Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

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VOLUME 52

NUMBER 9

SEPTEMBER 2014

CODEN: IJEB (A6) 52 (9) 845-920 (2014)

ISSN: 0019-5189 (Print); 0975-1009 (Online)

CONTENTS

Papers

 

 

 

Prophylactic effect of Mucuna pruriens Linn (velvet bean) seed extract against experimental
Naja sputatrix envenomation: Gene expression studies

849

 

 

Shin Yee Fung, Si Mui Sim, Kandiah, Jeyaseelan, Arunmozhiarasi Armugam, John Chinyere Aguiyi & Nget Hong Tan

 

 

 

Modulatory effects of α- linolenic acid on generation of reactive oxygen species in elaidic acid enriched peritoneal macrophages in rats

860

 

 

Y Poorna Chandra Rao & B R Lokesh

 

 

 

Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of fruit of Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal in cholesterol-fed hyperlipidemic rabbit model

870

 

 

Kirtikar Shukla, Piyush Dikshit, Rimi Shukla, Sonal Sharma & Jasvinder K Gambhir

 

 

 

Protective effect of Dillenia indica L. on acetic acid induced colitis in mice

876

 

 

S J Somani, L B Badgujar, B K Sutariya & M N Saraf

 

 

 

In vivo redox effects of Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schltdl., Lantana grisebachii Stuck and Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. on blood, thymus and spleen of mice

882

 

 

A M Canalis, M C Cittadini, C Albrecht & E A Soria

 

 

 

Effect of electromagnetic irradiation produced by 3G mobile phone on male rat reproductive system in a simulated scenario

890

 

 

Sanjay Kumar, Jay Prakash Nirala, J Behari & Paulraj R

 

 

Chloroplast ultra structure, photosynthesis and enzyme activities in regenerated plants of
Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni as influenced by copper sulphate in the medium

898

 

 

Pourvi Jain, Sumita Kachhwaha & S L Kothari

 

 

 

Mass propagation of Cymbidium giganteum Wall. ex Lindl. using in vitro seedlings

905

 

 

Amrita Ghosh, M Musharof Hossain & Madhu Sharma

 

.

In vitro regeneration in olive (Olea europaea L.) cv, ‘Frontio’ from nodal segments

912

 

 

Manisha Mangal, Dheeraj Sharma, Mamta Sharma & Sunil Kumar

 

 

 

Production of biocontrol traits by banana field fluorescent Pseudomonads and comparison with chemical fungicide

917

 

 

S S Shaikh, P R Patel, S S Patel , S D Nikam, T U Rane &R Z Sayyed

 

 

 

Announcement

 

 

 

International Conference on Physiology & Medicine (ICPM 2014); International Conference on Data Sharing and Integration for Global Sustainability (SciDataCon 2014)

848

 

———————————

Announcements

 

International Conference on Physiology & Medicine (ICPM 2014)

15–17 October 2014, Salem, India

 

The Conference will cover the following topics: Animal Physiology and Behaviour, Biochemical/Metabolic Disorders, Genetic Diseases, Communicable and Non Communicable Disease, Drug Designing and Delivery, Nanomedicine, Proteomics and Genomics, Welfare of Animal and Human, Food and Nutrition.

For further details please contact: Prof. S. Kannan, Organizing Secretary, ICPM-2014,
Department of Zoology, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, India. E-mail: skperiyaruniv@gmail.com. Telephone: 0427 2345766 (Extn. 328), Fax: 0427 2345124. Mobile: 09486252052

 

———————————

 

International Conference on Data Sharing and Integration for Global Sustainability (SciDataCon 2014)

2–5 November 2014, New Delhi, India

 

The International Conference on Data Sharing and Integration for Global Sustainability (SciDataCon 2014) will be held during 2–5 November 2014 in New Delhi, India. The conference, co-organised by two interdisciplinary committees of the International Council for Science (ICSU)–the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) and the World Data System (WDS)–is being hosted by the Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi, India.

Under the broad theme of Data Sharing and Integration for Global Sustainability, SciDataCon 2014 will feature four main tracks: (A) Dynamic Planet, (B) Global Development, (C) Transformations Towards Sustainability, and (D) Data Science and Services. Under these themes, presentations and sessions shall address the following sub-themes: Data sharing, integration, and interoperability to address research challenges in global sustainability; Big data science and technology; Development and sustainability of data services; Scientific data for decision making and policy; and International collaboration on research data.

SciDataCon will provide a unique platform to bring together international experts and practitioners in data sciences, technologies and management; researchers from the natural, social, health, and computer sciences; research funders and sponsors; and policy makers and advisors. With high-level keynotes, a mix of plenary and parallel sessions, and stimulating panels and poster sessions, SciDataCon is conceived as a focussed—yet inclusive—conference to address major issues in global data management.

Further details are available at http://www.scidatacon2014.org/.

——————————————

 

Author Index

Aguiyi John Chinyere

849

Albrecht C

882

Armugam Arunmozhiarasi

849

 

 

Badgujar L B

876

Behari J

890

 

 

Canalis A M

882

Cittadini M C

882

 

 

Dikshit Piyush

870

 

 

Fung Shin Yee

849

 

 

Gambhir Jasvinder K

870

Ghosh Amrita

905

 

 

Hossain M Musharof

905

 

 

Jain Pourvi

898

Jeyaseelan

849

 

 

Kachhwaha Sumita

898

Kandahi

849

Kothari S L

898

 

 

Lokesh B R

860

 

 

Mangal Manisha

912

 

 

Nikam S D

917

Nirala Jay Prakash

890

 

 

Patel P R

917

Patel S S

917

 

 

R Paulraj

890

Rane T U

917

Rao Y Poorna Chandra

860

 

 

Sanjay Kumar

890

Saraf M N

876

Sayyed R Z

917

Shaikh S S

917

Sharma Dheeraj

912

Sharma Madhu

905

Sharma Mamta

912

Sharma Sonal

870

Shukla Kirtikar

870

Shukla Rimi

870

Sim Si Mui

849

Somani S J

876

Soria E A

882

Sunil Kumar

912

Sutariya B K

876

 

 

Tan Nget Hong

849

 

 

Keyword Index

Acetic acid

876

Antifungal

917

Anti-inflammatory

876

Antiinflammatory activity

882

Antioxidant

876

Antioxidative

882

 

 

Bactriocin

917

 

 

Chl-a-fluorescence

 

transient pattern

898

Chlorogenic acid

898

Cobra envenomation

849

Copper sulphate

898

 

 

Dillenia indica

876

 

 

Elaidic acid

860

 

 

Gene expression

849

 

 

HCN

917

Hydroperoxidation

882

Hypercholesterolemia

870

Immune system

882

Infertility

890

Inflammatory bowel

 

disease

876

 

 

Linseed oil

860

α-Linolenic acid

860

Lipid lowering activities

870

Lipid metabolism,

870

 

 

Macrophages

860

Malonaldehyde

890

Micropropagation

905,912

Mobile phones

890

Mucuna pruriens

849

 

 

Nodal segment

912

Nutrition

882

 

 

Olea europaea

912

Oxidative stress

870

Oxidative stress

882

 

 

Partially hydrogenated

 

vegetable fat

860

PGPR

917

Photosynthesis

898

Polyphenol

882

Prophylactic effect

849

Protocorm like bodies

905

Pseudomonas

917

 

 

Reactive oxygen species

860

Redox effects

882

Regeneration

905

 

 

Seedlings

905

Seminiferous tubules

890

Sexual dimorphism

882

Siderophore

917

Sperm count

890

Stevia rebaudiana

898

 

 

Testicular weight

890

 

 

Ulcerative colitis

876

 

 

Withania coagulans

870

 

 

 

            Correspondent author is marked by *

Papers

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, September 2014, pp. 849-859

 

 

Prophylactic effect of Mucuna pruriens Linn (velvet bean) seed extract against experimental Naja sputatrix envenomation: Gene expression studies

Shin Yee Funga*, Si Mui Sima, Kandiah, Jeyaseelanb, Arunmozhiarasi Armugamb,
John Chinyere Aguiyic & Nget Hong Tana

aFaculty of Medicine and CENAR, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, bDepartment of Biochemistry,
National University of Singapore, cDepartment of Pharmacology, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria

Received 23 August 2013; revised 25 June 2014

Mucuna pruriens is widely used in traditional medicine for treatments of various diseases. In certain region of Nigeria, the seed is used as oral prophylactics for snakebite. Rats pretreated with the aqueous extract from M. pruriens seed (MPE) were protected against the lethal effects of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) venom [Tan et al., J Ethnopharmacol, 123 (2009) 356]. The pretreatment also protected against venom-induced histopathological changes in rat heart. To contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of cardio-protective action, the present study examined the effects of MPE-pretreatment on gene expression profile of rat heart as well as effect of MPE-pretreatment on N. sputatrix venom-induced gene expression alterations in rat heart. The gene expression profiles were examined by microarray analysis and verified by real time PCR. The results showed that pretreatment with MPE caused 50 genes in the rat heart substantially up-regulated of which 19 were related to immune responses, 7 were related to energy production and metabolism. The up-regulation of genes related to energy metabolism probably plays a role in maintaining the viability of the heart. Four other genes that were up-regulated (alpha synuclein, natriuretic peptide precursor, calsequestrin and triadin) were involved in the maintenance of homeostasis of the heart or maintaining its viability, thereby contributing to the direct protective action. The results demonstrated that protective effect of MPE pretreatment against snake venom poisoning may involve a direct action on the heart.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, September 2014, pp. 860-869

 

 

Modulatory effects of α- linolenic acid on generation of reactive oxygen species in elaidic acid enriched peritoneal macrophages in rats

Y Poorna Chandra Rao & B R Lokesh*

Department of Lipid Science and Traditional Foods, CSIR- Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI),
Mysore 570 020, India

Received 1 November 2013; revised 22 April 2014

Fatty acids are known to influence the ability of macrophages to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). However the effect of elaidic acid (EA, 18:1 trans fatty acid) on ROS generation is not well studied. Rat peritoneal macrophages were enriched with elaidic acid by incubating the cells with 80 µM EA. The macrophages containing EA generated higher amounts of superoxide anion (O2·-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO˙) by 54, 123 and 237%, respectively as compared to control cells which did not contain EA. To study the competition of other C18 fatty acids with EA macrophages were incubated with EA along with stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2) and α- linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3).  ALA significantly reduced the incorporation of EA into macrophage lipids. This also significantly reduced the generation of O2· -, H2O2, NO˙ by macrophages. Studies were also conducted by feeding rats with diet containing partially hydrogenated vegetable fat (PHVF) as a source for EA and linseed oil (LSO) as a source for ALA. The rats were fed AIN-93 diet containing PHVF with 17% EA and incremental amounts of linseed oil for 10 weeks. The peritoneal macrophages from rats fed partially hydrogenated vegetable fat generated higher levels of O2·-, H2O2, NO˙ by 46, 161 and 76% respectively, when compared to rats fed control diets containing ground nut oil. Macrophages from rats fed PHVF with incremental amounts of LSO produced significantly lower levels ROS in a dose dependent manner. Thus ALA reduces the higher levels of ROS generated by macrophages containing EA.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, September 2014, pp. 870-875

 

 

Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of fruit of Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal in cholesterol-fed hyperlipidemic rabbit model

Kirtikar Shuklaa, Piyush Dikshita, Rimi Shuklaa, Sonal Sharmab & Jasvinder K Gambhira*

Departments of Biochemistrya and Pathologyb

University College of Medical Sciences (University of Delhi) and GTB Hospital, Delhi 110 095, India

Received 27 August 2013; revised 30 June 2014

Withania coagulans (family: Solanaceae, English: Indian Cheese Maker, Hindi: Doda Paneer) fruit is known for its ethanopharmacological significance in health care system of India. Diet rich in high-fat is an important risk factor
for diabetes, atherosclerosis and macro and microvascular complications. Treatment with aqueous extract of fruit of
W. coagulans (aqWC; 250 mg/kg body weight) in cholesterol-fed animals resulted in significant decrease in the levels of total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low density lipoprotein, tissue lipid content and acetyl CoA carboxylase activity whereas, the level of high density lipoprotein and activity of HMGCoA reductase also recovered partially. Treatment with aqWC also significantly decreased plasma lipid peroxide levels and increased reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activities. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of W. coagulans has potent lipid lowering and antioxidant activities.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, September 2014, pp. 876-881

 

 

Protective effect of Dillenia indica L. on acetic acid induced colitis in mice

S J Somani, L B Badgujar, B K Sutariya & M N Saraf*

Department of Pharmacology, Bombay College of Pharmacy, Kalina, Santacruz (East), Mumbai 400 098, India

Received 9 July 2013; revised 23 May 2014

The inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic, immune mediated and chronic inflammation of the intestine. The study aimed to elucidate the ameliorative effect of methanolic extract of Dillenia indica (DIME), hexane fraction (HFDI) and chloroform fraction (CFDI) of Dillenia indica in acetic acid induced experimental colitis in mice. Macroscopic score, colon weight, colonic catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and histological changes were recorded after the treatment regimen of 7 days. Intra-rectal instillation of acetic acid caused enhanced macroscopic score, colon weight, colonic MPO, MDA, and TNF-α level. It caused significant decreased level of CAT, SOD and GSH. DIME (800 mg/kg), HFDI (200 mg/kg) and CFDI (200 mg/kg) treatment exhibited significant effect in lowering macroscopic score, colon weight, MPO, MDA, TNF-α levels and elevation of CAT, GSH and SOD levels. The results suggest that D. indica has ameliorating effects on experimental colitis by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediators like TNF-α production.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, September 2014, pp. 882-889

 

 

In vivo redox effects of Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco Schltdl.,
Lantana grisebachii Stuck and Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.
on blood, thymus and spleen of mice

 

AM Canalis1,2, MC Cittadini 1-3, C Albrecht 1-3 & EA Soria 2*

1Instituto Nacional del Cáncer, Ministerio de Salud de la Nación, Av. Julio A. Roca 781 10°, Buenos Aires

2Instituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias de la Salud, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba – CONICET,
Pab. Biología Celular, Enrique Barros n/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba

3Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Nacional de Catamarca; Maestro Quiroga n/n, Catamarca, Argentina

Received 10 October 2013; Revised 3 July 2014

Argentinian native plants Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Lantana grisebachii and Ilex paraguariensis are known to have antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. We demonstrated it in vivo by the redox changes in murine hemolymphatic tissues after infusive extract intake of these plants as revealed in organic trophism, tissue phenolics, hydroperoxides, superoxide, nitrites and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase in thymus, blood and spleen. A. quebracho-blanco reduced hydroperoxidation in blood and spleen of both sexes, with γ-glutamyltranspeptidase negativization in lymphatic organs and thymic nitrosative up-regulation. Males have shown increased phenolic content in blood after treatment.
L. grisebachii and I. paraguariensis treatment exhibited incomplete antioxidation and oxidative induction in the studied tissues. Different results according to sex were found in redox response to phenolics and their kinetics, with males showing antioxidant effects, whereas females showed oxidative susceptibility. A. quebracho-blanco exhibited protection of murine tissues against oxidation in both sexes and modulation of their trophism, supporting its therapeutic uses in inflammatory diseases. Also, gender had significant influence in phenolic biodistribution and redox response.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, September 2014, pp. 890-897

 

 

Effect of electromagnetic irradiation produced by 3G mobile phone on male rat reproductive system in a simulated scenario

Sanjay Kumar, Jay Prakash Nirala, J Behari* & Paulraj R

Bioelectromagnetics Laboratory, School of Environmental Sciences
Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India

Received 11 November 2013; revised 23 May 2014

Reports of declining male fertility have renewed interest in assessing the role of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Testicular function is particularly susceptible to the radiation emitted by EMFs. Significant decrease in sperm count, increase in the lipid peroxidation damage in sperm cells, reduction in seminiferous tubules and testicular weight and DNA damage were observed following exposure to EMF in male albino rats. The results suggest that mobile phone exposure adversely affects male fertility.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, September 2014, pp. 898-904

 

 

Chloroplast ultra structure, photosynthesis and enzyme activities in regenerated plants of Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni as influenced by copper sulphate
in the medium

Pourvi Jain, Sumita Kachhwaha & S L Kothari*

Department of Botany, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004, India

Received 2 April 2014; revised 5 June 2014

Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni is an important medicinal plant used as noncaloric commercial sweetener. Plants regenerated with higher levels of copper sulphate in the medium exhibited enhanced activity of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) enzymes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed increase in size and number of electron dense inclusions in the chloroplasts of plants regenerated at optimised level of copper sulphate (0.5µM) in the medium. There was decrease in chlorogenic acid (CGA) content. Chl-a-fluorescence transient pattern (OJIP) showed that the photosynthesis process was more efficient at 0.5µM CuSO4 in the medium. 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, September 2014, pp. 905-911

 

 

Mass propagation of Cymbidium giganteum Wall. ex Lindl. using in vitro seedlings

Amrita Ghosh, M Musharof Hossain1 & Madhu Sharma*

Division of Biotechnology, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT) Palampur 176 061, India

Received 10 May 2013; revised 2 June 2014

In vitro seedlings were used as explants for protocorm like bodies (PLBs) production which in turn were used for regeneration purpose. PLBs were induced from the base of seedlings (1.0-1.5 cm in size) in MS + BAP (8.88 µM). After 90 days of inoculation, PLBs production rate started declining and most of the PLBs turned into plantlets. Preculture of seedlings in 1.0 µM thidiazuron (TDZ) for 7 days and transfer to BAP supplemented medium resulted in production of 16 PLBs per seedling within 90 days of culture. Increase of TDZ concentration to 2.5 µM and preculture time 15 days, resulted in induction of highest number of PLBs (19 PLBs per seedling) in the basal medium. The results emphasized the importance of thidiazuron (TDZ) concentration and preculture time for PLBs proliferation from the base of seedlings. The PLBs thus produced were used for regeneration studies. Irrespective of single, segmented or clumps of PLBs, the regeneration response was 100% in 2,4-D (4.52 µM) and KN (4.64 µM) but when KN was replaced by BAP (8.88 µM), response was observed only in clumps of PLBs, whereas in single and segmented ones it was 99 and 97%, respectively. Regenerants developed stout root system in half strength M medium supplemented with 2.84 µM of IAA and transferred to greenhouse with 90% survival. The present study holds tremendous potential as the mother plant is not destroyed and PLBs are produced as a continuous system.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, September 2014, pp. 912-916

 

 

In vitro regeneration in olive (Olea europaea L.) cv, ‘Frontio
from nodal segments

Manisha Mangal1, Dheeraj Sharma, Mamta Sharma & Sunil Kumar2,*

Biotechnology Centre, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Jammu 180 002, India

2Centre for Plant Biotechnology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University Campus, Hisar 125 004, India

Received 26 June 2013; revised 9 July 2014

An efficient and reproducible protocol for plantlet regeneration from nodal segments of Olive cv ‘Frontio’ has been developed. Media and explants browning due to exudation of phenolics from the explants were controlled by fortification of the medium with 100 mg/L ascorbic acid. Best establishment of olive explants was observed on half-strength MS salts fortified with 2.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), which resulted in 56.2% of bud break and 93.7% survival whereas, a combination of full strength MS medium with 1.0 mg/L each of 3-indole-butyric-acid (IBA) and kinetin was found to be the best for shoot multiplication, in terms of number of shoots (3.6 shoots/explant) and shoot length (2.2 cm). The in vitro shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium fortified with 0.2 mg/L IBA and 0.2 mg/L α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) with 1.5 g/L activated charcoal, which supported optimum rooting (60 %), with an average of 2-3 roots/shoot, about 2.4 cm length were produced on four weeks of culture.

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 52, September 2014, pp. 917-920

 

 

Production of biocontrol traits by banana field fluorescent Pseudomonads and comparison with chemical fungicide

S S Shaikh, P R Patel, S S Patel, S D Nikam, T U Rane & R Z Sayyed*

Department of Microbiology, PSGVP Mandal' Arts, Science & Commerce College, Shahada, Dist. Nandurbar, 425 409, India

Received 17 May 2013; Revised 4 June 2014

Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from banana field rhizosphere produced different antifungal metabolites like bactriocin, hydrogen cyanide and siderophore. Bacteriocinogenic, siderophoregenic, and HCN rich broth of isolate inhibited the growth of phytopathogen like Aspergilus niger, Aspergilus flavus, Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria alternata. The isolate exhibited more antifungal activity and comparatively low MIC vis-a-vis commonly used copper based systemic chemical fungicide;bil cop.