Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 52

NUMBER 3

MARCH 2014

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 52 (3) 191-290 (2014)

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

CONTENTS

 

Papers

 

 

 

Peptide: N-glycanase is expressed in prestalk cells and plays a role in the differentiation of prespore cells during development of Dictyostelium discoideum

197

 

 

Anuradha Gosain, Anju Srivastava & Shweta Saran

 

 

 

Protective effect of alcoholic extract of Entada pursaetha DC. against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

207

 

 

Gaurav Gupta, Amar Sunil More, Rashmi Rekha Kumari, Madhu Cholenahalli Lingaraju, Dhirendra Kumar, Dinesh Kumar, Santosh Kumar Mishra & Surender Kumar Tandan

 

 

 

Antiarthritic activity of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers

215

 

 

Jitendra Bhangale & Sanjeev Acharya

 

 

 

Structural and functional analysis of cathepsin S of Heterodera spp: A promising candidate
for its control

223

 

 

Prasoon Kumar Thakur, Mukesh Kumar, Jitender Kumar, Nagavara Prasad Gantasala &
Uma Rao

 

 

 

Norethindrone-induced masculinization and progeny testing in guppy, Poecilia reticulata
(Peters 1859)

232

 

 

N Basavaraja , B H Chandrashekhara & Rather Mansoor Ahamad

 

 

 

Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica

237

 

 

Joy Das, Ramesh K V, Maithri U, Mutangana D & Suresh C K

 

 

 

Phenylpropanoid enzymes, phenolic polymers and metabolites as chemical defenses to infection of Pratylenchus coffeae in roots of resistant and susceptible bananas (Musa spp.)

252

 

 

M Mayil Vaganan, I Ravi, A Nandakumar, S Sarumathi , P Sundararaju &
M M Mustaffa

 

 

 

 

A new spectrophotometric method for quantification of potassium solubilized by bacterial cultures

261

 

 

Mahendra Vikram Singh Rajawat, Surender Singh & Anil Kumar Saxena

 

 

 

Effect of Dactylogyrus catlaius (Jain 1961) infection in Labeo rohita (Hamilton 1822): Innate immune responses and expression profile of some immune related genes

267

 

 

Pujarini Dash, Banya Kar, Arpita Mishra & P K Sahoo

 

 

 

Colour preference and light sensitivity in trilobite larvae of mangrove horseshoe crab, Carcinoscopius rotundicauda (Latreille, 1802)

281

 

 

TC Srijaya, PJ Pradeep, A Hassan, A Chatterji, F Shaharom & Andrew Jeffs

 

 

 

 

Editor痴 Note

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology is covered by the following international abstracting and indexing services:

 

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PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov/)

MEDLINE

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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology in Open Access Mode

 

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology (IJEB) is now an open access journal in the repository, NISCAIR Online Periodicals Repository (NOPR) [http://nopr.niscair.res.in].

Full text of all articles published in IJEB from 1999 onwards can now be accessed at NOPR in the open access mode. Papers in the current issue shall be uploaded immediately. Papers published in earlier years shall be added soon.

NOPR is based on DSpace, a digital repository software, and allows document browsing, document searching and various search options like title, author name, keywords, year,issue, etc.

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Author Index

Acharya Sanjeev

215

Ahamad Rather Mansoor

232

 

 

Basavaraja N

232

Bhangale Jitendra

215

 

 

C K Suresh

237

Chandrashekhara B H

232

Chatterji A

281

 

 

D Mutangana

237

Das Joy

237

Dash Pujarini

267

Dhirendra Kumar

207

Dinesh Kumar

207

 

 

Gantasala Nagavara Prasad

223

Gosain Anuradha

197

Gupta Gaurav

207

Hassan A

281

 

 

Jeffs Andrew

281

Jitender Kumar

223

 

 

K V Ramesh

237

Kar Banya

267

Kumari Rashmi Rekha

207

 

 

Lingaraju Madhu Cholenahalli


207

 

 

Mishra Arpita

267

Mishra Santosh Kumar

207

More Amar Sunil

207

Mukesh Kumar

223

Mustaffa M M

252

 

 

Nandakumar A

252

 

 

Pradeep PJ

281

Rajawat Mahendra Vikram Singh


261

Rao Uma

223

Ravi I

252

 

 

Sahoo P K

267

Saran Shweta

197

Sarumathi S

252

Saxena Anil Kumar

261

Shaharom F

281

Singh Surender

261

Srijaya TC

281

Srivastava Anju

197

Sundararaju P

252

 

 

Tandan Surender Kumar

207

Thakur Prasoon Kumar

223

 

 

U Maithri

237

 

 

Vaganan M Mayil

252

 

 

Keyword Index

3D model

237

 

 

Animal behaviour

281

Antioxidant

207

Arthritis

215

 

 

Cathepsin S

223

CCl4

207

Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase


252

Cobalt nitrite

261

Colour vision

281

Cynodon dactylon

215

 

 

Dactylogyrus catlaius

267

Dictyostelium development

197

Dock

237

 

 

Entada pursaetha

207

 

 

FCA

215

Ferulic acid

252

Flame photometry

261

Gene expression

267

Glomus fasciculatum

237

Guppy

232

 

 

Hepatoprotection

207

Heterodera spp

223

Homology modelling

223

Horseshoe crab

281

 

 

Immune response

267

 

 

K-solubilizing bacteria

261

 

 

Labeo rohita

267

Light sensitivity

281

Lignin

252

Liver toxicity

207

 

 

Mangrove

281

Masculinization

232

 

 

Norethindrone

232

P uptake

237

p-Coumaric acid

252

Peptide: N- glycanase

197

Phenylalanine ammonia lyase


252

Phosphate transporter

237

Piriformospora indica

237

Plant parasitic nematodes

223

Poecilia reticulata

232

Potassium solubilization

261

Prespore differentiation

197

Progeny testing

232

 

 

Root lesion nematode

252

 

 

TNFα

215

Trilobite larvae

281

 

 

Yangambi Km5

252

 

 

Correspondent author is marked by *

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, March 2014, pp.197-206

 

 

 

Peptide: N- glycanase is expressed in prestalk cells and plays a role in the differentiation of prespore cells during development of Dictyostelium discoideum

Anuradha Gosain1, 2, Anju Srivastava2 & Shweta Saran1, *

1School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

2Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India

Received 13 May 2013; revised 30 October 2013

Peptide: N- glycanase (PNGase) enzyme is found throughout eukaryotes and plays an important role in the misfolded glycoprotein degradation pathway. This communication reports the expression patterns of the pngase transcript (as studied by the analysis of β- galactosidase reporter driven by the putative pngase promoter) and protein (as studied by the analysis of β- galactosidase reporter expressed under the putative pngase promoter as a fusion with the pngase ORF) during development and further elucidated the developmental defects of the cells lacking PNGase (png-). The results show that the DdPNGase is an essential protein expressed throughout development and β- galactosidase activity was present in the anterior part of the slug. In structures derived from a null mutant for pngase, the prestalk A and AO patterning was expanded and covered a large section of the prespore region of the slugs. When developed as chimeras with wild type, the png- cells preferentially populate the prestalk/stalk region. When the mutants were mixed in higher ratios, they also tend to form the prespore/spore cells. The results emphasize that the DdPNGase has an essential role during development and the mutants have defects in a system that changes the physiological dynamics in the prespore cells. DdPNGase play a role in development both during aggregation and in the differentiation of prespore cells.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, March 2014, pp.207-214

 

 

Protective effect of alcoholic extract of Entada pursaetha DC.
against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

 

Gaurav Gupta, Amar Sunil More, Rashmi Rekha Kumari, Madhu Cholenahalli Lingaraju, Dhirendra Kumar,
Dinesh Kumar, Santosh Kumar Mishra & Surender Kumar Tandan*

Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122, India

Received 8 February 2013; revised 7 October 2013

The alcoholic extract of stem of E. pursaetha (PSE, 30, 100, 300 mg/kg body weight, po for 7 days) showed hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 (2 mL/kg body weight, ip)-induced hepatotoxicity. The extract exhibited a significant dose-dependent hepatoprotective effect comparable to standard drug silymarin, by preventing increase in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, and total bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase; by lowering hepatic levels of malonaldehyde, nitrate-nitrite, myeloperoxidase activity; enhancing activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and increasing reduced glutathione levels in liver, which suggests the antioxidant property of PSE. Histopathological studies also supported the above biochemical parameters. The results suggested that alcoholic extract of E. pursaetha possesses significant hepatoprotective activity in CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats and this is likely to be mediated through its antioxidant activities.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, March 2014, pp.215-222

 

 

Antiarthritic activity of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers

Jitendra Bhangalea* & Sanjeev Acharyab

aDepartment of Pharmacology, Smt. N. M. Padalia Pharmacy College, Navapura, Ahmedabad 382 210, India

bDepartment of Pharmacognosy, Institute of Pharmacy, Nirma University, Ahmedabad 382 481, India

Received 17 December 2012; revised 24 October 2013

Cynodon dactylon (L.) (Poaceae) is traditionally used herb to treat fevers, skin diseases and rheumatic affections. The ethanolic extract of C. dactylon was found to be safe at all the dose levels (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) and there was no mortality up to the dose of 5000 mg/kg of extract when administered orally. C. dactylon showed significant antiarthritic activity against Freund痴 complete adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Treatment with C. dactylon significantly reduced the mean percentage change in injected and non injected paw, ankle diameter, clinical severity and significantly increased body weight. Results were confirmed using biochemical parameters; there was a significant improvement in the levels of Hb and RBC in C. dactylon treated rats. The increased levels of WBC, ESR, C- reactive protein (CRP) and TNFα were significantly suppressed in C. dactylon treated rats. C. dactylon showed protective effect in arthritic joints but it has been supported by an improvement in bone lesions rather than in cartilage lesions. It can be concluded that ethanolic extract of C. dactylon at a dose of 400 mg/kg is effective in improving haematological level, CRP and reducing TNFα level. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and glycosides in ethanolic extract. All the above results support the traditional uses of the plant in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, March 2014, pp.223-231

 

 

Structural and functional analysis of cathepsin S of Heterodera spp: A promising candidate for its control

Prasoon Kumar Thakur, Mukesh Kumar, Jitender Kumar, Nagavara Prasad Gantasala & Uma Rao*

Division of Nematology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi 110 012, India

Received 10 May 2013; revised 29 August 2013

Cysteine proteinases are required for a wide range of physiological processes in all living organisms. In parasitic nematodes, they are particularly crucial for the digestion of host tissues and evasion of host immune responses. Therefore, in general, these are identified as primary targets for the control of parasitic nematodes. Herein, cathepsin S-like cysteine proteinase of Heterodera avenae (Hacp-s) has been cloned and analysed for the first time. The predicted protein is 298 amino acids long and showed significant similarity with cathepsin S of Heterodera glycines (Hgcp-s). The sequence of cathepsin S contains a signal peptide of 30 amino acids which suggests its role in extracellular functions. Multiple sequence alignment revealed the presence of ERFNIN motif and conserved catalytic residues. Three dimensional structure (3D) of Hgcp-s was modelled using homology modelling. In order to illustrate the plausible mode of interaction of cathepsin S (Hgcp-s), docking analysis was performed with E-64 cysteine proteinase inhibitor. Docking studies revealed the hydrogen bonding of E-64 with Gln153, His299 and Gly203 as well as close interaction with catalytic residues Cys159 and Asn320. Expression analysis of Hacp-s using qRT-PCR showed high expression of cathepsin S in pre parasitic J2s and female stages suggesting its significant role in both pre-parasitic and parasitic stages of the nematode life cycle.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, March 2014, pp.232-236

 

 

Norethindrone-induced masculinization and progeny testing in guppy,
Poecilia reticulata (Peters 1859)

N Basavaraja*, B H Chandrashekhara & Rather Mansoor Ahamad

1Department of Aquaculture, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University,
College of Fisheries, Mangalore 575 002, India

Received 19 November 2012; revised 29 October 2013

Norethindrone(NE) was evaluated for its efficacy on alteration of sex ratio of P. reticulata. Either the young fry or the brooders and the resultant fry were fed a commercial diet incorporated with NE at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg kg-1 diet (ppm) for 30-40 d in rectangular glass aquaria; this was followed by 40-60 d rearing on NE-free diet in out-door concrete tanks. In general, the androgen treatment altered sex ratio, leading to the production of a dose dependent increase in the percentage of males. The oral administration of the steroid at 75 ppm for 40 d or 100 ppmfor 30 or 40 d to first feeding fry, yielded 100% males. On the other hand, NE administration to brooders before parturition and the resultant fry also produced an all-male population of guppy. The sex ratio of the untreated control was almost 1:1. The survival of fish in all the trials was high, ranging between 67 and 100%. Mating masculinized males (店X male) with normal female resulted in an all-female progeny, while crossing normal male (XY) from treatment groups with normal female sired normal sex ratio (1:1), elucidating XX-XY sex determination system in the guppy.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, March 2014, pp.237-251

 

 

Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica

Joy Dasa, Ramesh K Vb*, Maithri Ub, Mutangana Db & Suresh C Ka

aDepartment of Plant Biotechnology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK, Bengaluru 560 065, India

bDepartment of Biotechnology, Centre for Postgraduate Studies, Jain University 18/3, 3rd Block,
Jayanagar, 9th Main Bengaluru 560 011, India

Received 22 October 2012; revised 28 October 2013

Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomus fasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P.indica resembling 溺ayan temple was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, March 2014, pp.252-260

 

 

Phenylpropanoid enzymes, phenolic polymers and metabolites as chemical defenses to infection of Pratylenchus coffeae in roots of resistant and
susceptible bananas (Musa spp.)

M Mayil Vaganan*, I Ravi, A Nandakumar, S Sarumathi, P Sundararaju & M M Mustaffa

Physiology and Biochemistry Lab., National Research Centre for Banana,

Thayanur Post, Thogamalai Road, Tiruchirapalli 620 102, India

Received 29 March 2013; revised 2 December 2013

Activity differences of the first (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, PAL) and the last (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, CAD) enzymes of phenylpropanoid pathway in the roots of resistant (Yangambi Km5 and Anaikomban) and susceptible (Nendran and Robusta) banana cultivars caused by root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae, were investigated. Also, the accumulation of phenolics and deposition of lignin polymers in cell walls in relation to resistance of the banana cultivars to the nematode were analyzed. Compared to the susceptible cultivars, the resistant cultivars had constitutively significantly higher PAL activity and total soluble and cell wall-bound phenolics than in susceptible cultivars. The resistant cultivars responded strongly to the infection of the nematode by induction of several-time higher PAL and CAD enzymes activities, soluble and wall-bound phenolics and enrichment of lignin polymers in cell wall and these biochemical parameters reached maximum at 7th day postinoculation. In addition, profiles of phenolic acid metabolites in roots of Yangambi Km5 and Nendran were analyzed by HPLC to ascertain the underlying biochemical mechanism of bananas resistance to the nematode. Identification and quantification of soluble and cell wall-bound phenolic acids showed six metabolites and only quantitative, no qualitative, differences occurred between the resistant and susceptible cvs. and between constitutive and induced contents. A very prominent increase of p-coumaric, ferulic and sinapic acids, which are precursors of monolignols of lignin, in resistant cv. was found. These constitutive and induced biochemical alterations are definitely the chemical defenses of resistant cvs. to the nematode infection.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, March 2014, pp.261-266

 

 

A new spectrophotometric method for quantification of potassium solubilized
by bacterial cultures

 

Mahendra Vikram Singh Rajawat, Surender Singh & Anil Kumar Saxena*

 

Division of Microbiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012, India

 

Received 26 March 2013; revised 8 October 2013

A new spectrophotometric method was developed for the quantification of potassium in the culture broth supernatant of K-solubilizing bacteria. The standard curve of potassium with the new method, which is based on the measurement of cobalt, showed a regression coefficient (R2) of 0.998. The quantification values of potassium obtained with flame photometric method and the newly developed method showed a significant correlation (r) of 0.978. The new method depends on the precipitation of sodium cobaltinitrite with solubilized potassium in liquid medium as potassium sodium cobaltinitrite, which develops bluish green colour by the addition of conc. HCl. The intensity of developed colour can be recorded at 623 nm. This method involves less number of steps, is easy and time saving, and can be used for the reliable estimation of available potassium in culture broth supernatant of K-solubilizing bacteria

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, March 2014, pp.267-280

 

 

Effect of Dactylogyrus catlaius (Jain 1961) infection in Labeo rohita
(Hamilton 1822): Innate immune responses and expression profile
of some immune related genes

 

Pujarini Dash, Banya Kar, Arpita Mishra & P K Sahoo*

Fish Health Management Division, Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Kausalyaganga, Bhubaneswar 751 002, India

Received 21 March 2013; revised 12 September 2013

The monogenean ectoparasite, Dactylogyrus sp. is a major pathogen in freshwater aquaculture. The immune responses in parasitized fish were analyzed by quantitation of innate immune factors (natural agglutinin level, haemolysin titre, antiprotease, lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities) in serum and immune-relevant gene expression in gill and anterior kidney. The antiprotease activity and natural agglutinin level were found to be significantly higher
and lysozyme activity was significantly lower in parasitized fish. Most of the genes viz., β2-microglobulin (β2M),
major histocompatibility complex I (MHCI), MHCII, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and toll-like receptor 22 (TLR22)
in gill samples were significantly down-regulated in the experimental group. In the anterior kidney, the expression
of superoxide dismutase and interleukin 1β (IL1β) were significantly up-regulated whereas a significant down regulation
of MHCII and TNFα was also observed. The down-regulation of most of the genes viz, MHCI, β2M, MHCII, TLR22
and TNFα in infected gills indicated a well evolved mechanism in this parasite to escape the host immune response.
The modulation of innate and adaptive immunity by this parasite can be further explored to understand host
susceptibility.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, March 2014, pp.281-290

 

 

 

Colour preference and light sensitivity in trilobite larvae of mangrove horseshoe crab, Carcinoscopius rotundicauda (Latreille, 1802)

TC Srijaya*,, PJ Pradeep, A Hassan, A Chatterji, F Shaharom & Andrew Jeffs1

Institute of Tropical Aquaculture, University Malaysia Terengganu, 21030, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

1Leigh Marine Laboratory, University of Auckland, Warkworth, New Zealand

Received 2 January 2013 ; revised 17 October 2013

The trilobite larvae of C. rotundicauda were tested to determine their colour preference and light sensitivity until their first moulting (25 days post hatching) under laboratory conditions. Maximum congregation size of the trilobite larvae was found in the white zone respectively where (n= 12) followed by yellow (n= 8) and orange (n= 8), which showed the larval preference for lighter zones. Morisita痴 index calculation showed a clumped/aggregated distribution (yellow, blue, orange and white) and uniform/hyper dispersed distribution (green, red and black) for various colours tested. Trilobite larvae showed least preference for brighter regions while tested in the experiment [black; (n=4) and red; (n=5)]. Experiments done to determine the light sensitivity of trilobite larvae showed that the larvae had more preference towards ultraviolet lights. The maximum congregation size of 38.8 and 40.7% of the larvae was encountered under ultraviolet light, when the light sources were kept horizontal and vertical, respectively. Overall, results suggested that the trilobite larvae of C. rotundicauda, preferred light source of shorter wavelengths (UV light) and colours of lighter zone (white, yellow, orange), which might be due to their adaptation to their natural habitat for predator avoidance, prey selection and water quality.