60, 62, 90 and 110 kDa) of ACRP. Annexin V-Cy3/CFDA dual staining showed significant reduction in the number of apoptotic hepatocytes pre-treated with ACRP. ACRP induced restoration of mitochondrial membrane potential was remarkable. ACRP pre-treatment prevented Pb-induced apoptosis mediated by caspase activation. The antagonistic effect of ACRP may be due to scavenging of reactive oxygen species which maintained the homeostasis of cellular redox potential as well as reduced glutathione status. The results suggest that ACRP crosses the species barrier and it may be utilized as a viable exogenous agent of cytoprotection against heavy metal related toxicity.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, August 2013, pp. 635-645

 

 

Phytomodulatory potential of lycopene from Lycopersicum esculentum against doxorubicin induced nephrotoxicity

Ashwani Koul*, Shubrant & Prachi Gupta

Department of Biophysics, Basic Medical Sciences Block, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India

Received 23 July2012; revised 9 April 2013

An elevated level of serum urea and creatinine was observed in doxorubicin (DOX) treated animals indicating
DOX-induced nephrotoxicity. Enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the renal tissue was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities. Administration of lycopene (LycT) extracted from tomato to DOX treated mice showed a significant reduction in serum creatinine and urea levels which were associated with significantly low levels of LPO and significantly enhanced level of GSH and related antioxidant enzymes activity (GPx, GR and CAT) when compared to DOX group. Histopathological analysis revealed severe damage in the renal tissue of DOX treated animals. However, animals pretreated with LycT were observed to have reduced damage. Thus, from present results it may be inferred that lycopene may be beneficial in mitigating DOX induced nephrotoxicity in mice.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, August 2013, pp. 646-652

 

 

Co-administration of trientine and flaxseed oil on oxidative stress, serum lipids and heart structure in diabetic rats

Ali Rezaei1 & Esfandiar Heidarian2*

1Department of Biochemistry, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran

2Clinical Biochemistry Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran

Received 15 June 2012; revised 30 April 2013

The administration of flaxseed oil or flaxseed oil plus trientine in diabetic rats reduced triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol. Furthermore, the combined treatment significantly increased superoxide dismutase activity and attenuated serum Cu2+. The results suggest that the administration of flaxseed oil plus trientine is useful in controlling serum lipid abnormalities, oxidative stress, restoring heart structure, and reducing serum Cu2+ in diabetic rats.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, August 2013, pp. 653-660

 

 

Cardioprotective effect of methanolic extract of Marrubium vulgare L. on isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in rats

Keyvan Yousefi1, Hamid Soraya2, Fatemeh Fathiazad3, Arash Khorrami2, Sanaz Hamedeyazdan3,
Nasrin Maleki-Dizaji2 & Alireza Garjani2,*

1Student Research Committee; Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of
Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

3Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of
Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

Received 28 February 2012; revised 20 May 2013

Isoproterenol injection (100 mg/kg; sc) produced changes in ECG pattern including ST-segment elevation and suppressed R-amplitude. The methanolic extract of M. vulgare at doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg significantly amended the ECG changes. A severe myocardial necrosis and edematous along with a sharp reduction in the arterial blood pressure, left ventricular contractility (LVdP/dtmax or min), but a marked increase in the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were seen in the isoproterenol group. All parameters were significantly improved by the extract treatment. The extract (10 mg/kg) strongly increased LVdP/dtmax. Similarly, treatment with 40 mg/kg of M. vulgare lowered the elevated LVEDP and the heart to body weight ratio. In addition to in vitro antioxidant activity, the extract suppressed markedly the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both in serum and in myocardium. The results demonstrate that M. vulgare protects myocardium against isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction and suggest that the effects could be related to antioxidant activities.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, August 2013, pp. 661-669

 

 

Antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of ethanol extract of stem barks from Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. in rats

 

Edson Santos Ferreira-Filhoa, Daniel Dias Rufino Arcanjoa,*, Lucas Henrique Porfírio Mouraa,
José Couras da Silva-Filhoa, Emanuel Tenório Paulinob, Êurica Adélia Nogueira Ribeirob,
Mariana Helena Chavesc, Rita de Cássia Meneses Oliveiraa & Aldeídia Pereira de Oliveiraa

aMedicinal Plants Research Center, Federal University of Piauí, Av. Nossa Senhora de Fátima s/n,
SG-15, 64049-550, Teresina, PI, Brazil

bCardiovascular Pharmacology Laboratory, Federal University of Alagoas, Brazil.

cDepartment of Chemistry, Federal University of Piauí, Teresina, PI, Brazil.

Received 25 June 2012; revised 15 May 2013

Administration of ethanol extract of stem bark from Z. rhoifolium (EEtOH-ZR) induced hypotension associated with a dual effect in heart rate in normotensive rats. This response was highlighted in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).
In rat superior mesenteric artery rings, the cumulative addition of EEtOH-ZR (0.1–750
µg/mL) on a phenylephrine-induced pre-contraction (10-5 M) promoted a vasorelaxant effect by a concentration-dependent manner and independent of vascular endothelium. A similar effect was obtained on KCl-induced pre-contractions (80 mM).
EEtOH-ZR attenuated contractions induced by cumulative addition of CaCl2 (10-6–3 × 10-2 M) in depolarizing medium without Ca2+ only at 500 or 750 µg/mL. Likewise, on S-()-Bay K 8644-induced pre-contractions (10-7 M), the EEtOH-ZR-induced vasorelaxant effect was attenuated. EEtOH-ZR (27, 81, 243 or 500 µg/mL) inhibited contractions induced by cumulative addition of phenylephrine (10-9 - 10-5 M) in endothelium-denuded preparations or by a single concentration (10-5 M) in a Ca2+-free medium. The involvement of K+ channels was evaluated by tetraethylammonium (3 mM); the EEtOH-ZR-induced vasorelaxation was not attenuated. Thus, calcium influx blockade through voltage-operated calcium channels (CaVL) and inhibition of calcium release from intracellular stores are probably underlying EEtOH-ZR-induced cardiovascular effects.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, August 2013, pp. 670-680

 

 

Ultrastructural changes and oxidative stress markers in wild and cultivar Sesamum orientale L. following Alternaria sesami (Kawamura) Mohanty
and Behera. inoculation

A S Lubaina & K Murugan*

Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University College, Trivandrum, 695 034, India

Received 30 October 2012; revised 22 April 2013

Alternaria sesami causes leaf spot disease in Sesamum orientale. Conidium germination, inoculation, penetration and colonization of the pathogen on the plant surfaces were studied using scanning electron microscopy. Electron microscopy analysis revealed multiple germ tubes from conidium that spread in all direction across the leaf surfaces. Penetration in the plant surface occured, directly through the epidermis or via stomata with or without the appressoria formation. Hyphal penetration continued through the substomata cavity and some of hyphal branches grew in the intercellular space of mesophyll tissue. Hyphal toxin, caused cell and cell wall damages. Changes in different biochemical parameters in the diseased sesame plants (both in wild and cultivar) were compared to control. Transmission electron microscopy showed structural changes in the chloroplast of diseased plants. Isozyme pattern and assays of different enzymes, namely catalase, acid phosphatase and peroxidase expressed varied level of activities. Meanwhile, esterase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase in diseased plants showed remarkable levels compared to control. Due to the infection, chlorophyll content, carbohydrates and total soluble protein decreased whereas free amino acid, proline, phenols and disease-related proteins increased in the host plants. Differential SDS-PAGE band profiling of total soluble proteins were also observed in plants due to the infection.