Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 52

NUMBER 5

MAY 2014

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 52 (5) 383-574 (2014)

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

CONTENTS

 

Special Issue on Chronobiology (Time, Clocks and Calendars)

Foreword

385

 

 

Russell G Foster

           

 

 

Preface

389

 

 

Vinod Kumar

 

 

 

Overviews

 

 

 

The circadian organization of the cardiovascular system in health and disease

395

 

 

Francesco Portaluppi

 

 

 

Chronodisruption, cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair

399

 

 

Rachel Ben-Shlomo

 

 

 

Mini Reviews

 

 

 

New methods to assess circadian clocks in humans

404

 

 

Marta Nováková & Alena Sumová

 

 

 

Photoperiodic regulation of seasonal reproduction in higher vertebrates

413

 

 

Sangeeta Rani & Vinod Kumar

 

 

 

Twenty-four-hour pattern in French firemen of lag time response to out of hospital cardiac arrest and work-related injury

420

 

 

Yvan Touitou, Alain Reinberg, Michael H Smolensky, Marc Riedel, Benoit Mauvieux, Eric Brousse, Michel Marlot & Stephane Berrez

 

 

 

Review Article

 

 

 

Melatonin: An internal signal for daily and seasonal timing

425

 

 

Amit Kumar Trivedi & Vinod Kumar

 

 

 

Papers

 

 

 

Modulation of pineal activity during the 23rd sunspot cycle: Melatonin rise during the ascending phase of the cycle is accompanied by an increase of the sympathetic tone

438

 

 

Christian Bartsch, Hella Bartsch, Eckhard Seebald, Heinz Küpper & Dieter Mecke

 

 

 

Light wavelength dependent circadian and seasonal responses in blackheaded bunting

448

 

 

      Shalie Malik, Garima Yadav, Sangeeta Rani & Vinod Kumar

 

 

 

Slow and fast orthodromic and antidromic variants in acute 9-h jet-lagged pygmy field mice

460

 

 

      Priyoneel Basu, Dhanananajay Kumar & Muniyandi Singaravel

 

 

Daily variation in melatonin level, antioxidant activity and general immune response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymphoid tissues of Indian goat Capra hircus during summer and winter

467

 

 

      Amaresh Kumar Singh, Somenath Ghosh, Priyoneel Basu & Chandana Haldar

 

 

 

Binding pattern of 125Iodine thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine in skin and liver tissues of spotted munia, Lonchura punctulata: Co-relation to seasonal cycles of breeding and molting

478

 

 

      Ashish Thapliyal, Asha Chandola-Saklani, Dinesh Bhatt & Prashant Anthwal

 

 

 

Internal coincidence of serotonergic and dopaminergic oscillations modulates photo sexual responses of Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica

489

 

 

      Suneeta Yadav & Chandra Mohini Chaturvedi

 

 

 

Participation of endogenous circadian rhythm in photoperiodictime measurement during ovarian responsesof the subtropical tree sparrow, Passer montanus

496

 

 

      Namram Sushindrajit Singh & Anand Shanker Dixit

 

 

 

Daily and seasonal activity patterns in blackheaded munia

504

 

 

      Neelu Jain Gupta

 

 

 

Effects of light intensity on circadian activity behaviour in the Indian weaverbird (Ploceus philippinus)

510

 

 

      Rohit K Pandey & Sanjay K Bhardwaj

 

 

 

Daily behaviour can differ between colour morphs of the same species: A study on circadian activity behaviour of grey and pied zebra finches

516

 

 

      Ila Mishra, Amit Kumar Trivedi & Vinod Kumar

 

 

 

Photoperiodic effects on activity behaviour in the spiny eel (Macrognathus pancalus)

521

 

 

      Malik Zahid, Shalie Malik & Sangeeta Rani

 

 

 

Aromatase activity in brain and ovary: Seasonal variations correlated with circannual gonadal cycle in the catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis

527

 

 

      Neerja Aggarwal, Shashi Vadan Goswami, Preeti Khandelwal & Neeta Sehgal

 

 

 

Season-dependent effect of thermopulse on gonadal recrudescence in the female catfish, Clarias batrachus

538

 

 

      Kaberi Acharia, Bechan Lal &Thakur P Singh

 

 

 

Blood pressure variability and pedigree analysis of nocturnal SBP dipping in Kumbas from rural Chhattisgarh, India

542

 

 

      Razia Sultana & Atanu Kumar Pati

 

 

 

Effect of hospitalization on rest-activity rhythm and quality of life of cancer patients

549

 

 

      Arti Parganiha, Saba Taj, Priyanka Chandel, Armiya Sultan & Vivek Choudhary

 

 

 

Short-duration judgment in young Indian subjects under 30 h constant wakefulness

559

 

      Babita Pande, Arti Parganiha, Pradeep Kumar Patra &Atanu Kumar Pati

 

 

Relationship of chronotype to sleep pattern in a cohort of college students during work days and vacation days

569

 

 

 

      Arjita Yadav & Sudhi Singh

 

—————————

 

Editor’s Note

The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology is covered by the following international abstracting and indexing services:

 

Science Citation Index ExpandedTM

PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nim.nih.gov/)

MEDLINE

BIOSIS

Chemical Abstracts Service

Excerpta Medica

Informascience

Refrativnyi Zhurnal

Zoological Records

 

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology in Open Access Mode

 

      The Indian Journal of Experimental Biology (IJEB) is now an open access journal in the repository, NISCAIR Online Periodicals Repository (NOPR) [http://nopr.niscair.res.in].

      Full text of all articles published in IJEB from 1999 onwards can now be accessed at NOPR in the open access mode. Papers in the current issue shall be uploaded immediately. Papers published in earlier years shall be added soon.

      NOPR is based on DSpace, a digital repository software, and allows document browsing, document searching and various search options like title, author name, keywords, year,issue, etc.

——————————————

 

 

Author Index

Acharia Kaberi

538

Aggarwal Neerja

527

Anthwal Prashant

478

 

 

Bartsch Christian

438

Bartsch Hella

438

Basu Priyoneel

460,467

Bechan Lal

538

Ben-Shlomo Rachel

399

Berrez Stephane

420

Bhardwaj Sanjay K

510

Bhatt Dinesh

478

Brousse Eric

420

 

 

Chandel Priyanka

549

Chaturvedi Chandra Mohini

489

Choudhary Vivek

549

 

 

Dhanananajay Kumar

460

Dixit Anand Shanker

486

 

 

Ghosh Somenath

467

Goswami Shashi Vadan

527

Gupta Neelu Jain

504

Haldar Chandana

467

 

 

Khandelwal Preeti

527

Küpper Heinz

438

 

 

Malik Shalie

448,521

Marlot Michel

420

Mauvieux Benoit

420

Mecke Dieter

438

Mishra Ila

516

 

 

Nováková Marta

404

 

 

Pande Babita

559

Pandey Rohit K

510

Parganiha Arti

549,559

Pati Atanu Kumar

542,559

Patra Pradeep Kumar

559

Portaluppi Francesco

395

 

 

Reinberg Alain

420

Riedel Marc

420

 

 

Saklani Asha Chandola

478

Sangeeta Rani

413,448,521

Seebald Eckhard

438

Sehgal Neeta

527

Singaravel Muniyandi

460

Singh Amaresh Kumar

467

Singh Namram Sushindrajit

496

Singh Thakur P

538

Singh Sudhi

569

Smolensky Michael H

420

Sultan Armiya

549

Sultana Razia

542

Sumová Alena

404

 

 

Taj Saba

549

Thapliyal Ashish

478

Touitou Yvan

420

Trivedi Amit Kumar

425,516

 

 

Vinod Kumar

413,425, 448,516,

 

 

Yadav Arjita

569

Yadav Garima

448

Yadav Suneeta

489

 

 

Zahid Malik

521

 

 

Keyword Index

Acrophase

460

Activity pattern

504

Antidromic

460

Antioxidant activity

467

Aromatase

527

 

 

Bird

413,425

Blackheaded munia

504

 

 

Cancer

549

Cardiac arrests

420

Cardiovascular accidents

395

Catfish

527,538

Cell cycle homeostasis

399

Chronodisruption

399

Chronotype

516,569

Circadian

404,496,542

Circadian behaviour

516

Circadian BP regulation

395

Circadian locomotor activity

521

Circadian oscillator

399

Circadian period

510

Circadian rhythm

395,420,510

Cloacal gland

489

Clock

404,425

College days

569

Colour morphs

516

Constant routine

559

Cortisol

559

cyp19 gene

527

 

 

Daily rhythm

467

DIO2

413

DIO3

413

DNA damage

399

 

 

Emberiza melanocephala

448

Endogenous circadian rhythm

559

Estradiol

496

 

 

Firemen

420

Flight

460

 

 

Goat

467

GSI

538

 

 

Heteropneustes fossilis

527

Hospitalization

549

Human

404

5-hydroxytryptophan

489

Hypertension

395

Hypothalamus

527

 

 

Immune status

467

In-patients

549

Intensity

448

Internal Coincidence model

489

 

 

Japanese quail

489

Jet lag

460

 

 

Kumbas - large Indian families

542

L-dihydroxyphenylalanine

489

Light intensity

510

Light intensity

521

Light pulse

510

Locomotor activity rhythm

448

 

 

MCTQ

569

Melatonin

413,425,438,467,559

Molt

478

 

 

Nocturnal BP fall

395

 

 

Oestradiol

538

Orthodromic

460

Out-patients

549

 

 

Pedigree analysis inheritance of

 

nocturnal dipping

542

Phase dependent

538

Phase relation

521

Phase shift

510

Photoperiod

425,469

Photoperiodic clock

448

Photoperiodism

413

Pineal

438

Prospective paradigm

559

 

 

Quality of life

549

 

 

Reproduction

538

Rest-activity rhythm

549

Rhythm

496

 

 

Scatchard plot

478

Season

504

Shift work

420,460

Sleep

425

Sleep characteristics

569

Sleep log

569

Spiny eel

521

Spotted munia

478

Sunspot cycle

438

 

 

T4 receptor

478

Temporal phase relationship

489

Testes

448,489

Testosterone

538

Thermopulse

538

Thyroid

413

Thyroid hormones

478

Thyroxin

478

Time estimates

559

Tree sparrow

496

Tympanic temperature

559

 

 

Vacation days

569

Variability in BP

542

 

 

Wavelength

448

Work performance

420

Work-related injuries

420

 

 

Zebra finch

516

 

 

 

            Correspondent author is marked by *

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 395-398

 

 

 

Overviews

 

 

The circadian organization of the cardiovascular system in health and disease

Francesco Portaluppi

Hypertension Center and Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Savonarola 9, I-44100, Ferrara, Italy

In normal conditions, the temporal organization of blood pressure (BP) is mainly controlled by neuroendocrine mechanisms. Above all, the monoaminergic systems (including variations in activity of the autonomous nervous system,
and in secretion of biogenic amines) appear to integrate the major driving factors of temporal variability, but
evidence is available also for a role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, opioid,
renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, and endothelial systems, as well as other vasoactive peptides. Many hormones with established actions on the cardiovascular system (arginine vasopressin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, melatonin, somatotropin, insulin, steroids, serotonin, CRF, ACTH, TRH, endogenous opioids, and prostaglandin E2) are also involved in sleep induction or arousal, which in turn affects BP regulation. Hence, physical, mental, and pathological stimuli which may drive activation or inhibition of these neuroendocrine effectors of biological rhythmicity, may also interfere with the temporal BP structure. On the other hand, the immediate adaptation of the exogenous components of BP rhythms to the demands of the environment are modulated by the circadian-time-dependent responsiveness of the biological oscillators and their neuroendocrine effectors.

These notions may contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology and therapeutics of hypertension, myocardial ischemia and infarction, cardiac arrhythmias and all kind of acute cardiovascular accidents. For instance, the normal temporal balance between external stimuli and neurohumoral influences with endogenous rhythmicity is preserved in uncomplicated, essential hypertension, whereas it is frequently lost in complicated and secondary forms of hypertension where gross alterations are found in the circadian profile of BP.

When all the gates of the critical physiologic functions are aligned at the same time, the susceptibility, and thus risk, of adverse events becomes extremely high, even in the presence of minor environmental stimuli that could be usually harmless, and circadian rhythms of cardiovascular events are observed. This implies that one cannot afford to miss what happens during day but also night. Moreover, the requirement for preventive and therapeutic interventions varies predictably during the 24 h, suggesting that the delivery of protective or preventive medications should be synchronized in time in proportion to need, as determined by established rhythmic patterns in cardiovascular function as well as risk, in a manner that will avert or minimize their undesired side effects.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 399-403

 

 

Chronodisruption, cell cycle checkpoints and DNA repair

 

Rachel Ben-Shlomo

Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences

University of Haifa – Oranim, Tivon 36006, Israel

Chronodisruption, a disturbance in "natural" daily light/dark regulation, is possibly linked to disturbances in cell cycle homeostasis. The association and the synchronization between circadian rhythms and mitosis are not yet clear. The circadian oscillator is involved in the major cellular pathways of cell division. A molecular link between the circadian clock and the mammalian DNA damage checkpoints has been outlined. Analyses suggest an association between light disruption and obstruction of the cell cycle homeostasis. Disruption in the homeostatic control of the cell cycle has been associated with cancer and acceleration of malignant growth, possibly as a result of the interruption of DNA damage check-points. Studies further indicate that light signal during the dark phase affects the transcription level of a substantial number of genes that are associated with cell cycle progression, cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Indeed, the International Agency for Research in Cancer categorized "shift work that involves circadian disruption" as possibly carcinogenic. In this review the current finding on light pollution and its potential influence on cell cycle check-points and DNA repair is presented.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 404-412

 

 

 

Mini Reviewes

 

 

New methods to assess circadian clocks in humans

Marta Nováková1,2 & Alena Sumová2,*

1 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, 150 06 Prague, Czech Republic

2 Department of Neurohumoral Regulations, Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic,
v.v.i., 14220 Prague, Czech Republic

Proper function of the circadian system seems crucial for human health. New advances in methods for assessment of the functional state of the human circadian system facilitate our understanding of the relationship between the disruption of the circadian system and various diseases. Based on the results of such studies, new directions for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases emerge. This communication aims to summarize current methods for evaluating the human circadian system in the laboratory as well as in field studies. The advantages and limitations of the current methods and various approaches used for both in vivo and in vitro assessment of the human circadian system are discussed.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 413-419

 

 

Photoperiodic regulation of seasonal reproduction in higher vertebrates

Sangeeta Rani1* & Vinod Kumar2

DST IRHPA Center for Excellence in Biological Rhythm Research

1Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226 007, India

2Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India

Long-lived animals such as birds and mammals adapt readily to seasonal changes in their environment. They integrate environmental cues with their internal clocks to prepare and time seasonal physiological changes. This is reflected in several seasonal phenotypes, particularly in those linked with migration, hibernation, pelage growth, reproduction and molt. The two endocrine secretions that play key roles in regulating the seasonal physiology are melatonin and thyroid hormone. Whereas, melatonin is used as an endocrine index of day length (and consequently duration of night), the seasonal up- and down-regulation of thyroid hormone affects the physiology, perhaps by influencing different pathways. Both of these hormones are shown to act via a ‘photoperiodic axis’ constituted by the photoreceptors, hypothalamus and pituitary. Recent studies have revealed that the pars tuberalis that connects hypothalamus and pituitary, locally synthesizes the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in response to light (birds) or melatonin (mammals). The levels of TSH regulate the DIO2 and DIO3 synthesis in the ependymal cells in hypothalamus, and in turn affect the release of gonadotropin releasing hormone. This review mainly focuses on the current understanding of the mechanisms of photoperiodic regulation of seasonal responses in the higher vertebrates.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 420-424

 

 

Twenty-four-hour pattern in French firemen of lag time response to
out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and work-related injury#

Yvan Touitou1*, Alain Reinberg1, Michael H Smolensky1-4, Marc Riedel1,2,5, Benoit Mauvieux1-3, Eric Brousse2,
Michel Marlot2 & Stephane Berrez2

1Unité de Chronobiologie. Fondation A. de Rothschild. 25 rue Manin. 75940 PARIS 19, France

2Service Départemental d’Incendie et de Secours de Saône et Loire, France. SANCE. 71000. France

3INSERM U1075, Université de Caen, France

4Dept. Biomedical Engineering, Cockrell School of Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Texas, USA

5Université François Rabelais de Tours, EA2114, Psychologie des Ages de la Vie Tours, France

Circadian cognitive and physical rhythms plus 24 h patterns of accidents and work-related injuries (WRI) have been verified in numerous studies. However, rarely, if ever, have 24 h temporal differences in both work performance and risk of WRI been assessed in the same group of workers. We explored in a homogenous group of French firemen (FM) 24 h patterns of both lag time (LT) response duration to emergency calls for medical help (ECFM) for life-threatening
out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA), used as a non-specific index of work performance, and WRI. Our studies demonstrate rather high amplitude statistically significant 24 h patterns of the two variables. The LT response duration was twice as long ~0500 h (slowest response) than ~1600 h (fastest response). In the same group of FM, the actual number WRI/h was greatest ~1600 h and lowest in the early morning hours. However, the 24 h pattern of the relative risk (RR) of WRIs, i.e., per clock hour number of WRI/(total number of responses to emergency calls x number of FM at risk
per response), was very different, the RR being greatest ~0200 h and lowest in the afternoon. The 24 h pattern in LT response duration to ECMH for OHCA and RR of WRI was strongly correlated (r=+0.85, P<0.01), with the nocturnal trough (slowest response) in LT
response duration coinciding with the nocturnal peak RR of WRI. These findings indicate the requirement for circadian rhythm-based interventions to improve the nocturnal compromised work performance and elevated risk of WRI of shift-working FM.

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 425-437

 

 

 

Review Article

 

 

Melatonin: An internal signal for daily and seasonal timing

Amit Kumar Trivedi & Vinod Kumar*

DST-IRHPA Center for Excellence, Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India

 

Melatonin is secreted only during night, irrespective of the habitat of an organism and the site of its synthesis and secretion, and hence known as “darkness hormone”. Elevated melatonin levels reflect the nighttime. In vertebrates, the main site of melatonin production is the pineal gland. Species in which melatonin is also secreted from sources other than the pineal, as in some birds, relative contributions of different melatonin producing tissues to the blood melatonin level can vary from species to species. Melatonin acts through its receptors, which are members of the G protein-coupled (GPCR) superfamily. Three melatonin receptors subtypes MT1 (mel1a), MT2 (mel1b), and MT3 (mel1c) have been identified in different brain areas and other body organs of vertebrates. Melatonin synthesis and secretion are circadianly rhythmic. Changes and differences in specific features of melatonin signal can vary among species, and under a variety of natural environmental conditions. Two major physiological roles of melatonin are established in vertebrates. First, melatonin is involved in the circadian system regulated behavioural and physiological functions. Second, it is critical for the photoperiodic system. Besides, melatonin has been implicated in various ways both directly and indirectly to human health, including jet lag, sleep, immune system and cancer.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 438-447

 

 

Papers

 

 

Modulation of pineal activity during the 23rd sunspot cycle: Melatonin rise
during the ascending phase of the cycle is accompanied by an increase
of the sympathetic tone

Christian Bartsch1,2*, Hella Bartsch1,2, Eckhard Seebald1, Heinz Küpper1 & Dieter Mecke2,

1Center for Research in Medical and Natural Sciences, and

2Interfaculty Institute of Biochemistry, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany

Received 6 April 2013; revised 23 April 2013

In two groups of female CD-rats nocturnal urine (19-23 h, 23-3 h, 3-7 h) was collected at monthly intervals over
658 days (I: 1997-1999) and 494 days (II: 1999-2000) coinciding with the ascending limb (1996-2000) of the 23rd sunspot cycle (1996-2008). The
excretion of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s: I, II) was determined as well as the ratio of noradrenaline/adrenaline (NA/A: I) reflecting the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. AMT6s was higher in II than I (19-7 h: +24%; P<0.001; 23-3 h: +30% and 3-7 h: +17%, P<0.001), and progressively increased (19-23 h) showing linear regressions (I: R=+0.737, P=0.003; II: R=+0.633, 0.008) which correlated (I) with the Planetary Index (Ap: R=+0.598, P=0.020), an established estimate of geomagnetic disturbances due to solar activity. NA/A rose at all intervals (I: 46-143%) correlating with Ap (R=+0.554-0.768; P=0.0399-0.0013). These results indicate that melatonin secretion rises as solar activity increases during the ascending limb of a sunspot cycle accompanied by growing geomagnetic disturbances (Ap) which elevate the sympathetic tone and thus affect the pineal gland, initially stimulating the activity of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase and subsequently fostering the expression of N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (rate-limiting enzyme for melatonin biosynthesis) if Ap increases further. The potential (patho) physiological significance of these findings is discussed and the need for a systematic continuation of such studies is emphasized.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 448-459

 

 

Light wavelength dependent circadian and seasonal responses in
blackheaded bunting

Shalie Malika, Garima Yadava, Sangeeta Rania & Vinod Kumarb*

DST-IRHPA Center for Excellence in Biological Rhythm Research;

aDepartment of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, 226 007, India

bDepartment of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110 007, India

Received 18 April 2013; revised 24 August 2013

Animals in the wild are exposed to daily variations in sun light, viz. duration, intensity and spectrum. Photosensitive blackheaded buntings (Emberiza melanocephala) were exposed to photoperiods differing in the length of light period, wavelengths and intensity. The effects of such light changes were measured on locomotor activity rhythm as well as seasonal responses like development of migratory restlessness: Zugunruhe, body mass and gonadal growth. The results show that the buntings are differentially responsive to light wavelengths and intensities and are indicative of a
phase-dependent action of light on the circadian photoperiodic system. These birds seem to use changes in the light variables of the solar environment to regulate their circadian and seasonal responses.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 460-466

 

 

Slow and fast orthodromic and antidromic variants in acute 9-h jet-lagged
pygmy field mice

Priyoneel Basu, Dhanananajay Kumar & Muniyandi Singaravel*

Chronobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India

Received 27 February 2013; revised 8 August 2013

Biological clocks help organism to adapt temporally to a variety of rhythmic environmental cues. Acute changes in the rhythmicity of entraining cues causes short- to long-term physiological distress in individuals, for example, those occurring during jet-lag after long-haul transmeridial flights, or shift work. Variations in the rate of re-entrainment to a 9 h advanced schedule (simulation of acute Jet-lag/shift work) in the Indian pygmy field mouse, Mus terricolor are reported. Wheel- and lab-acclimated adult male mice were entrained to a 12:12 h light:dark (LD) cycles, followed by a 9 h advance in the LD cycle. In response, these mice either advanced or delayed their activity onsets, with individual variation in the rate and direction. Rapid orthodromic (advancing) re-entrainers exhibited a coincidence of activity onsets with the new dark onset in <=3 days, while gradually advancing re-entrainers took ~9 days or more. Delayers (antidromic) also either re-entrained very rapidly (<=2 days), or gradually (~9 days). Acrophase measurement confirmed the direction of the transients, which did not depend on the free-running period. Such different patterns might determine the differential survival of individuals under the pressure of re-entrainment schedules seen in jet-lag and shift work.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 467-477

 

 

Daily variation in melatonin level, antioxidant activity and general immune response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymphoid tissues of
Indian goat Capra hircus during summer and winter

Amaresh Kumar Singh, Somenath Ghosh, Priyoneel Basu & Chandana Haldar*

Pineal Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India

Received 16 February 2013; revised 10 August 2013

Daily variation in circulatory melatonin level, during different seasons, has been reported to influence immune system and free-radical scavenging capacity in mammals, including human beings. Similar studies have not been carried out on small ruminant viz. goats that are susceptible to opportunistic infections, increased oxidative load and sickness during free-grazing activity and frequent exposure to agro-chemicals. Therefore, daily variation in immune status, antioxidant enzyme activity and its possible correlation with circulatory melatonin level during two different seasons, summer (long day) and winter (short day) were studied in the Indian goat, Capra hircus. The clinically important immune parameters, such as total leukocyte count, % lymphocyte count and % stimulation ratio of T-lymphocytes presented a day/night rhythm prominently in the winter. The oxidative load in terms of malonedialdehyde was always low during night while antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and total antioxidant status were high during nighttime (1800 to 0600 hrs). Interestingly, the studied parameters were significantly higher during the winter in both the sexes. Rhythmometric analyses showed prominent rhythmicity in above parameters. The data presented strong positive correlation between high levels of nighttime melatonin levels and immune parameters during winter. It suggests that melatonin possesses immunoenhacing as well as antioxidative property during winter. This might be a necessity for maintenance of physiological harmony in goats to protect them from winter stress.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 478-488

 

 

Binding pattern of 125Iodine thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine in skin and liver tissues of spotted munia, Lonchura punctulata: Co-relation to seasonal cycles of breeding and molting

 

Ashish Thapliyal1*, Asha Chandola-Saklani2, Dinesh Bhatt3 & Prashant Anthwal1

1Department of Biotechnology, Graphic Era University, Dehradun, India

2Center for Biosciences in Clinical Research, Apeejay Satya University, Gurgaon, India

3Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, Gurukul Kangari University, Haridwar, India

Received 24 April 2013; revised 28 August 2013

Prevalent notion about thyroid hormones is that thyroxine (T4) is a mere precursor and physiological effects of thyroid hormones are elicited by tri-iodothyronine (T3) after mono-deiodination of T4. Earlier studies on feather regeneration and molt done on spotted munia L. punctulata suggest that T4 (mono-deiodination suppressed by iopanoic acid and thyroidectomized birds) is more effective than T3 in inducing feather regeneration. The binding pattern of 125I labeled T4 and T3 has been investigated in the nuclei prepared from skin and liver tissues (samples obtained during different months) of spotted munia using scatchard plot analysis. The results show that binding capacity (Bmax – pmole/80 µgm DNA) of 125I-T3 to nuclei of skin was significantly higher in November as compared to April and June, whereas the binding affinity (Kd-10-9M-1) was significantly lower in November as compared to April and June. During November, Bmax for binding of T3 and T4 did not vary in liver and skin nuclei but Kd varied significantly. Binding capacity of 125I- T3 to skin and liver did not vary but binding affinity of 125I- T4 to skin was approximately 7 times higher than that of liver. The results suggest that T4 does show a variation in binding pattern that co-relates to the molting pattern of spotted munia. These variations might play important role in different physiological phenomenon in this tropical bird. The experiments do point towards the possibility of independent role of T4 as a hormone, however, further experiments need to be done to ascertain the role of T4 in this model and work out the exact molecular mechanism of action.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 489-495

 

 

Internal coincidence of serotonergic and dopaminergic oscillations modulates photo sexual responses of Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica

Suneeta Yadav & Chandra Mohini Chaturvedi*

Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India

Received 1 March 2013; revised 15 July 2013

Specific temporal phase relation of neural oscillations appears to be the regulator of gonadal development in many seasonally breeding species. To find out the specific phase angle of two neural oscillations that triggers gonado-inhibitory or gonado-stimulatory response, and to test the internal coincidence model, sexually immature male Japanese quail were administered with the serotonin precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan and the dopamine precursor, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine at hourly intervals of 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 h (5 mg/100 g body weight/day for 12 days under continuous condition of light, LL). Thereafter all the groups were shifted to long photoperiod (LD16:8). During post-treatment period, in general, a significant suppression of gonadal activity was seen in the 7 h and 8 h quail and an increase in the 11 h and 12 h quail compared to the control and these effects were maintained until 105 days post treatment when the study was terminated. These findings suggest that, in addition to the effects of photoperiod, the gonadal development of Japanese quail may be also modulated by internal coincidence of serotonergic and dopaminergic oscillations (induced by the administration of their precursor drugs) and the gonadal response varies depending on the time interval between the administrations of two drugs on a circadian basis. These results also demonstrate inversion of gonadal response from 7/8 h (suppressive) to 11/12 h (stimulatory) phase relation of the two oscillations and suggest that similar to photoperiodic time measurement, Japanese quail may also detect changes in the phase angle of circadian oscillations to modulate its gonadal activity.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 496-503

 

 

Participation of endogenous circadian rhythm in photoperiodic time measurement during ovarian responses of the subtropical tree sparrow, Passer montanus

Namram Sushindrajit Singh & Anand Shanker Dixit*

Avian Endocrinology & Chronobiology Laboratory,

Department of Zoology, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793 022, India

Received 11 February 2013; revised 7 August 2013

Resonance experiment was employed to investigate the mechanism of photoperiodic time measurement during initiation of ovarian growth and functions in the subtropical population of female tree sparrow (Passer montanus) at Shillong (Latitude 25°34´N, Longitude 91°53´E). Photosensitive birds were subjected to various resonance light dark cycles of different durations such as: 12-(6L:6D), 24-(6L:18D), 36-(6L:30D), 48-(6L:42D), 60-(6L:54D) and 72-(6L:66D) h along with a control group under long days (14L:10D) for 35 days. Birds, exposed to long days, exhibited ovarian growth confirming their photosensitivity at the beginning of the experiment. The birds experiencing resonance light/dark cycles of 12, 36 and 60 h responded well while those exposed to24, 48 and 72 h cycles did not. Serum levels of estradiol-17β ran almost parallel to changes in the follicular size. Further, histomorphometric analyses of ovaries of the birds subjected to various resonance light dark cycles revealed distinct correlation with the ovarian growth and the serum levels of estradiol-17β. No significant change in body weight was observed in the birds under any of the light regimes. The results are in agreement with the avian external coincidence model of photoperiodic time measurement and indicate that an endogenous circadian rhythm is involved during the initiation of the gonadal growth and functions in the female tree sparrow.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 504-509

 

 

Daily and seasonal activity patterns in blackheaded munia

Neelu Jain Gupta1*

1Department of Zoology, MMH College, Ghaziabad 201 009, India

Received 13 March 2013; revised 6 August 2013

To test the circadian clock characteristics, activity behaviour of male blackheaded munia was recorded. Two experiments were performed. In experiment 1A, activity of munia was recorded under long days, LD (14L: 10D); and short days, SD (10L: 14D). Locomotor activity of two groups of munia exposed to equinox (12L: 12D) daylength followed by transfer of one group each to continuous dimlight (DD) and continuous bright light (LL) was recorded in experiment 1B. Experiment 2 aimed to describe seasonal trend in daily pattern of activity/rest cycle under natural illumination conditions (NDL). Hourly activity during daytime was more under SD than under LD. Munia did not exhibit bimodality in daily activity pattern; activity during morning, M (2h) was more than evening, E. A free-running activity rhythm was recorded in munia under DD; the same was arrhythmic under LL. The seasonal pattern in daily activity profiles under NDL corresponds to the seasonal changes in daylength. Daylength regulates daily and seasonal activity patterns in blackheaded munia.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 510-515

 

 

Effects of light intensity on circadian activity behaviour in the Indian weaverbird (Ploceus philippinus)

Rohit K Pandey & Sanjay K Bhardwaj*

Chronobiology laboratory, Department of Zoology, Ch Charan Singh University, Meerut 250 004, India

Received 25 May 2013; revised 4 September 2013

Circadian (locomotor activity/perching) behaviour of the weaverbird (Ploceus philippinus) under different light intensities was studied. Six groups of birds were subjected to 12L:12D (L = 1000 and 10 lux and D = 0.3 lux) for two weeks, and thereafter released into constant dim illumination (LLdim = 0.3 lux). After two weeks of LLdim, birds were given a 2 h light pulse of 1000 lux at circadian time (CT) 12, 17 and 20, and exposure of LLdim was continued for another two weeks and the activity pattern was monitored. As expected, all birds were entrained under 12L:12D showing dense-activity in the group that was placed under light phase of 1000 lux. Under LLdim birds exhibited circadian activity rhythms with periods longer or shorter than 24 h. Light pulse at CT 12 caused small delay shift in the activity phase, but a larger delay in phase shift occurred when the pulse was given at CT 17. A pulse at CT 20 caused small advanced phase shift. Thus, photoperiodic weaverbird appears to show circadian system regulated behaviour as seen by activity-rest pattern under programmed light cycles.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 516-520

 

 

Daily behaviour can differ between colour morphs of the same species: A study on circadian activity behaviour of grey and pied zebra finches

Ila Mishra, Amit Kumar Trivedi & Vinod Kumar*

DST-IRHPA Center for Excellence, Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India

Received 24 May 2013; revised 4 September 2013

To investigate if the plumage colour mutation relates to circadian activity behaviour in the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, wild type grey and pied mutant males were sequentially subjected for three weeks each to 12 h light:12 h darkness (12L:12D) and constant dim light (LLdim) condition. During the first 3 h of the 12 h day, pied finches were significantly greater active than grey finches. Also, as compared to grey, pied finches had longer activity duration in the day, with early activity onsets and late activity offsets. This was changed under free-running condition (LLdim), when the activity later in the subjective day (clock hour 9 and 11) was significantly greater in grey than in pied finches.Two colour morphs differed in daily activity profile, but not in the total daily activity or circadian rhythm period. Results suggest that greyzebra finches represent late chronotype, and could perhaps be better adapted to a seemingly stressful environment, such as low intensity LLdim in the present study.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 521-526

 

 

Photoperiodic effects on activity behaviour in the spiny eel
(Macrognathus pancalus)

Malik Zahid, Shalie Malik & Sangeeta Rani*

Department of Zoology, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226 007, India

Received 24 April 2013; revised 24 July 2013

The study focused on the characteristics of circadian locomotor activity in the spiny eel, M. pancalus, kept under different photoperiodic conditions. Two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 tested the light intensity dependent effect on circadian rhythmicity of the locomotor activity in spiny eel. Three groups of fish were entrained to 12L:12D conditions for 10 days. Thereafter, they were released to constant conditions for 15 days as indicated below: group 1-DD
(0 lux), group 2- LLdim (~1 lux) and group 3-LLbright (~500 lux). The locomotor activity of the fish, housed singly in an aquarium, was recorded continuously with infrared sensors connected to a computer. More than 90% activity of the eels was confined to the dark hours suggesting nocturnal habit. Under constant conditions, the activity in 7/9 fish in group 1, 4/8 in group 2 and 3/8 in group 3, started free running with a mean circadian period of 24.48 ± 0.17 h, 23.21 ± 0.47 h and 25.54 ± 1.13 h in respective groups. Remaining fish in each group became arrhythmic. This suggests that spiny eel can be synchronised to LD cycle and under constant conditions they free run with a circadian period. However, their activity under LL is light intensity dependent; higher the intensity, more disruption in circadian locomotor activity. Experiment 2 was conducted to study the effect of decreasing night length (increasing photoperiod) on circadian locomotor activity. The fish were sequentially exposed to 16D (8L:16D), 12D (12L:12D), 8D (16L:8D), 4D (20L:4D) and 2D (22L:2D) for 10 days in each condition, thereafter, they were released in constant dark (DD= 0lux). The results showed that the duration of night length affects both, the amplitude and duration of locomotor activity. It can be concluded that the spiny eels are nocturnal and that their locomotor activity is under the circadian control and may be influenced by the photoperiod.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 527-537

 

 

Aromatase activity in brain and ovary: Seasonal variations correlated with circannual gonadal cycle in the catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis

Neerja Aggarwal*, Shashi Vadan Goswami, Preeti Khandelwal & Neeta Sehgal

Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India

Received 16 April 2013; revised 02 September 2013

Seasonal variations in the aromatase activity in H. fossilis estimated by a microassay were correlated with the sex steroids, vitellogenin in and ovarian weight during circannual reproductive cycle. In the female catfish, aromatase activity was detectable in the hypothalamus throughout the year whereas in ovary only during active vitellogenesis. In the catfish, hypothalamic aromatase levels increased two times during annual gonadal cycle, once in a fully gravid fish and then in a reproductively quiescent fish. On the other hand, increase in the ovarian aromatase activity was observed only during vitellogenesis, which showed a direct correlation with plasma levels of sex steroids. Further, plasma levels of testosterone and estradiol suggested a precursor-product relationship. At the completion of vitellogenesis, ovarian aromatase activity declined sharply resulting in elevation of plasma testosterone levels, which in turn could be utilized as substrate by the hypothalamic aromatase whose activity was the highest in the postvitellogenic catfish. At least two isoforms of gene, cyp19a and cyp19b, coding for aromatase in ovary and brain respectively were expressed in the catfish. Aromatase activity was more concentrated in those areas of catfish brain, which have been implicated in the control of reproduction.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 538-541

 

 

Season-dependent effect of thermopulse on gonadal recrudescence in the
female catfish, Clarias batrachus

Kaberi Acharia*, Bechan Lal1 & Thakur P Singh1

*Kirori Mal College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India
1Centre of Advanced Studies in Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India

Received 3 April 2013; revised 5 September 2013

In the present study, the female Clarias batrachus, held under long photoperiod (13L:11D), were exposed to high water temperature either constantly (24 h) and/or in form of thermopulse of 6 h and 12 h durations, separately, at different times of the day/night cycle for six weeks during the early post-spawning and late post-spawning phases of its reproductive cycle. The effects of high water temperature (30±1°C) on gonadosomatic index (GSI), plasma levels of testosterone (T) and oestradiol-17β (E2) were observed. During the late post-spawning phase, thermopulse of 12 h duration given in the morning hour increased all the studied parameters most effectively as compared to that given at evening hour of the day/night cycle or even in comparison to the fish exposed to constant high temperature. Thermopulse of 6 h duration given in the morning or noon also raised these parameters compared to the controls, but the magnitudes of stimulation were moderate. However, exposures of the catfish to such photothermal regimes during the early post-spawning phase completely failed to bring any change in the studied parameters. These findings, thus, clearly indicate that treatment with high temperature under long photoperiod may stimulate gonadal activity in C. batrachus, provided given at appropriate season of the year. A diurnal basis of response to high temperature and the existence of a rigid gonado-refractory phase (perhaps just after the spawning) are also evident in the reproductive cycle of C. batrachus.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 542-548

 

 

Blood pressure variability and pedigree analysis of nocturnal SBP dipping in Kumbas from rural Chhattisgarh, India

Razia Sultana & Atanu Kumar Pati*

School of Life Sciences, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur 492 010, India

Received 22 April 2013; revised 8 August 2013

Family is the smallest unit of people to share most of the lifestyle, environmental and genetic factors. They are likely to have similarity in many physiological and behavioural aspects. Therefore, we designed a protocol to test the effect of large rural Indian families living together (Kumbas), on blood pressure variability. We also investigated the hypothesis that ‘nocturnal dipping’ in systolic blood pressure (SBP) is not heritable. Members of two families (1 and 2) consisting of 3-4 generations willingly participated in the study. Both families (natives of Chhattisgarh) belong to reasonably peaceful rural area and are financially stable. Farming is the main occupation of the members of both families. Few members of the families had jobs or small business. The null hypothesis regarding heritability of nocturnal dipping trait was accepted based on data emanating from either of the studied families. Hourly-averaged values depicted less variation in males and females of family 1 from midnight to early morning at around 06:00, as compared to that in males and females of family 2. The 24 h averages of BP in family 2 were significantly higher as compared to that in family 1. Further, in family 2 the peaks of SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) occurred significantly earlier as compared to that in family 1. The peak spread of SBP, DBP, heart rate (HR), MAP and pulse pressure (PP) among the members of family 1 was narrower than that for the members of family 2. Arbitrary cut-off values for classification of dipping, small sample size, and age dependency of nocturnal dipping might have marred outcome of the pedigree analysis of nocturnal dipping trait in this study. We have a hunch that the family shares typical temporal ups and downs in 24 h BP and HR. The above hypothesis needs confirmation based on studies with large data set involving subjective and objective assessment of the effects of psychosocial factors on BP and HR variability.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 549-558

 

 

Effect of hospitalization on rest-activity rhythm and quality of life of
cancer patients

Arti Parganiha1,*, Saba Taj1, Priyanka Chandel1, Armiya Sultan1 & Vivek Choudhary2

1School of Life Sciences, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur 492 010, India

2Regional Cancer Center, Pt. J.N.M. Medical College, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Memorial Hospital, Raipur 492 001, India

Received 10 March 2013; revised 8 August 2013

Rest-activity rhythm and quality of life (QoL) in three cohorts, namely (1) cancer in-patients, (2) out-patients, and
(3) control subjects were studied. The patients of the former two groups  were chosen randomly from the Regional Cancer Center, Raipur, India. All patients received chemotherapy for 3-4 consecutive days. The in-patients remained hospitalized for the entire period of chemotherapy plus one day post treatment. The out-patients, unlike the in-patients, went to their homes daily after treatment. Rest-activity rhythm of the patients was monitored  using Actical. Quality of life (QoL) and psychological status of patients were assessed using EORTC QLQ-C30 and Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale, respectively. Each subject exhibited significant circadian rhythm in rest-activity. The average values for Mesor, amplitude, peak activity, autocorrelation coefficient and dichotomy index of all three groups varied significantly between one group to the other in the following order: in-patient < out-patient < control. Further, quality of life, measured from responses on functional and symptom scales, was better off in cancer out-patients compared to the in-patients. It is concluded that hospitalization alters rest-activity rhythm parameters markedly and deteriorates QoL in cancer patients. Nevertheless, further extensive investigation is desirable to support the above speculation and to ascertain if hospitalization produces similar effects on patients suffering from diseases other than cancer.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 559-574

 

 

Short-duration judgment in young Indian subjects under 30 h constant wakefulness

Babita Pande1, Arti Parganiha1, Pradeep Kumar Patra2 & Atanu Kumar Pati1*

1School of Life Sciences, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, 492 010, India

2Department of Biochemistry, Pt. J.N.M. Medical College, Raipur, 492 001, India

Received 22 April 2013; revised 7 August 2013

The present study aimed to investigate probability of a possible endogenous circadian rhythm in human cognitive attribute to estimate short intervals. Apparently healthy young males and females were selected for our study. Eight subjects prospectively produced the short-time intervals 10 s and 60 s at 2 hourly intervals in 30 h constant routine (CR) study conducted in spring (CR-1). The study was repeated again in autumn (CR-2) in the remaining eight subjects. The established circadian markers, namely serum cortisol, salivary melatonin levels and tympanic temperature were also measured either in CR-1 or CR-2. Oral temperature was measured simultaneously. Circadian rhythms were validated in serum cortisol, salivary melatonin, oral, and tympanic temperatures. Circadian rhythm in 60 s estimates was observed in a few subjects and in all males at group level inCR-1. The cognitive attribute to perceive short intervals vary as function of season. The results provide evidence in support of interaction among the interval, circadian and circannual timing systems in human.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, May 2014, pp. 569-574

 

 

Relationship of chronotype to sleep pattern in a cohort of college students during work days and vacation days

Arjita Yadav & Sudhi Singh*

Department of Zoology, Nari Shiksha Niketan P.G. College, Kaiserbagh, Lucknow 226 001, India

Received 4 April 2013; revised 22 August 2013

To study whether the chronotype is linked with the sleep characteristics among college going students assessed during college days and vacation days, adult female students at undergraduate level were asked to answer the Hindi/English version of the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ), fill a sleep log, and drinking and feeding logs for three weeks covering college and vacation days. Based on chronotype categorization as morning type, intermediate type and evening type, sleep onset and offset times, sleep duration and mid-sleep times for each group were compared, separately for college and vacation days. Results indicate that the sleep duration of the morning types was significantly longer than the evening types, both, during college and vacation days. Similarly, the sleep onset and sleep offset times were significantly earlier in the morning types than the evening type students. During the vacation days, the individuals exhibited longer sleep duration with delayed mid-sleep times. Further there was no significant difference among the chronotypes regarding their feeding and drinking frequency per cent during the college and the vacation days. It is suggested that the students should be made aware of their chronotype, so that they can utilize their time optimally, and develop a schedule more suitable to their natural needs.