Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 51

NUMBER 1

JANUARY 2013

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 51 (1) 1-100 (2013)

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Review Article

 

 

 

Pulmonary surfactants and their role in pathophysiology of lung disorders

5

 

 

Aparna Akella & Shripad B Deshpande

 

 

 

Papers

 

 

 

Plasticity and reprogramming of differentiated ocular tissue of tadpoles of the frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis under the influence of vitamin A

23

 

 

O P Jangir, J Pareek, Deepshikha, Sunita Gautam, Gajanand Modi, Nidhi Udsaria, Ambika Yadav, Govind Gupta, Jony Middha & Mithilesh Sharma

 

 

 

Radioprotective effect of Haberlea rhodopensis (Friv.) leaf extract on γ-radiation-induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant levels in rabbit blood

29

 

 

Svetlana Georgieva, Borislav Popov & Georgi Bonev

 

 

 

Effects of dietary magnesium on testicular histology, steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis and oxidative stress markers in adult rats

37

 

 

Amar K Chandra, Pallav Sengupta, Haimanti Goswami & Mahitosh Sarkar

 

 

 

Angiotensin-II down-regulates cardiac natriuretic peptide receptor-A mediated
anti-hypertrophic signaling in experimental rat hearts

48

 

 

Venkatachalam Gopi, Arumugam Parthasarathy, Subramanian Umadevi & Elangovan Vellaichamy

 

 

 

Benefits of early glycemic control by insulin on sensory neuropathy and cataract in diabetic rats

56

 

 

Mahalingam Balakumar, Natarajan Saravanan, Durai Prabhu, Bhaskaran Regin, G Bhanuprakash Reddy, Viswanathan Mohan, Mohan Rema & Muthuswamy Balasubramanyam

 

 

 

Pharmacological evaluation of hyperin for antihyperglycemic activity and effect on lipid profile in diabetic rats

65

 

 

Neeraj Verma, G Amresh, P K Sahu, Neelam Mishra, Ch V Rao & Anil Pratap Singh

 

.

Role of ERK1/2 Kinase in the expression of iNOS by NDMA in human neutrophils

73

 

 

Wioletta Ratajczak-Wrona, Ewa Jablonska, Marzena Garley, Jakub Jablonski & Piotr Radziwon

 

 

 

Cell cycle inhibitory effects of leaf extract from Curcuma vamana M. Sabu & Mangaly on mitotically synchronous cultures of Physarum polycephalum Schw.

81

 

 

I Rajan, R Remitha, P R Jayasree & P R Manish Kumar

 

 

 

In vitro seed germination of economically important edible bamboo Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro

88

 

 

Jasmine Brar, Manju Anand & Anil Sood

 

 

 

Information for Authors

97

 

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Editor痴 Note

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology is covered by the following international abstracting and indexing services:

 

Science Citation Index ExpandedTM

PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov/)

MEDLINE

BIOSIS

Chemical Abstracts Service

Excerpta Medica

Informascience

Refrativnyi Zhurnal

Zoological Records

 

覧覧覧覧

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology in Open Access Mode

 

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology (IJEB) is now an open access journal in the repository, NISCAIR Online Periodicals Repository (NOPR) [http://nopr.niscair.res.in].

Full text of all articles published in IJEB from 2006 onwards can now be accessed at NOPR in the open access mode. Papers in the current issue shall be uploaded immediately. Papers published in earlier years shall be added soon.

NOPR is based on DSpace, a digital repository software, and allows document browsing, document searching and various search options like title, author name, keywords, year,issue, etc.

 

 

覧覧覧覧覧覧覧

 

 

Author Index

Akella Aparna

5

Amresh G

56

Anand Manju

88

 

 

Balakumar Mahalingam

56

Balasubramanyam Muthuswamy

56

Bonev Georgi

29

Brar Jasmine

88

 

 

Chandra Amar K

37

 

 

Deepshikha

23

Deshpande Shripad B

5

 

 

Garley Marzena

73

Gautam Sunita

23

Georgieva Svetlana

29

Gopi Venkatachalam

48

Goswami Haimanti

37

Gupta Govind

23

Jablonska Ewa

73

Jablonski Jakub

73

Jangir O P

23

Jayasree P R

81

 

 

Manish Kumar P R

81

Middha Jony

23

Mishra Neelam

56

Modi Gajanand

23

Mohan Viswanathan

56

 

 

Pareek J

23

Parthasarathy Arumugam

48

Popov Borislav

29

Prabhu Durai

56

 

 

Radziwon Piotr

73

Rajan I

81

Rao Ch V

56

Ratajczak-Wrona Wioletta

73

Reddy G Bhanuprakash

56

Regin Bhaskaran

56

Rema Mohan

56

Remitha R

81

 

 

Sahu P K

56

Saravanan Natarajan

56

Sarkar Mahitosh

37

Sengupta Pallav

37

Sharma Mithilesh

23

Singh Anil Pratap

56

Sood Anil

88

 

 

Udsaria Nidhi

23

Umadevi Subramanian

48

 

 

Vellaichamy Elangovan

48

Verma Neeraj

65

 

 

Yadav Ambika

23

 

 

Keyword Index

Acclimatization

88

Adult respiratory distress syndrome

5

Advanced glycation end products

56

Angiotensin-II

48

Anti-hyperglycemic activity

65

Antioxidant enzymes

37

Antioxidants

29

Atrial natriuretic peptide

48

 

 

Catalase

29

Cell cycle inhibition

81

Chromosome aberrations

29

Crude alkaloid extract

81

Curcuma vamana

81

 

 

Dendrocalamus membranaceus

88

 

 

ERK1/2

73

 

 

Germination

88

Gibberellic acid

88

Guanylyl cyclase activity

48

 

 

Haberlea rhodopensis

29

Hyaline membrane disease

5

Hyperglycemic memory

56

Hyperin

65

 

 

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

73

Infant respiratory distress syndrome

5

Insulin

65

 

 

Lamellar bodies

5

Left ventricular hypertrophy

48

Lipid peroxidation

37

Lipid peroxidation

56

Low viability

88

Lungs

5

 

 

Macroplasmodia

81

Malondialdehyde

29

MgSO4

37

Micronuclei

29

Microvascular complications

56

 

 

Natriuretic peptide receptor-A

48

Neutrophils

73

Nitric oxide

73

N-nitrosodimethylamine

73

 

 

Ocular tissue

23

Oxidative stress

37

 

 

Phosphatidylcholine

5

Physarum polycephalum

81

 

 

Radioprotection

29

Reprogramming

23

Rhododendron arboreum

65

 

 

Seeds

88

Sperm count

37

Steroidogenic enzymes

37

Superoxide anion

73

Superoxide dismutase

29

Surfactant associated proteins

5

 

 

Testis

37

 

 

Vitamin A

23

 

 

Correspondent author is marked by *

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, January 2013, pp. 5-22

 

 

 

 

Review Article

 

Pulmonary surfactants and their role in pathophysiology of lung disorders

Aparna Akella & Shripad B Deshpande*

Department of Physiology, Institute of Medical Sciences,

Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India

 

Surfactant is an agent that decreases the surface tension between two media. The surface tension between gaseous-aqueous interphase in the lungs is decreased by the presence of a thin layer of fluid known as pulmonary surfactant. The pulmonary surfactant is produced by the alveolar type-II (AT-II) cells of the lungs. It is essential for efficient exchange of gases and for maintaining the structural integrity of alveoli. Surfactant is a secretory product, composed of lipids and proteins. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol are the major lipid constituents and SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D are four types of surfactant associated proteins. The lipid and protein components are synthesized separately and are packaged into the lamellar bodies in the AT-II cells. Lamellar bodies are the main organelle for the synthesis and metabolism of surfactants. The synthesis, secretion and recycling of the surfactant lipids and proteins is regulated by complex genetic and metabolic mechanisms. The lipid-protein interaction is very important for the structural organization of surfactant monolayer and its functioning. Alterations in surfactant homeostasis or biophysical properties can result in surfactant insufficiency which may be responsible for diseases like respiratory distress syndrome, lung proteinosis, interstitial lung diseases and chronic lung diseases. The biochemical, physiological, developmental and clinical aspects of pulmonary surfactant are presented in this article to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of these diseases.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, January 2013, pp. 23-28

 

 

Papers

Plasticity and reprogramming of differentiated ocular tissue of tadpoles of the frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis under the influence of vitamin A

O P Jangir*, J Pareek, Deepshikha, Sunita Gautam, Gajanand Modi, Nidhi Udsaria,
Ambika Yadav, Govind Gupta, Jony Middha & Mithilesh Sharma

Department of Life Sciences, I A S E (D) University, GVM, Sardarshahr 331 401, India

Received 1 March 2012; revised 25 October 2012

Present study has shown that differentiated cell types may loose their definitive characteristics and acquire features of another specialized cell type. Young (3 toe stage) and mature (5 toe stage) tadpoles of the frog, Euphylictis cyanophlyctis were employed as experimental animals. Experiments were completed in two phases: in the first part of experiment, lenses were extracted from right eye balls of tadpoles and treated with vitamin A; in the second part of the experiment, meshed lentectomized eye ball tissues were implanted into the pit made on mid lateral position of the tail of young and mature tadpoles and were treated with vitamin A. The results obtained gave clear evidence of plasticity and reprogramming of terminally differentiated ocular tissue into lens, retina and even complete eye. Vitamin A was found to be good model for accelerating the reprogramming of differentiated ocular tissue in anuran frog tadpoles.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, January 2013, pp. 29-36

 

 

Radioprotective effect of Haberlea rhodopensis (Friv.) leaf extract on
γ-radiation-induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation
and antioxidant levels in rabbit blood

Svetlana Georgieva1,*, Borislav Popov2 & Georgi Bonev1

1Department of Genetics, Animal Breeding & Reproduction, 2Department of Molecular Biology,
Immunology
& Medical Genetics, Trakia University, Stara Zagora 6000, Bulgaria

Received 4 July 2012; revised 18 September 2012

Different concentrations of H. rhodopensis total extract (HRE; 0.03, 0.06 and 0.12 g/kg body weight) were injected im, into rabbits 2 h before collecting the blood samples. The whole blood samples were exposed in vitro to 2.0 Gy 60Co
γ-radiation. The radiation-induced changes were estimated by using the chromosome aberration test (CA) and cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN) in peripheral lymphocytes, and by determining the malondialdehyde levels (MDA) in blood plasma and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in erythrocytes. Radiation significantly increased the chromosome aberration and micronuclei frequencies as well as MDA levels and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activity. On the other hand, the HRE pretreatment significantly decreased the CA, MN frequencies and MDA levels and increased the SOD and CAT activity in a concentration dependent manner. The most effective was the highest concentration of HRE (0.12 g/kg body weight). The results suggest that HRE as a natural product with an antioxidant capacity could play a modulatory role against the cellular damage induced by γ-irradiation. The possible mechanism involved in the radioprotective potential of HRE is discussed.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, January 2013, pp. 37-47

 

 

Effects of dietary magnesium on testicular histology, steroidogenesis, spermatogenesis and oxidative stress markers in adult rats

Amar K Chandraa*, Pallav Senguptaa, Haimanti Goswamia & Mahitosh Sarkarb

aEndocrinology & Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata 700 009 , India

bDepartment of Physiology, Gurunanak Institute of Dental Science & Research, Kolkata, India

Received 12 April 2012; revised 19 October 2012

The available information on the effect of excess dietary magnesium on male reproduction is inadequate, though consumption of hard water rich in magnesium salt is not uncommon in many geographical areas. The present study has thus been undertaken to evaluate the morphological as well as cytological and functional changes in testis of magnesium administered sexually mature male Wistar rats. Significant increase in the activities of androgenic enzymes viz.
Δ5-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase with concomitant increase in serum testosterone level, followed by progressive development in cytoarchitechture of genital organs, without any significant alteration in quantitative spermatogenesis were observed. The results were more marked in the groups treated for longer duration. The results further suggests that the changes that occurred after excessive magnesium in testis were not for the enhanced adrenocortical activities or for the generation of oxidative stress in reproductive organs, but for the direct action of excess magnesium on male gonads. Magnesium supplementation thus has an apparent beneficial effect on male gonadal system.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, January 2013, pp. 48-55

 

 

Angiotensin-II down-regulates cardiac natriuretic peptide receptor-A mediated anti-hypertrophic signaling in experimental rat hearts

Venkatachalam Gopi, Arumugam Parthasarathy, Subramanian Umadevi & Elangovan Vellaichamy*

Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, India.

Received 8 June 2012; revised 10 October 2012

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) exerts anti-hypertrophic effects in the heart via natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A). However, ANP mediated anti-hypertrophic activity is decreased in the cardiomyopathic conditions. In the present investigation the in vivo effects of angiotensin II (Ang II), a hypertrophic agonist have been studied on the ventricular expression level of NPR-A in Wistar rat hearts. NPR-A expression at the protein and mRNA levels were found to be markedly reduced by 5-fold respectively in Ang II infused rats heart as compared with sham rat hearts. Moreover, cGMP production in response to ANP was reduced by 77% in the isolated cardiac membrane preparation from the Ang II infused rat hearts. Losartan treatment reversed NPR-A expression and responsiveness to ANP. This study suggests that Ang II down regulates cardiac NPR-A activity by suppressing Npr1 gene transcription.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, January 2013, pp. 56-64

 

 

Benefits of early glycemic control by insulin on sensory neuropathy and
cataract in diabetic rats

Mahalingam Balakumara, Natarajan Saravananb, Durai Prabhua, Bhaskaran Regina, G Bhanuprakash Reddyb, Viswanathan Mohana, Mohan Remaa & Muthuswamy Balasubramanyama,*

aDepartment of Cell and Molecular Biology, Madras Diabetes Research Foundation, Dr.Mohan痴 Diabetes Specialties Centre &
IDF Centre of Education, Gopalapuram, Chennai 600 086, India

bBiochemistry Division, National Institute of Nutrition, ICMR Hyderabad 500 007, India

Received 19 June 2012; revised 13 August 2012

While there is an emphasis on the early glycemic control for its long-term benefits in preventing microvascular complications of diabetes, the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the long-lasting effects are not clearly understood. Therefore the impact of early insulin (EI) versus late insulin (LI) treatment on diabetic sensory neuropathy and cataract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar male rats were evaluated. EI group received insulin (2.5 IU/animal, once daily) treatment from day 1 to 90 while LI group received insulin from day 60 to 90. Early insulin treatment significantly reduced the biochemical markers like glucose, triglyceride, glycated hemoglobin, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, advanced glycation end products and ratio of reduced glutathione and oxidized glutathione in diabetic rats. The late insulin treatment failed to resist the biochemical changes in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats developed sensory neuropathy as evidenced by mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and showed a higher incidence and severity of cataract as revealed by slit lamp examination. Early insulin treatment protected the rats from the development of neuropathy and cataract, but late insulin administration failed to do so. The results demonstrate the benefits of early glycemic control in preventing neuropathy and cataract development in diabetic rats.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, January 2013, pp. 65-72

 

 

Pharmacological evaluation of hyperin for antihyperglycemic activity and
effect on lipid profile in diabetic rats

Neeraj Verma1, G Amresh1, P K Sahu2, Neelam Mishra2, Ch V Rao3 & Anil Pratap Singh3*

1Department of Pharmacology, Goel Institute of Pharmacy & Sciences,
Faizabad Road (Near Indira Canal), Lucknow 227 105, India

2Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siksha 前 Anusandhan University,
Kalinga Nagar, Ghatikia, Bhubaneswar 751 003, India

3Pharmacognosy and Ethnopharmacology Division, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute,
Rana Pratap Marg, P.O. Box No. 436, Lucknow 226 001, India

Received 5 March 2012; revised 3 September 2012

Antihyperglycemic potential of hyperin at 25 and 50 mg/kg doses for 30 days to streptozotocin induced diabetic rats has been reported. In oral glucose tolerance test, hyperin treated rats showed a significant reduction in blood glucose level after 120 min. It was found that hyperin exhibited dose dependent and significant antihyperglycemic activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats which were nearly similar with standard drug glybenclamide. Activities of glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, glycogen phosphorylase, glycosylated haemoglobin and level of serum urea and creatinine were significantly decreased in hyperin supplemented diabetic rats, dose dependently. Activities of hexokinase and glycogen synthase were increased with augmentation in liver glycogen, insulin and haemoglobin content in hyperin treated diabetic rats. General hematological parameters did not show any significant change in hyperin treated diabetic rats hence it is safe at these doses. Histopathological studies showed significant morphological changes in pancreatic β-cells of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. A decreased number of secretory granules of β- cells were observed in diabetic rats and these pathological abnormalities were normalized after treatment with hyperin and standard drug glybenclamide. Further, hyperin decreases significant in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein levels coupled with elevation of high density lipoprotein in diabetic rats. These results suggest that hyperin has a pivotal role in blood glucose level in streptozotocin induced hyperglycemia by improving the function of pancreatic islets and increasing glycolysis and decreasing gluconeogenesis.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, January 2013, pp. 73-80

 

 

Role of ERK1/2 Kinase in the expression of iNOS by NDMA in human neutrophils

Wioletta Ratajczak-Wrona1*, Ewa Jablonska1, Marzena Garley1, Jakub Jablonski2 & Piotr Radziwon3

1Department of Immunology Medical University of Bialystok, Waszyngtona 15A, 15-269 Bialystok, Poland,
2
Department of Toxicology Medical University of Bialystok, Poland,
3
Regional Centre for Transfusion Medicine, Bialystok, Poland

Received 29 February 2012; revised 19 October 2012

Potential role of ERK1/2 kinase in conjunction with p38 in the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) production, and superoxide anion generation by human neutrophils (PMNs) exposed to
N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was determined. Increased synthesis of NO due to the involvement of iNOS in neutrophils exposed to NDMA was observed. In addition, intensified activation of ERK1/2 and p38 kinases was determined in these cells. Inhibition of
kinase regulated by extracellular signals (ERK1/2) pathway, in contrast to p38 pathway, led to an increased production of NO and expression of iNOS in PMNs. Moreover, as a result of inhibition of ERK1/2 pathway, a decreased activation of p38 kinase was observed in neutrophils, while inhibition of p38 kinase did not affect activation of ERK1/2 pathway in these cells. An increased ability to release superoxide anion by the studied PMNs was observed, which decreased after ERK1/2 pathway inhibition. In conclusion, in human neutrophils, ERK1/2 kinase is not directly involved in the regulation of iNOS and NO production induced by NDMA; however, the kinase participates in superoxide anion production in these cells.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, January 2013, pp. 81-87

 

 

Cell cycle inhibitory effects of leaf extract from Curcuma vamana
M. Sabu & Mangaly on mitotically synchronous cultures of
Physarum polycephalum Schw.

 

I Rajan, R Remitha, P R Jayasree & P R Manish Kumar*

Department of Biotechnology, University of Calicut, Malappuram 673 635, India

Received 21 May 2012; revised 6 September 2012

Leaf extracts of C. vamana, endemic to Kerala state in India, were found to inhibit cell cycle progression in synchronous cultures of P. polycephalum in a concentration and phase-specific manner. Crude alkaloid extract (CAE) elicited maximum cell cycle delays in comparison to soxhletted chloroform, acetone and aqueous extracts. Total alkaloid content of CAE was found to be 64.9 mg/g. CAE showed lowest DPPH radical scavenging activity. Other extracts with higher free radical scavenging activity exhibited lesser cell cycle inhibiting potential. Upto 21% decrease in nuclear DNA was observed in CAE treated samples. However, genotoxicity as evidenced by comet assay was not observed. The extracts were also found to be non-toxic to human RBCs at the highest concentration tested (750 オg/mL). CAE treatment completely suppressed a 63 kDa polypeptide with a concomitant, but weak induction of a 60 kDa polypeptide suggesting that these may be cell cycle related. CAE was found to possess potent antiproliferative activity against PBLs. The study clearly demonstrates the cell cycle inhibitory activity of C. vamana leaf extracts, with CAE being the most potent of them.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, January 2013, pp. 88-96

 

 

In vitro seed germination of economically important edible bamboo Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro

Jasmine Brar1, Manju Anand2 & Anil Sood1*

1Division of Biotechnology, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT), Palampur 176 061, India

Received 18 April 2012; revised 19 September 2012

An in vitro propagation protocol using mature seeds of D. membranaceus was successfully established. Scarcity of seeds in bamboos because of their long flowering periods and irregular seed set resulting in low viability and germination potential, motivated us to undertake the present study. The effects of sterilants, light conditions, exogenous application of plant growth regulators and temperature in overcoming germination barriers in ageing seeds of bamboo were studied. It was found that HgCl2 (0.1%) along with bleach (15%) was more effective in raising aseptic cultures. Dark conditions, high temperatures around 30 C and soaking of seeds in GA3 solution (50 ppm) overnight stimulated high percent of seed germination with corresponding increase in shoot length (2.7ア0.7 mm) and number of sprouts (2.1ア0.7) per explants during culture initiation. 6-benzylaminopurine acted synergistically with kinetin to give optimum germination rate of 70ア13.9% as compared to 63.13% when used individually. For prolonged maintenance of cultures, 2% sucrose was found to be suitable for promoting photomixotrophic micropropagation. Following this procedure, about 65% survival of plantlets could be achieved during hardening. Biochemically seeds consume starchy endosperm for emergence of radicle which is taken as a sign of germination as also evident from the present study. Loss of viability and vigour after a year was confirmed by Tetrazolium chloride test. Micropropagation protocol developed here will ensure regeneration of large number of plants in a relatively short time. Conclusively, in vitro propagation protocol developed in D. membranaceus using mature seeds as an explants is reported for the first time.