Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

http://www.niscair.res.in; http://nopr.niscair.res.in

 

Total visitors: 3531 since 14-8-2014

 

VOLUME 52

NUMBER 8

AUGUST 2014

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 52 (8) 759-844 (2014)

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

CONTENTS

 

 

Papers

 

 

 

Nano gold conjugation, anti-arthritic potential and toxicity studies of snake Naja kaouthia
(Lesson, 1831) venom protein toxin NKCT1 in male albino rats and mice

763

 

 

Partha Pratim Saha, Tanmoy Bhowmik, Anjan Kumar Dasgupta & Antony Gomes

 

 

 

Suppression of Eis and expression of Wag31 and GroES in Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytosol under anaerobic culture conditions

773

 

 

Vineet K Maurya, Kavita Singh & Sudhir Sinha

 

 

 

43 kDa and 66 kDa, two blood stage antigens induce immune response in Plasmodium berghei malaria

781

 

 

Chhaya Pirta & HS Banyal

 

 

 

Effects of magnesium on cytomorphology and enzyme activities in thyroid of rats

787

 

 

Amar K Chandra, Haimanti Goswami & Pallav Sengupta

 

 

 

Evaluation of a novel decorporation approach to prevent radioactivity uptake by using acidosis in experimental animals

793

 

 

Priyanka Saxena, Dhruv K Nishad, Thakuri Singh, Amit Kumar, Ravi Kashyap, Aseem Bhatnagar & Gaurav Mittal

 

 

 

Punarnavine, an alkaloid isolated from ethanolic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. reverses depression-like behaviour in mice subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress

799

 

 

Dinesh Dhingra & Rekha Valecha

 

 

Comparative immunomodulation potential of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. F., Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill and Tinospora cordifolia growing on Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

808

 

 

A N Narkhede , S D Jagtap, D M Kasote, O P Kulkarni & A M Harsulkar

 

 

 

Effect of acute exposure of triazophos on oxidative stress and histopathological alterations in liver, kidney and brain of Wistar rats

814

 

 

Mohineesh, Jaya Raj, A C Rajvanshi, T D Dogra & Anupuma Raina

 

 

A simple technique for tracking individual spore and gametophyte development in Adiantum lunulatum Burm. f. using modified extra thin alginate film technique

820

 

 

Bhuvnesh Sareen, Amita Bhattacharya, Madhu Sharma, Anil Sood & Paramvir Singh Ahuja

 

 

 

In vitro flowering – A system for tracking floral organ development in Dendrocalamus hamiltonii
Nees et Arn. ex Munro

825

 

 

Devinder Kaur, Pooja Thapa, Madhu Sharma, Amita Bhattacharya & Anil Sood

 

 

 

Antiangiogenic and antiproliferative assessment of cyanobacteria

835

 

 

Mahender Kyadari, Tasneem Fatma, Thirumurthy Velpandian, Malliga P, Naveen Bharat & Fareha Bano

 

 

 

Information for Authors

842

 

——————————————

 

Announcement

 

2nd Asian Congress of Protistology (ACOP 2014)

and

9th Conference on Ciliate Biology

University of Kalyani, Kalyani, India

27–29 November, 2014

 

The Congress will cover all areas of protistology including molecular biology, biochemistry, cell and developmental biology, systematics, phylogeny and biodiversity, parasitology, genetics, physiology and informatics. For details, please contact: Prof. P. K. Bandyopadhyay, Organizing Secretary (ACOP 2014), Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741 235, India. Telephone: +919433214527 (Mobile); E-mail: prabir0432@hotmail.com; acopindia2014@gmail.com

 

——————————————

 

Editor’s Note

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology is covered by the following international abstracting and indexing services:

 

Science Citation Index ExpandedTM

PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov/)

MEDLINE

BIOSIS

Chemical Abstracts Service

Excerpta Medica

Informascience

Refrativnyi Zhurnal

Zoological Records

 

 

 

Author Index

Ahuja Paramvir Singh

820

Amit Kumar

793

 

 

Banyal H S

781

Bhatnagar Aseem

793

Bhattacharya Amita

820,825

Bhowmik Tanmoy

763

 

 

Chandra Amar K

787

 

 

Dasgupta Anjan Kumar

763

Dhingra Dinesh

799

Dogra T D

814

 

 

Fareha Bano

835

Fatma Tasneem

835

 

 

Gomes Antony

763

Goswami Haimanti

787

Harsulkar A M

808

 

 

Jagtap S D

808

Jaya Raj

814

 

 

Kashyap Ravi

793

Kasote D M

808

Kaur Devinder

825

Kulkarni O P

808

Kyadari Mahender

835

 

 

Malliga P

835

Maurya Vineet K

773

Mittal Gaurav

793

Mohineesh

814

 

 

Narkhede A N

808

Naveen Bharat

835

Nishad Dhruv K

793

Pirta Chhaya

781

 

 

Raina Anupuma

814

Rajvanshi A C

814

 

 

Saha Partha Pratim

763

Sareen Bhuvnesh

820

Saxena Priyanka

793

Sengupta Pallav

787

Sharma Madhu

820,825

Singh Kavita

773

Singh Thakuri

793

Sinha Sudhir

773

Sood Anil

820,825

 

 

Thapa Pooja

825

 

 

Valecha Rekha

799

Velpandian Thirumurthy

835

 

 

Keyword Index

Acetyl cholinesterase

814

Acidosis

793

Algae

835

Anaerobic persistence

773

Angiogenesis

835

Antibodies

781

Antigens

781

 

 

Bamboo

825

Boerhaavia diffusa

799

 

 

Cesium-137

793

Chorio Allontoic Membrane


835

Chronic unpredictable mild stress


799

 

 

Decorporation

793

Depression

799

 

 

Eis

773

ETAF

820

 

 

Fern spores

820

Flower induction medium

825

Forced swim test

799

 

 

Glutathione

814

Gold nanoparticle

763

Gold nanoparticle conjugation


763

GroES

773

Guduchi Satwa

808

 

 

Hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis


787

 

 

Immobilization

820

Immune response

781

Immunomodulation

808

In vitro flowers

825

In vitro propagation

820

 

 

Lipid peroxidation

814

LTBI

773

 

 

Magnesium

787

Malaria

781

Mycobacterium tuberculosis


773

Naja kaouthia

763

Neem-guduchi

808

NKCT1

763

 

 

Percent germination

820

Plasmodium berghei

781

Punarnavine

799

 

 

Radioactivity

793

Radiometry

793

Rheumatoid arthritis

763

 

 

Snake venom

763

Somatic embryo derived plants


825

Sucrose preference test

799

Superoxide dismutase

814

 

 

TB

773

Thallium-201

793

Thyroid enzymes

787

Thyroid hormones

787

Tinospora cordifolia

808

Tinospora sinensis

808

Toxicity study

763

Triazophos

814

 

 

Vaccine

781

VEGF

835

Wag31

773

 

 

            Correspondent author is marked by *

Papers

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, August 2014, pp. 763-772

 

 

 

 

Nano gold conjugation, anti-arthritic potential and toxicity studies of snake Naja kaouthia (Lesson, 1831) venom protein toxin NKCT1 in male albino rats and mice

Partha Pratim Saha1, Tanmoy Bhowmik1, Anjan Kumar Dasgupta2 & Antony Gomes1*

1Laboratory of Toxinology & Experimental Pharmacodynamics

Department of Physiology, University of Calcutta, 92 A P C Road, Kolkata 700 009, India

2Department of Biochemistry, University of Calcutta

35 Ballygunge Circular Road, Kolkata 700 019, India

Received 20 January 2014; revised 8 May 2014

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology have found their way in the fields of pharmacology and medicine. The conjugation of drug to nanoparticles combines the properties of both. In this study, gold nanoparticle (GNP) was conjugated with NKCT1, a cytotoxic protein toxin from Indian cobra venom for evaluation of anti-arthritic activity and toxicity in experimental animal models. GNP conjugated NKCT1 (GNP-NKCT1) synthesized by NaBH4 reduction method was stable at room temperature (25±2 °C), pH 7.2. Hydrodynamic size of GNP-NKCT1 was 68–122 nm. Arthritis was developed by Freund's complete adjuvant induction in male albino rats and treatment was done with NKCT1/GNP-NKCT1/standard drug. The paw/ankle swelling, urinary markers, serum markers and cytokines were changed significantly in arthritic control rats which were restored after GNP-NKCT1 treatment. Acute toxicity study revealed that GNP conjugation increased the minimum lethal dose value of NKCT1 and partially reduced the NKCT1 induced increase of the serum biochemical tissue injury markers. Histopathological study showed partial restoration of toxic effect in kidney tissue after GNP conjugation. Normal lymphocyte count in culture was in the order of GNP-NKCT1>NKCT1>Indomethacine treatment. The present study confirmed that GNP conjugation increased the antiarthritic activity and decreased toxicity profile of NKCT1.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, August 2014, pp. 773-780

 

 

Suppression of Eis and expression of Wag31 and GroES in Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytosol under anaerobic culture conditions†

Vineet K Maurya1, Kavita Singh2 & Sudhir Sinha1,3*

1Biochemistry Division and 2Electron Microscopy Unit, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 031, India

3Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, New Delhi, India

Received 6 May 2013; revised 28 March 2014

A major impediment in chemotherapy of Tuberculosis (TB) is the persistence of M. tuberculosis in a latent or dormant state, possibly perpetuated by paucity of oxygen within the lung granuloma. Proteome analysis of the anaerobically persisting microbe could therefore provide novel targets for drugs against latent TB infection (LTBI). An Indian clinical isolate of M. tuberculosis was cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions following Wayne’s hypoxia model and its cytosolic proteins were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Peptide mass fingerprinting of 32 differentially expressed spots using MALDI TOF-TOF MS-MS resulted in identification of 23 proteins. Under the anaerobic culture conditions, expression of 12 of these proteins was highly suppressed (>2 fold reduction in spot volumes), with 4 of them (GrpE, CanB, MoxR1 and Eis) appearing as completely suppressed since corresponding spots were not detectable in the anaerobic sample. On the other hand, 4 proteins were highly expressed, with two of them (Wag31 and GroES) being uniquely expressed under anaerobic conditions. Suppression of Eis could make the anaerobically persisting bacilli susceptible to the aminoglycoside antibiotics which are known to be acetylated and inactivated by Eis. Although all 4 over-expressed proteins can be considered as putative drug targets for LTBI, Wag31 appears particularly interesting in view of its role in the cell wall biogenesis.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, August 2014, pp. 781-786

 

 

43 kDa and 66 kDa, two blood stage antigens induce immune
response in Plasmodium berghei malaria

Chhaya Pirta & HS Banyal*

Laboratory of Parasitology and Immunology, Department of Biosciences, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla 171 005

Received 7 June 2013; revised 28 May 2014

The hunt for an effective vaccine against malaria still continues. Several new target antigens as candidates for vaccine design are being explored and tested for their efficacy. In the present study the sera from mice immunized with 24,000 Χ g fraction of Plasmodium berghei has been used to identify highly immunogenic blood stage antigens. The protective antibodies present in immune sera were covalently immobilized on CNBr activated sepharose 4B and used for affinity chromatography purification of antigens present in blood stages of P. berghei. Two polypeptides of 66 and 43 kDa molecular weights proved to be highly immunogenic. They exhibited a strong humoral immune response in mice as evident by high titres in ELISA and IFA. Protective immunity by these two antigens was apparent by in vivo and in vitro studies. These two proteins could further be analysed and used as antigens in malaria vaccine design.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, August 2014, pp. 787-792

 

 

 

Effects of magnesium on cytomorphology and enzyme activities in thyroid of rats

Amar K Chandra*, Haimanti Goswami & Pallav Sengupta

Endocrinology & Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology,
University of Calcutta,  92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700 009, India

Received 6 May 2013; revised 23 May 2014

Till date knowledge regarding the effects of high dietary magnesium on thyroid gland is incomprehensive though
certain epidemiological studies reported development of thyroid gland dysfunctions in people with chronic exposure
to hard water (especially with high magnesium) despite sufficient iodine consumption. The present study is to explore the effects of chronic high dietary magnesium exposure on thyroid morphology and functional status. Male adult albino
Wistar strain rats were treated with graded doses of
magnesium sulphate (MgSO4; 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g %) for 60 days and changes in different thyroid parameters were investigated. Significantly stimulated thyroid peroxidase and Na+–K+-ATPase and altered idothyronine 5/- deiodinase type I activities, enhanced serum thyroxine (T4) (both total and free), total triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone with decreased free T3 levels and T3/T4 ratio (T3:T4) along
with enlargement of thyroid with associated histopathological changes were observed in the treated groups.
The results clearly confirm that chronic high dietary magnesium exposure causes potential thyroid disruption as reported in earlier epidemiological studies.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, August 2014, pp. 793-798

 

 

Evaluation of a novel decorporation approach to prevent radioactivity uptake
by using acidosis in experimental animals

Priyanka Saxena†, Dhruv K Nishad, Thakuri Singh, Amit Kumar, Ravi Kashyap,
Aseem Bhatnagar & Gaurav Mittal*

Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Defence R&D Organisation, Delhi 110 054, India

Received 13 May 2013; revised 7 May 2014

With an aim to devise a prophylactic and/or therapeutic approach for preventing internalization of radiothallium (201Tl), and more importantly by implication, its chemical analogue radiocesium (137Cs) during any nuclear emergency, different ex vivo and in vivo animal models were created to determine the role of pH in absorption of 201Tl across jejunum/muscle tissue and whole body retention of 201Tl respectively. Movement of Tl+ under simulated pH conditions proved that pH had direct influence on its absorption. Oral intake of acidified water or parenteral administration of lactic acid was able to reduce the body burden of 201Tl by up to 12 and 50% respectively. The results indicate that acidification of gut, within physiological range may be used as an option for decorporation/inhibition of incorporation of radiothallium and radiocesium, particularly in cases of mass casualty.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, August 2014, pp. 799-807

 

 

 

Punarnavine, an alkaloid isolated from ethanolic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. reverses depression-like behaviour in mice subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress

Dinesh Dhingra* & Rekha Valecha

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125 001, India

Received 22 July 2013; revised 13 May 2014

Punarnavine (20 and 40 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) per se administered orally for 14 successive days significantly decreased immobility periods of both unstressed and stressed mice in forced swim test. These drugs also significantly decreased sucrose preference in both stressed and unstressed mice as compared to their respective controls, indicating significant antidepressant-like activity. The drugs did not show any significant effect on locomotor activity of mice. The alkaloid also significantly decreased monoamine oxidase (MAO-A) activity, malondialdehyde levels in both unstressed and stressed mice; and significantly reversed the stress-induced decrease in reduced glutathione and catalase activity. It also significantly attenuated the stress-induced increase in plasma nitrite and corticosterone levels. Thus, punarnavine showed antidepressant-like activity in unstressed and stressed mice probably through inhibition of brain MAO-A activity, decrease in plasma nitrite levels and due to its antioxidant activity. In addition, punarnavine also showed antidepressant-like activity in stressed mice possibly through decrease in plasma corticosterone levels.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, August 2014, pp. 808-813

 

 

Comparative immunomodulation potential of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook. F., Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill and Tinospora cordifolia growing on Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

A N Narkhede, S D Jagtap*, D M Kasote1, O P Kulkarni & A M Harsulkar

Interactive Research School for Health Affairs (IRSHA), Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Pune Satara Road, Pune 411 043. India

1Arts, Commerce and Science College, Sangamner, Pune 422 608, India.

Received 14 January 2013; revised 15 May 2014

Guduchi has been widely used in the traditional medicine as an immunomodulator. Description of guduchi in Ayurvedic literature resemble with T. sinensis rather than with commonly available T. cordifolia and hence this may be used as substitutes for T. sinensis. T. cordifolia growing on Azadirachta indica commonly called Neem-guduchi has more immunomodulatory potential. Thus, immunomodulatory activity of three Tinospora spp. was assessed by checking humoral and cell mediated immune responses to the antigenic challenges with sheep RBCs and by neutrophil adhesion tests on albino Wistar rats using Guduchi-Satwa, a well known dosage form. Results revealed that Neem-guduchi possesses higher immunomodulatory potential at the dose of 300 mg/kg, po and validated the traditional claim. Hence, Neem-Guduchi can be employed in immunomodulatory formulation prepared using guduchi.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, August 2014, pp. 814-819

 

 

Effect of acute exposure of triazophos on oxidative stress and histopathological alterations in liver, kidney and brain of Wistar rats

Mohineesh, Jaya Raj, A C Rajvanshi1, T D Dogra2 & Anupuma Raina*

Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, India

1 National Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science, Rohini, New Delhi 110 085 India

2 Sri Guru Gobind Tricentinary University, Budhera, Gurgaon 122 505, India

Received 19 July 2013; revised 23 May 2014

Acute dose of organophosphorus pesticide Triazophos (O,O-diethyl O-1-phenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl phosphorothioate; Tz) administered orally affects oxidative stress parameters and the histo-architecture of liver, kidney and brain tissues. The results indicate a dose dependent induction of oxidative stress as evident by increased malondialdehyde level and decreased antioxidant defense including glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity in rat liver, kidney and brain. AChE activity was found significantly decreased in the Tz treated groups as compared to the vehicle control (DMSO) group. Histopathological examination of liver, kidney and brain in Tz treated rats revealed medullary congestion and hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes in liver and medullary congestion in kidney. However, no significant histopathological changes were observed in brain tissues.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, August 2014, pp. 820-824

 

 

A simple technique for tracking individual spore and gametophyte development in Adiantum lunulatum Burm. f. using modified extra thin alginate film technique†

 

Bhuvnesh Sareen, Amita Bhattacharya, Madhu Sharma*, Anil Sood & Paramvir Singh Ahuja

Division of Biotechnology, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT)
Palampur 176 061, India

 

Received 18 September 2013; revised 13 March 2014

 

A new technique was developed for accurate calculation of percent germination and tracking of individual spores from germination to gametophyte development in Adiantum lunulatum. High percentage of ETAF immobilized spore germination (72.4%) was followed by development of gametophytic clumps. The ETAF immobilized clumps were cut into pieces and multiplied en masse. Apomictic sporophytes developed from the gametophytes. This indicated the potential of ETAF for mass propagation of A. lunulatum without the need to start from spores. Since individual spores can be tracked from germination to gametophyte development, the ETAF technique has the potential to be used for (i) harvesting uniformly developed plants of similar age for extensive experimentations and commercial utilization and (ii) detailed study on developmental and reproductive biology of different ferns and fern allies.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, August 2014, pp. 825-834

 

 

In vitro flowering – A system for tracking floral organ development in Dendrocalamus hamiltonii Nees et Arn. ex Munro†

Devinder Kaur, Pooja Thapa, Madhu Sharma, Amita Bhattacharya* & Anil Sood

Division of Biotechnology, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT)

Palampur 176 061, India

Received 3 February 2014; revised 28 April 2014

Dendrocalamus hamiltonii plants are slender and tall (15-25 m) thereby, rendering tagging, sampling and tracking the development of flowers difficult. Therefore, a reproducible system of in vitro flowering was established for tracking the stages of flower development. MS medium supplemented with 2.22 ΅M 6-benzylaminopurine, 1.23 ΅M indole-3-butyric acid and 2% sucrose was optimized as the flower induction medium (FIM) wherein 28 and 42 days were required for the development of gynoecium and androecium, respectively. Six distinct stages of in vitro flower development were identified, and the flowers were comparable with that of in planta sporadic flowers. Pollen viability of the in vitro flowers was higher than those of in planta ones. The in vitro system developed in the present study facilitates easy tracking of different stages of flower development under controlled environmental conditions. It can also be used for medium- or long-term storage of pollens and manipulation of in vitro fertilization.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, August 2014, pp. 835-841

 

 

Antiangiogenic and antiproliferative assessment of cyanobacteria

Mahender Kyadari1, Tasneem Fatma2, Thirumurthy Velpandian3,*, Malliga P3, Naveen Bharat2 & Fareha Bano2

1Department of Pharmacy, Integrated Institute of Technology, Sector 9, Dwarka, New Delhi 110 077, India

2Department of Bio-Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110 025, India

3Department of Ocular Pharmacology & Pharmacy, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences,
All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi 110 029, India

4National Facility for Marine Cyanobacteria, Department of Marine Biotechnology,
Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, 620 024, India

Received 7 March 2013; revised 20 May 2014

Biologically active compounds with different modes of action, such as antiproliferative, antioxidant, antimicrotubule, have been isolated from algae and cyanobacteria. The present study was designed to evaluate antiangiogenic and antiproliferative potential of dichloromethane and methanol (2:1) extracts of different cyanobacteria. Further fingerprinting of the activity possessing extracts were carried out using ESI-LC-MS/MS. Extracts (25, 50 and 100 ΅g) were screened in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced angiogenesis in inovo chick chorioallontoic membrane assay (CAM) at various concentrations using thalidomide and normal saline as positive and untreated control groups respectively. The extracts were also evaluated for their antiproliferative activity by MTT assay using HeLa cancer cell line. The results obtained from the various algal extracts did not show any significant antiangiogenic activity as compared to VEGF control. Oscillatoria sp. and Lyngbya officinalis exhibited significant anti-proliferative activity at IC50 values of 220 and 260 ΅g/mL respectively. ESI-LC-MS/MS of L. officinalis showed the presence of lyngbyatoxin-A and that of Oscillatoria sp. reveals the presence of malyngamide-J suggesting the possibility of antiproliferative activity.