Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 51

NUMBER 10

OCTOBER 2013

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 51 (10) 773-866 (2013)

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

 

 

Enzymes in clinical medicine: An overview

777

 

 

Thiagarajan Hemalatha, Thiagamoorthy UmaMaheswari, Gunasekaran Krithiga, Palavesam Sankaranarayanan & Rengarajulu Puvanakrishnan

 

 

 

Papers

 

 

 

Effects of fibronectin and type IV collagen on osteosarcoma cell apoptosis

789

 

 

Zerrin İncesu, İbrahim Hatipoğlu, Hlya Sivas, Emel Ergene & Glşen Akalın iftci

 

 

 

Topically applied standardized aqueous extract of Curcuma longa Linn. suppresses endotoxin-induced uveal inflammation in rats

797

 

 

Renu Agarwal, S K Gupta, Puneet Agarwal & Sushma Srivastava

 

 

 

Hemostatic, antibacterial biopolymers from Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd. and Moringa oleifera (Lam.) as potential wound dressing materials

804

 

 

Monica Bhatnagar, Laxmi Parwani, Vinay Sharma, Jhuma Ganguli & Ashish Bhatnagar

 

 

 

Anti-diabetic activity and safety assessment of Ayurvedic medicine, Jasada bhasma
(zinc ash) in rats

811

 

 

Rinku D Umrani, DurgashankarS Agrawal1 &Kishore M Paknikar

 

 

 

Effect of (+)-catechin hydrate on oxidative stress induced by high sucrose and high fat diet
in male Wistar rats

823

 

 

Pranav Mehra, Meenakshi Garg, Ashwani Koul & Devi Dayal Bansal

 

 

 

Central nervous system stimulant actions of Alpinia galanga (L.) rhizome:
A preliminary study

828

 

 

Sayan Saha & Sugato Banerjee

 

 

 

Diuretic potential of aqueous extract of roots of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad & Wendl,
a preliminary study

833

 

 

Dipti Ranka, Manoj Aswar, Urmila Aswar & Subhash Bodhankar

 

 

 

Phosphate solubilizing ability of Emericella nidulans strain V1 isolated from vermicompost

840

 

 

Satya Sunder Bhattacharya, Soma Barman, Ranjan Ghosh, Raj Kumar Duary, Linee Goswami & Narayan C Mandal

 

 

 

Assessment of somatic embryogenesis potency in Indian soybean
[Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars

849

 

 

Thankaraj Salammal Mariashibu, Kondeti Subramanyam, Muthukrishnan Arun,
Jeevaraj Theboral, Manoharan Rajesh, Sampath Kasthuri Rengan, Rajan Chakravarthy, Markandan Manickavasagam & Andy Ganapathi

 

 

 

Design of a microbial fuel cell and its transition to microbial electrolytic cell for hydrogen production by electrohydrogenesis

860

 

 

Pratima Gupta, Piyush Parkhey, Komal Joshi & Anjali Mahilkar

 

 

 

_______________________

 

Editors Note

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology in Open Access Mode

 

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology (IJEB) is now an open access journal in the repository, NISCAIR Online Periodicals Repository (NOPR) [http://nopr.niscair.res.in].

Full text of all articles published in IJEB from 2006 onwards can now be accessed at NOPR in the open access mode. Papers in the current issue shall be uploaded immediately. Papers published in earlier years shall be added soon.

NOPR is based on DSpace, a digital repository software, and allows document browsing, document searching and various search options like title, author name, keywords, year, issue, etc.

 

 

 

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology is covered by the following international abstracting and indexing services:

 

Science Citation Index ExpandedTM

PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov/)

MEDLINE

BIOSIS

Chemical Abstracts Service

Excerpta Medica

Informascience

Refrativnyi Zhurnal

Zoological Records

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Author Index

Agarwal Puneet

797

Agarwal Renu

797

Agrawal Durgashankar S

811

Akalın iftci Glşen

789

Arun Muthukrishnan

849

Aswar Manoj

833

Aswar Urmila

833

 

 

Banerjee Sugato

828

Bansal Devi Dayal

823

Barman Soma

840

Bhatnagar Ashish

804

Bhatnagar Monica

804

Bhattacharya Satya Sunder

840

Bodhankar Subhash

833

 

 

Chakravarthy Rajan

849

 

 

Duary Raj Kumar

840

 

 

Ergene Emel

789

 

 

Ganapathi Andy

849

Ganguli Jhuma

804

Garg Meenakshi

823

Ghosh Ranjan

840

Goswami Linee

840

Gupta Pratima

860

Gupta S K

797

 

 

Hatipoğlu İbrahim

789

Hemalatha Thiagarajan

777

 

 

İncesu Zerrin

789

 

 

Joshi Komal

860

 

 

Koul Ashwani

823

Krithiga Gunasekaran

777

 

 

Mahilkar Anjali

860

Mandal Narayan C

840

Manickavasagam Markandan

849

Mariashibu Thankaraj Salammal

 

849

 

 

Mehra Pranav

823

Paknikar Kishore M

811

Parkhey Piyush

860

Parwani Laxmi

804

Puvanakrishnan Rengarajulu

777

 

 

Rajesh Manoharan

849

Ranka Dipti

833

Rengan Sampath Kasthuri

849

 

 

Saha Sayan

828

Sankaranarayanan Palavesam

777

Sharma Vinay

804

Sivas Hlya

789

Srivastava Sushma

797

Subramanyam Kondeti

849

 

 

Theboral Jeevaraj

849

 

 

UmaMaheswari Thiagamoorthy

 

777

Umrani Rinku D

811

 

 

Keyword Index

(+)-Catechin hydrate

823

Alpinia galanga

828

Amino acids

849

Antimicrobial

804

Apoptosis

789

Ascorbic acid

823

Ayurveda

811

 

 

Biodegradable

804

Biomarkers

777

Biosensors

777

 

 

Cell culture

789

Curcuma longa

797

Cytotoxicity

804

 

 

Diabetes

811

Diagnostics

777

Diuretic

833

 

 

Endotoxin

797

Enzymes

777

Exoelectrogenic activity

860

 

 

Fibronectin

789

Fungi

840

 

 

Genotype

849

Gum acacia

804

 

 

Hemostatic

804

Hydrogen gas

860

 

 

Immature cotyledon

849

 

 

Jasada bhasma

811

 

 

Lipid peroxidation

823

 

 

Mice

828

Microbial Electrolytic Cell

860

Microbial Fuel Cell

860

Moringa seed polymer

804

 

 

Natriuretic

823

 

 

Osteosarcoma

789

 

 

Pharmacokinetics

811

Phosphate solubilization

840

Polysaccharides

804

 

 

Rats

811

Reduced glutathione

823

Rhizome

828

 

 

Saluretic

823

Soil kinetic

840

Solanum xanthocarpum

823

Somatic embryogenesis

849

Soybean

849

Stimulant

828

Streptozotocin

811

 

 

Thiols

823

TNF-a

797

Toxicity

811

Type IV collagen

789

 

 

Uveitis

797

 

 

Wound healing

804

 

 

Zinc ash

811

 

 

α-Tocopherol

823

 

 

β-tubulin gene

840

 

 

 

Correspondent author is marked by *

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, October 2013, pp. 777-788

 

 

 

Review Article

 

Enzymes in clinical medicine: An overview

Thiagarajan Hemalatha1, Thiagamoorthy UmaMaheswari1, Gunasekaran Krithiga2, Palavesam Sankaranarayanan3
& Rengarajulu Puvanakrishnan1

Departments of 1Biotechnology and 2Bioproducts, CSIR-Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600 020, India

3Department of Biochemistry, Madras Medical College, Chennai 600 003, India

Enzymes are biocatalysts and because of their remarkable properties, they are extensively used in medical diagnosis. Researches in the last two decades have concentrated more on enzymes such as creatine kinaseMB, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase etc. for clinical applications. Enzymes are the preferred markers in various disease states such as myocardial infarction, jaundice, pancreatitis, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, etc. They provide insight into the disease process by diagnosis, prognosis and assessment of response therapy. Even though the literature on the use of enzymes in various disease conditions has accumulated, a comprehensive analysis is lacking and hence this review.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, October 2013, pp. 789-796

 

Papers

 

Effects of fibronectin and type IV collagen on osteosarcoma cell apoptosis

Zerrin İncesu1*, İbrahim Hatipoğlu2, Hlya Sivas3, Emel Ergene3 & Glşen Akalın iftci1

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Farmacy, Anadolu University, Eskişehir-TURKEY

2Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute 41470 Gebze /Kocaeli

3Depatment of Biology, Faculty of Science, Anadolu University, 26470 Eskişehir

Received 19 November 2012; revised 8 July 2013

The aims of this study are the investigation of the effects of fibronectin and type IV collagen extracellular matrix proteins and the role of caspase-3 and -9 on cis-platin induced U2-OS apoptosis were studied. First the cytotoxic effects of cis-platin on cell system were investigated by colorimetric method and than morphological and ELISA analysis were used for determination of cell apoptosis when induced with cis-platin. In addition, after adhering the cells to fibronection or type IV collagen proteins, the apoptotic rate and the effects of caspase-3 and -9 were also investigated by ELISA in presence of specific inhibitors. U2-OS cells showed 20% cytotoxicity after treatment with 2.4 M of cis-platin for 48 h. Morphological and the numerical data showed that cis-platin was able to induced apoptosis on cells as a dose-dependent manner. Caspase-3 and -9 inhibitors inhibited cis-platin-induced apoptosis in U2-OS cells, respectively. The binding of cells to 10 g/mL of fibronectin but not type IV collagen enhanced the apoptosis about 2.5 fold that effects inhibited with caspase-3 inhibitor. The caspase-3 and -9 are involved in the apoptotic signals induced by cis-platin in U2-OS. The binding to fibronectin, but not type IV collagen enhanced the apoptotic response of U2-OS and fibronectin-dependent apoptosis was activated by caspase-3. These finding might be useful for patients to fight against osteosarcoma.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, October 2013, pp. 797-803

 

 

Topically applied standardized aqueous extract of Curcuma longa Linn. suppresses endotoxin-induced uveal inflammation in rats

Renu Agarwal*, S K Gupta, Puneet Agarwal** & Sushma Srivastava

Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Pushp Vihar, Sector 3, M B Road, New Delhi 110 017, India

Received 6 November 2012; revised 16 July 2013

Aqueous extract of C. longa when administered 4 h after induction of E. coli lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in rats showed significantly suppressed inflammation with a significantly lower mean clinical grade, histopathological grade and aqueous humor (AH) protein level compared to vehicle treated group. Although, prednisolone group showed significantly lower clinical grade, histopathological grades and AH protein levels compared to C. longa group, TNF-a levels did not differ significantly. Moreover, when the aqueous extract was administered starting from 3 days before induction of uveitis, the mean clinical and histopathological grade as well as AH protein and TNF-a levels were comparable to C. longa group when treatment was administered 4 h after induction of uveitis. It is concluded that topically applied standardized aqueous extract of C. longa suppresses endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats by reducing TNF-a activity.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, October 2013, pp. 804-810

 

 

Hemostatic, antibacterial biopolymers from Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd. and Moringa oleifera (Lam.) as potential wound dressing materials

Monica Bhatnagar*, Laxmi Parwania, Vinay Sharmaa, Jhuma Gangulib & Ashish Bhatnagar

aAlgae Biofuel and Biomolecules Centre, Department of Microbiology, M.D.S., University, Ajmer, 305 009, India

Received 18 January 2013; revised 28 June 2013

Acacia arabica and Moringa oleifera are credited with a number of medicinal properties. Traditionally gum of Acacia plant is used in the treatment of skin disorders to soothe skin rashes, soreness, inflammation and burns while Moringa seed extracts are known to have antibacterial activity. In the present study the potential of the polymeric component of aqueous extracts of gum acacia (GA) and the seeds of M. oleifera (MSP) in wound management was evaluated. The results revealed that both biopolymers were hemostatic and hasten blood coagulation. They showed shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time and were non-cytotoxic in nature. Both showed antibacterial activity against organisms known to be involved in wound infections with MIC ranging from 500-600 g mL-1 for GA and 300-700 g mL-1 for MSP. They were biodegradable and exhibited water absorption capacity in the range of 415 to 935%. The hemostatic character coupled to these properties envisions their potential in preparation of dressings for bleeding and profusely exuding wounds. The biopolymers have been further analysed for their composition by Gas chromatography.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, October 2013, pp. 811-822

 

 

Anti-diabetic activity and safety assessment of Ayurvedic medicine, Jasada bhasma (zinc ash) in rats

Rinku D Umrani, Durgashankar S Agrawal1 & Kishore M Paknikar*

Centre for Nanobioscience, Agharkar Research Institute, G. G. Agarkar Road, Pune 411004, India

Received 21 March 2013; revised 21 June 2013

Jasada bhasma (zinc ash) is an extensively used Ayurvedic medicine for treating diabetes mellitus. The present communication presents yet unavailable comprehensive scientific data on its physico-chemical nature vis--vis anti-diabetic activity and toxicity profile.Zinc ash prepared by traditional method was found to consist of 200-500 nm sized particles, predominantly zinc oxide with hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure.The effective dose range of zinc ash in oral glucose tolerance tests performed using normoglycemic Wistar rats was found to be 3-30 mg/kg. Subsequently anti-diabetic activity was assessed in streptozotocin induced type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats. Four weeks treatment with zinc ash (1, 3, 10 mg/kg) resulted in improved glucose tolerance (16-19%), lowered blood glucose levels (20-33%) and reduced serum insulin levels (27-32%). Systemic absorption was assessed by single dose pharmacokinetic study where serum zinc levels were found to be elevated (3.5 folds) after oral administration of zinc ash. Acute and sub-acute toxicity tests demonstrated safety of zinc ash up to 300 mg/kg doseie. 100 times the efficacy dose in rats.These findings, the first of their kind, provide concrete scientific evidence that justifies usage of zinc ash in diabetes treatment.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, October 2013, pp. 823-827

 

 

Effect of (+)-catechin hydrate on oxidative stress induced by high sucrose and high fat diet in male Wistar rats

Pranav Mehra1, Meenakshi Garg1, Ashwani Koul2 & Devi Dayal Bansal1*

Departments of 1Biochemistry and 2Biophysics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India

Received 25 September 2012; revised 30 July 2013

Increased lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione levels in liver of rats fed high sucrose high fat (HSHF) diet were normalized by concomitant administration of (+)-catechin hydrate. Plasma non-enzymatic antioxidants viz. α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and total thiols decrease were also significantly less in rats administered with (+)-catechin hydrate concomitantly with HSHF diet. Thus the present results indicate that (+)-catechin hydrate has antioxidant activity and is effective in reducing oxidative stress. The study is of clinical importance as oxidative stress is known to be the cause of many clinical manifestations viz. cancer, Parkinsons disease, atherosclerosis, heart failure, myocardial infarction and many other diseases.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, October 2013, pp. 828-832

 

 

Central nervous system stimulant actions of Alpinia galanga (L.) rhizome:
A preliminary study

Sayan Saha & Sugato Banerjee*

Gupta College of Technological Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Ashram More, G.T. Road, Asansol 713 30, India

Received 11 October 2012; revised 22 July 2013

Methanolic and ethyl acetate extract of A. galanga showed significant central nervous system (CNS) stimulant activity in mice using actophotometer and rotarod test. CNS stimulation at a dose of 500 mg/kg was comparable with standard drugs caffeine and amphetamine derivative modalart. The extracts did not shown any depressant effect in forced swim or tail suspension tests. It can be concluded that A. galanga rhizome may have stimulant activity in mice and the active constituents responsible for this effect is present both in crude methanolic extract as well as in ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of this plant species.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, October 2013, pp. 833-839

 

 

Diuretic potential of aqueous extract of roots of Solanum xanthocarpum
Schrad & Wendl, a preliminary study

Dipti Ranka1, Manoj Aswar2, Urmila Aswar2* & Subhash Bodhankar1

1Department of Pharmacology, Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth University,

Erandwane, Paud Road, Pune 411 038, India

2 Department of Pharmacology, Sinhgad Institute of Pharmacy, Narhe, Pune 411 041, India

Received 26 December 2012; revised 25 July 2013

In traditional system of medicine S. xanthocarpum is used treating difficulty in urination and renal calculus. The objective of the present study was to scientifically evaluate diuretic potential of S. xanthocarpum. The study was divided into two phases of evaluation (acute and sub-acute) with administration of aqueous extract of S. xanthocarpum roots. The animals were treated with either aqueous extract of S. xanthocarpum (AqSX; 200, 400 mg/kg, po) or furosemide (25 mg/kg, po) or hydrochlorthiazide (HCTZ; 25 mg/kg, po). In acute study, the treated animals were observed for urine volume, urine pH, urine and serum electrolytes and creatinine after 6th and 24th h. While in sub-acute study observations for above mentioned parameters were done on day 1, day 7 and day 14. Diuretic index, natriuretic and saluretic potential were also calculated. The results indicated strong diuretic potential with AqSX (400 mg/kg). The diuretic prospective of AqSX was similar to furosemide without any type of toxicity based on the observations of serum electrolytes, serum creatinine and urine creatinine measurement. The findings support ethnobotanical use of S. xanthocarpum.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, October 2013, pp. 840-848

 

 

Phosphate solubilizing ability of Emericella nidulans strain V1 isolated from vermicompost

Satya Sunder Bhattacharya1, Soma Barman2, Ranjan Ghosh2, Raj Kumar Duary3,
Linee Goswami1 & Narayan C Mandal2,*

1 Department of Environmental Science, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784 028, India

2Department of Botany, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235, India

3 Department of Food Engineering and Technology, Tezpur University, Tezpur 784 028, India

Received 28 March 2013; revised 30 July 2013

Phosphorus is one of the key factors that regulate soil fertility. Its deficiencies in soil are largely replenished by chemical fertilizers. The present study was aimed to isolate efficient phosphate solubilizing fungal strains from Eisenia fetida vermicompost. Out of total 30 fungal strains the most efficient phosphate solubilizing one was Emericella (Aspergillus) nidulans V1 (MTCC 11044), identified by custom sequencing of β-tubulin gene and BLAST analysis. This strain solubilized 13 to 36% phosphate from four different rock phosphates. After three days of incubation of isolated culture with black Mussorie phosphate rock, the highest percentage of phosphate solubilization was 35.51.01 with a pH drop of 4.20.09. Kinetics of solubilization and acid production showed a linear relationship until day five of incubation. Interestingly, from zero to tenth day of incubation, solubility of soil phosphate increased gradually from 4.311.57 to 13.651.82 (mg kg-1) recording a maximum of 21.230.54 on day 45 in respect of the V1 isolate. Further, enhanced phosphorus uptake by Phaseolus plants with significant pod yield due to soil inoculation of Emericella nidulans V1 (MTCC 11044), demonstrated its prospect as an effective biofertilizer for plant growth.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, October 2013, pp. 849-859

 

 

Assessment of somatic embryogenesis potency in Indian soybean
[Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars

Thankaraj Salammal Mariashibu1, Kondeti Subramanyam, Muthukrishnan Arun,
Jeevaraj Theboral, Manoharan Rajesh, Sampath Kasthuri Rengan1, Rajan Chakravarthy1,
Markandan Manickavasagam & Andy Ganapathi*

1Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, School of Biotechnology,
Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620 024, India

Received 10 October 2012; revised 22 July 2013

Majority of the Indian soybean cultivars are recalcitrant to tissue culture regeneration. The present communication reports the development of somatic embryogenesis in a liquid culture medium from immature cotyledons of G. max. Following induction with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), the number of somatic embryos and percentage of explants that responded were higher with 45.24 M 2,4-D. The proliferation of somatic embryos for three successive cycles was achieved in 22.62 M 2,4-D. Histodifferentiation of somatic embryos under NAA (10.74 M) indicated that better embryo development and maturation was achieved without any growth regulator. The amino acids such as L-glutamine favoured the somatic embryo induction and histodifferentiation at 20 and 30 mM respectively, where as L-asparagine at 10 mM concentration enhanced the somatic embryo proliferation. In addition, somatic embryos that were desiccated (air-drying method) for 5 days showed better germination (40.88%). The Indian soybean cultivars also showed strict genotypic influence and cv. Pusa 16 was emerged as a best responding cultivar for somatic embryo induction with 74.42% of response.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 51, October 2013, pp. 860-865

 

 

Design of a microbial fuel cell and its transition to microbial electrolytic cell for hydrogen production by electrohydrogenesis

Pratima Gupta *, Piyush Parkhey, Komal Joshi & Anjali Mahilkar

Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Technology, Raipur, Chhattisgarh 492 010, India

Received 8 November 2012; revised 10 July 2013

Anaerobic bacteria were isolated from industrial wastewater and soil samples and tested for exoelectrogenic activity by current production in double chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC), which was further transitioned into a single chambered microbial electrolytic cell to test hydrogen production by electrohydrogenesis. Of all the cultures, the isolate from industrial water sample showed the maximum values for current = 0.161 mA, current density = 108.57 mA/m2 and power density = 48.85 mW/m2 with graphite electrode. Maximum voltage across the cell, however, was reported by the isolate from sewage water sample (506 mv) with copper as electrode. Tap water with KMnO4 was the best cathodic electrolyte as the highest values for all the measured MFC parameters were reported with it. Once the exoelectrogenic activity of the isolates was confirmed by current production, these were tested for hydrogen production in a single chambered microbial electrolytic cell (MEC) modified from the MFC. Hydrogen production was reported positive from co-culture of isolates of both the water samples and co-culture of one soil and one water sample. The maximum rate and yield of hydrogen production was 0.18 m3H2/m3/d and 3.2 mol H2/mol glucose respectively with total hydrogen production of 42.4 mL and energy recovery of 57.4%. Cumulative hydrogen production for a five day cycle of MEC operation was 0.16 m3H2/m3/d.