Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 52

NUMBER 6

JUNE 2014

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 52 (6) 575-668 (2014)

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

CONTENTS

 

Papers

 

 

 

Biological activity and redistribution of nucleolar proteins of two different cell lines treated with cis-dichloro-1,2-propylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetato ruthenium (III) (RAP)

579

 

 

Fatima Azzahra Delmani, José Torreblanca, Javier Moreno, Gregorio García-Herdugo,
Rosario Vilaplana & Francisco González-Víltchez

 

 

 

Mast cells generate cysteinyl leukotrienes and interferon-β as well as evince impaired
IgE-dependent degranulation upon TLR7 engagement

589

 

 

P Witczak, A Pietrzak, K Wódz & E Brzezińska-Błaszczyk

 

 

 

Limb remote ischemic post-conditioning reduces brain reperfusion injury by reversing
eNOS uncoupling

597

 

 

Gangling Chen,, Jie Yang, Guoxun Lu, Jiaomei Guo & Yannong Dou

 

 

 

In vitro evaluation of anti-Alzheimer effects of dry ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)
extract

606

 

 

Maya Mathew & Sarada Subramanian

 

 

 

Antidepressant-like effects of Brassica juncea L. leaves in diabetic rodents

613

 

 

Ajit Kumar Thakur, Shyam Sunder Chatterjee & Vikas Kumar

 

 

 

Insulin secreting and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of hexane extract of Annona squamosa Linn. in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats

623

 

 

Ranjana & Yamini B Tripathi

 

 

Sequential functional analysis of left ventricle from 2D-echocardiography images

630

 

 

Rani Chacko & Megha Singh

 

 

 

Identification and characterization of the Sudanese Bacillus thuringiensis and related bacterial strains for their efficacy against Helicoverpa armigera and Tribolium castaneum

637

 

 

N E Gorashi , M Tripathi, V Kalia & G T Gujar

 

 

 

Manganese influx and its utilization efficiency in wheat

650

 

 

Shalini Jhanji, Upkar Singh Sadana, Arun Shankar & Arvind Kumar Shukla

 

 

 

In vitro regeneration of Coelogyne nervosa A.Rich. and Eria pseudoclavicaulis Blatt., threatened orchids of Western Ghats, India

658

 

 

B Sahaya Shibu, P Servin Wesley, Sarmad Moin & B Chitra Devi

 

 

 

An analysis of vascular system in the compound tendrilled afila leaf in Pisum sativum

664

 

 

Vishakha Sharma, Arvind Kumar & Sushil Kumar

 

 

———————————

Announcements

International Colloquium on Endocrinology & Physiology (ICEP)

29–30 September 2014, Raipur, India

 

Organised by the Department of Zoology, Govt. D B Girls’ P G Autonomous College, Raipur, the Colloquium will cover the following areas: (i) Molecular evolutions of hormones and receptors, (ii) Hormone and development, (iii) Hormonal control of biorhythms and behavioural endocrinology, (iv) Hormone biochemistry, (v) Hormones and metabolism, (vi) Human physiology, (vii) Environment and physiology, (viii) Reproductive biology, and (ix) Medical endocrinology. For details, please contact, Prof. Maya Shedpure, Convener and Organizing Secretary, ICEP 2014, Department of Zoology, Govt. D B Girls’ P G Autonomous College, Raipur 492 001, India. Telephone: +91-771-2229248 (O), 226242 (R), +91-9300202444 (M). Fax: +91-771-2229248. E-mail: dr_maya60@yahoo.co.in

 

——————————————

Workshop on NMR/MRI: From molecules to human behaviour

6–11 October 2014, Amritsar

 

The Centre of Bio-Medical Research, Lucknow, in association with Guru Nanak Dev University (GNDU), Amritsar is organising a workshop on NMR/MRI at GNDU for young researchers working at various academic and teaching institutions of higher learning and research in India. Those interested should apply through their guides/supervisors/heads of the institutions along with the brief curriculum vitae and a brief statement of purpose for attending the workshop. The application should reach by e-mail at nmrworkshop@gmail.com on or before 01 August 2014. Other details will be posted on the workshop webpage (www.nmrworkshop.wordpress.com) in due course of time.

——————————————

 

Erratum

Modulation of pineal activity during the 23rd sunspot cycle: Melatonin rise during the ascending phase of the cycle is accompanied by an increase of the sympathetic tone, by Christian Bartsch, Hella Bartsch, Eckhard Seebald, Heinz Küpper & Dieter Mecke, Indian J Exp Biol, Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 438-447.

The caption of Figure 2 may be read as: Fig. 2—(a): Number of monthly International Sunspots and Solar Radio Flux (SRF: 10.7 cm, 2.8 GHz, as observed at Penticton) showing a very close relationship among each other with maxima in 2000-2002 (Pearson correlation: R=+0.976, P<0.0001). (b): Number of monthly International Sunspots and the monthly Planetary Index (Ap) with maximal values in 2004-2005, thus two to three years later than in case of sunspots. (Pearson correlation: R=+0.456; P<0.0001).

———————————

 

Author Index

Arun Shankar

650

Arvind Kumar

664

 

 

Brzezińska-Błaszczyk E

589

 

 

Chacko Rani

630

Chatterjee Shyam Sunder

613

Chen Gangling

597

Chitra Devi B

685

 

 

Delmani Fatima Azzahra

579

Dou Yannong

597

 

 

García-Herdugo Gregorio

579

González-Víltchez Francisco

579

Gorashi N E

637

Gujar G T

637

Guo Jiaomei

597

 

 

Jhanji Shalini

650

 

 

Kalia V

637

 

 

Lu Guoxun

597

 

 

Mathew Maya

606

Megha Singh

630

Moin Sarmad

685

Moreno Javier

579

 

 

Pietrzak A

589

 

 

Ranjana

623

 

 

Sadana Upkar Singh

650

Sahaya Shibu B

658

Sharma Vishakha

664

 

 

Shukla Arvind Kumar

650

Subramanian Sarada

606

Sushil Kumar

664

 

 

Thakur Ajit Kumar

613

Torreblanca José

579

Tripath Yamini B

623

Tripathi M

637

 

 

Vikas Kumar

613

Vilaplana Rosario

579

 

 

Wesley P Servin

685

Witczak P

589

Wódz K

589

 

 

Yang Jie

597

 

Keyword Index

afila

664

Algorithm

630

Annona squamosa

623

Anti-cholinesterase

606

Antioxidant

606

Antitumor drugs

579

Ayurveda

613

Aβ oligomers

606

Aβ toxicity

606

 

 

Bacillus thuringiensis

637

Bioprospecting

637

Brassica juncea

613

 

 

Callus induction

658

Cardiomyopathy

630

Coelogyne nervosa

658

Cry toxins

637

 

 

2D-echocardiography

630

Depression

613

Diabetes

623

Diabetes mellitus

613

Dichotomous vein-divisions

664

DNA-damage

579

eNOS uncoupling

597

Eria pseudoclavicaulis

658

 

 

Fibrillarin

579

α-glucosidase

623

 

 

Ginger extract

606

 

 

Helicoverpa armigera

637

Herbal

623

 

 

In vitro regeneration

658

Interferons

589

Ischemic stroke

597

 

 

Leaflet-development

664

Left ventricle

630

Leukotrienes

589

Limb ischemic postconditioning

597

Lysinibacillus

637

 

 

Manganese acquisition

650

Manganese kinetics

650

Mast cells

589

Monoamines

613

 

 

Nitrotyrosine

597

 

 

Paenibacillus

637

Postprandial hyperglycemia

623

Primary veins

664

Protocorm like bodies

658

 

 

RAP

579

Reperfusion injury

597

Rhizosphere

650

Root growth

650

 

 

Shape descriptors

630

Sudanese strains

637

 

 

Tendril

664

Toll-like receptor 7

589

Toxicity

637

Tribolium castaneum

637

Tumor cells in vitro

579

 

 

UBF

579

 

 

Vein redundancy

664

Viral infection

589

 

 

Wheat grain

650

 

 

            Correspondent author is marked by *

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, June 2014, pp. 579-588

 

Papers

 

 

Biological activity and redistribution of nucleolar proteins of two different cell lines treated with cis-dichloro-1,2-propylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetato ruthenium (III) (RAP)

Fatima Azzahra Delmania,b*, José Torreblancab, Javier Morenob, Gregorio García-Herdugob, Rosario Vilaplanac &
Francisco González-Víltchezc

aDepartment of Biology, Faculty of Science, Jarash University, 26150 Jarash, Jordan

bDepartamento de Biología Celular, Facultad de Biología, Campus Reina Mercedes, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla, Spain

cDepartamento be Química Inorgánica, Laboratorio de Qímica Bioinorgánica, Facultad de Química, Universidad de Sevilla,
41071 Sevilla, Spain

Received 1 February 2013; revised 19 February 2014

The interaction of a newly synthesized antitumor complex cis-dichloro-1,2-propylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetato ruthenium (III) (RAP) with DNA was investigated in vitro through a number of techniques including comet assay, immunoprecipitation, and immunolocalization of certain nucleolar proteins (the upstream binding factor (UBF) and fibrillarin) involved in DNA transcription, rRNA processing, and ribosomal assembly. The results showed that RAP binds to the DNA of two cell lines (H4 and Hs-683) causing a delay in cell proliferation rate leading to a number of cellular modifications. These modifications include DNA-damage assessed by the single cell gel electrophoresis method (comet assay) and variation in the expression of nucleolar proteins; UBF was more abundant in RAP treated cells, this was explained by the high affinity of this protein to DNA modified by RAP. On the other hand, fibrillarin was found in less quantities in RAP treated cells which was explained by a de-regulation of the ribosomal machinery caused by RAP.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, June 2014, pp. 589-596

 

 

Mast cells generate cysteinyl leukotrienes and interferon-b as well as evince impaired IgE-dependent degranulation upon TLR7 engagement

 

P Witczak, A Pietrzak, K Wódz & E Brzezińska-Błaszczyk*

Department of Experimental Immunology, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland

Received 25 March 2013; revised 6 February 2014

Mast cells are numerous at anatomical sites close to external environment, virtually at the portals of infection. A few data indicated that these cells express cytoplasmic Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognizing virus-derived molecules. Accordingly, mast cells could participate in anti-viral defense or/and in viral-related diseases. However, data concerning the influence of viruses on mast cell activity are limited. Thus, the aim of our study was to determine mast cell response to TLR7 ligand, i.e. resiquimod (R848), a synthetic mimic of viral ssRNA. Since mast cells play a central role in allergic reactions the effect of TLR7 agonist was also investigated on FcεRI-dependent mast cell response. Experiments were carried out in vitro on freshly isolated fully mature rat peritoneal mast cells. Mast cells exhibit constitutive TLR7 molecule expression and its up-regulation after the agonist challenge. TLR7-mediated mast cell stimulation resulted in cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) and interferon (IFN)-β synthesis, whereas no histamine and CXCL8 secretion was stated. Moreover, mast cell priming with TLR7 ligand caused the reduction in anti-IgE-induced histamine release. The results suggest that ssRNA viruses could directly activate mast cells to alter their phenotype and to release of potent proinflammatory mediators or indirectly modulate IgE-dependent allergic processes.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, June 2014, pp. 597-605

 

 

Limb remote ischemic post-conditioning reduces brain reperfusion injury by reversing eNOS uncoupling

Gangling Chena,*, Jie Yangb, Guoxun Lua, Jiaomei Guoa & Yannong Doua

a Department of Pharmacology of Chinese Materia Medica, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang,
Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu, China

b Department of Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang,
Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu, China

Received 1 January 2013; revised 24 March 2014

Limb remote ischemic postconditioning (LRIP) can reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), but its mechanisms are still unclear. We hypothesize that LRIP reduces IRI by reversing eNOS uncoupling. Focal ischemia was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h followed by a 24 h reperfusion. Before this surgery, folic acid (FA) was administered to the drug treatment group by gavage for 11 days. After a 24 h reperfusion, behavioural testing, vascular function, NO concentration and superoxide dismutase activity in the serum were determined. In addition, the infarct size of the brain was also detected. The mRNA of eNOS, nNOS, GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH), P22phox and xanthine oxidase (XO) in the ischemic region were detected by RT-PCR, and nitrotyrosine (Tyr-NO2) was detected using Western blot analysis. The results showed that LRIP, FA and FA+LRIP all could improve behavioural score, and increase NO–mediated endothelium-dependent vasomotor responses, reduce infarction of rats subjected to IRI. Western blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that the Tyr-NO2 levels and the mRNA expression of NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit P22phox and XO were up-regulated in the ischemic brain, which was significantly inhibited by LRIP, FA and FA+LRIP. The mRNA expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in BH4 synthesis, GTPCH, was down-regulated in the ischemic brain, which could be significantly augmented by LRIP and FA+LRIP. It can be concluded that IRI induces eNOS uncoupling in the cerebral ischemic region and LRIP partially reverses the eNOS uncoupling induced by IRI.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, June 2014, pp. 606-612

 

 

In vitro evaluation of anti-Alzheimer effects of dry ginger
(Zingiber officinale Roscoe) extract

Maya Mathew1 & Sarada Subramanian1*

Department of Neurochemistry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS),
Hosur Road, Bangalore 560 029, India

Received 22 August 2013; revised 13 January 2014

As the disease modifying therapies against Alzheimer’s disease (AD) continue to exist as a major challenge of this century, the search for newer drug leads with lesser side effects is on the rise. A large number of plant extracts and phytocompounds are being actively pursued for their anti-Alzheimer effects. In the present study, the antioxidant activity, cholinesterase inhibition, anti-amyloidogenic potential and neuroprotective properties of methanolic extract of dry ginger (GE) have been evaluated. The extract contained 18±0.6 mg/g gallic acid equivalents of total phenolic content and 4.18±0.69 mg quercetin equivalents/g of dry material. GE expressed high antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 70±0.304 µg/mL in DPPH assay and 845.4±56.62 μM Fe(II) equivalents/g dry weight in FRAP assay respectively. In Ellman’s assay for the cholinesterase inhibitory activity, GE had an IC50 value of 41±1.2 µg/mL and 52±2 µg/mL for inhibition of acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase respectively. Also, GE increased the cell survival against amyloid β (Aβ) induced toxicity in primary adult rat hippocampal cell culture. Aggregation experiments with the thioflavin T binding studies showed that GE effectively prevented the formation of Aβ oligomers and dissociated the preformed oligomers. These findings suggest that methanolic GE influences multiple therapeutic molecular targets of AD and can be considered as an effective nontoxic neutraceutical supplement for AD.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, June 2014, pp. 613-622

 

 

Antidepressant-like effects of Brassica juncea L. leaves in diabetic rodents

Ajit Kumar Thakur1, Shyam Sunder Chatterjee2 & Vikas Kumar1,*

1Neuropharmacology Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology
(Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221 005, India

2Stettiner Str. 1, D-76138 Karlsruhe, Germany

Received 2 January 2013; revised 30 January 2014

The objective of the study was to evaluate for antidepressant like activity of a methanolic extract of B. juncea leaves (BJ 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day, po), and Imipramine (15 mg/kg/day, po) in alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, ip) induced diabetic and nondiabetic rodents, using behavioural despair, learned helplessness, and tail suspension tests for antidepressants and locomotor activity test for quantifying the behavioural effects of treatments. In addition, effects of BJ treatments on brain levels of norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine were also estimated. Enhanced depressive states, and motility were observed in diabetic animals. Antidepressant and motor function depressing effects of BJ were apparent in all behavioural tests in diabetic rats and mice only. Decreased contents of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin in brain of diabetic rats were also dose dependently compensated by repeated daily BJ treatments. However, brain dopamine level of BJ treated normal rats was higher than that in control nondiabetic. The results suggest that BJ could be a nutritional alternative for combating exaggerated depression commonly associated with diabetes.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, June 2014, pp. 623-629

 

 

Insulin secreting and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of hexane extract of
Annona squamosa Linn. in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats

Ranjana & Yamini B Tripathi*

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India

Received 1 July 2013, revised 13 January 2014

The hexane extract of A. squamosa (ASHE) in 100 and 400 mg/kg body weight dose raised the insulin level when compared with Glimepiride (1 mg/kg) and also inhibited α-glucosidase activity when compared with Acarbose (10 mg/kg) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The ASHE significantly reduced peak blood glucose (Gp30) and area under curve (AUC) in diabetic rats in oral glucose (OGTT) and oral sucrose (OSTT) tolerance test, but there was more reduction of Gp30 value than AUC in OSTT. Thus, it can be suggested that the ASHE, has hypoglycemic role at 2 levels, i.e. it acts as secretagogue and also inhibits the intestinal enzymes, responsible for glucose metabolism.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, June 2014, pp. 630-636

 

 

Sequential functional analysis of left ventricle from 2D-echocardiography images

Rani Chacko & Megha Singh*

Division of Biomedical Engineering, School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, V.I.T. University, Vellore 632 014, India

Received 2 August 2013, revised 10 March 2014

The sequential changes in shape of left ventricle (LV), which are the result of cellular interactions and their levels of organizational complexity, in its long axis view during one cardiac cycle are obtained. The changes are presented in terms of shape descriptors by processing of images obtained from a normal subject and two patients with dilated left ventricular cardio-myopathy. These images are processed, frame by frame, by a semi-automatic algorithm developed by MATLAB. This is consisting of gray scale conversion, the LV contour extraction by application of median and SRAD filters, and morphological operations. By filling the identified region with pixels and number of pixels along its contour the area and perimeter are calculated, respectively. From these the changes in LV volume and shape index are calculated. Based on these the stroke volume (SV) and ejection fraction (EF) are calculated. The changes in LV area, perimeter, volume and shape index in cardiac patients are less than that of normal subject. The calculated SV and EF of normal subject are within the range as obtained by various imaging procedures.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, June 2014, pp. 637-649

 

 

Identification and characterization of the Sudanese Bacillus thuringiensis and related bacterial strains for their efficacy against Helicoverpa armigera and Tribolium castaneum

N E Gorashi, M Tripathi, V Kalia & G T Gujar*

Division of Entomology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012, India

Received 1 November 2013; revised 28 January 2014

Forty-four isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis like bacteria from various sources in different locations from Sudan were tested for their insecticidal activity. The toxicity of these isolates ranged from 6.6 to 70% to the neonates of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera at 10 ppm concentration. The most effective ones are Kb-29, St-6 and Wh-1 comparable with HD-1.  Toxicity of isolates to larvae of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum ranged from 20 to 100%. Isolates St-2 and St-23 gave 100% larval mortality within 15 days of exposure and were at par with Ab-8, Ab-12, Kb-26, Kb-30, Om-4, Po-2, Po-5, Po-7, Sa-8 and Wh-5 and were also comparable with E. coli clone expressing Cry3 toxin. The most effective five isolates viz., Kb-29, St-2, St-6, St-23 and Wh-1 belonged to B. thuringiensis. The St-6 isolate, which also showed high toxicity to T. castaneum larvae, had cry1 genes along with coleopteran active cry28 genes, but not cry3 genes. Of the 25 isolates characterized with 16s DNA sequencing, seven belonged to Paenibacillus spp., one Lysinibacillus sphaericus, one Bacillus pumilus, four Bacillus spp., and rest 12 belonged to B. thuringiensis. Biochemical characterization in each species showed variation. The present study shows potential of some isolates like Kb-29, St-2, St-6, St-23 and Wh-1 as promising bioinsecticides.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, June 2014, pp. 650-657

 

 

Manganese influx and its utilization efficiency in wheat

Shalini Jhanji1*, Upkar Singh Sadana, Arun Shankar & Arvind Kumar Shukla2

1Department of Soil Science, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141 004, India

2Indian Institute of Soil Science, Bhopal 462 038, India

Received 7 August 2013; revised 15 January 2014

Manganese deficiency in wheat has become an important nutritional disorder particularly in alkaline calcareous soils where rice-wheat rotation is followed. This experiment was aimed to study the mechanism of Mn efficiency during various developmental stages in six wheat cultivars grown at two Mn levels viz. 0 and 50 mg Mn kg-1soil (Mnapplied as MnSO4.H20) in pots. The Mn vegetative efficiency calculated on the basis of shoot dry weight at anthesis indicated HD 2967 and PBW 550 (bread wheat) as Mn efficient and durums as Mn inefficient. The efficient cultivars recorded highest values for influx, uptake, shoot dry weight, leaf area/plant, SPAD index, Fv/Fmratio and root length that explained their higher efficiencies whereas inefficiency of durum cultivars was attributed to their smaller roots and lower influx. Under Mn deficiency, PDW 314 and PDW 291 retained 68% and 64%, respectively, of total Mn uptake in vegetative parts (stem and leaves) and lowest in grains 7% and 5%, respectively, whereas PBW 550, BW 9178 and HD 2967 retained 29, 37 and 34% in vegetative parts, and 21, 17 and 15 % in grains, respectively at maturity. Higher utilization efficiency of efficient genotypes also indicated that increased Mn uptake with Mn supply produced more efficiently grains in efficient genotypes but vegetative parts in inefficient genotypes. Hence Mn efficiency of a cultivar could be explained by longer roots, higher uptake, influx and efficiency index during vegetative phase and higher grain yield and utilization efficiency during generative phase.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, June 2014, pp. 658-663

 

 

In vitro regeneration of Coelogyne nervosa A.Rich. and Eria pseudoclavicaulis Blatt., threatened orchids of Western Ghats, India

B Sahaya Shibu1, P Servin Wesley1, Sarmad Moin2 & B Chitra Devi*

Department of Botany, Karpagam University, Coimbatore 641 021, India

Received 18 December 2012; revised 1 April 2013

The seeds of C. nervosa and E. pseudoclavicaulis were germinated asymbiotically on Knudson C (KC) and Schenk and Hildebrandt basal medium (SH). Growth regulators such as 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) individually and in combinations with benzyladenine (BA) and kinetin were used for callus induction from the protocorm like bodies. Coelogyne nervosa showed maximum (90%) callus induction in Knudson C medium supplemented with 2,4-D (2.26 µM) and Eria pseudoclavicaulis showed 60% callus induction in Schenk and Hildebrandt medium supplemented with 2,4-D (2.26 µM). Calli developed a route of production of protocorm-like bodies and eventually developed into plantlets on transfer to growth regulator free half strength basal medium. The well rooted plants were hardened successfully in the potting mixture containing coconut husk, charcoal, and brick pieces in the ratio 2:1:1.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, June 2014, pp. 664-668

 

 

An analysis of vascular system in the compound tendrilled
afila leaf in Pisum sativum

 

Vishakha Sharma, Arvind Kumar & Sushil Kumar*

National Institute of Plant Genome Research (NIPGR),

Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067, India

Received 14 May 2013; revised 4 February 2014

Recent work on the venation patterning and morphogenesis of leaf/leaflet has posed the question how different are these in tendrils, which are another type of vegetative lateral organ. Here, the venation patterns of leaflets, stipules and tendrils were compared in the model species, P. sativum. Unlike reticulated venation in leaflets and stipules, venation in tendrils comprised of one or more primary veins. A few secondaries were attached to a primary vein, mostly distally. Bilaterally symmetrical secondary veins were rare. The primary veins in tendrils were daughter strands from dichotomously divided mother veins in rachis, connected finally to vascular strands in stem. A tendril received primary vein from one or more mother strands. Some mother strands contributed primary veins to proximal, distal and terminal domain tendrils of af leaf. The tendrils shared the multi-primary vein character with stipules. Vein redundancy provided a mechanism for survival of tendril/leaf against injury to some of the veins/mother veins. The presence of aborted primary veins that did not reach apex, rows of cambium cells attached to primary vein(s) at apex, the pattern of attachment of primary veins to mother veins and cessation of vein growth in apical direction in aborted tendrils of af lld genotype indicated that the growth of primary veins and tendril was acropetal. Loss-of-function of AF extended the repression of TL and MFP genes on leaflet development from distal and apical domains to proximal domain of leaves in af mutants.