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Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

 

ISSN: 0019-5189

CODEN: IJEB (A6)  41(8)  783-928  (2003)

VOLUME 41

NUMBER 8

AUGUST 2003

 

 

 

CONTENTS

Review Articles
 

Genetic alterations in cervical cancer

Khalida Wani & C K K Nair

789

 

 

 

Circadian clock genes in Drosophila: Recent developments

P Subramanian, E Balamurugan & G Suthakar

797

 

 

Papers

 

Brain tumor inhibition in experimental model by restorative immunotherapy with a corpuscular antigen

Soven Kumar Gangopaddhyay, Susobhan Sarkar, Zarina Begum, Swapna Chaudhuri & Samaresh Chaudhuri

 

805

 

 

Inhibition of membrane Na+-K+ ATPase of the brain, liver and RBC in rats administered di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) a plasticizer used in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood storage bags

C R Dhanya, A R Indu, K V Deepadevi & P A Kurup

 

 

814

 

 

Isolation of etiological agent of hydropericardium syndrome in chicken embryo liver cell culture and its serological characterization

Rajesh Kumar, Rajesh Chandra & S K Shukla

 

821

 

 

Lupeol, a triterpene, prevents free radical mediated macromolecular damage and alleviates benzoyl peroxide induced biochemical alterations in murine skin

Sarwat Sultana, Mohammad Saleem, Sonia Sharma & Naghma Khan

 

827

 

 

Chronic low dose exposure to hydrogen peroxide changes sensitivity of V79 cells to different damaging agents

K Bose (Girigoswami), G Bhaumik & R Ghosh

 

832

 

 

Bacterial dynamics associated with algal antibacterial substances during post harvest desiccation process of Sargassum stolonifolium Phang et Yoshida

Charles Santhanaraju Vairappan

 

837

 

 

Effects of hypothyroidism induced by 6-n-propylthiouracil and its reversal by T3 on rat heart superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation

S Chattopadhyay, G Zaidi, K Das & G B N Chainy

 

846

 

 

Regional variations in fibre growth dynamics of myotomal and caudal fin muscles in relation to body size of a freshwater teleost, Barbus sarana (Cuv. & Val.)

Swati Pandya, Kamakshi Arora, Sudipta Misra & Rahul Kundu

 

850

 

 

Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems in the blood of young rats subjected to chronic fluoride toxicity

Y M Shivarajashankara, A R Shivashankara, P Gopalakrishna Bhat & S Hanumanth Rao

 

857

 

 

 

Efficacies of plant phenolic compounds on sodium butyrate induced anti-tumour activity

M A Indap & M S Barkume

861

 

 

Phylogenetic analysis of symbiotic and free- living cyanobacterial cultures using DNA amplification fingerprinting

B Jeberlin Prabina, K Kumar & S Kannaiyan

 

865

 

 

Influence of nutritional supplements on keratinolysis by Amycolatopsis keratinophila

A A Al-Musallam, S S Al-Zarban, H K Al-Sarawi, R M Kroppenstedt, E Stackebrandt & Y A Fasasi

870

 

 

Free radical scavenging potential of Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.

R Govindarajan, M Vijayakumar, A K S Rawat & Shanta Mehrotra

875

 

 

Interrenal responses to high ambient temperature in soft-shelled turtle, Lissemys punctata punctata

Prajna Paramita Ray & B R Maiti

 

880

 

 

Antifertility effect of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) stem extract in male rats

R S Gupta & Aruna Sharma

885

 

 

Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of essential oil of Strobilanthus ixiocephala Benth.

Ramesh B Agarwal & Vinod D Rangari

 

890

 

 

Performance of Spodoptera litura Fabricius on different host plants: Influence of nitrogen and total phenolics of plants and mid-gut esterase activity of the insect

S S Ghumare & S N Mukherjee

 

895

 

 

Biosorption of Baftkar textile effluent

Mahnaz Mazaheri Assadi, Maryam Mazaheri, Taher Nejad Satari, Ashrafulsadat Noohi, Manoochehr Shahamat & Morris Levin

900

 

 

Performance of Uscana mukerjii (Mani) for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) and allied bruchid species

Seema Sood, H R Pajni & P K Tewari

 

905

 

 

Notes

 

Validation of qualitative test for phosphine gas in human tissues

Anupuma Raina, H C Shrivastava, Nitin Mathur & T D Dogra

909

 

 

Curing of symbiotic plasmid of Mesorhizobium huakuii subsp. rengei isolated from Astragalus sinicus

D Balachandar, S Kannaiyan, H Ono & Y Murooka

 

912

 

 

Inhibition of methanogenesis by interaction of aluminium ion with co-factor, F-420, in Methanosarcina barkeri

B D Chattopadhyay & A R Thakur

 

915

 

 

Larval pupation site preference in a few species of Drosophila

N B Vandal, S A Modagi & N Shivanna

918

 

 

Impact of CdCl2 on biochemical changes in planaria, Dugesia bengalensis Kawakatsu

Shyamal Mitra, Suprakash Kar & Ajit Kumar Aditya

921

 

 

A protocol for shoot multiplication from foliar meristem of Vanda spathulata (L.) Spreng

S William Decruse, A Gangaprasad, S Seeni & V Sarojini Menon

924

 

 

Announcement

 

CSIR Diamond Jubilee Special Issues on Bioremediation & Biodegradation September 2003 and Bacterium-plant Symbiosis October 2003

928

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 789-796

 

 

 Review Article

 

 

Genetic alterations in cervical cancer

Khalida Wani & C K K Nair

 

In the pathogenesis of cervical cancer the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is well established. However, other than HPV infection the genetics of cervical cancer remains poorly understood. In the pathogenesis of cervical cancer three major factors are involved, two of which are related to the presence of HPV and the third is the recurrent genetic alterations not linked to HPV infection. Several chromosomal regions with recurrent loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in cervical cancer have been identified. However; the putative tumor suppressor genes located in these chromosomal locations are yet to be identified. Recurrent amplifications have been mapped to the short arm of chromosome 3 in invasive cancer. Microsatellite instability and mutator phenotype do not play a major role in cervical carcinogenesis. As in other cancers, cervical cancer too requires the accumulation of genetic alterations for carcinogenesis to occur. Identification of these alterations could help to provide a better understanding of the disease and thus improve treatment.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 795-804

 

 

Circadian clock genes in Drosophila: Recent developments

P Subramanian, E Balamurugan & G Suthakar

 

Circadian rhythms provide a temporal framework to living organisms and are established in a majority of eukaryotes and in a few prokaryotes. The molecular mechanisms of circadian clock is constantly being investigated in Drosophila melanogaster. The core of the clock mechanism was described by a transcription-translation feedback loop model involving period (per), timeless (tim), dclock and cycle genes. However, recent research has identified multiple feedback loops controlling rhythm generation and expression. Novel mutations of timeless throw more light on the functions of per and tim products. Analysis of pdf neuropeptide gene (expressed in circadian pacemaker cells in Drosophila), indicate that PDF acts as the principal circadian transmitter and is involved in output pathways. The product of cryptochrome is known to function as a circadian photoreceptor as well as component of the circadian clock. This review focuses on the recent progress in the field of molecular rhythm research in the fruit fly. The gene(s) and the gene product(s) that are involved in the transmission of environmental information to the clock, as well as the timing signals from the clock outward to cellular functions are remain to be determined.

 

 

            

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 805-813

 

 

Papers

 

 

Brain tumor inhibition in experimental model by restorative immunotherapy with a corpuscular antigen

Soven Kumar Gangopaddhyay, Susobhan Sarkar, Zarina Begum, Swapna Chaudhuri &

Samaresh Chaudhuri

 

 

Received 17 December 2002; revised April 2003

 

 

In view of the advances in our understanding of anti-tumor immune response, it is now tempting to contemplate the development of immunotherapies for malignant brain tumors, for which no effective treatment exists. Immunotherapy, with agents known as biological response modifiers (BRMs) are thus gaining increasing interest as the fourth modality of treatment. A non-specific BRM, sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) when administered (ip, 7% PCV/V, 0.5 ml) in a group of animals at the end of seventh month of ethylnitrosourea administration, resulted in significant increase in the mean survival time (>350 days). Studies conducted for growth kinetics pattern with proliferation index and fluorochrome (HO – 33342) uptake techniques at the tissue culture level exhibited a regulatory inhibition of the cells isolated from tissue excised from the tumor susceptible area of brain of SRBC treated animals. Moreover, histological examination of brain from animals showed immunomodulatory role of SRBC in experimentally induced brain tumor. Further probe into the mechanisms involving immunological investigations at the cellular level in these animals indicated an augmented and potentiated cell mediated immune response (CMI) as evidenced by enhanced spontaneous rosette forming capacity and cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes and neutrophil (PMN) mediated phagocytosis respectively. The observations suggest that SRBC down regulate malignant growth pattern of experimental brain tumors either by an immunologically enhanced killing of tumor cells and/or by directly inhibiting the tumor growth possibly via a stimulated cytokine network. Thus, a corpuscular antigen, can potentiate CMI response in experimentally induced brain tumor animal model, in which response induced in the periphery are able to mediate anti-tumor effects in the brain.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 814-820

 

 

Inhibition of membrane Na+-K+ ATPase of the brain, liver and RBC in rats administered di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) a plasticizer used in polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
blood storage bags

C R Dhanya, A R Indu, K V Deepadevi & P A Kurup

 

Received 16 September 2002; revised 11 March 2003

 

 

Significant amounts of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) leach out into blood stored in DEHP plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags resulting in the exposure of recipients of blood transfusion to this compound. The aim of this study was to find out whether DEHP at these low levels has any effect on the activity of membrane Na+-K+ ATPase, since a decrease in this enzyme activity has been reported to take place in a number of disorders like neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, coronary artery disease and stroke, syndrome-X, tumours etc. DEHP was administered (ip) at a low dose of 750 µg/100 g body weight to rats and the activity of membrane Na+-K+ ATPase in liver, brain and RBC was estimated. Histopathology of brain, activity of HMG CoA reductase (a major rate limiting enzyme in the isoprenoid pathway of which digoxin, the physiological inhibitor of Na+-K+ ATPase is a product), intracellular concentration of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in RBC (which is altered as a result of inhibition of Na+-K+ ATPase) were also studied. (In the light of the observation of increase of intracellular Ca2+ load and intracellular depletion of Mg2+ when Na+-K+ ATPase is inhibited). Histopathology of brain revealed areas of degeneration in the rats administered DEHP. There was significant inhibition of membrane Na+-K+ ATPase in brain, liver and RBC. Intracellular Ca2+ increased in the RBC while intracellular Mg2+ decreased. However activity of hepatic HMG CoA reductase decreased. Activity of Na+-K+ ATPase and HMG CoA reductase, however returned to normal levels within 7 days of stopping administration of DEHP. The inhibition of membrane Na+-K+ ATPase activity by DEHP may indicate the possibility of predisposing recipients of transfusion of blood or hemodialysis to the various disorders mentioned above. However since this effect is reversed when DEHP administration is stopped, it may not be a serious problem in the case of a few transfusion; but in patients receiving repeated blood transfusion as in thalassemia patients or patients undergoing hemodialysis, possibility of this risk has to be considered. This inhibition is a direct effect of DEHP or its metabolites, since activity of HMG CoA reductase, (an enzyme which catalyses a major rate limiting step in the isoprenoid pathway by which digoxin, the physiological inhibitor of Na+-K+ ATPase is synthesized) showed a decrease.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 821-826

 

 

Isolation of etiological agent of hydropericardium syndrome in chicken embryo liver cell culture and
its serological characterization

Rajesh Kumar, Rajesh Chandra & S K Shukla

 

Received 24 October 2002; revised 16 April 2003

 

 

The virus causing hydropericardium syndrome was isolated in chicken embryo liver (CEL) cell culture from livers obtained from naturally infected broilers. The cytopathic effects characterized by rounding and degeneration of cells were visible 36 hr post infection in first passage. At 4th passage level, the infectivity titre was 5.24 log10 TCID50/ml. In May-Grunwald and Giemsa stained cells, basophilic intranuclear inclusions (‘bird eye’ inclusion), typical of aviadenovirus infection, were observed. The specificity of inclusion was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence. Various serological tests, such as agar gel precipitation test, counter immuno electrophoresis, micro serum neutralization test and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were also standardized to confirm the isolation of etiological agent of hydropericardium syndrome in CEL cell culture and to diagnose the disease in poultry.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 827-831

 

 

Lupeol, a triterpene, prevents free radical mediated macromolecular damage and alleviates benzoyl peroxide induced biochemical alterations in murine skin

Sarwat Sultana, Mohammad Saleem, Sonia Sharma & Naghma Khan

 

Received 7 January 2003; revised 4 March 2003

 

 

In our earlier communication we have shown that Lupeol inhibits early responses of tumour induction in murine skin1. The free radical mediated damage to the cellular macromolecules such as DNA, proteins, lipids and alteration in the activities of quinone reductase and xanthine oxidase are important biochemical parameters of tumor development. The suppression of free radical mediated damage to cellular macromolecules and induction of quinone reductase along with depletion of xanthine oxidase are prominent characteristics of chemopreventive agents. In the present investigation, we have elucidated the mechanism of action of lupeol (Lup-20 (29)-en-3b-ol), a triterpene found in moderate amount in many vegetables, fruits and anti-tumor herbs. In the present investigation, lupeol significantly reduced the free radical mediated DNA-sugar damage and microsomal lipid peroxidation in an iron/ascorbate free radical generating system in vitro. Benzoyl peroxide, a known free radical generating tumor promoter mediated oxidation of proteins and modulation in the activities of quinone reductase as well as xanthine oxidase was significantly prevented by lupeol when tested on murine skin in vivo. It was concluded from this study that lupeol acts as an effective chemopreventive agent against cutaneous toxicity.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 832-836

 

 

Chronic low dose exposure to hydrogen peroxide changes sensitivity of V79 cells to different damaging agents

K Bose (Girigoswami), G Bhaumik & R Ghosh

 

Received 18 October 2002; revised 21 April 2003

 

 

Chinese hamster V79 cells were repeatedly exposed to a low dose of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) over several weeks and then exposed to H2O2, cisplatin or ultraviolet (UV) light. Cell killing was examined by colony formation, following these treatments. It was seen that cells conditioned by multiple low doses of H2O2 showed resistance to killing in case of H2O2 and cisplatin but the sensitivity to UV light was same as the control cells. Apoptosis was also determined in these cells after the same treatments. UV light failed to induce apoptosis in both conditioned and in control cells, but in case of cells treated with H2O2 and with cisplatin, there was less apoptosis in the conditioned cells compared to the control cells. From our observation we can say that the enhanced survival of cells after treatment with H2O2 or cisplatin could be due to inhibition of apoptosis.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 837-845

 

 

Bacterial dynamics associated with algal antibacterial substances during post harvest desiccation process of Sargassum stolonifolium Phang et Yoshida

Charles Santhanaraju Vairappan

 

Received 13 August 2002; revised 24 April 2003

 

 

Brown algae of genus Sargassum are known to produce relatively higher amount of alginic acid. Optimal extraction of this algalcolloid for local consumption requires in-depth studies on post-harvest treatment of the algal fronds. Present investigation endeavors to establish the dynamics and inter-relationship of moisture content and bacteria found on the surface of the alga and alginic acid content during post-harvest desiccation of Sargassum stolonifolium Phang et Yoshida. Harvested fronds were subjected to desiccation for 31 days and bacterial dynamics were monitored with relation to moisture content and water activity index (aw). There was 85% decrease in moisture content, however, aw showed a more gradual decrease. Total bacterial count increased during the first week and attained maximal value on day 7. Thereafter, a drastic decrease was seen until day 14, followed by a gradual decline. Six species of bacteria were isolated and identified, i.e. Azomonas punctata, Azomonas sp., Escherichia coli, Micrococcus sp., Proteus vulgaris and Vibrio alginolyticus. Calculated ratios for increase in alginic acid content and decrease in moisture content were almost the same throughout the desiccation process, implying that extracellular alginase-producing bacteria did not use the alginic acid produced by the algae as its carbon source. It became apparent that drastic decrease in bacterial count after day 7 could not be attributed to salinity, moisture content, aw or lack of carbon source for the bacteria. The possible exposure of these bacteria to algal cell sap which is formed due to the rupture of algal cells was seen as the most likely reason for the drop in bacterial population. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph taken on day 10 of desiccation showed the presence of cracks and localities where bacteria were exposed to algal cell sap. In vitro antibacterial tests were carried out to verify the effect of algal extracts. Separation and purification of crude algal extracts via bioassay guided separation methodology revealed the identity of active compounds (i.e. gylcolipids and free fatty acids) involved in this inherently available antibacterial defense mechanism during algal desiccation.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 846-849

 

 

Effects of hypothyroidism induced by 6-n-propylthiouracil and its reversal by T3 on rat heart superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation

S Chattopadhyay, G Zaidi, K Das & G B N Chainy

 

Received 30 October 2002; revised 6 May 2003

 

 

The present study critically evaluates the effects of hypothyroid and hyperthyroid states on lipid peroxidation and two enzymes of active oxygen metabolism, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the rat heart mitochondrial and post-mitochondrial fractions. Lipid peroxidation, an index of oxidative stress, was elevated in the heart tissue in hypothyroid state but reduced upon T3 supplementation. Hyperthyroidism registered increased SOD activity in post-mitochondrial fraction. Mitochondrial SOD activity was reduced in hypothyroid state, which was further reduced by T3 administration. In contrast, different thyroid states had no effect on catalase activity in the mitochondrial fraction. The hypothyroid state however, significantly augmented catalase activity in post-mitochondrial fraction. The results suggest that the antioxidant defence status of cardiac tissue is well modulated by thyroid hormone.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 850-856

 

 

Regional variations in fibre growth dynamics of myotomal and caudal fin muscles in relation to body size of a freshwater teleost, Barbus sarana (Cuv. & Val.)

Swati Pandya, Kamakshi Arora, Sudipta Misra & Rahul Kundu

 

Received 1 August 2002; revised 9 April 2003

 

 

The growth of red fibres in anterior and middle myotomal regions of B. sarana was mainly by hyperplasia in smaller size classes. In higher size classes, growth by hyperplasia was greater in posterior myotomal region compared to the other two myotomal regions. The growth of pink fibres in anterior myotomal regions was mainly by hypertrophy. The middle and posterior myotomal regions showed fibre growth by hyperplasia. The growth dynamics of white fibres revealed more or less similar pattern in all three myotomal regions against the somatic development. White fibres grew by hyperplasia up to 8 cm F.L. size classes and thereafter by hypertrophy. However, in >12 cm F.L. size classes, the mean diameter of white fibres did not increase significantly. Similar pattern of growth was found in the white fibres of caudal fin muscle. It is interesting to note that the hyperplasia was mostly completed in the white fibres of the smallest fish studies, whereas, it continued to quite larger fish size in red and pink fibres. Thus, hyperplasia and hypertrophy may be responsible for growth in all fibre types in all myotomal regions in relation to somatic development in this small and medium growing species.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 857-860

 

 

Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant systems in the blood of young rats subjected to chronic fluoride toxicity

Y M Shivarajashankara, A R Shivashankara

P Gopalakrishna Bhat

and

S Hanumanth Rao

 

 

Received 5 March 2003; revised 1 May 2003

 

 

Wistar albino rats were exposed to 30 or 100 ppm fluoride in drinking water during their fetal, weanling and post-weaning stages of life up to puberty. Extent of lipid peroxidation and response of the antioxidant systems in red blood cells and plasma to prolonged fluoride exposure were assessed in these rats in comparison to the control rats fed with permissible level (0.5 ppm) of fluoride. Rats treated with 100 ppm fluoride showed enhanced lipid peroxidation as evidenced by elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in red blood cells but, 30 ppm fluoride did not cause any appreciable change in RBC MDA level. 30 ppm fluoride-intake resulted in increased levels of total and reduced glutathione in red blood cells and ascorbic acid in plasma while 100 ppm fluoride resulted in decreases in these levels. The activity of RBC glutathione peroxidase was elevated in both the fluoride-treated groups, more pronounced increase was seen with 100 ppm. Reduced to total glutathione ratio in RBC and uric acid levels in plasma decreased in both the groups. RBC superoxide dismutase activity decreased significantly on high-fluoride treatment. These results suggest that long-term high-fluoride intake at the early deve­loping stages of life enhances oxidative stress in the blood, thereby disturbing the antioxidant defense of rats. Increased oxidative stress could be one of the mediating factors in the pathogenesis of toxic manifestations of fluoride.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 861-864

 

 

Efficacies of plant phenolic compounds on
sodium butyrate induced anti-tumour activity

M A Indap & M S Barkume

 

Received 8 January 2003; revised 2 May 2003

 

 

The ability of the differentiation inducing agent sodium butyrate (NaB) alone or combined with plant-derived phenolic compounds to produce growth inhibition in human erythroleukemic cells was investigated. As a single agent,curcumin produced a marked inhibition of proliferation indicated by its low concentration used. The effect of phenolics on the cell cycle could probably contribute to the augmented antiproliferative activity of NaB.The present data show that quercetin produced synergistic effect in terms of cell killing in association with NaB. Both curcumin and ferulic acid potentiated NaB-induced reduction of cell number. When NaB was added before exposure to graded doses of quercetin it did induce a greater inhibitory effect. The combination of NaB and quercetin seems less effective on S180 ascites tumour cells. As a single agent quercetin was found to be the most efficacious on S180 tumour model.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 865-869

 

Phylogenetic analysis of symbiotic and
free-living cyanobacterial cultures using
DNA amplification fingerprinting

B Jeberlin Prabina, K Kumar* & S Kannaiyan

 

Received 12 November 2002; revised 23 April 2003

 

 

DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) of 17 cyanobacterial isolates belonging to symbiotic and free-living forms of 6 different genera was done. The dendrogram analysis of 17 cyanobacterial cultures revealed three major clusters. All Westiellopsis cultures formed the first major cluster and their nucleotide relatedness ranged between 71-93%. In the second major cluster, the symbiotic cyanobacterium Anabaena sp dominated and all Anabaena cultures showed 60 –75% similarity with each other. Nostoc muscorum is related to Anabaena variabilis by 85% and formed the third major cluster. The dendrogram analysis of cyanobacterial isolates clearly revealed that free-living cyanobacterial cultures were closely related with each other and were diverse from the symbiotic forms.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 870-874

 

 

Influence of nutritional supplements on keratinolysis by
Amycolatopsis keratinophila

A A Al-Musallam, S S Al-Zarban, H K Al-Sarawi, R M Kroppenstedt, E Stackebrandt & Y A Fasasi

 

Received 12 August 2002; revised 21 March 2003

 

 

Keratinolytic potential of A. keratinophila (DSM 44409T), a newly described Amycolatopsis sp. isolated from cultivated soil in Kuwait, was demonstrated using keratinazure as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen as estimated by gel diffusion assay. Effects of 12 various nutritional supplements on the keratinolytic and azocollytic activities were determined. NH4H2PO4 and KNO3 in the medium supported a significantly higher keratinolytic activity than other supplements. However, azocollytic activities in all the supplemented media and the control were same. Best combination of carbon and nitrogen supplements (galactose and NH4H2PO4 respectively) used to evaluate the dynamics of growth and enzymes (keratinase and protease) activities of the isolate revealed a luxuriant growth with optimal keratinolytic activity occurring during the log phase. Other parameters of the fermentation medium, including pH, biomass accumulation, total protein and free amino acid concentrations were also studied.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 875-879

 

 

Free radical scavenging potential of
Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth

R Govindarajan, M Vijayakumar, A K S Rawat & Shanta Mehrotra

 

Received 5 November 2002; revised 24 April 2003

 

 

For assessing free radical scavenging potential of P. kurrooa, the antioxidant activity of P. kurrooa extract was studied by lipid peroxidation assay using rat liver homogenate. The extract (1 mg/ml) showed marked protection (up to 66.68%) against peroxidation of liver phospholipids. Besides, reduced glutathione showed very encouraging activity. The extract also exhibited significant scavenging activity. Thus augmenting the wide use of plant in the indigenous system of medicine, which may partly be due to antioxidant and free radical scavening activity of the extract.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 880-884

 

 

Interrenal responses to high ambient temperature in soft-shelled turtle, Lissemys punctata punctata

Prajna Paramita Ray & B R Maiti

 

Received 2 July 2002; revised 25 February 2003

 

 

An exposure to ambient temperature of 25°C had no perceptible effect on interrenal function but further increase of temperature to 35°C caused nuclear hypertrophy with increase of nuclear diameter, RNA concentration, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities, accompanied by quantitative depletions of cholesterol (free, esterified and total) and ascorbic acid levels in the interrenal gland of the soft-shelled turtle Lissemys p. punctata. Similar manifestations of stimulation, except in the nucleus, were marked after exposure to 38°C, but the degree of response in respect of esterified and free cholesterol levels was higher at 38°C than at 35°C. Moreover, withdrawal of 38°C temperature and subsequently maintaining at 25°C for 15 days showed reverse manifestations to those of 35°C/38°C, leading to a tendency towards normalcy. It is suggested that high a ambient temperature of 35°C significantly stimulates interrenal function of Lissemys turtles, but further increase of 38°C does not cause further overall stimulation, and withdrawal of higher temperature (38°C) shows a tendency towards normalcy. It is also suggested that (a) high ambient temperature causes thermal stress, (b) it is reversible and (c) it acts on interrenal activity presumably via CRF-ACTH-axis in turtles.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 885-889

 

 

Antifertility effect of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.)
stem extract in male rats

R S Gupta & Aruna Sharma

 

Received 11 October 2002; revised 23 April, 2003

 

 

Oral administration of 70% methanolic extract of T. cordifolia stem to male rats at the dose level of 100 mg/rat/day for 60 days did not cause body weight loss but decreased the weight of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate in a signficiant manner. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced significantly which resulted in reduction of male fertility by 100%. The stem extract brought about an interference with spermatogenesis. The round spermatids were decreased by 73.12%. However, the population of preleptotene and pachytene spermatocytes were decreased by 47.60% and 52.85% respectively, followed by secondary spermatocytes (48.10%). Leydig cell nuclear area and mature Leydig cell numbers were significantly reduced when compared with controls. Serum testosterone levels showed significant reduction after Tinospora extract feeding. Seminiferous tubule diameter, Leydig cell nuclear area as well as cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells were reduced significantly when compared to controls. Biochemical parameters i.e. protein, sialic acid, glycogen contents of testes decreased significantly. Seminal vesicular fructose also depleted whereas, testicular cholesterol was elevated significantly followed by a reduction in testosterone levels. These results suggested antifertility effects of the stem extract of T. cordifolia in male rats.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 890-894

 

 

Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of essential oil of Strobilanthus ixiocephala Benth.

Ramesh B Agarwal & Vinod D Rangari

 

Received 4 October 2002; revised 24 March 2003

 

 

Column chromatographic fractionation of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from the flowering tops of S. ixiocephala resulted in the isolation of b-caryophyllene, fenchyl acetate, T-cadinol and a new sesquiterpene alcohol for which a name ixiocephol has been proposed. The b-caryophyllene and fenchyl acetate were identified by Co-TLC with authentic samples whereas T-cadinol and ixiocephol were structurally elucidated by UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectral data. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil has also revealed the presence of various monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids. The essential oil of S. ixiocephala demonstrated a dose dependant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema. It has also revealed good activity in cotton pellet granuloma and adjuvant induced arthritis model in rats.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 895-899

 

 

Performance of Spodoptera litura Fabricius on different host plants: Influence of nitrogen and total phenolics of plants and mid-gut esterase activity of the insect

S S Ghumare & S N Mukherjee

 

Received 4 February 2003; revised 9 May 2003

 

 

Five host plants [castor, Ricinus communis (Carolus Linnćus); cotton, Gossypium hirsutm (Carolus Linnćus); tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum (Philip Miller); mint, Mentha arvensis (Carolus Linnćus) and cabbage, Brassica oleracea (Carolus Linnćus)] belonging to different families were used to study the performance of the Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura larvae. Highest consumption of food and dry weight gain was observed in larvae fed on castor. Mint did not support optimum larval growth because of low digestibility and low efficiency of conversion of digested food to body matter. Dry weight gain ranged from 26.64mg on mint to 86.80mg in castor. These differences tend to be related to nitrogen and total phenolics content of the leaf tissues; however, the most clear-cut correlation is an inverse one between the host plant preference and the ratio of total phenolics to nitrogen in the leaf tissues. Mid-gut esterase activity in larvae showed an increasing trend with the increase in total phenolics : nitrogen ratio in the test plants and the order of mid-gut esterase activity in larvae was mint > cabbage > cotton > tomato > castor.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 900-904

 

 

Biosorption of Baftkar textile effluent

Mahnaz Mazaheri Assadi, Maryam Mazaheri, Taher Nejad Satari, Ashrafulsadat Noohi,

Manoochehr Shahamat & Morris Levin

 

Received 15 January 2003; revised 2 May 2003

 

 

Decolourization of wastewater from a textile plant by a marine Aspergillus niger was studied. The fungus was previously isolated from Gorgan Bay in the Caspian Sea. The kinetics of decolourization was studied by varying energy sources. The best decolourization was achieved when sucrose was used as source of carbon and energy. NH ion was demonstrated to be the best nitrogen source. Color reduction was found to increase from 80-97% as inoculum concentration increased from 0.04-1.0g/L. A minimum inoculum of 0.2g/L is necessary to achieve decolourization. The optimal temperature for the growth of A. niger on Baftkar wastewater is found to be 30°C. 90-96% colour reduction is achieved in 19-20 hr of contact of mycelium cell with the wastewater. Colour reduction in a continuous column reactor of 70% was obtained using treated mycelium (NaOH, 90°C) after 1 hr.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 905-908

 

 

Performance of Uscana mukerjii (Mani) for the control of
Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) and allied bruchid species

Seema Sood, H R Pajni & P K Tewari

 

Received 23 October 2002; revised 27 March 2003

 

 

Investigations have been carried out on the relative preference of U. mukerjii to four common species viz., C.. maculatus, C.analis, C.chinensis and Zabrotes subfasciatus of store bruchids. Results show correspondence between the acceptance/contact ratio and the total number of eggs laid by the parasitoid for Callosobruchus species. U. mukerjii shows maximum preference on C.maculatus followed by C.. analis, C.. chinensis and Z. subfasciatus in the decreasing order.

 

Z. subfasciatus has been the least preferred host having 2-3% parasitization in choice situation. Percentage emergence of the adults and females differ insignificantly from each other in Callosobruchus species. In no choice experiments, U. mukerjii laid sufficient number of eggs in the eggs of C.. chinensis and Z. .subfasciatus but less number of eggs in a choice situation due to competition with the preferred host. As is evident, U. mukerjii gives the first preference to primary host C. maculatus. Moreover, the congeneric species i.e C.. analis and C. chinensis are given more preference than Z. subfasciatus.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 909-911

 

Notes

Validation of qualitative test for phosphine gas
in human tissues

Anupuma Raina, H C Shrivastava, Nitin Mathur & T D Dogra

 

Received 24 October 2002; revised 9 April 2003

 

 

Phosphine has been known to science since the birth of modern chemistry. WHO reports that the technical product usually has a foul odour, like “fishy” or “garlicky” because of the presence of substituted phosphines and diphosphine (P2H4). Many medico-legal autopsy cases have been reported positive for aluminium phosphide even though there was neither any suspicion of consuming aluminium phosphide nor any clinical findings, postmortem findings or circumstantial evidences. The present study was carried out to validate the qualitative test, presently applied in many laboratories for testing phosphine. It was observed that 65% of human tissues in saturated solution of common salt show positivity for phosphine gas on the first day of autopsy.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 912-914

 

 

Curing of symbiotic plasmid of Mesorhizobium huakuii subsp. rengei isolated from Astragalus sinicus

D Balachandar, S Kannaiyan, H Ono & Y Murooka

 

Received 4 July 2002; revised 30 April 2003

 

 

Astragalus sinicus (Chinese Milk vetch), a green manure leguminous plant, harbors Mesorhizobium huakuii subsp. rengei strain B3 in the root nodules. The visualization of symbiotic plasmid of strain B3 showed the presence of one sym plasmid of about 425 kbp. Curing of sym plasmid by temperature and acrydine orange was studied. Growing rhizobial cells at high temperature (37°C) or treating the cells with acrydine orange at 50 mg/l eliminated sym plasmid of M. huakuii strain B3, which was confirmed by sym plasmid visualization and plant infection test of cured strains.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 915-917

 

 

Inhibition of methanogenesis by interaction of aluminium ion with co-factor, F-420, in Methanosarcina barkeri

B D Chattopadhyay & A R Thakur

 

Received 7 October 2002; revised 30 April 2003

 

 

Methane emission was inhibited by aluminium ion in paddy fields. Addition of Al3+ (20 mM) to the culture medium containing cells of pure Methanosarcina barkeri, inhibited methanogenesis. Methanogenic co-factor, F-420, was isolated and purified from Methanosarcina barkeri MS. Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorometric analysis of interaction between co-factor, F-420, and Al3+ revealed that they formed a complex compound that might have blocked methanogenesis.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 918-920

 

 

Larval pupation site preference in a few species of Drosophila

N B Vandal, S A Modagi & N Shivanna

 

Received 8 November 2002; revised 1 April 2003

 

 

Larval pupation site preference (PSP) is an important event in preadult development.The PSP was studied on the basis of the number of larvae pupated at different sites in the cultures.The results revealed that the larval PSP in different species of Drosophila varies significantly at different sites.The sympatric species also differ in their PSP and the pupation behaviour does not correspond with the taxonomic relationship between the species.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 921-923

 

 

Impact of CdCl2 on biochemical changes in planaria, Dugesia bengalensis Kawakatsu

Shyamal Mitra, Suprakash Kar & Ajit Kumar Aditya

 

Received 23 September 2002; revised 21 April 2003

 

 

Cadmium induces different anomalous behavioral changes with dose and time dependent mortality and change in the macromolecular patterns of D. bengalensis. Bio-accumulation of heavy metal in planarians could be used to detect the level of water pollution.

 

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, pp. 924-927

 

 

A protocol for shoot multiplication from foliar meristem of
Vanda spathulata (L.) Spreng

S William Decruse, A Gangaprasad, S Seeni & V Sarojini Menon

 

Received 26 November 2002; revised 1 April 2003

 

 

Leaf explants collected from flowering plants of Vanda spathulata were cultured in Mitra medium with combinations of 6-benzyladenine (BA; 13.2-88.8 µM) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA; 0.0 –85.6 µM). Combination of BA (66.6 µM) and IAA (28.5 µM) induced maximum shoots (17.33) from foliar meristems (leaf base). BA individually did not induce caulogenesis in leaf explants. For optimized multiplication, BA:IAA (2:1 µM) was essential at 22.2- 88.8 µM of BA. Re-cultured leaf explants produced lesser number of shoots compared to original explants and were nearly equal at combinations of 22.2-44.4 µM of BA and 5.7-28.5 µM of IAA. Rooting of shoots (>95%) occurred in medium containing banana pulp (75 gl-1) and IAA (5.7 µM) within 3-9 weeks. Plantlets with 2-5 roots of 2-5 cm length established easily in community pots at 80-90% rates without hardening.

 

 

 

Indian Journal of Experimental Biology

Vol. 41, August 2003, p. 928

 

 

Announcement

 

 

CSIR Diamond Jubilee Special Issues
“Bioremediation & Biodegradation”

 

 

The September 2003 issue of the Indian Journal of Experimental Biology is being brought out as a Diamond Jubilee Special issue on Bioremediation & Biodegradation. The issue is Guest Edited by Prof. P. Gunasekaran, Centre for Advanced Studies in Functional Genomics, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, India (pguna@eth.net).

 

Bioremediation, the most effective innovative technology in this century uses biological systems for treatment of hazardous contaminants. This technology includes, biodegradation, biostimulation, bioaugumentation, bioaccumulation, biosorption and phytoremediation. The bioremediation technology is cost effective, eco-friendly and an alternative to conventional treatment methods. This technology is applied in removal or degradation and recovery of agrochemicals, petrochemicals, oil spills, heavy metals and dyes in wastewater and environment. The issue on “Bioremediation & Biodegradation” is specially designed to provide current information on the global environmental issues. Bioremediation and Biodegradation experts highlight the importance of affordable bioremediation strategies in their respective areas. This special issue will be a source of current reference material to the scientist and research students.

 

 

Bacterium-plant Symbiosis

 

The October 2003 issue of the Indian Journal of Experimental Biology will be a special issue devoted to the most contemporary theme: ‘Bacterium-plant Symbiosis’. This issue will cover the expression of symbiotic genes in Rhizobium sp. NGR234, soybean cultivar-specific nodulation by Sinorhizobium fredii, cysteine proteases in nodulation and nitrogen fixation, proteomics approach to explore signal exchanges in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, effect of drought stress on nitrogen fixation, biotic and abiotic constraints on symbiosis, nitrogen fixation and carbon metabolism in legume nodulation, rhizobia as a biocontrol agent and root nodulation of non-legumes. The research findings on the isolation and symbiotic characterization of Tn5-induced arginine auxotrophs of Sinorhizobium meliloti are being reported.

 

Eminent scientists like Drs. X.Perret (Switzerland), H.Kobayashi (Mexico), H. B. Krishnan (U.S.A.), N. J. Brewin (U.K.), R. Serraj (Morocco), K. Lindström (Finland), S. C. Kang (Korea), D. K. Maheshwari (India) and K. Pawlowski (Germany) have made contributions to this special issue which has been jointly Guest Edited by Dr. G. S. Randhawa (IIT, Roorkee, India, sharnfbs@iitr.ernet.in) and Dr. G.B. Kiss (Hungary).

 

AUTHOR INDEX

Aditya Ajit Kumar

921

Hanumanth Rao S

857

Raina Anupuma

909

Agarwal Ramesh B

890

 

 

Rangari Vinod D

890

Al-Musallam A A

870

Indap M A

861

Rao S Hanumanth

857

Al-Sarawi H K

870

Indu A R

814

Rawat A K S

875

Al-Zarban S S

870

 

 

Ray Prajna Paramita

880

Arora Kamakshi

850

Kar Suprakash

921

   

Assadi Mahnaz Mazaheri

900

Khan Naghma

827

Saleem Mohammad

827

 

 

Kroppenstedt R M

870

Sarkar Susobhan

805

Balachandar D

912

Kumar K

865

Satari Taher Nejad

900

Balamurugan E

797

Kumar Rajesh

821

Seeni S

924

Barkume M S

861

Kundu Rahul

850

Shahamat Manoochehr

900

Begum Zarina

805

Kurup P A

814

Sharma Aruna

885

Bhat P Gopalakrishna

857

 

 

Sharma Sonia

827

Bhaumik G

832

Levin Morris

900

Shivanna N

918

Bose (Girigoswami) K

832

 

 

Shivarajashankara Y M

857

 

 

Maiti B R

880

Shivashankara A R

857

Chainy G B N

846

Mathur Nitin

909

Shrivastava H C

909

Chandra Rajesh

821

Mazaheri Maryam

900

Shukla S K

821

Chattopadhyay B D

915

Mehrotra Shanta

875

Sood Seema

905

Chattopadhyay S

846

Menon V Sarojini

924

Stackebrandt E

870

Chaudhuri Samaresh

805

Misra Sudipta

850

Subramanian P

797

Chaudhuri Swapna

805

Mitra Shyamal

921

Sultana Sarwat

827

 

 

Modagi S A

918

Suthakar G

797

Das K

846

Mukherjee S N

895

 

 

Decruse S William

924

Murooka Y

912

Tewari P K

905

Deepadevi K V

814

 

 

Thakur A R

915

Dhanya C R

814

Nair C K K

789

 

 

Dogra T D

909

Noohi Ashrafulsadat

900

Vairappan Charles Santhanaraju

837

 

 

 

 

Vandal N B

918

Fasasi Y A

870

Ono H

912

Vijayakumar M

875

 

 

   

 

 

Gangaprasad A

924

Pajni H R

905

Wani Khalida

789

Gangopaddhyay Soven Kumar

805

Pandya Swati

850

 

 

Ghosh R

832

Prabina B Jeberlin

865

Zaidi G

846

Ghumare S S

895

       

Govindarajan R

875

       

Gupta R S

885

 

 

   

 

 
KEYWORD INDEX

Algal colloid

837

Erythroleukemic cell

861

Mid-gut esterase activity

895

Aluminium ion

915

Essential oil of Strobilanthus

900

Minisatellite instability

789

Aluminium phosphide

909

 

 

Mitochondria

846

Amycolatopsis keratinophila

870

Fibre growth dynamics

850

Molecular rhythm

797

Anti-arthritic activity

900

Fish-Myotomal regions

850

Murine skin

827

Anti-bacterial defence mechanism

837

Fluoride in water

857

Muscle fibre grwoth

850

Antifertility effect

885

Fluoride toxicity

857

 

 

Anti-inflammatory activity

900

Foliar meristem

924

Nitrogen; Spodoptera litura

895

Antioxidant enzymes

846

Free living cyanobacteria

865

Nuclear hypertrophy

880

Antioxidant system

857

Free radicals

875

Nutritional supplements

870

Antioxidant

875

 

 

 

 

Anti-tumor immune response

805

Genetic alterations

789

Orchid

924

Antitumour agents

861

 

 

Phase II enzymes

827

Apoptosis

832

Heart

846

Phosphine

909

Astragalus sinicus

912

HMG CoA reductase

814

Picrorhiza kurrooa

875

Azocollytic activity

870

Host plants

895

Plant phenolics

861

 

 

Human papiloma virus

789

Pupation site preference

918

Bacterial dynamics

837

Human tissues

909

 

 

Barbus sarana

850

Hydrogen peroxide

832

Rat

846

Benzoyl peroxide

827

Hydropericardium syndrome

821

Restorative immunotherapy

805

Brain tumor

805

 

 

 

 

Bruchid

905

Immunotherapy

805

Sargassum

837

 

 

Interrenal response

880

Serological characterization

821

Cadmium

921

Intracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentration

814

Shoot multiplication

924

Callosobruchus maculatus

905

Keratinolysis

870

Spermatogenesis

885

Cervical cancer

789

 

 

Strobilanthus ixiocephala

890

Chemoprevention

827

Larval pupation

918

Symbiotic plasmid

912

Chicken embryo cell line

821

LC50

921

 

 

Circadian clock gene

797

Lipid peroxidation

846

Taxonomic relationship

918

Circadian rhythms

797

Lipid peroxidation

857

Temperature

880

Cisplatin

832

Lissemys puctata punctata

880

Testicular androgen

885

Continuous column reactor

900

Loss of heteozygosity (LOH)

789

Textile dyes

900

Control

905

Lupeol

827

3,3',5-triiodothyronine

846

Corpuscular antigen

805

 

 

Tinospora cordifolia

885

Cyanobacteria

865

Macromolecular damage

827

Total phenolics

895

 

 

Macromolecule

921

Turtle

880

Decolourization

900

Marine A. niger

900

 

 

Decomposition

909

Membrane Na+-K+ ATPase

814

Ultraviolet light

832

DEHP

814

Mesorhizobium huakuii

912

Uscana mukerjii

905

DNA amplification finger printing

865

Methane emission

915

 

 

Drosophila

797

Methanogenesis

915

Vanda spathulata L.

924

Drosophila

918

Methanosarcina barkeri

915

 

 

Dugesia bengalensis

921

Micropropagation

924

Water pollution

921

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Zinc phosphide

909