Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 51

NUMBER 7

JULY 2013

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 51 (6) 481-568 (2013)

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Papers

 

 

 

Anticancer activity of betulinic acid on MCF-7 tumors in nude mice

485

 

 

Archana A Damle, Yogita P Pawar & Archana A Narkar

 

 

 

Interaction between cochleata and stipile-reduced mutations results in exstipulate hypertrophied leaves in Pisum sativum L.

492

 

 

Arvind Kumar, Vishakha Sharma & Sushil Kumar

 

 

 

Generation of transgenic mesenchymal stem cells expressing green fluorescent protein as reporter gene using no viral vector in caprine

502

 

 

Manish Kumar, Yasotha T, R K Singh, Renu Singh, Kuldeep Kumar, R Ranjan,
Chetan D Meshram, B C Das & Sadhan Bag

 

 

 

Anxiolytic-like effect of N-n-butyl-3-methoxyquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (6o) in experimental mouse models of anxiety

510

 

 

Shvetank Bhatt, Radhakrishan Mahesh, Thangaraj Devadoss & Ankur Jindal

 

 

 

Antiaging, antistress and ROS scavenging activity of crude extract of Ocimum sanctum (L.) in Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas, 1900)

515

 

 

Rakesh Pandey, Shipra Gupta, Virendra Shukla, Sudeep Tandon & Vibha Shukla

 

 

 

Gene ontology based charecterization of Expresses Sequence Tags (ESTs) of
Brassica rapa cv. Osome

522

 

 

Senthil Kumar Thamil Arasan, Jong-In Park, Nasar Uddin Ahmed, Hee-Jeong Jung, In-Ho Lee, Yong-Gu-Cho, Yong-Pyo Lim, Kwon-Kyoo Kang & Ill-Sup Nou

 

 

Biochemical markers assisted screening of Fusarium wilt resistant Musa parasisiaca (L.) cv. Puttabale micropropagated clones

531

 

 

Venkatesh, V Krishna , K Girish Kumar, K Pradeepa, S R Santosh Kumar & R Shashi Kumar

 

 

 

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Trichoderma species

543

 

 

T Prameela Devi, S Kulanthaivel, Deeba Kamil, Jyoti Lekha Borah, N Prabhakaran &
N Srinivasa

 

 

Foliar application of Zn at flowering stage improves plant痴 performance, yield and yield attributes of black gram

548

 

 

Nalini Pandey, Bhavana Gupta & Girish Chandra Pathak

 

 

 

Enxymatic hydrolysis of water hyacinth biomass for the production of ethanol: Optimization of driving parameters

556

 

 

Amit Ganguly, Subhabrata Das, Anamica Bhattacharya, Apurba Dey &
Pradip Kumar Chatterjee

 

 

 

Information for Authors

567

 

 

Announcement

 

 

 

Third Euro-India International Conference on Nanomedicine and Tissue Engineering (ICNT 2013)

484

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Announcement

 

Third Euro-India International Conference on Nanomedicine and Tissue Engineering (ICNT 2013)

9ュュ-11 August 2013, Kottayam, India

 

Jointly organised by the International and Interuniversity Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam and Ayurveda-Und Venen-Klink, Klagenfurt, Austria, The Conference will be held at the School of Chemical Science Auditorium, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, India. The themes under Nanomedicine will include: (i) Target delivery, (ii) Diagnostics, (iii) Regenerative Medicine, (iv) Design of Nanodrugs, (v) Synthesis of Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery, (vi) Connectivity between Traditional and Nanomedicine, (vii) Gene Nanotechnology in Drug Discovery, (viii) Nano-delivery Systems, (ix) Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials in Therapy, (x) Nanomedicine Approaches in Molecuar Imaging, (xi) Nanomedicine in Theranostics, (xii) Novel Synthetic Approaches in Nanomedicine, (xiii) Regulatory aspects towards approval of Nanomedicine, and (xiv) Toxicology Considerations in Nanomedicine and Nano-delivery systems. Tissue Engineering will cover following themes: (i) Cartilage Tissue Engineering, (ii) Dental Tissue Engineering, (iii) Biomaterials Tissue Engineering, (iv) Bioreactors Tissue Engineering, (v) Stem Cell Tissue Engineering, and (vi) Genetic Tissue Engineering. For details please contact, Prof. Sabu Thomas, Chairman ICNT-2013, Director, Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CNN), Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686 560, India. Telephone: +91-481-2730003, +91-481-2597914 (Res.), Mobile: 91-9447223452, E-mail: nanotissueengineering@macromol.in, or visit website: www.nanomedicine.macromol.in

_______________________

 

Editor痴 Note

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology in Open Access Mode

 

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology (IJEB) is now an open access journal in the repository, NISCAIR Online Periodicals Repository (NOPR) [http://nopr.niscair.res.in].

Full text of all articles published in IJEB from 2006 onwards can now be accessed at NOPR in the open access mode. Papers in the current issue shall be uploaded immediately. Papers published in earlier years shall be added soon.

NOPR is based on DSpace, a digital repository software, and allows document browsing, document searching and various search options like title, author name, keywords, year, issue, etc.

 

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Author Index

Ahmed Nasar Uddin

522

Arvind Kumar

492

 

 

Bag Sadhan

502

Bhatt Shvetank

510

Bhattacharya Anamica

556

Borah Jyoti Lekha

543

 

 

Chatterjee Pradip Kumar

556

Cho Yong-Gu

522

 

 

Damle Archana A

485

Das B C

502

Das Subhabrata

556

Devadoss Thangaraj

510

Dey Apurba

556

 

 

Ganguly Amit

556

Girish Kumar K

531

Gupta Bhavana

548

Gupta Shipra

515

 

 

Jindal Ankur

510

Jung Hee-Jeong

522

 

 

Kamil Deeba

543

Kang Kwon-Kyoo

522

Krishna V

531

Kulanthaivel S

543

Kuldeep Kumar

502

 

 

Lee In-Ho

522

Lim Yong-Pyo

522

 

 

Mahesh Radhkrishnan

510

Manish Kumar

502

Meshram Chetan D

502

 

 

Narkar Archana A

485

Nou Ill-Sup

522

 

 

Pandey Nalini

548

Pandey Rakesh

515

Park Jong-In

522

Pathak Girish Chandra

548

Pawar Yogita P

485

Prabhakaran N

543

Pradeepa K

531

Prameela Devi T

543

 

 

Ranjan R

502

 

 

Santosh Kumar S R

531

Sharma Vishakha

492

Shashi Kumar R

531

Shukla Vibha

515

Shukla Virendra

515

Singh R K

502

Singh Renu

502

Srinivasan N

543

Sushil Kumar

492

 

 

Tandon Sudeep

515

Thamil Arasan Senthil Kumar

522

 

 

Venkatesh

531

 

 

Yashotha T

502

 

Keyword Index

Antiaging

515

Anxiolytic

510

 

 

Betulinic acid

485

Biochemical markers

531

Biofortification

548

Biomass allocation

492

Black gram

548

Brassica rapa

522

Breast cancer

485

 

 

Caenorhabditis elegans

515

Caprine

502

Compound leaf

492

Compound stipule

492

Crude extract

515

Culture filtrate

531

 

 

Disease tolerances

531

 

 

Elevated plus maze

510

Enzymatic hydrolysis

556

ESTs

522

Ethyl-methane-sulfonate

531

Fermentation

556

Foliar spray

548

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.
Cubense


531

 

 

Gene ontology

522

Green fluorescent protein

502

 

 

5-HT3 receptor antagonists

510

 

 

Light and dark

510

Lipofectamine

502

 

 

MCF-7

485

Medicinal plant

515

Mesenchymal stroma cells

502

 

 

Nude mice

485

 

 

Ocimum sanctum

515

Open field test

510

Optimization

556

Osome

522

Phytomere regulation

492

Plasmon band

543

 

 

Response surface
 methodology


556

 

 

Seed yield

548

Seed Zn

548

Silver nanoparticles

543

Simple stipule

492

Stress related genes

522

 

 

Transfection

502

Transmission electron
 microscopy


543

Trichoderma

543

 

 

UNIFOLIATA

492

 

 

Water hyacinth

556

 

 

 

 

Correspondent author is marked by *

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, July 2013, pp. 485-491

 

 

Anticancer activity of betulinic acid on MCF-7 tumors in nude mice

Archana A Damle*, Yogita P Pawar & Archana A Narkar

Radiation Medicine Centre (BARC), Tata Memorial Hospital Annexe,
Jerbai Wadia Road, Parel, Mumbai 400 012, India

Received 5 February 2013; revised 15 April 2013

Breast cancer is a major public health problem and the low effectiveness of conventional therapies to achieve long term survival results in increased mortality associated with advanced breast cancers. Betulinic acid (BA) is a pentacyclic triterpene which can be isolated from number of plants grown in the tropics. It exhibits cytotoxic activity against variety of cancer cell lines. In the present study, the in vitro cytotoxic activity and in vivo antitumor activity of BA was evaluated in athymic nude mice bearing MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma xenografts. In vitro cytotoxic activity of BA on MCF-7 cells was studied using the MTT assay and BA was cytotoxic towards MCF-7 cells with IC50 value of 13.5オg/mL. The antitumor activity of BA was studied at concentrations of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight in mice injected with MCF-7 cells. BA treatment delayed tumor formation and statistically significant reduction (P<0.0001) of 52 and 77% in the tumor size at concentrations of 50 and 100 mg, respectively was observed. Histopathological analysis of tumors revealed decreased angiogenesis, proliferation and invasion in BA treated animals. This is one of the first studies demonstrating the in vivo antitumor activity of BA on MCF-7 breast cancer tumors in nude mice. The antitumor effect of BA can further be enhanced by use of combination therapy and novel drug delivery systems, thus making it a promising candidate for management of breast cancer patients.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, July 2013, pp. 492-501

 

 

Interaction between cochleata and stipule-reduced mutations results in exstipulate hypertrophied leaves in Pisum sativum L.

Arvind Kumar, Vishakha Sharma & Sushil Kumar*

National Institute of Plant Genome Research (NIPGR), Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India

SKA Institution for Research, Education and Development (SKAIRED), 4/11 Sarv Priya Vihar, New Delhi 110 016, India

Received 3 December 2012; revised 18 April 2013

In the wild type P. sativum, each of the adult plant stem nodes, bears a pair of sessile foliaceous stipules and a petiolated unipinnately compound leaf of 4 to 6 leaflets and 7-9 tendrils. The stipule-reduced (st) and cochleata (coch) single null mutants and coch st double null mutant differ fom the wild type in respectively having sessile stipules of much reduced size, petiolated simple and/or compound leaf-like stipules and no stipules. It is also known that coch leaves are somewhat bigger than st and wild type leaves. Here, pleiotropic phenotype of coch st double mutant was investigated. The morphologies of stipules and leaf were quantified in the field grown plants and microcultured shoots, latter in the presence and absence of gibberellic acid and N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid. The observations showed that as compared to the corresponding plants or shoots of COCH ST (WT) genotype, (a) coch st plants bore leaves in which all the organs were hypertrophied; (b) full complement of leaflets and 3-5 tendrils were formed on leaf; (c) the microcultured coch st shoots were taller despite lower number of nodes, and (d) they also produced leaves in which all the organs were bigger and the ratio of leaflets/tendrils was higher. It was concluded that in coch st double mutant (a) ST function is essential for stipule primordium differentiation, in the absence of COCH function and (b) absence of negative feedback loops between simple stipules and compound leaf for metabolite utilization allows hypertrophied growth in leaves.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, July 2013, pp. 502-509

 

 

Generation of transgenic mesenchymal stem cells expressing green fluorescent protein as reporter gene using no viral vector in caprine

Manish Kumar*, Yasotha T, R K Singh, Renu Singh, Kuldeep Kumar, R Ranjan, Chetan D Meshram,
B C Das & Sadhan Bag*

Division of Physiology & Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243 122, India

Received 10 September 2012; revised 20 March 2013

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are multipotent cells that can be derived from many different organs and tissues. While there are many ways to label and track cells each with strengths and weakness, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a reporter gene commonly employed. In the present study, caprine MSC were collected from bone marrow and cells were characterised with MSC specific markers. Passage 10 (P10) MSC cells were transfected using plasmid vector containing GFP as reporter gene with different concentrations of DNA and lipofectamine. Six different concentrations of DNA and lipofectamine as 1 オg DNA: 2 オL lipofectamine, 1 オg DNA: 2.5 オL lipofectamine, 1.2 オg DNA: 2.2 オL lipofectamine, 1.2 オg DNA: 2.5 オL lipofectamine, 1.5 オg DNA: 2.5 オL lipofectamine, 1.5 オg DNA: 3 オL lipofectamine were used. After 24 h and 48 h of transfection, caprine MSC were observed under florescent microscope. Highest transfection rate indicating green flourecscent MSC were found when the cells were transfected with 1.2 オg DNA: 2.2 オL lipofectamine and 1.5 オg DNA: 2.5 オL lipofectamine than other combinations. These cells have been propagated beyond 4th passage maintaining GFP expression. The results indicated that stable GFP positive MSC cells can be generated using the above protocol. These cells are being used for transplantation studies.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, July 2013, pp. 510-514

 

 

Anxiolytic-like effect of N-n-butyl-3-methoxyquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (6o)
in experimental mouse models of anxiety

Shvetank Bhatt*, Radhakrishnan Mahesh, Thangaraj Devadoss & Ankur Jindal

Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani 333 031, India

Received 2 November 2012; revised 14 March 2013

The present research was designed to explore the anxiolytic-like activity of a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (6o) in
experimental mouse models of anxiety. The anxiolytic activity of '6o' at (1 and 2 mg/kg, ip) was evaluated in mice by using a battery of behavioural tests of anxiety such as elevated plus maze (EPM), light/dark aversion test, hole board (HB) and open field test (OFT) with diazepam (2 mg/kg, ip) as a standard anxiolytic. None of the tested doses of '6o' affected the base line locomotion. Compound '6o' (2 mg/kg, ip) and diazepam (2mg/kg, ip) significantly increased the percentage of both time spent and open arm entries in the EPM test. Compound '6o' in (1 mg/kg, ip) dose was only able to affect the percentage time spent in open arm significantly in the EPM test. In the light and dark test, compound '6o' (2 mg/kg, ip) and diazepam (2mg/kg, ip) significantly increased the total time spent in light compartment as well as number of transitions from one compartment to other and number of square crossed. Compound '6o' (1 and 2 mg/kg, ip) and diazepam (2 mg/kg, ip) also significantly increased number of head dips and number of squares crossed, whereas significantly decreased the head dipping latency in HB test as compared to vehicle control group. In addition, '6o' in both the doses and diazepam (2mg/kg, ip) significantly increased the ambulation scores (squares crossed) in OFT however, there was no significant effect of '6o' (1 and 2 mg/kg, ip) and diazepam (2 mg/kg, ip) on rearing scores. To conclude compound '6o' exhibited an anxiolytic-like effect in animal models of anxiety.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, July 2013, pp. 515-521

 

 

Antiaging, antistress and ROS scavenging activity of crude extract of
Ocimum sanctum (L.) in Caenorhabditis elegans (Maupas, 1900)

Rakesh Pandey*, Shipra Gupta, Virendra Shukla, Sudeep Tandon & Vibha Shukla

Microbial Technology and Nematology Department,
CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), P.O. CIMAP, Lucknow 226015, India

Received 15 May 2012; revised 2 April 2013

Since aging is the most important risk factor for variety of diseases, the discovery of a wide range of chemical modulators of aging in model organisms encourages new strategies for targeting age associated diseases. Simple genetic manipulation leads to long-lived and healthy animals, so any compound which could have similar effect would prove a boon to mankind. In the present study, effect of different pharmacological doses (1.0, 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001 mg/mL) of O. sanctum crude extract were used to determine their impact on life span, thermotolerance and ROS scavenging activities in C. elegans. The results revealed that 1 mg/mL of O. sanctum extract significantly extended the life span of C. elegans. The extract also proved to be a strong free radical scavenger and increased resistance against thermal stress. It is also suggested that the protective and life span extending action of the crude extract is not only due to its antioxidant capacity but may also be mediated by modulation of some signaling pathways. Thus, in addition to all the known medicinal property of Ocimum, it is capable of increasing stress tolerance and life span in C. elegans.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, July 2013, pp. 522-530

 

 

Gene ontology based characterization of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)
of
Brassica rapa cv. Osome

Senthil Kumar Thamil Arasan1,, Jong-In Park1,, Nasar Uddin Ahmed1, Hee-Jeong Jung1, In-Ho Lee1,2, Yong-Gu Cho3, Yong-Pyo Lim4, Kwon-Kyoo Kang5 & Ill-Sup Nou1,*

1Department of Horticulture, Sunchon National University, 413 Jungangno, Suncheon, Jeonnam 540-742, Republic of Korea

2Asia Seed Co. 442-2 Ihwang-ri, Janghowon-eup, Icheon-si, Gyeonngi-do 467-906, Republic of Korea

3Department of Crop Science, Chungbuk National University, 410 Seongbongro, Heungdokgu, Cheongju 361-763, Republic of Korea

4Department of Horticulture, Chungnam National University, 96 Daehangno, Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764,
Republic of Korea

5Department of Horticulture, Hankyong National University, 327 Chungangno, Anseong, Kyonggi 456-749, Republic of Korea

Received 26 December 2012; revised 18 April 2013

Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) is widely recognized for its economic importance and contribution to human nutrition but abiotic and biotic stresses are main obstacle for its quality, nutritional status and production. In this study, 3,429 Express Sequence Tag (EST) sequences were generated from B. rapa cv. Osome cDNA library and the unique transcripts were classified functionally using a gene ontology (GO) hierarchy, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG). KEGG orthology and the structural domain data were obtained from the biological database for stress related genes (SRG). EST datasets provided a wide outlook of functional characterization of B. rapa cv. Osome. In silico analysis revealed % 83 of ESTs to be well annotated towards reeds one dimensional concept. Clustering of ESTs returned 333 contigs and 2,446 singlets, giving a total of 3,284 putative unigene sequences. This dataset contained 1,017 EST sequences functionally annotated to stress responses and from which expression of randomly selected SRGs were analyzed against cold, salt, drought, ABA, water and PEG stresses. Most of the SRGs showed differentially expression against these stresses. Thus, the EST dataset is very important for discovering the potential genes related to stress resistance in chinese cabbage, and can be of useful resources for genetic engineering of Brassica sp.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, July 2013, pp. 531-542

 

 

Biochemical markers assisted screening of Fusarium wilt resistant
Musa paradisiaca (L.) cv. Puttabale micropropagated clones

Venkatesh, V Krishna*, K Girish Kumar, K Pradeepa, S R Santosh Kumar & R Shashi Kumar

P.G. Department of Studies and Research in Biotechnology and Bioinformatics

Kuvempu University, Shankaraghatta 577 451, India

Received 13 August 2012; revised 15 April 2013

An efficient protocol was standardized for screening of panama wilt resistant Musa paradisiaca cv. Puttabale clones, an endemic cultivar of Karnataka, India. The synergistic effect of 6-benzyleaminopurine (2 to 6 mg/L) and thidiazuron
(0.1 to 0.5 mg/L) on MS medium provoked multiple shoot induction from the excised meristem. An average of 30.10 ア 5.95 shoots was produced per propagule at 4 mg/L 6-benzyleaminopurine and 0.3 mg/L thidiazuron concentrations. Elongation of shoots observed on 5 mg/L BAP augmented medium with a mean length of 8.38 ア 0.30 shoots per propagule. For screening of disease resistant clones, multiple shoot buds were mutated with 0.4% ethyl-methane-sulfonate and cultured on MS medium supplemented with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) culture filtrate (515%). Two month old co-cultivated secondary hardened plants were used for screening of disease resistance against FOC by the determination of biochemical markers such as total phenol, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, oxidative enzymes like peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, catalase and PR-proteins like chitinase, β-1-3 glucanase activities. The mutated clones of M. paradisiaca cv. Puttabale cultured on FOC culture filtrate showed significant increase in the levels of biochemical markers as an indicative of acquiring disease resistant characteristics to FOC wilt.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, July 2013, pp. 543-547

 

 

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Trichoderma species

T Prameela Devi*, S Kulanthaivel1, Deeba Kamil2, Jyoti Lekha Borah3, N Prabhakaran4 & N Srinivasa5

Division of Plant Pathology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012, India

Received 14 January 2013; revised 17 April 2013

A total of 75 isolates belonging to five different species of Trichoderma viz., T. asperellum, T. harzianum,
T. longibrachiatum, T. pseudokoningii
and T. virens were screened for the production of silver nanoparticles. Although all the isolates produced nanoparticles, T. virens VN-11 could produce maximum nanoparticles as evident from the UV-Vis study. The highest Plasmon band was observed at 420 nm at every 24 h that attained maximum intensity at 120 h (0.543). The high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) further provided the morphology of the nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were found single or aggregated with round and uniform in shape and 8-60 nm in size. The nitrate reductase activity of VN-11 was found to be 150
nmol/h/mL which confirmed the production of silver nanoparticles through reduction of Ag+ to Ag0.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, July 2013, pp. 548-555

 

 

Foliar application of Zn at flowering stage improves plant痴 performance, yield and yield attributes of black gram

 

Nalini Pandey*, Bhavana Gupta & Girish Chandra Pathak

Plant Nutrition and Stress Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Lucknow,

Lucknow 226 007, India

Received 3 August 2012; revised 26 March 2013

Black gram plants subjected to varying levels of Zn supply (0.01 to 10 オM Zn) showed optimum growth and dry matter yield in plants receiving 1 オM Zn. The dry matter yield of plants decreased in plants receiving 0.01 and 0.1 オM Zn (deficient) and excess levels of Zn (2 and 10 オM Zn). The plants grown with Zn deficient supply showed delayed flowering, premature bud abscission, reduced size of anthers, pollen producing capacity, pollen viability and stigma receptivity resulting in poor pod formation and seed yield. Providing Zn as a foliar spray at pre-flowering stage minimized the severity of Zn deficiency on reproductive structure development and enhanced the seed nutritional status by enhancing seed Zn density, seed carbohydrate (sugar and starch content) and storage proteins (albumins, globulins, glutenins, and prolamines).

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, July 2013, pp. 556-566

 

 

Enzymatic hydrolysis of water hyacinth biomass for the production of ethanol: Optimization of driving parameters

 

Amit Ganguly1, Subhabrata Das2, Anamica Bhattacharya1, Apurba Dey2 & Pradip Kumar Chatterjee1*

1 Thermal Engineering Group, CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI) , Durgapur, 713 209, India

2 Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, 713 209, India

Received 10 September 2013; revised 18 April 2013

An efficient conversion of lignocellulose into fermentable sugars is a key step in producing bioethanol in a cost effective and eco-friendly manner. Alternative source like water hyacinth biomass (WHB) (Eichhornia crassipes) may be used as a supplement for the routine feedstocks. The enzyme loading for optimum yield of total reducing sugar was investigated and the enzyme-substrate interaction optimised. The maximal reducing sugar and xylose yield was obtained using cellulase and xylanase loading of 46.12 and 289.98 U/g and 2.26% (w/v) substrate loading. The efficiencies of ethanol production from the WHB hydrolysate are very less and the maximal ethanol yield was 3.4969 g/L when Pichia stiptis was used, followed by 3.4496 and 3.1349 g/L for Candida shehatae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.