Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 51

NUMBER 12

DECEMBER 2013

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 51 (12) 1049-1164 (2013)

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

CONTENTS

 

Papers

 

 

 

Polymeric nanoparticle formulation of Octapeptide (NP-OP): In vitro release and in vivo effect in common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus Linn.

1055

 

 

T D Nandedkar, P Sagvekar, B Thakur, R Navlakhe, S Chitnis, S D Mahale, S D’Souza,
K D Patel & PR Vavia

 

 

 

Isolation, characterization and antigenic cross-reactivities of the major hemorrhagin from Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus venom

1063

 

 

Shin Yee Fung & Nget Hong Tan

 

 

 

Housing under the pyramid reduces susceptibility of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons to prenatal stress in the developing rat offspring

1070

 

 

Krishna Dilip Murthy, Mitchel Constance George, Perumal Ramasamy & Zainal Arifin Mustapha

 

 

 

Specific absorption rate variation in a brain phantom due to exposure by a 3G mobile phone: Problems in dosimetry

1079

 

 

J Behari & Jay Prakash Nirala

 

 

 

Neurobiological effect of 7-nitroindazole, a neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, in experimental paradigm of Alzheimer’s disease

1086

 

 

Shubham Misra, Anurag Kuhad & Kanwaljit Chopra

 

 

 

Learning and memory promoting effects of crude garlic extract

1094

 

 

Dhrubajyoti Mukherjee & Sugato Banerjee

 

 

 

Anti-diabetic effect of a combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of Andrographis paniculata (Burm f.) Nees and asiaticoside-enriched extract of Centella asiatica L. in high fructose-fat fed rats

1101

 

 

Agung Endro Nugroho, Novena Yety Lindawati, Kyky Herlyanti, Lina Widyastuti & Suwidjiyo Pramono

 

 

 

Protective effect of secondary plant metabolites from Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. against carbofuran induced damages

1109

 

 

Sanjukta Datta, Mahuya Sinha, Dipesh Das, Santinath Ghosh & Pubali Dhar

 

 

 

A novel combination of plant growth regulators for in vitro regeneration of complete plantlets of guar [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.]

1120

 

 

S Verma, K S Gill, V Pruthi, K S Dhugga & G S Randhawa

 

 

 

Deployment of gene specific marker in development of kunitz trypsin inhibitor free
soybean genotypes

1125

 

 

Vineet Kumar, Anita Rani & Reena Rawal

 

 

 

Molecular cloning and mRNA expression profile of Sucrose Transporter Gene BnSUT1C from Brassica napus L.

1130

 

 

FuPeng Li, Lin Yan, Jianxiong Lai, ChaoZhi Ma, Mayank Gautam & TingDong Fu

 

 

 

Annual Index

 

 

 

Annual Contents

1137

 

 

Annual Keyword Index

1151

 

 

Annual Author Index

1155

 

 

List of Experts

1159

 

 

——————————————

 

NISCAIR’s Policy on Plagiarism

The system of formal communication in science through publication in primary journals is based on originality and quality of information being the only criteria for publication. However, there have been tendencies to misuse the system and vitiate the process of science communication for personal benefits. One of the ills afflicting science communication is plagiarism. Attempts at plagiarism may range from verbatim, copying of extensive material of other authors, misappropriating results/data of others with minor changes in language/presentation without giving credit to original source, to publish essentially the same information more than once.

As the premier publisher in India of primary scientific journals in various disciplines of science and technology, NISCAIR strongly reiterates its policy of discouraging plagiarism of all kinds. All efforts are made detect and frustrate attempts at plagiarism through editorial screening and rigorous peer review in respect of communications received for publication in NISCAIR publications. Cooperation of the scientific community is sought in our efforts to frustrate all attempts at plagiarism.

In case any attempt to plagiarize is brought to our attention accompanied with convincing evidence, following steps would be taken:

(a)        After consulting the respective Editorial Board Members, authors guilty of plagiarism will be debarred from publishing their papers in NISCAIR journals

(b)       Heads of the departments/institutes of the offending authors will be intimated of such incidences of plagiarism.

(c)        Such incidents of plagiarism will be publicized through the concerned NISCAIR journals in consultation with the respective Editorial Board Members.

 

 

 

Author Index

Banerjee Sugato

1094

Behari J

1079

 

 

Chitnis S

1055

Chopra Kanwaljit

1086

 

 

Das Dipesh

1109

Datta Sanjukta

1109

Dhar Pubali

1109

D'Souza S

1055

 

 

Fu TingDong

1130

Fung Shin Yee

1063

 

 

Gautam Mayank

1130

George Mitchel Constance

1070

Ghosh Santinath

1109

Gill K S

1120

 

 

Herlyanti Kyky

1101

Kuhad Anurag

1086

Kumar Vineet

1125

 

 

Lai Jianxiong

1130

Li FuPeng

1130

Lindawati Novena Yety

1101

 

 

Ma ChaoZhi

1130

Mahale S D

1055

Misra Shubham

1086

Mukherjee Dhrubajyoti

1094

Murthy Krishna Dilip

1070

Mustapha Zainal Arifin

1070

 

 

Nandedkar T D

1055

Navlakhe R

1055

Nirala Jay Prakash

1079

Nugroho Agung Endro

1101

 

 

Patel K D

1055

Pramono Suwidjiyo

1101

Pruthi V K S Dhugga

1120

Ramasamy Perumal

1070

Randhawa G S

1120

Rani Anita

1125

Rawal Reena

1125

 

 

Sagvekar P

1055

Sinha Mahuya

1109

 

 

Tan Nget Hong

1063

Thakur B

1055

 

 

Vavia P R

1055

Verma S

1120

 

 

Widyastuti Lina

1101

 

 

Yan Lin

1130

 

 

Keyword Index

7-nitroindazole

1086

 

 

Alzheimer's disease

1086

Andrographis paniculata

1101

Anther

1130

Anti-fertility

1055

Antioxidant enzymes

1109

 

 

Brassica napus

1130

 

 

CA3 pyramidal neurons

1070

Carbofuran,

1109

Centella asiatica

1101

Cholinergic system

1094

Chronic restraint-stress

1070

Corticosterone

1070

Cotyledonary node

1120

Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus

1063

 

 

Diabetes mellitus

1101

 

 

ELISA

1063

Encapsulation efficiency

1055

Expression pattern

1130

Flavonoids

1109

Follicle Stimulating hormone binding-inhibitor

1055

 

 

Garlic

1094

Gene specific marker

1125

Gestation

1070

Guar

1120

 

 

High-fructose-fat diet

1101

Hippocampus

1070

Hyperlipidemia

1101

 

 

In vitro

1120

 

 

Kunitz trypsin inhibitor

1125

 

 

Learning

1094

Lipid peroxidation

1109

 

 

Memory

1094

Mobile phone exposures

1079

Monopole probe

1079

Nitrergic signaling

1086

Nitric Oxide

1086

nNOS

1086

 

 

Oxidative stress

1109

 

 

Phantom material Specific absorption rate

1079

Polylactide

1055

Prenatal stress Offspring

1070

Pyramid

1070

 

 

Regeneration

1120

 

 

Snake venom hemorrhagiN

1063

Soybean

1125

Streptozotocin

1086

Sucrose transporter

1130

Synthetic peptides

1055

 

 

Taxonomy

1063

TEM

1055

Trimeresurus complex

1063

 

 

 

 

            Correspondent author is marked by *

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, December 2013, pp. 1055-1062

 

 

 

Polymeric nanoparticle formulation of Octapeptide (NP-OP): In vitro release and in vivo effect in common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus Linn.

TD Nandedkar1*, P Sagvekar1, B Thakur1, R Navlakhe1, S Chitnis1, SD Mahale1, S D’Souza1, KD Patel2 & PR Vavia2

1 National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health (ICMR), Parel, Mumbai 400 012, India

2Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019, India

Received 21 March 2013; revised 31 July 2013

Octapeptide (OP)/FSH-Receptor Binding Inhibitor-8 (FRBI-8), is a synthetic peptide corresponding to N-terminal sequence of purified fraction of Follicle Stimulating Hormone Binding-Inhibitor (FSHBI), isolated earlier from human ovarian follicular-fluid. In order to avoid the repeated drug-administration, OP-loaded, polymeric polylactide (PLA) nanoparticle formulation (NP-OP), was developed using multiple-emulsion technique. This yielded an average particle size of 120 nm with 70% encapsulation-efficiency. In vitro release profile of NP-OP showed sustained release of OP for 21 days. In vivo anti-fertility studies were conducted in marmosets. Results indicated that control animals conceived in the same cycle while two of three treated animals failed to conceive in treatment cycle. The in vivo studies thus corroborate with in vitro release of OP, demonstrating its anti-fertility activity in 66% of animals.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, December 2013, pp. 1063-1069

 

 

Isolation, characterization and antigenic cross-reactivities of the major hemorrhagin from Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus venom

Shin Yee Fung*& Nget Hong Tan

Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine

University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Received 16 November 2012; revised 23 July 2013

The major hemorrhagin from C. purpureomaculatus (mangrove pit viper) venom was purified to homogeneity and termed Maculatoxin. Maculatoxin has a molecular weight of 38 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. It is an acidic protein
(pI= 4.2) and exhibited proteolytic and hemorrhagic activities (MHD10 = 0.84 μg in mice) but was not lethal to mice at a dose of 1 μg/g. The hemorrhagic activity of Maculatoxin was completely inactivated by EDTA and partially inhibited by ATP and citrate. The N-terminal sequence of Maculatoxin (TPEQQRFPPTYIDLGIFVDHGMYAT) shares a significant degree of homology with the metalloprotease domain of other venom hemorrhagins. Indirect ELISA showed
anti-Maculatoxin cross reacted with protein components of many snake venoms. In the double-sandwich ELISA, however, anti-Maculatoxin cross-reacted only with venoms of certain species of the Trimeresurus (Asia lance-head viper) complex, and the results support the recent proposed taxonomy changes concerning the Trimeresurus complex.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, December 2013, pp. 1070-1078

 

 

Housing under the pyramid reduces susceptibility of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons to prenatal stress in the developing rat offspring

Krishna Dilip Murthy*, Mitchel Constance George, Perumal Ramasamy & Zainal Arifin Mustapha

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Therapeutics, School of Medicine, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400,
Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

Received 19 January 2013; revised 13 June 2013

Mother-offspring interaction begins before birth. The foetus is particularly vulnerable to environmental insults and stress. The body responds by releasing excess of the stress hormone cortisol, which acts on glucocorticoid receptors. Hippocampus in the brain is rich in glucocorticoid receptors and therefore susceptible to stress. The stress effects are reduced when the animals are placed under a model wooden pyramid. The present study was to first explore the effects of prenatal restraint-stress on the plasma corticosterone levels and the dendritic arborisation of CA3 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus of the offspring. Further, to test whether the pyramid environment would alter these effects, as housing under a pyramid is known to reduce the stress effects, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were restrained for 9 h per day from gestation day 7 until parturition in a wire-mesh restrainer. Plasma corticosterone levels were found to be significantly increased. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the apical and the basal total dendritic branching points and intersections of the CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. The results thus suggest that, housing in the pyramid dramatically reduces prenatal stress effects in rats.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, December 2013, pp. 1079-1085

 

 

Specific absorption rate variation in a brain phantom due to exposure by
a 3G mobile phone: Problems in dosimetry

J Behari* & Jay Prakash Nirala

Bioelectromagnetics Laboratory, School of Environmental Sciences

Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India

Received 14 January 2013; revised 16 August 2013

A specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements system has been developed for compliance testing of personal mobile phone in a brain phantom material contained in a Perspex box. The volume of the box has been chosen corresponding to the volume of a small rat and illuminated by a 3G mobile phone frequency (1718.5 MHz), and the emitted radiation directed toward brain phantom .The induced fields in the phantom material are measured. Set up to lift the plane carrying the mobile phone is run by a pulley whose motion is controlled by a stepper motor. The platform is made to move at a pre-determined rate of 2o per min limited up to 20o. The measured data for induced fields in various locations are used to compute corresponding SAR values and inter comparison obtained. These data are also compared with those when the mobile phone is placed horizontally with respect to the position of the animal. The SAR data is also experimentally obtained by measuring a rise in temperature due to this mobile exposures and data compared with those obtained in the previous set. To seek a comparison with the safety criteria same set of measurements are performed in 10 g phantom material contained in a cubical box. These results are higher than those obtained with the knowledge of induced field measurements. It is concluded that SAR values are sensitive to the angular position of the moving platform and are well below the safety criteria prescribed for human exposure. The data are suggestive of having a fresh look to understand the mode of electromagnetic field -bio interaction.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, December 2013, pp. 1086-1093

 

 

Neurobiological effect of 7-nitroindazole, a neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, in experimental paradigm of Alzheimer’s disease

Shubham Misra, Anurag Kuhad & Kanwaljit Chopra*

Pharmacology Research Laboratory, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences

UGC Center of Advanced Study, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India

Received 4 June 2012; revised 2 August 2013

Nitric oxide plays a role in a series of neurobiological functions, underlying behaviour and memory. The functional role of nNOS derived nitric oxide in cognitive functions is elusive. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of specific neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole, against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced cognitive impairment in rats. Learning and memory behaviour was assessed using Morris water maze and elevated plus maze. 7-nitroindazole (25 mg/kg, ip) was administered as prophylactically (30 min before intracerebroventricular streptozotocin injection on day 1) and therapeutically (30 min before the assessment of memory by Morris water maze on day 15). Intracerebroventricular streptozotocin produced significant cognitive deficits coupled with alterations in biochemical indices.These behavioural and biochemical changes were significantly prevented by prophylactic treatment of 7-nitroindazole. However, therapeutic intervention of 7-nitroindazole did not show any significant reversal. The results suggests that 7-nitroindazole can be effective in the protection of dementiainduced by intracerebroventricular streptozotocin only when given prophylactically but not therapeutically.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, December 2013, pp. 1094-1100

 

 

Learning and memory promoting effects of crude garlic extract

Dhrubajyoti Mukherjee & Sugato Banerjee*

Gupta College of Technological Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Ashram More, G.T. Road, Asansol 713 301, India

Received 3 December 2012; revised 9 July 2013

Chronic administration of aged garlic extract has been shown to prevent memory impairment in mice. Acute and chronic (21 days) effects of marketed formulation of crude garlic extract (Lasuna) were evaluated on learning and memory in mice using step down latency (SDL) by passive avoidance response and transfer latency (TL) using elevated plus maze. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, ip) was used to induce amnesia in mice and piracetam (200 mg/kg, ip) served as positive control. In the acute study, Lasuna (65 mg/kg, po) partially reversed the scopolamine-induced amnesia but failed to improve learning and memory in untreated animals. Chronic administration of Lasuna (40 mg/kg/day for 21 days) significantly improved learning both in control and scopolamine induced amnesic animals. Influence of Lasuna on central cholinergic activity and its antioxidant properties were also studied by estimating the cortical acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels respectively. Chronic administration of Lasuna inhibited AchE, while increasing GSH levels. Thus the results indicate that long-term administration of crude garlic extract may improve learning and memory in mice while the underlying mechanism of action may be attributed to the anti-AchE activity and anti-oxidant property of garlic.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, December 2013, pp. 1101-1108

 

 

Anti-diabetic effect of a combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of Andrographis paniculata (Burm f.) Nees and asiaticoside-enriched extract of Centella asiatica L. in high fructose-fat fed rats

Agung Endro Nugroho1, Novena Yety Lindawati1, Kyky Herlyanti1, Lina Widyastuti1 & Suwidjiyo Pramono2

Department of 1Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, and 2 Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy,
Universitas Gadjah Mada,
Jogjakarta, Indonesia, 55281

Received 21 November 2012; revised 16 July 2013

Traditionally, a combination of medicinal plants is commonly used for lowering blood glucose in diabetic patients in order to provide additional benefits of the single drug. A. paniculata and C. asiatica are two traditional medicines form South Asian and Southeast Asain countries consumed by people for treating daibates mellitus and its complications. Hyperglycemia in the rats was stimulated by high fructose-fat diet that consists of 36% fructose, 15% lard, and 5% egg yolks in 0.36 g/200 g body weight for 70 days. The rats were orally administered with the combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of A. paniculata (AEEAP) leaves and asiaticoside-enriched extract of C. asiatica (AEECA) herbs from day 70 for 7 days. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by estimating mainly the blood glucose levels and other parameters such as HDL, LDL, cholesterol and triglyceride. The results showed that combination at the ratio of 70:30 exhibited a promosing antidiabetic effect in high-fat-fructose-fed rat, and exhibited sinergistic effects on blood cholesterol and HDL levels. It can be concluded that its antidiabetic effect was better than that of single treatment of AEEAP or AEECA. That combination was also potential to develop as a blood glucose-lowering agent for diabetic patients.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, December 2013, pp. 1109-1119

 

 

Protective effect of secondary plant metabolites from Ipomoea aquatica
Forsk. against carbofuran induced damages

Sanjukta Dattaa, Mahuya Sinhab, Dipesh Dasb, Santinath Ghosha & Pubali Dharc*

Department of aChemical Technology and bPhysiology, University College of Science and Technology,
University of Calcutta, 92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700 009, India
cLaboratory of Food Science and Tecnology, Food and Nutrition Division,
Department of Home Science, University of Calcutta, 20 B Judges Court Road, Kolkata 700 027, India

Received 26 November 2012; revised 7 August 2013

Plausible interactions between food contaminants and natural constituents in vivo and protective effect of polyphenols present in I. aquatica against carbofuran toxicity in Charles Foster rats were evaluated. Determinations based on antioxidant enzyme activities showed significant alterations in glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in tissues (liver and brain) and plasma of pesticide treated group while polyphenolic extracts from I. aquatica (IAE) attenuated their activities when given alongwith carbofuran. IAE decreased enhanced lipid peroxidation levels in plasma and erythrocyte membrane and cholesterol levels in brain and plasma. IAE also minimized histopathological degenerative changes produced by carbofuran. While single cell gel electrophoresis showed that secondary metabolites in leafy vegetables produced a combinatorial effect with pesticide at cellular level, DNA fragmentation level in bone marrow cells showed a decline in the IAE treated rats. Food safety adversely affected by various chemical contaminants can be retained by plant polyphenols and secondary plant constituents that can be found together in bolus. Therefore, the present study gives an insight into the protective role of naturally found polyphenols against pesticide toxicity.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, December 2013, pp. 1120-1124

 

 

A novel combination of plant growth regulators for in vitro regeneration of complete plantlets of guar [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.]

S Verma1, K S Gill2, V Pruthi1, K S Dhugga3 & G S Randhawa1*

1Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667, India

2Department of Crop and Soil Science, Washington State University, P O Box: 646420, Johnson Hall, 277, Pullman, WA 99164-6420, USA

3DuPont Agricultural Biotechnology, DuPont Pioneer, 7300 NW 62nd Avenue, Johnston, IA 50131, USA

Received 7 March 2013; revised 12 July 2013

A novel combination of plant growth regulators comprising indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and gibberellic acid (GA3) in Murashige and Skoog basal medium has been formulated for in vitro induction of both shoot and root in one culture using cotyledonary node explants of guar, (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba). Highest percentages of shoot (92%) and root (80%) induction were obtained in the medium containing (mg/L) 2 IBA, 3 BA and 1 GA3. Shoot regeneration from the cotyledonary node explants was observed after 10-15 days. Regeneration of roots from these shoots occurred after 20 to 25 days. The regenerated plantlets showed successful acclimatization on transfer to soil. This protocol is expected to be helpful in carrying out various in vitro manipulations in this economically and industrially important legume.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, December 2013, pp. 1125-1129

 

 

Deployment of gene specific marker in development of kunitz trypsin inhibitor free soybean genotypes

Vineet Kumar*, Anita Rani & Reena Rawal

Directorate of Soybean Research (ICAR), Indore, 452 001, India

Received 17 December 2012; revised 25 July 2013

Genetic elimination of kunitz trypsin inhibitor in soybean seed would obviate the need for boiling required to inactivate the antinutritional factor and therefore economize the soy processing. PI542044, the source of null variant of kunitz trypsin inhibitor gene is being used in the development of kunitz trypsin inhibitor free soybean genotypes in India. Gene specific marker can expedite the genetic elimination of this undesirable trait from popular soybean genotypes. In the present study, we tested the DNA amplification of soybean genotype PI542044 and kunitz trypsin inhibitor null lines derived from this genotype with a gene specific primer developed from the null variant of PI157740. The amplicons so obtained corresponded to the absence of kunitz trypsin inhibitor protein band on 10% polyacrylamide gel. The gene specific marker also amplified the null allele of template DNA of F1, BC1F1 and BC2F1 plants developed during marker assisted introgression of null allele of kunitz trypsin inhibitor into elite soybean cultivar JS97-52. The results presented show the utility of this gene specific marker developed from null allele of kunitz trypsin inhibitor for identification of kunitz trypsin inhibitor free genotypes developed from PI542044, the only source of null variant available in India.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, December 2013, pp. 1130-1136

 

 

Molecular cloning and mRNA expression profile of Sucrose Transporter Gene BnSUT1C from Brassica napus L.

FuPeng Li1,2, Lin Yan2, Jianxiong Lai2, ChaoZhi Ma1*, Mayank Gautam1 & TingDong Fu1

1National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, P.R. China

2Spice and Beverage Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Science, Wanning 571533, P.R. China

Received 8 November 2012; revised 10 September 2013

The genomic and cDNA sequences of BnSUT1C were isolated from B. napus. Combination of cDNA and genomic DNA sequences revealed that the BnSUT1C gene contained three exons and two introns. The cDNA encodes a protein of
513 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 54.7 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.12. It exhibits typical features
of sucrose transporter with 12 trans-membranes spanning domains. BnSUT1C showed highly homologous with AtSUC1 and AtSUC5. A histidine residue, which is conserved across all functional sucrose transporter proteins in higher plants, is located at position 66 of the BnSUT1C. Two putative pollen-specific cis-elements, AGAAA and GTGA motifs, are located in 5
-upstream of BnSUT1C. The spatial and temporal expression patterns carried out by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Real-Time PCR, which indicated that BnSUT1C predominantly expressed in later developmental stages of anther, as tapetal cells began to shrink and collapse. BnSUT1C could mediate the uptake of sucrose in the pollen and retrieval of tapetal degenerated products during pollen maturation.