Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

http://www.niscair.res.in; http://nopr.niscair.res.in

 

Total visitors: 21139 since 5-2-2014

 

VOLUME 52

NUMBER 2

FEBRUARY 2014

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 52 (2) 1-190 (2014)

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

CONTENTS

 

Review Article

 

 

 

Urolithiasis: Phytotherapy as an adjunct therapy

103

 

 

A Aggarwal, S K Singla & C Tandon

 

 

 

Papers

 

 

 

Chlorambucil and ascorbic acid-mediated anticancer activity and hematological toxicity in
Dalton's ascites lymphoma-bearing mice

112

 

 

Suravi Kalita, Akalesh Kumar Verma and Surya Bali Prasad

 

 

 

Antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities of Tamarindus indica seed coat in human fibroblast cells

125

 

 

Oranuch Nakchat, Duangdeun Meksuriyen and Sunanta Pongsamart

 

 

 

Antioxidant potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of unexplored endemic species of Curcuma

133

 

 

Iyyappan Rajan, Remitha Rabindran, P R Jayasree & P R M Kumar

 

 

 

Antidiarrhoeal evaluation of rhizomes of Cryptocoryne spiralis Fisch. ex Wydler: Antimotility and antisecretory effects

139

 

 

Satyendra K Prasad, Damiki Laloo, Rajesh Kumar, Alakh N Sahu & S Hemalatha

 

 

 

Hepatoprotective activity of Oxalis corniculata L. ethanolic extract against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats and its in vitro antioxidant effects

147

 

 

G Sreejith, M Jayasree1, P G Latha, S R Suja, S Shyamal, V J Shine, G I Anuja, S Sini,
P Shikha, N M Krishnakumar, V Vilash, S Shoumya & S Rajasekharan

 

 

 

Role of Triticum aestivum aqueous extract in glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis in rats

153

 

 

David Banji, Otilia J.F. Banji, Vijaya Laxmi Chiluka & Saidulu Abbagoni

 

 

Effect of feeding graded doses of Citrinin on clinical and teratology in female Wistar rats

159

 

 

N D Singh, A K Sharma, R D Patil, S Rahman , G D Leishangthem & M Kumar

 

 

 

A novel assay method for calcium calmodulin dependent phosphatase from bovine brain extract

168

 

 

K S Devaraju, B S Mohan Kumar, S V Sureshbabu, A Gopi, R Saraswathi & B M Harish

 

 

 

Mating latency, duration of copulation and fertility in four species of the Drosophila bipectinata complex

175

 

 

Akanksha Singh & Bashisth N Singh

 

 

 

Androgenesis in chickpea: Anther culture and expressed sequence tags derived annotation

181

 

 

Sameera Sastry Panchangam, Nalini Mallikarjuna, Pooran M. Gaur & Prashanth Suravajhala

 

 

 

 

Author Index

Abbagoni Saidulu

153

Aggarwal A

103

Anuja G I

147

 

 

Banji David

153

Banji Otilia J F

153

 

 

Chiluka Vijaya Laxmi

153

 

 

Devaraju K S

168

 

 

Gaur Pooran M

181

Gopi A

168

 

 

Harish B M

168

Hemalatha S

139

 

 

Jayasree M

147

Jayasree P R

133

 

 

Kalita Suravi

112

Krishnakumar N M

147

Kumar M

159

Kumar P R M

133

 

 

Laloo Damiki

139

Latha P G

147

Leishangthem G D

159

 

 

Mallikarjuna Nalini

181

Meksuriyen Duangdeun

125

Mohan Kumar B S

168

 

 

Nakchat Oranuch

125

 

 

Panchangam Sameera Sastry


181

Patil R D

159

Pongsamart Sunanta

125

Prasad Satyendra K

139

Prasad Surya Bali

112

 

 

Rabindran Remitha

133

Rahman S

159

Rajan Iyyappan

133

Rajasekharan S

147

Rajesh Kumar

139

 

 

Sahu Alakh N

139

Saraswathi R

168

Sharma A K

159

Shikha P

147

Shine V J

147

Shoumya S

147

Shyamal S

147

Singh Akanksha

175

Singh Bashisth N

175

Singh N D

159

Singla S K

103

Sini S

147

Sreejith G

147

Suja S R

147

Suravajhala Prashanth

181

Sureshbabu S V

168

 

 

Tandon C

103

 

 

Verma Akalesh Kumar

112

Vilash V

147

 

 

Keyword Index

Aconitum heterophyllum

139

Androgenesis

181

Anomalies

159

Anther culture

181

Antidiarrhoeal activity

139

Anti-lipid peroxidation

125

Antioxidant

125

Antioxidant

147

Antioxidant

133

Apoptosis

112

Ascorbic acid

112

 

 

Bone resorption

153

 

 

Calmodulin

168

Castor oil induced diarrhoea


139

Chickpea

181

Chlorambucil

112

Citrinin

159

Cryptocoryne spiralis

139

Dalton’s lymphoma

112

Dithiothreitol

168

Drosophila bipectinata complex


175

 

 

EST

181

 

 

Fetus

159

Free radicals

153

 

 

Genoprotection

133

Glucocorticoids

153

 

 

Hematotoxicity

112

Hepatoprotective

147

Human foreskin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells


125

 

 

Interspecific variations

175

Iron chelation

133

 

 

Lipid peroxidation

147

 

 

Malondialdehyde

147

Mating behaviour

175

Mycotoxins

159

Neutraceutical

153

 

 

Oxalis corniculata

147

 

 

para-nitrophenlylphosphate

168

PGE2 induced enteropooling


139

Phosphatase

168

Phosphotyrosine

168

Phylogeny

175

Phytoconstituents

103

Phytotherapy

103

Protein-protein interaction

181

 

 

Seed coat

125

Small intestinal transit

139

 

 

Tamarindus indica

125

Teratogenesis

159

 

 

Urolithiasis

103

 

 

Wheat grass

153

 

            Correspondent author is marked by *

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 53, Feburary 2014, pp. 103-111

 

 

 

 

Mini Review

 

Urolithiasis: Phytotherapy as an adjunct therapy

A Aggarwal1, S K Singla2 & C Tandon1*

1Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Jaypee University of Information Technology,
Waknaghat, Solan 173 234, India

2Department of Biochemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 012, India

Role of herbal drugs and medicinal plant extracts in the successful treatment of urolithiasis, classified as the third most common urinary tract diseases is well documented. Ayurvedic plants and their components mediate antilithogenic effects by altering ionic composition of urine, being diuretic, antioxidant or having antimicrobial activity. Therapeutic peptides and proteins have unique place in pharmaceutical biotechnology due to their critical roles in cell biology. The innovation in antilithiatic proteins is that they are anionic, rich in acidic amino acids which make oxalate unavailable by interacting with calcium and have EF Hand domain which is a characteristic feature of various calcium binding protein like calgranulin, osteopontin. The review provides a background on the pathogenesis of urolithiasis and medical treatments. It focusses on the present research evaluating the scientific basis of antilithiatic potential of various plants and role of plant proteins as therapeutic agents thus opening new vista in the management of urolithiasis. Further investigations are required to fully decipher the mode of action of the potent biomolecules so as to exploit their preventive and therapeutic potential.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 53, Feburary 2014, pp. 112-124

 

 

Chlorambucil and ascorbic acid-mediated anticancer activity and hematological
toxicity in Dalton's ascites lymphoma-bearing mice

Suravi Kalita, Akalesh Kumar Verma & Surya Bali Prasad*

Cell and Tumor Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, North-Eastern Hill University,

Shillong793 022, India

Received 14 November 2012; revised 4 November 2013

Chlorambucil is an anticancer drug with alkylating and immunosuppressive activities. Considering various reports on the possible antioxidant/protective functions of ascorbic acid (vitamin C), it was aimed at to explore the modulatory effect of ascorbic acid on therapeutic efficacy and toxicity induced by chlorambucil. Dalton’s ascites lymphoma tumor serially maintained in Swiss albino mice were used for the present experiments. The result of antitumor activity showed that combination treatment with ascorbic acid and chlorambucil exhibited enhanced antitumor activity with 170% increase in life span (ILS), which is significantly higher as compared to chlorambucil alone (ILS 140%). Analysis of apoptosis in Dalton’s lymphoma tumor cells revealed a significantly higher apoptotic index after combination treatment as compared to chlorambucil alone. Blood hemoglobin content, erythrocytes and leukocytes counts were decreased after chlorambucil treatment, however, overall recovery in these hematological values was noted after combination treatment. Chlorambucil treatment also caused morphological abnormalities in red blood cells, majority of which include acanthocytes, burr and microcystis. Combination treatment of mice with ascorbic acid plus chlorambucil showed less histopathological changes in kidney as compared to chlorambucil treatment alone, thus, ascorbic acid is effective in reducing chlorambucil-induced renal toxicity in the hosts. Based on the results, for further devel­opment, hopefully into the clinical usage, the administration of ascorbic acid in combination with chlorambucil may be recommended.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 53, February 2014, pp. 125-132

 

 

Antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities of Tamarindus indica seed
coat in human fibroblast cells

Oranuch Nakchat, Duangdeun Meksuriyen & Sunanta Pongsamart*

Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phyathai Road, Pat
humwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand

E-mail: sunanta.po@chula.ac.th

Received 23 January 2013 , revised 10 September 2013

Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of tamarind seed coat extracts (TSCEs) were compared between the two extracts using boiling-water (TSCE-W) and 70% ethanol (TSCE-E) for extraction. TSCE-W, consisting of the highest phenolic content, possessed 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and anti-lipid peroxidation activities much higher than TSCE-E and Trolox. Additionally, both TSCEs also exhibited superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities higher than Trolox and BHA. Anti-lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity of TSCE-W were also studied in human foreskin fibroblast CCD-1064Sk cells. Cytotoxic effect was not observed when exposed to TSCE-W up to 1 mg/mL for 12-48 h. However, TSCE-W significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation in H2O2-damaged cells. HPLC analysis showed the presence of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 in TSCE-W, which could be responsible for antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities. The results suggest that an inexpensive and simple boiling-water extraction of TSCE-W may provide a valuable natural antioxidant source having anti-lipid peroxidation for health food additives, nutraceuticals as well as cosmeceuticals.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 53, February 2014, pp. 133-138

 

 

Antioxidant potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of unexplored endemic species of Curcuma

 

Iyyappan Rajan, Remitha Rabindran, P R Jayasree & P R M Kumar*

Department of Biotechnology, University of Calicut, Malappuram 673635, India

Received 23 January 2013; revised 11 November 2013

Free radical scavenging activity, ferrous ion chelating capacity, reducing power and genoprotective effect of the aqueous leaf extracts of four unexplored endemic Curcuma spp. (C. vamana, C. neilgherrensis, C. mutabilis, C. haritha) were found to be dose-dependent and were highest in C. vamana. DNA protection property of the extracts was evaluated against H2O2/UV-induced oxidative damage. DNA-methyl green displacement assay showed that these extracts were free of DNA intercalating compounds. Further, hemolysis assay also showed that the extracts were non-toxic to human erythrocytes. The results highlight C. vamana as a promising source for herbal preparations possessing high antioxidant potential and genoprotective activity.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 53, February 2014, pp. 139-146

 

 

Antidiarrhoeal evaluation of rhizomes of Cryptocoryne spiralis Fisch. ex Wydler: Antimotility and antisecretory effects

Satyendra K Prasad, Damiki Laloo, Rajesh Kumar, Alakh N Sahu & S Hemalatha*

Department of Pharmaceutics, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India

Received 19 January 2013; revised 8 October 2013

The antidiarrhoeal activity of Cryptocoryne spiralis rhizomes extract (250, 500, 750 mg/kg, po) was evaluated using faecal excretion, castor oil-induced diarrhoea, small intestinal transit, intestinal fluid accumulation, gastric emptying and PGE2 induced enteropooling models in rats. In addition, various biochemical estimations, histopathological studies and antibacterial evaluations on strains responsible for diarrhoea were also performed. The results illustrated a significant reduction in normal faecal output rate after 5th and 7th h of treatment, while castor oil-induced diarrhoea model depicted a protection of 55.44% at same dose level from diarrhoea. The other models except, gastric emptying test demonstrated more pronounced effect at same dose level. A significant inhibition in nitric oxide, increase in carbohydrates, protein, DNA, Na+ and K+ level with minimum degeneration of colonic fibrous tissues and potent antibacterial activity were also observed. The antidiarrhoeal potential of C. spiralis may be as a result of antimotility and antisecretory type effect mediated through nitric oxide pathway.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 53, February 2014, pp. 147-152

 

 

Hepatoprotective activity of Oxalis corniculata L. ethanolic extract against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats and its in vitro antioxidant effects

G Sreejith, M Jayasree1, P G Latha*, S R Suja, S Shyamal, V J Shine, G I Anuja, S Sini,
P Shikha, N M Krishnakumar, V Vilash, S Shoumya & S Rajasekharan

Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode,

Thiruvananthapuram 695 562, India

1 N S S College, Nilamel, Kollam 691 535, India

Received 26 November 2012; revised 10 October 2013

Oxalis corniculata is well known for its medicinal properties like anti-inflammatory, digestive, diuretic, antibacterial, antiseptic etc. The present study focuses on the ability of O. corniculata to alleviate liver damage caused by over dose of paracetamol. Antioxidant activity of O. corniculata was evaluated using the free radical scavenging activity of 1,
1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radicals, total anti oxidant capacity by phosphomolybdenum method and total phenolic content was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of whole plant of O. corniculata (OC, 500 µg/mL, po) significantly reduced 1, 1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl radicals. This dose also caused
significant reduction (62.67%) in malondialdehyde levels of murine hepatic tissues. The antioxidant capacity of OC was comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid and showed 53.5 µg of phenol/mg OC. Rats pre-treated with OC for 4 days showed significant reduction in the serum enzymes such as glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, serum bilirubin and showed almost normal histological liver architecture of the treated groups compared to paracetamol induced hepatic damage group, indicating its hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 53, February 2014, pp. 153-158

 

 

Role of Triticum aestivum aqueous extract in glucocorticoid
induced osteoporosis in rats

David Banji*, Otilia J F Banji, Vijaya Laxmi Chiluka & Saidulu Abbagoni

Department of Pharmacology, Nalanda College of Pharmacy, Charlapally,
Nalgonda 508 001, India

Received 3 August 2012; revised 8 November 2013

Administration of aqueous extract of T. aestivum (200 and 400 mg/kg/day, po, for 30 days) and risedronate (20 mg/kg, sc, five times a week for 30 days) following methyl prednisolone sodium succinate (10 mg/kg, sc, thrice a week for 4 weeks) induced osteoporosis in Wistar rats showed an increase in the serum levels of bone mineral content markers, decrease in the serum and urinary levels of bone resorption markers. An incline in strength of femur and tibia was seen particularly with 400 mg/kg of T. aestivum. Maintenance of calcium homeostasis, formation of collagen and scavenging of free radicals can plausibly be the mode of action of aqueous extract of T. aestivum thereby combating osteoporosis induced by glucocorticoids.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 53, February 2014, pp. 159-167

 

 

Effect of feeding graded doses of Citrinin on clinical and teratology in female Wistar rats

N D Singh*, A K Sharma, R D Patil1, S Rahman2, G D Leishangthem3 & M Kumar4

Division of Pathology Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122, India

Received 19 November 2012; revised 8 November 2013

Citrinin is the one of the well-known mycotoxins, which is possibly spread all over the world. The graded doses of citrinin (1, 3 and 5 ppm CIT in feed) in female Wistar rats 10 weeks prior to mating, during mating and during organogenesis resulted in resorptions and post implantation losses, decreased fetal body weights and crown-rump lengths in fetuses of all groups. Various developmental anomalies recorded in fetuses of treated rats included gross (wrist drop, curled tail, stretched forelimb, subcutaneous haematoma), skeletal (incomplete ossification of skull bones, incomplete fusion of vertebral bodies, complete and partial agenesis of sternaebrae, metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges, fused ribs and swing out ribs) and visceral (internal and external hydrocephalus, cerebellar hypoplasia, microphthalmia, roundening of heart, contracted kidneys, dilated renal pelvis and cryptorchid testes). The results suggest that CIT has adverse effects on fetal development which may be due to the longer bioavailability of citrinin in the animals.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 53, February 2014, pp. 168-174

 

 

A novel assay method for calcium calmodulin dependent phosphatase from bovine brain extract

K S Devaraju*, B S Mohan Kumar1, S V Sureshbabu2, A Gopi3, R Saraswathi3 & B M Harish3

Department of Neurochemistry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore 560 029, India

1Department of Zoology, Maharani’s Science College for Women, Bangalore 560 056, India

2Department of Clinical Research, Padmashree Group of Institutions, Bangalore 560 072, India

3Department of Biotechnology, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560 056, India

Received 17 December 2012; revised 29 October 2013

Calcium calmodulin dependent protein ser/thr phosphatase, also referred to as protein phosphatase 2B (PP2B), is rich in neural tissue, and plays an important role in the overall function of the nervous system. Routinely phosphatase assay employs, para-Nitrophenlylphosphate (p-NPP), as a substrate, is also extended to assay PP2B. However, in the present study, the differential spectral characterstic property of tyrosine and phopshotyrosine has been exploited to employ the latter as a candidate substrate for the PP2B assay. The specific activity of PP2B using phosphortyrosine in bovine Bos Taurus indicus brain extract (Bos Taurus indicus), was measured in presence of different metal ions like Ca2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+. Further modulators like dithiothreitol (DTT), calmodulin (CaM) and metal chelators such as EGTA and EDTA were applied to confirm the role of divalent cations and to determine calcium calmodulin dependent phoshphatase activity. PP2B activity was higher with phosphotyrosine in presence of Ca2+ than with p-NPP. Further experiments, involving calmodulin as a modulator, confirmed phosphotyrosine as a better substrate over p-NPP. Calmodulin further enhanced the effect of phosphotyrosine as a potential substrate confirming calcium calmodulin dependent phosphatase activity. Phosphotyrosine is proposed as a better substrate in assaying calcium dependent phosphatase activity when compared to para-nitrophenylphosphate.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 53, February 2014, pp. 175-180

 

 

Mating latency, duration of copulation and fertility in four species of the Drosophila bipectinata complex

Akanksha Singh & Bashisth N Singh*

Genetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India

Received 21 June 2013; revised 1 October 2013

Significant interspecific variations in mean duration of copulation and fertility were observed in four species of the Drosophila bipectinata species complex. However, D. bipectinata showed positive correlation between duration of copulation and fertility. Similarly, D. malerkotliana showed negative correlation between mating latency and duration of copulation. Likewise, D. pseudoananassae showed positive correlation between mating latency and fertility. These results suggest that D. pseudoananassae has distant relatedness from the other three species with respect to mating latency, duration of copulation and fertility which supports the previous findings.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 53, February 2014, pp. 181-188

 

 

Androgenesis in chickpea: Anther culture and expressed sequence tags derived annotation

Sameera Sastry Panchangam*, Nalini Mallikarjuna & Pooran M Gaur

International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru 502 319, India

and

Prashanth Suravajhala

Bioclues Organization, IKP Knowledge Park, Picket, Secunderabad 500 009, India

Received 29 March 2013; revised 2 September 2013

Double haploid technique is not routinely used in legume breeding programs, though recent publications report haploid plants via anther culture in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The focus of this study was to develop an efficient and reproducible protocol for the production of double haploids with the application of multiple stress pre-treatments such as centrifugation and osmotic shock for genotypes of interest in chickpea for their direct use in breeding programs. Four genotypes, ICC 4958, WR315, ICCV 95423 and Arearti were tested for anther culture experiments. The yield was shown to be consistent with 3-5 nucleate microspores and 2-7 celled structures with no further growth. To gain a further insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the switch from microsporogenesis to androgenesis, bioinformatics tools were employed. The challenges on the roles of such genes were reviewed while an attempt was made to find putative candidates for androgenesis using Expressed Sequenced Tags (EST) and interolog based protein interaction analyses.